Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 11438

Search results for: aggregation in solution and solid state

11438 Speciation Analysis by Solid-Phase Microextraction and Application to Atrazine

Authors: K. Benhabib, X. Pierens, V-D Nguyen, G. Mimanne

Abstract:

The main hypothesis of the dynamics of solid phase microextraction (SPME) is that steady-state mass transfer is respected throughout the SPME extraction process. It considers steady-state diffusion is established in the two phases and fast exchange of the analyte at the solid phase film/water interface. An improved model is proposed in this paper to handle with the situation when the analyte (atrazine) is in contact with colloid suspensions (carboxylate latex in aqueous solution). A mathematical solution is obtained by substituting the diffusion coefficient by the mean of diffusion coefficient between analyte and carboxylate latex, and also thickness layer by the mean thickness in aqueous solution. This solution provides an equation relating the extracted amount of the analyte to the extraction a little more complicated than previous models. It also gives a better description of experimental observations. Moreover, the rate constant of analyte obtained is in satisfactory agreement with that obtained from the initial curve fitting.

Keywords: pesticide, solid-phase microextraction (SPME) methods, steady state, analytical model

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11437 Pyridine-N-oxide Based AIE-active Triazoles: Synthesis, Morphology and Photophysical Properties

Authors: Luminita Marin, Dalila Belei, Carmen Dumea

Abstract:

Aggregation induced emission (AIE) is an intriguing optical phenomenon recently evidenced by Tang and his co-workers, for which aggregation works constructively in the improving of light emission. The AIE challenging phenomenon is quite opposite to the notorious aggregation caused quenching (ACQ) of light emission in the condensed phase, and comes in line with requirements of photonic and optoelectronic devices which need solid state emissive substrates. This paper reports a series of ten new aggregation induced emission (AIE) low molecular weight compounds based on triazole and pyridine-N-oxide heterocyclic units bonded by short flexible chains, obtained by a „click” chemistry reaction. The compounds present extremely weak luminescence in solution but strong light emission in solid state. To distinguish the influence of the crystallinity degree on the emission efficiency, the photophysical properties were explored by UV-vis and photoluminescence spectroscopy in solution, water suspension, amorphous and crystalline films. On the other hand, the compound morphology of the up mentioned states was monitored by dynamic light scattering, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and polarized light microscopy methods. To further understand the structural design – photophysical properties relationship, single crystal X-ray diffraction on some understudy compounds was performed too. The UV-vis absorption spectra of the triazole water suspensions indicated a typical behaviour for nanoparticle formation, while the photoluminescence spectra revealed an emission intensity enhancement up to 921-fold higher of the crystalline films compared to solutions, clearly indicating an AIE behaviour. The compounds have the tendency to aggregate forming nano- and micro- crystals in shape of rose-like and fibres. The crystals integrity is kept due to the strong lateral intermolecular forces, while the absence of face-to-face forces explains the enhanced luminescence in crystalline state, in which the intramolecular rotations are restricted. The studied flexible triazoles draw attention to a new structural design in which small biologically friendly luminophore units are linked together by small flexible chains. This design enlarges the variety of the AIE luminogens to the flexible molecules, guiding further efforts in development of new AIE structures for appropriate applications, the biological ones being especially envisaged.

Keywords: aggregation induced emission, pyridine-N-oxide, triazole

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11436 Gas Aggregation and Nanobubbles Stability on Substrates Influenced by Surface Wettability: A Molecular Dynamics Study

Authors: Tsu-Hsu Yen

Abstract:

The interfacial gas adsorption presents a frequent challenge and opportunity for micro-/nano-fluidic operation. In this study, we investigate the wettability, gas accumulation, and nanobubble formation on various homogeneous surface conditions by using MD simulation, including a series of 3D and quasi-2D argon-water-solid systems simulation. To precisely determine the wettability on various substrates, several indicators were calculated. Among these wettability indicators, the water PMF (potential of mean force) has the most correlation tendency with interfacial water molecular orientation than depletion layer width and droplet contact angle. The results reveal that the aggregation of argon molecules on substrates not only depending on the level of hydrophobicity but also determined by the competition between gas-solid and water-solid interaction as well as water molecular structure near the surface. In addition, the surface nanobubble is always observed coexisted with the gas enrichment layer. The water structure adjacent to water-gas and water-solid interfaces also plays an important factor in gas out-flux and gas aggregation, respectively. The quasi-2D simulation shows that only a slight difference in the curved argon-water interface from the plane interface which suggests no noticeable obstructing effect on gas outflux from the gas-water interfacial water networks.

Keywords: gas aggregation, interfacial nanobubble, molecular dynamics simulation, wettability

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11435 Synthesis of a Serie of Metallic Complexes Derived from bis(4-Amino-5-Mercapto-1,2,4-Triazol-3-yl)butane with First Raw Transition Metals

Authors: I. Belbachir, T. Benabdallah, N. Belhadj

Abstract:

The present research work describes the synthesis, through a multi-step strategy, as well as the structural characterization of a polydentate organic ligand, namely the bis(4-amino-5-mercapto-1,2,4-triazole-3-yl)butane (BAMT). The bis-triazolic ligand was characterized by different spectroscopic studies, in order to enlighten its coordination mode, in the neutral and deprotonated forms, towards cobalt(II), nickel(II) and copper(II) sulfates, in both solution and solid state. The stoichiometry of the complexes [neutral BAMT-metal] and [deprotonated BAMT-metal] was first established in a solution of DMF with each of the three metallic cations and their complexation constants calculated, allowing us to compare the stability of the various prepared complexes. The various complexes were finally isolated in the solid state and the coordination mode of neutral and deprotonated BAMT explored towards each of the three metallic sulfates. The establishment of some ligand field parameters (Dq, B, β…) by electronic spectroscopy finally allowed to compare the coordination modes of BAMT towards each of the three metals and to highlight the influence of the deprotonation on the complexing properties of the bis-triazolic ligand.

Keywords: 1, 2, 4-triazol, bis-1, 2, 4-triazol, metallic complexes, coordination in solution and solid state

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11434 Effect of Aging Treatment on Tensile Properties of AZ91D Mg Alloy

Authors: Ju Hyun Won, Seok Hong Min, Tae Kwon Ha

Abstract:

Phase equilibria of AZ91D Mg alloys for nonflammable use, containing Ca and Y, were carried out by using FactSage® and FTLite database, which revealed that solid solution treatment, could be performed at temperatures from 400 to 450 °C. Solid solution treatment of AZ91D Mg alloy without Ca and Y was successfully conducted at 420 °C and supersaturated microstructure with all beta phase resolved into matrix was obtained. In the case of AZ91D Mg alloy with some Ca and Y, however, a little amount of intermetallic particles were observed after solid solution treatment. After solid solution treatment, each alloy was annealed at temperatures of 180 and 200 °C for time intervals from 1 min to 48 hrs and hardness of each condition was measured by micro-Vickers method. Peak aging conditions were deduced as at the temperature of 200 °C for 10 hrs.

Keywords: Mg alloy, AZ91D, nonflammable alloy, phase equilibrium, peak aging

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11433 Analytical Study of Applying the Account Aggregation Approach in E-Banking Services

Authors: A. Al Drees, A. Alahmari, R. Almuwayshir

Abstract:

The advanced information technology is becoming an important factor in the development of financial services industry, especially the banking industry. It has introduced new ways of delivering banking to the customer, such as Internet Banking. Banks began to look at electronic banking (e-banking) as a means to replace some of their traditional branch functions using the Internet as a new distribution channel. Some consumers have at least more than one account, and across banks, and access these accounts using e-banking services. To look at the current net worth position, customers have to login to each of their accounts and get the details and work on consolidation. This not only takes ample time but it is a repetitive activity at a specified frequency. To address this point, an account aggregation concept is added as a solution. E-banking account aggregation, as one of the e-banking types, appeared to build a stronger relationship with customers. Account Aggregation Service generally refers to a service that allows customers to manage their bank accounts maintained in different institutions through a common Internet banking operating a platform, with a high concern to security and privacy. This paper presents an overview of an e-banking account aggregation approach as a new service in the e-banking field.

Keywords: e-banking, account aggregation, security, enterprise development

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11432 Efficient Positioning of Data Aggregation Point for Wireless Sensor Network

Authors: Sifat Rahman Ahona, Rifat Tasnim, Naima Hassan

Abstract:

Data aggregation is a helpful technique for reducing the data communication overhead in wireless sensor network. One of the important tasks of data aggregation is positioning of the aggregator points. There are a lot of works done on data aggregation. But, efficient positioning of the aggregators points is not focused so much. In this paper, authors are focusing on the positioning or the placement of the aggregation points in wireless sensor network. Authors proposed an algorithm to select the aggregators positions for a scenario where aggregator nodes are more powerful than sensor nodes.

Keywords: aggregation point, data communication, data aggregation, wireless sensor network

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11431 Photophysics and Photochemistry of Cross-Conjugated Y-Shaped Enediyne Fluorophores

Authors: Anuja Singh, Avik K. Pati, Ashok K. Mishra

Abstract:

Organic fluorophores with π-conjugated scaffolds are important because of their interesting optoelectronic properties. In recent years, our lab has been engaged in understanding the photophysics of small diacetylene bridged fluorophores and found the diynes as a promising class of π-conjugated fluorophores. Building on this understanding, recently we have focused on the photophysics of a less explored class of cross-conjugated Y-shaped enediynes (one double and two triple bonds). Here we present the photophysical properties of such enediynes which show interesting photophysical properties that include dual emissions from locally excited (LE) and intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) states and ring size dependent aggregate fluorescence in non-aqueous media. The dyes also show prominent aggregate fluorescence in mixed-aqueous solvents and solid powder form. We further show that the solid state fluorescence can be reversibly switched multiple of cycles by external stimuli, highlighting their potential applications in solid states. The enediynes with push-pull electronic substituents/moieties exhibit high contrast fluorescence color switching upon continuous photon illumination. The intriguing photophysical outcomes of the enediynyl fluorophores are judiciously exploited to generate single-component white light emission in binary solvent mixtures and sense polar aprotic vapor in polymer film matrices. The photophysical behavior of the dyes is further successfully utilized to monitor the microenvironment changes of biologically relevant anisotropic media such as bile salts. In summary, the newly introduced cross-conjugated enediynes enrich the toolbox of organic fluorophores and vouch to display versatile applications.

Keywords: aggregation in solution and solid state, enediynes, physical photochemistry and photophysics, vapor sensing and white light emission

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11430 Modeling Aggregation of Insoluble Phase in Reactors

Authors: A. Brener, B. Ismailov, G. Berdalieva

Abstract:

In the paper we submit the modification of kinetic Smoluchowski equation for binary aggregation applying to systems with chemical reactions of first and second orders in which the main product is insoluble. The goal of this work is to create theoretical foundation and engineering procedures for calculating the chemical apparatuses in the conditions of joint course of chemical reactions and processes of aggregation of insoluble dispersed phases which are formed in working zones of the reactor.

Keywords: binary aggregation, clusters, chemical reactions, insoluble phases

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11429 Practical Techniques of Improving State Estimator Solution

Authors: Kiamran Radjabli

Abstract:

State Estimator became an intrinsic part of Energy Management Systems (EMS). The SCADA measurements received from the field are processed by the State Estimator in order to accurately determine the actual operating state of the power systems and provide that information to other real-time network applications. All EMS vendors offer a State Estimator functionality in their baseline products. However, setting up and ensuring that State Estimator consistently produces a reliable solution often consumes a substantial engineering effort. This paper provides generic recommendations and describes a simple practical approach to efficient tuning of State Estimator, based on the working experience with major EMS software platforms and consulting projects in many electrical utilities of the USA.

Keywords: convergence, monitoring, state estimator, performance, troubleshooting, tuning, power systems

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11428 Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Mg-Zn Alloys

Authors: Young Sik Kim, Tae Kwon Ha

Abstract:

Effect of Zn addition on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Mg-Zn alloys with Zn contents from 6 to 10 weight percent was investigated in this study. Through calculation of phase equilibria of Mg-Zn alloys, carried out by using FactSage® and FTLite database, solution treatment temperature was decided as temperatures from 300 to 400oC, where supersaturated solid solution can be obtained. Solid solution treatment of Mg-Zn alloys was successfully conducted at 380oC and supersaturated microstructure with all beta phase resolved into matrix was obtained. After solution treatment, hot rolling was successfully conducted by reduction of 60%. Compression and tension tests were carried out at room temperature on the samples as-cast, solution treated, hot-rolled and recrystallized after rolling. After solid solution treatment, each alloy was annealed at temperatures of 180 and 200oC for time intervals from 1 min to 48 hrs and hardness of each condition was measured by micro-Vickers method. Peak aging conditions were deduced as at the temperature of 200oC for 10 hrs. By addition of Zn by 10 weight percent, hardness and strength were enhanced.

Keywords: Mg-Zn alloy, heat treatment, microstructure, mechanical properties, hardness

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11427 Fast High Voltage Solid State Switch Using Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor for Discharge-Pumped Lasers

Authors: Nur Syarafina Binti Othman, Tsubasa Jindo, Makato Yamada, Miho Tsuyama, Hitoshi Nakano

Abstract:

A novel method to produce a fast high voltage solid states switch using Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBTs) is presented for discharge-pumped gas lasers. The IGBTs are connected in series to achieve a high voltage rating. An avalanche transistor is used as the gate driver. The fast pulse generated by the avalanche transistor quickly charges the large input capacitance of the IGBT, resulting in a switch out of a fast high-voltage pulse. The switching characteristic of fast-high voltage solid state switch has been estimated in the multi-stage series-connected IGBT with the applied voltage of several tens of kV. Electrical circuit diagram and the mythology of fast-high voltage solid state switch as well as experimental results obtained are presented.

Keywords: high voltage, IGBT, solid state switch, bipolar transistor

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11426 DNAJB6 Chaperone Prevents the Aggregation of Intracellular but not Extracellular Aβ Peptides Associated with Alzheimer’s Disease

Authors: Rasha M. Hussein, Reem M. Hashem, Laila A. Rashed

Abstract:

Alzheimer’s disease is the most common dementia disease in the elderly. It is characterized by the accumulation of extracellular amyloid β (Aβ) peptides and intracellular hyper-phosphorylated tau protein. In addition, recent evidence indicates that accumulation of intracellular amyloid β peptides may play a role in Alzheimer’s disease pathogenesis. This suggests that intracellular Heat Shock Proteins (HSP) that maintain the protein quality control in the cell might be potential candidates for disease amelioration. DNAJB6, a member of DNAJ family of HSP, effectively prevented the aggregation of poly glutamines stretches associated with Huntington’s disease both in vitro and in cells. In addition, DNAJB6 was found recently to delay the aggregation of Aβ42 peptides in vitro. In the present study, we investigated the ability of DNAJB6 to prevent the aggregation of both intracellular and extracellular Aβ peptides using transfection of HEK293 cells with Aβ-GFP and recombinant Aβ42 peptides respectively. We performed western blotting and immunofluorescence techniques. We found that DNAJB6 can prevent Aβ-GFP aggregation, but not the seeded aggregation initiated by extracellular Aβ peptides. Moreover, DNAJB6 required interaction with HSP70 to prevent the aggregation of Aβ-GFP protein and its J-domain was essential for this anti-aggregation activity. Interestingly, overexpression of other DNAJ proteins as well as HSPB1 suppressed Aβ-GFP aggregation efficiently. Our findings suggest that DNAJB6 is a promising candidate for the inhibition of Aβ-GFP mediated aggregation through a canonical HSP70 dependent mechanism.

Keywords: , Alzheimer’s disease, chaperone, DNAJB6, aggregation

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11425 Si Doped HfO₂ Anti-Ferroelectric Thin Films for Energy Storage and Solid State Cooling Applications

Authors: Faizan Ali, Dayu Zhou, Xiaohua Liu, Tony Schenk, Johannes Muller, Uwe Schroeder

Abstract:

Recently, the ferroelectricity (FE) and anti-ferroelectricity (AFE) introduced in so-called 'high-k dielectric' HfO₂ material incorporated with various dopants (Si, Gd, Y, Sr, Gd, Al, and La, etc.), HfO₂-ZrO₂ solid-solution, Al or Si-doped Hf₀.₅Zr₀.₅O₂ and even undoped HfO₂ thin films. The origin of FE property was attributed to the formation of a non-centrosymmetric orthorhombic (o) phase of space group Pbc2₁. To the author’s best knowledge, AFE property was observed only in HfO₂ doped with a certain amount of Si, Al, HfₓZr₁₋ₓO₂ (0 ≤ x < 0.5), and in Si or Al-doped Hf₀.₅Zr₀.₅O₂. The origin of the anti-ferroelectric behavior is an electric field induced phase transition between the non-polar tetragonal (t) and the polar ferroelectric orthorhombic (o) phase. Compared with the significant amount of studies for the FE properties in the context of non-volatile memories, AFE properties of HfO₂-based and HfₓZr₁₋ₓO₂ (HZO) thin films have just received attention recently for energy-related applications such as electrocaloric cooling, pyroelectric energy harvesting, and electrostatic energy storage. In this work, energy storage and solid state cooling properties of Si-doped HfO₂ AFE thin films are investigated. Owing to the high field-induced polarization and slim double hysteresis, an extremely large Energy storage density (ESD) value of 61.2 J cm⁻³ is achieved at 4.5 MV cm⁻¹ with high efficiency of ~65%. In addition, the ESD and efficiency exhibit robust thermal stability in 210-400 K temperature range and excellent endurance up to 10⁹ times of charge/discharge cycling at a very high electric field of 4.0 MV cm⁻¹. Similarly, for solid-state cooling, the maximum adiabatic temperature change (

Keywords: thin films, energy storage, endurance, solid state cooling, anti-ferroelectric

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11424 SA-SPKC: Secure and Efficient Aggregation Scheme for Wireless Sensor Networks Using Stateful Public Key Cryptography

Authors: Merad Boudia Omar Rafik, Feham Mohammed

Abstract:

Data aggregation in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) provides a great reduction of energy consumption. The limited resources of sensor nodes make the choice of an encryption algorithm very important for providing security for data aggregation. Asymmetric cryptography involves large ciphertexts and heavy computations but solves, on the other hand, the problem of key distribution of symmetric one. The latter provides smaller ciphertexts and speed computations. Also, the recent researches have shown that achieving the end-to-end confidentiality and the end-to-end integrity at the same is a challenging task. In this paper, we propose (SA-SPKC), a novel security protocol which addresses both security services for WSNs, and where only the base station can verify the individual data and identify the malicious node. Our scheme is based on stateful public key encryption (StPKE). The latter combines the best features of both kinds of encryption along with state in order to reduce the computation overhead. Our analysis

Keywords: secure data aggregation, wireless sensor networks, elliptic curve cryptography, homomorphic encryption

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11423 Friction Stir Welding Process as a Solid State Joining -A Review

Authors: Mohd Anees Siddiqui, S. A. H. Jafri, Shahnawaz Alam

Abstract:

Through this paper an attempt is made to review a special welding technology of friction stir welding (FSW) which is a solid-state joining. Friction stir welding is used for joining of two plates which are applied compressive force by using fixtures over the work table. This is a non consumable type welding technique in which a rotating tool of cylindrical shape is used. Process parameters such as tool geometry, joint design and process speed are discussed in the paper. Comparative study of Friction stir welding with other welding techniques such as MIG, TIG & GMAW is also done. Some light is put on several major applications of friction stir welding in different industries. Quality and environmental aspects of friction stir welding is also discussed.

Keywords: friction stir welding (FSW), process parameters, tool, solid state joining processes

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11422 Effect of Temperature and Feed Solution on Microencapsulation of Quercetin by Spray Drying Technique

Authors: S. Lekhavat, U. Srimongkoluk, P. Ratanachamnong, G. Laungsopapun

Abstract:

Quercetin was encapsulated with whey protein and high methoxyl pectin by spray drying technique. Feed solution, consisting of 0.1875 0.125 and 0.0625 % w/w quercetin, respectively, was prepared and then sprays at outlet temperature of 70, 80 and 90 °C. Quercetin contents either in feed solution or in spray dried powder were determined by HPLC technique. Physicochemical properties such as viscosity and total soluble solid of feed solution as well as moisture content and water activity of spray dried powder were examined. Particle morphology was imaged using scanning electron microscope. The results showed that feed solution has total soluble solid and viscosity in range of 1.73-5.60 ºBrix and 2.58-8.15 cP, in that order. After spray drying, the moisture content and water activity value of powder are in range of 0.58-2.72 % and 0.18-0.31, respectively. Quercetin content in dried sample increased along with outlet drying temperature but decreased when total soluble solid increased. It was shown that particles are likely to shrivel when spray drying at high temperature. The suggested conditions for encapsulation of quercetin are feed solution with 0.0625 % (w/w) quercetin and spray drying at drying outlet temperature of 90°C.

Keywords: drying temperature, particle morphology, spray drying, quercetin

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11421 The Legal Framework for Solid Waste Disposal and Management in Kwara State, Nigeria

Authors: Alabi Odunayo Mayowa, Ajayi Oluwasola Felix

Abstract:

Solid waste such as “garbage” “trash” “refuse” “slug” and “rubbish” is disposed off or is required to be disposed off in accordance with national law. The study relies on primary and secondary sources of information. The primary sources include the Constitution, statutes and subsidiary legislation. The secondary sources of information include books, journals, conference proceedings, newspapers, magazines and internet materials. The information obtained from these sources is subjected to content and contextual analysis. The study examines the Kwara State Environmental Protection Agency Law, 1992 and other laws on waste disposal and management in Kwara State, Nigeria. The study also examines the regulations and the agency i.e. the Kwara State Environmental Protection Agency created by the law with a view to determine the inadequacies in the law.

Keywords: solid waste, waste disposal, waste management, domestic waste

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11420 Aggregation Scheduling Algorithms in Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Min Kyung An

Abstract:

In Wireless Sensor Networks which consist of tiny wireless sensor nodes with limited battery power, one of the most fundamental applications is data aggregation which collects nearby environmental conditions and aggregates the data to a designated destination, called a sink node. Important issues concerning the data aggregation are time efficiency and energy consumption due to its limited energy, and therefore, the related problem, named Minimum Latency Aggregation Scheduling (MLAS), has been the focus of many researchers. Its objective is to compute the minimum latency schedule, that is, to compute a schedule with the minimum number of timeslots, such that the sink node can receive the aggregated data from all the other nodes without any collision or interference. For the problem, the two interference models, the graph model and the more realistic physical interference model known as Signal-to-Interference-Noise-Ratio (SINR), have been adopted with different power models, uniform-power and non-uniform power (with power control or without power control), and different antenna models, omni-directional antenna and directional antenna models. In this survey article, as the problem has proven to be NP-hard, we present and compare several state-of-the-art approximation algorithms in various models on the basis of latency as its performance measure.

Keywords: data aggregation, convergecast, gathering, approximation, interference, omni-directional, directional

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11419 Effect of Sintering Temperature on Transport Properties of Garnet-Type Solid-State Electrolytes for Energy Storage Systems

Authors: U. Farooq, A. Samson, V. Thangadurai, R. Edwards

Abstract:

In recent years, an impressive research has been conducted to introduce the solid-state electrolytes for the future energy storage devices like Li-ion batteries more specifically. In this work we tried to prepare a ceramic electrolyte (Li6.5 La2.5 Ba0.5 Nb Zr O12(LLBNZO)) and sintered the pallets of as-prepared material at elevated temperature like 1050, 1100, 1150 and 1200 °C. The objective to carry out this research was to observe the effect of temperature on porosity, density and transport properties of materials. Preliminary results suggest that the material sintered at higher temperature could show enhanced performance in terms of fast ionic transport. This enhancement in performance can be attributed to low porosity of materials which is result of high temperature sintering.

Keywords: solid state battery, electrolyte, garnet structures, Li-ion battery

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11418 Medium Composition for the Laboratory Production of Enzyme Fructosyltransferase (FTase)

Authors: O. R. Raimi, A. Lateef

Abstract:

Inoculum developments of A. niger were used for inoculation of medium for submerged fermentation and solid state fermentation. The filtrate obtained were used as sources of the extra-cellular enzymes. The FTase activities and the course of pH in submerged fermentation ranged from 7.53-24.42µ/ml and 4.4-4.8 respectively. The maximum FTase activity was obtained at 48 hours fermentation. In solid state fermentation, FTase activities ranged from 2.41-27.77µ/ml. Using ripe plantain peel and kola nut pod respectively. Both substrates supported the growth of the fungus, producing profuse growth during fermentation. In the control experiment (using kolanut pod) that lack supplementation, appreciable FTase activity of 16.92µ/ml was obtained. The optimum temperature range was 600C. it was also active at broad pH range of 1-9 with optimum obtain at pH of 5.0. FTase was stable within the range of investigated pH showing more than 60% activities. FTase can be used in the production of fructooligosaccharide, a functional food.

Keywords: Aspergillus niger, solid state fermentation, kola nut pods, Fructosyltransferase (FTase)

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11417 Fire Smoke Removal over Cu-Mn-Ce Oxide Catalyst with CO₂ Sorbent Addition: Co Oxidation and in-situ CO₂ Sorption

Authors: Jin Lin, Shouxiang Lu, Kim Meow Liew

Abstract:

In a fire accident, fire smoke often poses a serious threat to human safety especially in the enclosed space such as submarine and space-crafts environment. Efficient removal of the hazardous gas products particularly a large amount of CO and CO₂ gases from these confined space is critical for the security of the staff and necessary for the post-fire environment recovery. In this work, Cu-Mn-Ce composite oxide catalysts coupled with CO₂ sorbents were prepared using wet impregnation method, solid-state impregnation method and wet/solid-state impregnation method. The as-prepared samples were tested dynamically and isothermally for CO oxidation and CO₂ sorption and further characterized by the X-ray diffraction (XRD), nitrogen adsorption and desorption, and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). The results showed that all the samples were able to catalyze CO into CO₂ and capture CO₂ in situ by chemisorption. Among all the samples, the sample synthesized by the wet/solid-state impregnation method showed the highest catalytic activity toward CO oxidation and the fine ability of CO₂ sorption. The sample prepared by the solid-state impregnation method showed the second CO oxidation performance, while the coupled sample using the wet impregnation method exhibited much poor CO oxidation activity. The various CO oxidation and CO₂ sorption properties of the samples might arise from the different dispersed states of the CO₂ sorbent in the CO catalyst, owing to the different preparation methods. XRD results confirmed the high-dispersed sorbent phase in the samples prepared by the wet and solid impregnation method, while that of the sample prepared by wet/solid-state impregnation method showed the larger bulk phase as indicated by the high-intensity diffraction peaks. Nitrogen adsorption and desorption results further revealed that the latter sample had a higher surface area and pore volume, which were beneficial for the CO oxidation over the catalyst. Hence, the Cu-Mn-Ce oxide catalyst coupled with CO₂ sorbent using wet/solid-state impregnation method could be a good choice for fire smoke removal in the enclosed space.

Keywords: CO oxidation, CO₂ sorption, preparation methods, smoke removal

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11416 Aggregation of Butanediyl-1,4-Bis(Tetradecyldimethylammonium Bromide) (14–4–14) Gemini Surfactants in Presence of Ethylene Glycol and Propylene Glycol

Authors: P. Ajmal Koya, Tariq Ahmad Wagay, K. Ismail

Abstract:

One of the fundamental property of surfactant molecules are their ability to aggregate in water or binary mixtures of water and organic solvents as an effort to minimize their unfavourable interaction with the medium. In this work, influence two co-solvents (ethylene glycol (EG) and propylene glycol (PG)) on the aggregation properties of a cationic gemini surfactant, butanediyl-1,4-bis(tetradecyldimethylammonium bromide) (14–4–14), has been studied by conductance and steady state fluorescence at 298 K. The weight percentage of two co-solvents varied in between 0 and 50 % at an interval of 5 % up to 20 % and then 10 % up to 50 %. It was found that micellization process is delayed by the inclusion of both the co-solvents; consequently, a progressive increase was observed in critical micelle concentration (cmc) and Gibbs free energy of micellization (∆G0m), whereas a rough increase was observed in the values of degree of counter ion dissociation (α) and a decrease was obtained in values of average aggregation number (Nagg) and Stern-Volmer constant (KSV). At low weight percentage (up to 15 %) of co-solvents, 14–4–14 geminis were found to be almost equally prone to micellization both in EG–water (EG–WR) and in PG–water (PG–WR) mixed media while at high weight percentages they are more prone to micellization in EG–WR than in PG–WR mixed media.

Keywords: aggregation number, gemini surfactant, micellization, non aqueous solvent

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11415 Synthesis, Characterization and Electrical Studies of Solid Polymer Electrolyte (1-x) PANI-KAg₄I₅.xAl₂O₃

Authors: Rafiuddin

Abstract:

Solid polymer electrolytes have emerged as an area of interest in the field of solid state chemistry owing to their facile and cost-effective synthesis and number of applications in different areas of chemistry, extending over a wide range of temperatures. In the present work, polymer composite solid electrolyte comprising of Polyaniline (PANI) as polymer and potassium silver iodide (KAg4I5) using alumina (Al2O3) of different compositions having the formula (1-x) PANI- KAg4I5. x Al2O3 with x ranging from 0.0 to 0.5 was prepared by solid state reaction method. The structural elucidation and characterization was done by X- Ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Thermogravimetric- Differential Thermal Analysis (TG-DTA) and Impedance Spectroscopy. The thermal analysis shows a phase transition at 147°C attributed to β-α phase transition of AgI due to the disproportionation of KAg4I5 to AgI and KAg2I3 at temperatures higher than 36°C. The X Ray diffraction analysis also confirms the presence of both AgI and KAg2I3 in the samples. The conductivities recorded over a temperature range of 40-250° C lie in the range of 10-1 to 10-3 S cm-1. Maximum conductivity was seen in the compositon x = 0.4 i.e. 1.84 × 10-2 Scm-1 at 313 K and 1.38 × 10-1 Scm-1 at 513 K, with a minimum activation energy of 0.14 eV.

Keywords: polymer solid electrolytes, XRD, DTA, electrical conductivity, impedance spectroscopy

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11414 Production of Biodiesel Using Tannery Fleshing as a Feedstock via Solid-State Fermentation

Authors: C. Santhana Krishnan, A. M. Mimi Sakinah, Lakhveer Singh, Zularisam A. Wahid

Abstract:

This study was initiated to evaluate and optimize the conversion of animal fat from tannery wastes into methyl ester. In the pre-treatment stage, animal fats feedstock was hydrolysed and esterified through solid state fermentation (SSF) using Microbacterium species immobilized onto sand silica matrix. After 72 hours of fermentation, predominant esters in the animal fats were found to be with 83.9% conversion rate. Later, esterified animal fats were transesterified at 3 hour reaction time with 1% NaOH (w/v %), 6% methanol to oil ratio (w/v %) to produce 89% conversion rate. C13 NMR revealed long carbon chain in fatty acid methyl esters at 22.2817-31.9727 ppm. Methyl esters of palmitic, stearic, oleic represented the major components in biodiesel.

Keywords: tannery wastes, fatty animal fleshing, trans-esterification, immobilization, solid state fermentation

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11413 PDDA: Priority-Based, Dynamic Data Aggregation Approach for Sensor-Based Big Data Framework

Authors: Lutful Karim, Mohammed S. Al-kahtani

Abstract:

Sensors are being used in various applications such as agriculture, health monitoring, air and water pollution monitoring, traffic monitoring and control and hence, play the vital role in the growth of big data. However, sensors collect redundant data. Thus, aggregating and filtering sensors data are significantly important to design an efficient big data framework. Current researches do not focus on aggregating and filtering data at multiple layers of sensor-based big data framework. Thus, this paper introduces (i) three layers data aggregation and framework for big data and (ii) a priority-based, dynamic data aggregation scheme (PDDA) for the lowest layer at sensors. Simulation results show that the PDDA outperforms existing tree and cluster-based data aggregation scheme in terms of overall network energy consumptions and end-to-end data transmission delay.

Keywords: big data, clustering, tree topology, data aggregation, sensor networks

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11412 Eco-Agriculture for Effective Solid Waste Management in Minna, Nigeria

Authors: A. Abdulkadir, Y. M. Bello, A. A. Okhimamhe, H. Ibrahim, M. B. Matazu, L. S. Barau

Abstract:

The increasing volume of solid waste generated, collected and disposed daily complicate adequate management of solid waste by the relevant agency like Niger State Environmental Protection Agency (NISEPA). In addition, the impacts of solid waste on the natural environment and human livelihood require identification of cost-effective ways for sustainable municipal waste management in Nigeria. These signal the need for identifying environment-friendly initiative and local solution to address municipal solid waste. A research field was secured at Pago, Minna, Niger State which is located in the guinea savanna belt of Nigeria, within longitude 60 3614311- 4511 and latitude 90 291 37.6111- .6211 N. Poultry droppings, decomposed household waste manure and NPK treatment were used. The experimental field was divided into three replications and four (4) treatments on each replication making a total of twelve (12) plots. The treatments were allotted using Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) and Data collected was analyzed using SPSS software and RCBD. The result depicts variation in plant height and number of leaves at 50% flowering; Poultry dropping records the highest height as a number of leaves for waste manure competes fairly well with NPK treatment. Similarly, the varying treatments significantly increase vegetable yield, as the control (Nontreatment) records the least yield for the three vegetable samples. Adoption of this organic manure for cultivation does not only enhance environment quality and attainment of food security but will contribute to local economic development, poverty alleviation, and social inclusion.

Keywords: environmental issues, food security, NISEPA, solid waste

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11411 Municipal Solid Waste Management Characteristics and Management Challenges in Bauchi Metropolitan Area, Nigeria

Authors: Haruna Abdu Usman, Bashir Usman Mohammed, Mohammed Umar Jamil

Abstract:

Municipal solid waste management constitutes a serious problem bedeviling environmental protection agencies in many cities of developing countries. Most agencies do not collect the totality of the waste generated in their cities. This study presents the current solid waste management practices and problems in Bauchi metropolis, Bauchi state Nigeria. The general feature is characterized by inefficient, insufficient and irrational collection and improper disposal alternatives. The consequent environmental effects of these problems depict clogged city drains, uncollected heap of waste on road sides of residential areas, vacant plots and uncompleted buildings and highways. This contributes immensely to flooding in the city. The major challenges facing the state environmental protection agency includes; lack of collection and disposal points, technical and institutional arrangements, financial resources and general attitude of the serving public among others. The study suggested a comprehensive and integrated approach to the solid waste management which recognizes and incorporates the interventionist role of the state government, the private formal and informal waste management operators and the serving public.

Keywords: municipal solid waste, bauchi metropolitan area, environmental protection agency, solid waste management, waste disposal

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11410 Ultrafast Ground State Recovery Dynamics of a Cyanine Dye Molecule in Heterogeneous Environment

Authors: Tapas Goswami, Debabrata Goswami

Abstract:

We have studied the changes in ground state recovery dynamics of IR 144 dye using degenerate transient absorption spectroscopy technique when going from homogeneous solution phase to heterogeneous partially miscible liquid/liquid interface. Towards this aim, we set up a partially miscible liquid/liquid interface in which dye is insoluble in one solvent carbon tetrachloride (CCl₄) layer and soluble in other solvent dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO). A gradual increase in ground state recovery time of the dye molecule is observed from homogenous bulk solution to more heterogeneous environment interface layer. In the bulk solution charge distribution of dye molecule is in equilibrium with polar DMSO solvent molecule. Near the interface micro transportation of non-polar solvent, CCl₄ disturbs the solvent equilibrium in DMSO layer and it relaxes to a new equilibrium state corresponding to a new charge distribution of dye with a heterogeneous mixture of polar and non-polar solvent. In this experiment, we have measured the time required for the dye molecule to relax to the new equilibrium state in different heterogeneous environment. As a result, dye remains longer time in the excited state such that even it can populate more triplet state. The present study of ground state recovery dynamics of a cyanine dye molecule in different solvent environment provides the important characteristics of effect of solvation on excited life time of a dye molecule.

Keywords: excited state, ground state recovery, solvation, transient absorption

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11409 Decomposition of Solidification Carbides during Cyclic Thermal Treatments in a Co-Based Alloy Deposit Applied to Stainless Steel

Authors: Sellidj Abdelaziz, Lebaili Soltane

Abstract:

A cobalt-based alloy type Co-Cr-Ni-WC was deposited by plasma transferred arc projection (PTA) on a stainless steel valve. The alloy is characterized at the equilibrium by a solid solution Co (γ) mainly dendritic, and eutectic carbides M₇C₃ and ηM₆C. At the deposit/substrate interface, this microstructure is modified by the fast cooling mode of the alloy when applied in the liquid state on the relatively cold steel substrate. The structure formed in this case is heterogeneous and metastable phases can occur and evolve over temperature service. Coating properties and reliability are directly related to microstructures formed during deposition. We were interested more particularly in this microstructure formed during the solidification of the deposit in the region of the interface joining the soldered couple and its evolution during cyclic heat treatments at temperatures similar to those of the thermal environment of the valve. The characterization was carried out by SEM-EDS microprobe CAMECA, XRD, and micro hardness profiles. The deposit obtained has a linear and regular appearance that is free of cracks and with little porosity. The morphology of the microstructure represents solidification stages that are relatively fast with a temperature gradient high at the beginning of the interface by forming a plane front solid solution Co (γ). It gradually changes with the decreasing temperature gradient by getting farther from the junction towards the outer limit of the deposit. The matrix takes the forms: cellular, mixed (cells and dendrites) and dendritic. Dendritic growth is done according to primary ramifications in the direction of the heat removal which takes place in the direction perpendicular to the interface, towards the external surface of the deposit, following secondary and tertiary undeveloped arms. The eutectic carbides M₇C₃ and ηM₆C formed are very thin and are located in the intercellular and interdendritic spaces of the solid solution Co (γ).

Keywords: Co-Ni-Cr-W-C alloy, solid deposit, microstructure, carbides, cyclic heat treatment

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