Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5286

Search results for: lower limb exercise

5286 Electromyography Activity of the Lower Limb Muscles during Prostration and Squat Exercise

Authors: M. K. Mohd Safee, W. A. B. Wan Abas, F. Ibrahim, N. A. Abu Osman, N. A. Abdul Malik

Abstract:

This paper investigates the activity of the rectus femoris (RF) and biceps femoris (BF) in healthy subjects during salat (prostration) and specific exercise (squat exercise) using electromyography (EMG). A group of undergraduates aged between 19 to 25 years voluntarily participated in this study. The myoelectric activity of the muscles were recorded and analyzed. The finding indicated that there were contractions of the muscles during the salat and exercise with almost same EMG’s level. From the result, Wilcoxon’s Rank Sum test showed significant difference between prostration and squat exercise (p < 0.05) but the differences was very small; RF (8.63% MVC) and BF (11.43% MVC). Therefore, salat may be useful in strengthening exercise and also in rehabilitation programs for lower limb activities. This pilot study conducted initial research into the bio mechanical responses of human muscles in various positions of salat.

Keywords: electromyography, exercise, muscle, salat

Procedia PDF Downloads 604
5285 Assessment of Hamstring, Lower Back and Upper Body Flexibility in War Disabled Individuals in Sri Lanka North and East Region

Authors: Esther Liyanage, Indrajith Liyanage, A. A. J. Rajaratne

Abstract:

During the 30 year civil war in Sri Lanka, a large number of individuals were injured and disabled. These disabilities have reduced their daily physical activities which may cause reduction in flexibility of upper limb, shoulder girdle, lower back and lower limb. Muscle flexibility is important for a healthy lifestyle. The main objective of the study was to assess the upper limb, shoulder girdle and lower back, hamstring flexibility of the intact lower limb in disabled individuals in the North and Eastern parts of Sri Lanka. Back saver sits and reach test and shoulder scratch test described in FITNESS GRAM was used in the study. A total of 125 disabled soldiers with lower limb disabilities were recruited for the study. Flexibility of the lower back and hamstring muscles of uninjured lower limb was measured using back saver sit and reach test described by Wells and Dillon (1952). Upper limb and shoulder girdle flexibility was assessed using shoulder stretch test. Score 0-3 was given according to the ability to reach Superior medial angle of the opposite scapula, top of the head or the mouth. The results indicate that 31 (24.8%) disabled soldiers have lower limb flexibility less than 8, 2 (1.6 % ) have flexibility of 8, 2 (1.6 %) have flexibility of 8.5, 11 ( 8.8% ) have flexibility of 9, 14 (11.2 %) have flexibility of 9.5, 23 (18.4 %) have flexibility of 10, 17 (13.6 %) have 10.5 flexibility, 13 (10.4%) have 11 flexibility, 2 (1.6%) have 11.5 flexibility, 10 (8 %) have flexibility of 12 and 3 (2.34 %) have flexibility of 12.5. Six disabled soldiers (4.8%) have upper limb flexibility of 2 and remaining 95.2% have normal upper limb flexibility (score 3). A reduction in the flexibility of muscles in lower body and lower limbs was seen in 25% disabled soldiers which could be due to reduction in their daily physical activities.

Keywords: disability, flexibility, rehabilitation, quality of life

Procedia PDF Downloads 334
5284 Exercise in Extreme Conditions: Leg Cooling and Fat/Carbohydrate Utilization

Authors: Anastasios Rodis

Abstract:

Background: Case studies of walkers, climbers, and campers exposed to cold and wet conditions without limb water/windproof protection revealed experiences of muscle weakness and fatigue. It is reasonable to assume that a part of the fatigue could occur due to an alteration in substrate utilization, since reduction of performance in extreme cold conditions, may partially be explained by higher anaerobic glycolysis, reflecting higher carbohydrate oxidation and an increase accumulation rate of blood lactate. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of pre-exercise lower limb cooling on substrate utilization rate during sub-maximal exercise. Method: Six male university students (mean (SD): age, 21.3 (1.0) yr; maximal oxygen uptake (V0₂ max), 49.6 (3.6) ml.min⁻¹; and percentage of body fat, 13.6 (2.5) % were examined in random order after either 30min cold water (12°C) immersion utilized as the cooling strategy up to the gluteal fold, or under control conditions (no precooling), with tests separated by minimum of 7 days. Exercise consisted of 60min cycling at 50% V0₂ max, in a thermoneutral environment of 20°C. Subjects were also required to record a diet diary over the 24hrs prior to the each trial. Means (SD) for the three macronutrients during the 1 day prior to each trial (expressed as a percentage of total energy) 52 (3) % carbohydrate, 31 (4) % fat, and 17 (± 2) % protein. Results: The following responses to lower limb cooling relative to control trial during exercise were: 1) Carbohydrate (CHO) oxidation, and blood lactate (Bₗₐc) concentration were significantly higher (P < 0.05); 2) rectal temperature (Tᵣₑc) was significantly higher (P < 0.05), but skin temperature was significantly lower (P < 0.05); no significant differences were found in blood glucose (Bg), heart rate (HR) and oxygen consumption (V0₂). Discussion: These data suggested that lower limb cooling prior to submaximal exercise will shift metabolic processes from Fat oxidation to CHO oxidation. This shift from Fat to CHO oxidation will probably have important implications in the surviving scenario, since people facing accidental localized cooling of their limbs either through wading/falling in cold water or snow even if they do not perform high intensity activity, they have to rely on CHO availability.

Keywords: exercise in wet conditions, leg cooling, outdoors exercise, substrate utilization

Procedia PDF Downloads 366
5283 An Extremely Rare Anatomical Vascular Variant of Lower Limb Arterial System - Duplication of Superficial Femoral Artery

Authors: Manik Sharma

Abstract:

Understanding the anatomy and normal anatomical variations of the lower limb arterial system is undeniably important not only to understand the pathology involving the vessels of the lower limb but also as a part of endovascular intervention and surgical planning in cases that demand them as a part of treatment. There have been very few cases of duplication of SFA cited in the literature, close to six worldwide and this being the seventh case in the world and first to be reported in the Indian population. We incidentally came across this normal variant during US lower limb (US-LL) duplex scan in a patient with claudicating pain in bilateral lower limbs hence suspected of having peripheral vascular disease. It was confirmed on CT-Peripheral Angiography (CT-PA), which was done successively.

Keywords: peripheral vascular disease, claudicating pain, normal anatomical variants, endovascular intervention, duplication, CT-peripheral angiography, duplex scan, Iohexol

Procedia PDF Downloads 70
5282 Electromyography Activity of the Rectus Femoris and Biceps Femoris Muscles during Prostration and Squat Exercise

Authors: M. K. Mohd Safee, W. A. B. Wan Abas, F. Ibrahim, N. A. Abu Osman, N. A Abdul Malik

Abstract:

This paper investigates the activity of the rectus femoris (RF) and biceps femoris (BF) in healthy subjects during salat (prostration) and specific exercise (squat exercise) using electromyography (EMG). A group of undergraduates aged between 19 to 25 years voluntarily participated in this study. The myoelectric activity of the muscles were recorded and analyzed. The finding indicated that there were contractions of the muscles during the salat and exercise with almost same EMG’s level. From the result, Wilcoxon’s Rank Sum test showed significant difference between prostration and squat exercise (p<0.05) but the differences was very small; RF (8.63%MVC) and BF (11.43%MVC). Therefore, salat may be useful in strengthening exercise and also in rehabilitation programs for lower limb activities. This pilot study conducted initial research into the biomechanical responses of human muscles in various positions of salat.

Keywords: electromyography, exercise, muscle, salat

Procedia PDF Downloads 573
5281 Tracking Trajectory of a Cable-Driven Robot for Lower Limb Rehabilitation

Authors: Hachmia Faqihi, Maarouf Saad, Khalid Benjelloun, Mohammed Benbrahim, M. Nabil Kabbaj

Abstract:

This paper investigates and presents a cable-driven robot to lower limb rehabilitation use in sagittal plane. The presented rehabilitation robot is used for a trajectory tracking in joint space. The paper covers kinematic and dynamic analysis, which reveals the tensionability of the used cables as being the actuating source to provide a rehabilitation exercises of the human leg. The desired trajectory is generated to be used in the control system design in joint space. The obtained simulation results is showed to be efficient in this kind of application.

Keywords: cable-driven multi-body system, computed-torque controller, lower limb rehabilitation, tracking trajectory

Procedia PDF Downloads 286
5280 The Existence of a Sciatic Artery in Congenital Lower Limb Deformities

Authors: Waseem Al Talalwah, Shorok Al Dorazi, Roger Soames

Abstract:

Persistent sciatic artery is a rare anatomical vascular variation resulting from a lack of regression of the embryonic dorsal axial artery. The axial artery is the main artery supplying the lower limb during development in the first trimester. The current research includes 206 sciatic artery cases in 171 patients between 1864 and 2012. It aims to identify the risk factor of sciatic artery aneurysm in congenital limb anomalies. Sciatic artery aneurysm was diagnosed incidentally in amniotic band syndrome (ABS) existing with no congenital anomaly in 0.7% or with double knee in 0.7%, with the tibia in 0.7% and with hemihypertrophy or soft tissue hypertrophy in 1.4%. Therefore, the current study indicates a relationship the same gene responsible for the congenital limb deformities may be responsible for non-regression of the sciatic artery. Furthermore, pediatricians should refer cases of congenital limb anomalies for vascular evaluation prior to corrective surgical intervention.

Keywords: amniotic band syndrome, congenital limb deformities, double knee, sciatic artery, sciatic artery aneurysm , soft tissue hypertrophy

Procedia PDF Downloads 124
5279 Comparison of Gait Variability in Individuals with Trans-Tibial and Trans-Femoral Lower Limb Loss: A Pilot Study

Authors: Hilal Keklicek, Fatih Erbahceci, Elif Kirdi, Ali Yalcin, Semra Topuz, Ozlem Ulger, Gul Sener

Abstract:

Objectives and Goals: The stride-to-stride fluctuations in gait is a determinant of qualified locomotion as known as gait variability. Gait variability is an important predictive factor of fall risk and useful for monitoring the effects of therapeutic interventions and rehabilitation. Comparison of gait variability in individuals with trans-tibial lower limb loss and trans femoral lower limb loss was the aim of the study. Methods: Ten individuals with traumatic unilateral trans femoral limb loss(TF), 12 individuals with traumatic transtibial lower limb loss(TT) and 12 healthy individuals(HI) were the participants of the study. All participants were evaluated with treadmill. Gait characteristics including mean step length, step length variability, ambulation index, time on each foot of participants were evaluated with treadmill. Participants were walked at their preferred speed for six minutes. Data from 4th minutes to 6th minutes were selected for statistical analyses to eliminate learning effect. Results: There were differences between the groups in intact limb step length variation, time on each foot, ambulation index and mean age (p < .05) according to the Kruskal Wallis Test. Pairwise analyses showed that there were differences between the TT and TF in residual limb variation (p=.041), time on intact foot (p=.024), time on prosthetic foot(p=.024), ambulation index(p = .003) in favor of TT group. There were differences between the TT and HI group in intact limb variation (p = .002), time on intact foot (p<.001), time on prosthetic foot (p < .001), ambulation index result (p < .001) in favor of HI group. There were differences between the TF and HI group in intact limb variation (p = .001), time on intact foot (p=.01) ambulation index result (p < .001) in favor of HI group. There was difference between the groups in mean age result from HI group were younger (p < .05).There were similarity between the groups in step lengths (p>.05) and time of prosthesis using in individuals with lower limb loss (p > .05). Conclusions: The pilot study provided basic data about gait stability in individuals with traumatic lower limb loss. Results of the study showed that to evaluate the gait differences between in different amputation level, long-range gait analyses methods may be useful to get more valuable information. On the other hand, similarity in step length may be resulted from effective prosthetic using or effective gait rehabilitation, in conclusion, all participants with lower limb loss were already trained. The differences between the TT and HI; TF and HI may be resulted from the age related features, therefore, age matched population in HI were recommended future studies. Increasing the number of participants and comparison of age-matched groups also recommended to generalize these result.

Keywords: lower limb loss, amputee, gait variability, gait analyses

Procedia PDF Downloads 212
5278 Exoskeleton for Hemiplegic Patients: Mechatronic Approach to Move One Disabled Lower Limb

Authors: Alaoui Hamza, Moutacalli Mohamed Tarik, Chebak Ahmed

Abstract:

The number of people suffering from hemiplegia is growing each year. This lower limb disability affects all the aspects of their lives by taking away their autonomy. This implicates their close relatives, as well as the health system to provide the necessary care they need. The integration of exoskeletons in the medical field became a promising solution to resolve this issue. This paper presents an exoskeleton designed to help hemiplegic people get back the sensation and ability of normal walking. For this purpose, three step models have been created. The first step allows a simple forward movement of the leg. The second method is designed to overcome some obstacles in the patient path, and finally the third step model gives the patient total control over the device. Each of the control methods was designed to offer a solution to the challenges that the patients may face during the walking process.

Keywords: ability of normal walking, exoskeleton, hemiplegic patients, lower limb motion- mechatronics

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5277 Lower Limb Oedema in Beckwith-Wiedemann Syndrome

Authors: Mihai-Ionut Firescu, Mark A. P. Carson

Abstract:

We present a case of inferior vena cava agenesis (IVCA) associated with bilateral deep venous thrombosis (DVT) in a patient with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS). In adult patients with BWS presenting with bilateral lower limb oedema, specific aetiological factors should be considered. These include cardiomyopathy and intraabdominal tumours. Congenital malformations of the IVC, through causing relative venous stasis, can lead to lower limb oedema either directly or indirectly by favouring lower limb venous thromboembolism; however, they are yet to be reported as an associated feature of BWS. Given its life-threatening potential, the prompt initiation of treatment for bilateral DVT is paramount. In BWS patients, however, this can prove more complicated. Due to overgrowth, the above-average birth weight can continue throughout childhood. In this case, the patient’s weight reached 170 kg, impacting on anticoagulation choice, as direct oral anticoagulants have a limited evidence base in patients with a body mass above 120 kg. Furthermore, the presence of IVCA leads to a long-term increased venous thrombosis risk. Therefore, patients with IVCA and bilateral DVT warrant specialist consideration and may benefit from multidisciplinary team management, with hematology and vascular surgery input. Conclusion: Here, we showcased a rare cause for bilateral lower limb oedema, respectively bilateral deep venous thrombosis complicating IVCA in a patient with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome. The importance of this case lies in its novelty, as the association between IVC agenesis and BWS has not yet been described. Furthermore, the treatment of DVT in such situations requires special consideration, taking into account the patient’s weight and the presence of a significant, predisposing vascular abnormality.

Keywords: Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome, bilateral deep venous thrombosis, inferior vena cava agenesis, venous thromboembolism

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5276 A Study of Anthropometric Correlation between Upper and Lower Limb Dimensions in Sudanese Population

Authors: Altayeb Abdalla Ahmed

Abstract:

Skeletal phenotype is a product of a balanced interaction between genetics and environmental factors throughout different life stages. Therefore, interlimb proportions are variable between populations. Although interlimb proportion indices have been used in anthropology in assessing the influence of various environmental factors on limbs, an extensive literature review revealed that there is a paucity of published research assessing interlimb part correlations and possibility of reconstruction. Hence, this study aims to assess the relationships between upper and lower limb parts and develop regression formulae to reconstruct the parts from one another. The left upper arm length, ulnar length, wrist breadth, hand length, hand breadth, tibial length, bimalleolar breadth, foot length, and foot breadth of 376 right-handed subjects, comprising 187 males and 189 females (aged 25-35 years), were measured. Initially, the data were analyzed using basic univariate analysis and independent t-tests; then sex-specific simple and multiple linear regression models were used to estimate upper limb parts from lower limb parts and vice-versa. The results of this study indicated significant sexual dimorphism for all variables. The results indicated a significant correlation between the upper and lower limbs parts (p < 0.01). Linear and multiple (stepwise) regression equations were developed to reconstruct the limb parts in the presence of a single or multiple dimension(s) from the other limb. Multiple stepwise regression equations generated better reconstructions than simple equations. These results are significant in forensics as it can aid in identification of multiple isolated limb parts particularly during mass disasters and criminal dismemberment. Although a DNA analysis is the most reliable tool for identification, its usage has multiple limitations in undeveloped countries, e.g., cost, facility availability, and trained personnel. Furthermore, it has important implication in plastic and orthopedic reconstructive surgeries. This study is the only reported study assessing the correlation and prediction capabilities between many of the upper and lower dimensions. The present study demonstrates a significant correlation between the interlimb parts in both sexes, which indicates a possibility to reconstruction using regression equations.

Keywords: anthropometry, correlation, limb, Sudanese

Procedia PDF Downloads 226
5275 Aerobic Capacity Outcomes after an Aerobic Exercise Program with an Upper Body Ergometer in Diabetic Amputees

Authors: Cecilia Estela Jiménez Pérez Campos

Abstract:

Introduction: Amputation comes from a series of complications in diabetic persons; at that point, of the illness evolution they have a deplored aerobic capacity. Adding to that, cardiac rehabs programs are almost base in several activities in a standing position. The cardiac rehabilitation programs have to improve for them, based on scientific advice. Objective: Evaluation of aerobic capacity of diabetic amputee after an aerobic exercise program, with upper limb ergometer. Methodology: The design is longitudinal, prospective, comparative and no randomized. We include all diabetic pelvic limb amputees, who assist to the cardiac rehabilitation. We made 2 groups: an experimental and a control group. The patients did the exercise testing, with the author’s design protocol. The experimental group completed 24 exercise sessions (3 sessions/week), with an intensity determined with the training heart rate. At the end of 8 weeks period, the subjects did a second exercise test. Results: Both groups were a homogeneous sample in age (experimental n=15) 57.6+12.5 years old and (control n=8) 52.5+8.0 years old, sex, occupation, education and economic features. (square chi) (p=0.28). The initial aerobic capacity was similar in both groups. And the aerobic capacity accomplishes after the program was statistically greater in the experimental group than in the control one. The final media VO2peak (mlO2/kg/min) was experimental (17.1+3.8), control (10.5+3.8), p=0.001. (t student). Conclusions: The aerobic capacity improved after an arm ergometer exercise program and the quality of life improve too, in diabetic amputees. So this program is fundamental in diabetic amputee’s rehabilitation management.

Keywords: aerobic fitness, metabolic equivalent (MET), oxygen output, upper limb ergometer

Procedia PDF Downloads 157
5274 Effect of Pole Weight on Nordic Walking

Authors: Takeshi Sato, Mizuki Nakajima, Macky Kato, Shoji Igawa

Abstract:

The purpose of study was to investigate the effect of varying pole weights on energy expenditure, upper limb and lower limb muscle activity as Electromyogram during Nordic walking (NW). Four healthy men [age = 22.5 (±1.0) years, body mass = 61.4 (±3.6) kg, height = 170.3 (±4.3) cm] and three healthy women [age = 22.7 (±2.9) years, body mass = 53.0 (±1.7) kg, height = 156.7 (±4.5) cm] participated in the experiments after informed consent. Seven healthy subjects were tested on the treadmill, walking, walking (W) with Nordic Poles (NW) and walking with 1kg weight Nordic Poles (NW+1). Walking speed was 6 km per hours in all trials. Eight EMG activities were recorded by bipolar surface methods in biceps brachii, triceps brachii, trapezius, deltoideus, tibialis anterior, medial gastrocnemius, rectus femoris and biceps femoris muscles. And heart rate (HR), oxygen uptake (VO2), and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured. The level of significance was set at a = 0.05, with p < 0.05 regarded as statistically significant. Our results confirmed that use of NW poles increased HR at a given upper arm muscle activity but decreased lower limb EMGs in comparison with W. Moreover NW was able to increase more step lengths with hip joint extension during NW rather than W. Also, EMG revealed higher activation of upper limb for almost all NW and 1kgNW tests plus added masses compared to W (p < 0.05). Therefore, it was thought either of NW and 1kgNW were to have benefit as a physical exercise for safe, feasible, and readily training for a wide range of aged people in the quality of daily life. However, there was no significant effected in leg muscles activity by using 1kgNW except for upper arm muscle activity during Nordic pole walking.

Keywords: Nordic walking, electromyogram, heart rate, RPE

Procedia PDF Downloads 147
5273 Long-Term Health and Quality of Life Outcomes Following War-Related Traumatic Lower-Limb Amputation; A Study on Community Re-Integrated Army Veterans in Sri Lanka

Authors: Ashan Wijekoon, Abi Beane, Subashini Jayawardana

Abstract:

Background: Civil war in Sri Lanka ended a decade ago, leaving thousands of army veterans permanently disabled following lower-limb amputations. Quantifying long-term functional health and psychological wellbeing will inform the development of tailored home-based rehabilitation intervention. Objectives: To assess the long-term health and quality of life of Sri Lankan soldiers with traumatic lower-limb amputation.Methods and Materials: A comparative cross-sectional study was conducted in five districts of Sri Lanka. Using stratified random sample technique, two groups of 85 participants were selected; group 1, community re-integrated male army veterans with unilateral lower-limb amputation, and group 2, age and sex matched normal healthy individuals. Long-term health and quality of life (QoL) outcomes were assessed and compared between the two groups using self-administered Short-Form Health Survey-36 questionnaire (SF-36) previously validated for use in Sri Lanka. Results: Group 1 were active prosthetic users who had undergone amputation > ten years ago (Mean±SD: 21.7±5.9). The most prevalent comorbidities for group 1 and 2 were hypertension and diabetes (22.4% and 30.6% and 9.4% and 9.8%, respectively). In group 1, injury-associated long-term health outcomes included knee osteoarthritis (18.8%), knee pain (20.0%), and back pain (69.4%). Scores of physical health and psychological wellbeing were 53.1 (IQR 64.4- 43.8) and 63.5 (IQR 73.3- 51.4) for each group, respectively. Scores revealed the highest QoL related to social functioning (75 (IQR 87.5- 62.5)) and the poorest aspects of QoL related to general health (40 (IQR 50- 35)). Prevalence of comorbidities was significantly higher, and QoL outcomes were significantly lower among soldiers compared to normal healthy individuals (p<0.05).Conclusion: Higher prevalence of comorbidities, poor physical health, and lower QoL outcomes were more prevalent in soldiers with lower-limb amputation when compared to healthy counterparts.

Keywords: community-based, disability, health outcomes, quality of life, soldiers

Procedia PDF Downloads 54
5272 Evaluation of Virtual Reality for the Rehabilitation of Athlete Lower Limb Musculoskeletal Injury: A Method for Obtaining Practitioner’s Viewpoints through Observation and Interview

Authors: Hannah K. M. Tang, Muhammad Ateeq, Mark J. Lake, Badr Abdullah, Frederic A. Bezombes

Abstract:

Based on a theoretical assessment of current literature, virtual reality (VR) could help to treat sporting injuries in a number of ways. However, it is important to obtain rehabilitation specialists’ perspectives in order to design, develop and validate suitable content for a VR application focused on treatment. Subsequently, a one-day observation and interview study focused on the use of VR for the treatment of lower limb musculoskeletal conditions in athletes was conducted at St George’s Park England National Football Centre with rehabilitation specialists. The current paper established the methods suitable for obtaining practitioner’s viewpoints through observation and interview in this context. Particular detail was provided regarding the method of qualitatively processing interview results using the qualitative data analysis software tool NVivo, in order to produce a narrative of overarching themes. The observations and overarching themes identified could be used as a framework and success criteria of a VR application developed in future research. In conclusion, this work explained the methods deemed suitable for obtaining practitioner’s viewpoints through observation and interview. This was required in order to highlight characteristics and features of a VR application designed to treat lower limb musculoskeletal injury of athletes and could be built upon to direct future work.

Keywords: athletes, lower-limb musculoskeletal injury, rehabilitation, return-to-sport, virtual reality

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5271 The Effect of Two Methods of Upper and Lower Resistance Exercise Training on C-Reactive Protein, Interleukin-6 and Intracellular Adhesion Molecule-1 in Healthy Untrained Women

Authors: Leyla Sattarzadeh, Maghsoud Peeri, Mohammadali Azarbaijani, Hasan Matin Homaee

Abstract:

Inflammation by various mechanisms may cause atherosclerosis. Systemic circulating inflammatory markers such as C-reactive protein (CRP), pro-inflammatory cytokines such as Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and adhesion molecules like Intracellular Adhesion Molecule-1 (ICAM-1) are the predictors of cardiovascular diseases. Regarding the conflicting results about the effect of resistance exercise training on these inflammatory markers, the present study aimed to examine the effect of eight week different patterns of resistance exercise training on CRP, IL-6 and ICAM-1 levels in healthy untrained women. 40 volunteered and healthy untrained female university students (aged: 21+ 3 yr., Body Mass Index: 21.5+ 3.5 kg/m2) were selected purposefully and divided into three groups. At the end of training protocol and after subjects drop during the protocol in upper body exercise training (n=11), lower body (n=12) completed the eight week of training period although the control group (n=7) did anything. Blood samples gathered pre and post experimental period and CRP, IL-6 and ICAM-1 levels were evaluated using special laboratory kits, then the difference of pre and post values of each indices analyzed using one way Analysis of Variance (α < 0.05). The results of one way ANOVA for difference of pre and post values of CRP and ICAM-1 showed no significant changes due to the exercise training. But there were significant differences between groups about IL-6. Tukey post- hoc test indicated that there is significant difference between the differences of pre and post values of IL-6 between lower body exercise training group and control group, and eight weeks of lower body exercise training lead to significant changes in IL-6 values. There were no changes in anthropometric indices. The findings show that the different patterns of upper and lower body exercise training by involving the different amount of muscles altered the IL-6 values in lower body exercise training group probably because of engaging the bigger amount of muscles, but showed any significant changes about CRP and ICAM-1 probably due to intensity and duration of exercise or the lower levels of these markers at baseline of healthy people.

Keywords: C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, intracellular adhesion molecule-1, resistance training

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5270 The Effect of Body Positioning on Upper-Limb Arterial Occlusion Pressure and the Reliability of the Method during Blood Flow Restriction Training

Authors: Stefanos Karanasios, Charkleia Koutri, Maria Moutzouri, Sofia A. Xergia, Vasiliki Sakellari, George Gioftsos

Abstract:

The precise calculation of arterial occlusive pressure (AOP) is a critical step to accurately prescribe individualized pressures during blood flow restriction training (BFRT). AOP is usually measured in a supine position before training; however, previous reports suggested a significant influence in lower limb AOP across different body positions. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of three different body positions on upper limb AOP and the reliability of the method for its standardization in clinical practice. Forty-two healthy participants (Mean age: 28.1, SD: ±7.7) underwent measurements of upper limb AOP in supine, seated, and standing positions by three blinded raters. A cuff with a manual pump and a pocket doppler ultrasound were used. A significantly higher upper limb AOP was found in seated compared with supine position (p < 0.031) and in supine compared with standing position (p < 0.031) by all raters. An excellent intraclass correlation coefficient (0.858- 0.984, p < 0.001) was found in all positions. Upper limb AOP is strongly dependent on body position changes. The appropriate measurement position should be selected to accurately calculate AOP before BFRT. The excellent inter-rater reliability and repeatability of the method suggest reliable and consistent results across repeated measurements.

Keywords: Kaatsu training, blood flow restriction training, arterial occlusion, reliability

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5269 A Knee Modular Orthosis Design Based on Kinematic Considerations

Authors: C. Copilusi, C. Ploscaru

Abstract:

This paper addresses attention to a research regarding the design of a knee orthosis in a modular form used on children walking rehabilitation. This research is focused on the human lower limb kinematic analysis which will be used as input data on virtual simulations and prototype validation. From this analysis, important data will be obtained and used as input for virtual simulations of the knee modular orthosis. Thus, a knee orthosis concept was obtained and validated through virtual simulations by using MSC Adams software. Based on the obtained results, the modular orthosis prototype will be manufactured and presented in this article.

Keywords: human lower limb, children orthoses, kinematic analysis, knee orthosis

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5268 Analysis of the Internal Mechanical Conditions in the Lower Limb Due to External Loads

Authors: Kent Salomonsson, Xuefang Zhao, Sara Kallin

Abstract:

Human soft tissue is loaded and deformed by any activity, an effect known as a stress-strain relationship, and is often described by a load and tissue elongation curve. Several advances have been made in the fields of biology and mechanics of soft human tissue. However, there is limited information available on in vivo tissue mechanical characteristics and behavior. Confident mechanical properties of human soft tissue cannot be extrapolated from e.g. animal testing. Thus, there is need for non invasive methods to analyze mechanical characteristics of soft human tissue. In the present study, the internal mechanical conditions of the lower limb, which is subject to an external load, is studied by use of the finite element method. A detailed finite element model of the lower limb is made possible by use of MRI scans. Skin, fat, bones, fascia and muscles are represented separately and the material properties for them are obtained from literature. Previous studies have been shown to address macroscopic deformation features, e.g. indentation depth, to a large extent. However, the detail in which the internal anatomical features have been modeled does not reveal the critical internal strains that may induce hypoxia and/or eventual tissue damage. The results of the present study reveals that lumped material models, i.e. averaging of the material properties for the different constituents, does not capture regions of critical strains in contrast to more detailed models.

Keywords: FEM, tissue, indentation, properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 284
5267 Comparison of Trunk and Hip Muscle Activities and Anterior Pelvic Tilt Angle during Three Different Bridging Exercises in Subjects with Chronic Low Back Pain

Authors: Da-Eun Kim, Heon-Seock Cynn, Sil-Ah Choi, A-Reum Shin

Abstract:

Bridging exercise in supine position with the hips and knees flexed have been commonly performed as one of the therapeutic exercises and is a comfortable and pain-free position to most individuals with chronic low back pain (CLBP). Many previous studies have investigated the beneficial way of performing bridging exercises to improve activation of abdominal and gluteal muscle and reduce muscle activity of hamstrings (HAM) and erector spinae (ES) and compensatory lumbopelvic motion. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of three different bridging exercises on the HAM, ES, gluteus maximus (Gmax), gluteus medius (Gmed), and transverse abdominis/internal abdominis oblique (TrA/IO) activities and anterior pelvic tilt angle in subjects with CLBP. Seventeen subjects with CLBP participated in this study. They performed bridging under three different conditions (with 30° hip abduction, isometric hip abduction, and isometric hip adduction). Surface electromyography was used to measure muscle activity, and the ImageJ software was used to calculate anterior pelvic tilt angle. One-way repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to assess the statistical significance of the measured variables. HAM activity was significantly lower in bridging with 30° hip abduction and isometric hip abduction than in bridging with isometric hip adduction. Gmax and Gmed activities were significantly greater in bridging with isometric hip abduction than in bridging with 30° hip abduction and isometric hip adduction. TrA/IO muscle activity was significantly greater and anterior pelvic tilt angle was significantly lower in bridging with isometric hip adduction than in bridging with 30° hip abduction and isometric hip abduction. Bridging with isometric hip abduction using Thera-Band can effectively reduce HAM activity, and increase Gmax and Gmed activities in subjects with CLBP. Bridging with isometric hip adduction using a pressure biofeedback unit can be a beneficial exercise to improve TrA/IO activity and minimize anterior pelvic tilt in subjects with CLBP.

Keywords: bridging exercise, electromyography, low back pain, lower limb exercise

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5266 Exploiting Kinetic and Kinematic Data to Plot Cyclograms for Managing the Rehabilitation Process of BKAs by Applying Neural Networks

Authors: L. Parisi

Abstract:

Kinematic data wisely correlate vector quantities in space to scalar parameters in time to assess the degree of symmetry between the intact limb and the amputated limb with respect to a normal model derived from the gait of control group participants. Furthermore, these particular data allow a doctor to preliminarily evaluate the usefulness of a certain rehabilitation therapy. Kinetic curves allow the analysis of ground reaction forces (GRFs) to assess the appropriateness of human motion. Electromyography (EMG) allows the analysis of the fundamental lower limb force contributions to quantify the level of gait asymmetry. However, the use of this technological tool is expensive and requires patient’s hospitalization. This research work suggests overcoming the above limitations by applying artificial neural networks.

Keywords: kinetics, kinematics, cyclograms, neural networks, transtibial amputation

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5265 L-Carnitine Supplementation and Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage

Authors: B. Nakhostin-Roohi, F. Khoshkhahesh, KH. Parandak, R. Ramazanzadeh

Abstract:

Introduction: The protective effect of antioxidants in diminishing the post-exercise rise of serum CK and LDH in individuals trained for competitive sports has come to light in recent years. This study was conducted to assess the effect of Two-week L-carnitine supplementation on exercise-induced muscle damage, as well as antioxidant capacity after a bout of strenuous exercise in active healthy young men. Methodology: Twenty active healthy men volunteered for this study. Participants were randomized in a double-blind placebo-controlled fashion into two groups: L-carnitine (C group; n = 10) and placebo group (P group; n = 10). The participants took supplementation (2000 mg L-carnitine) or placebo (2000 mg lactose) daily for 2weeks before the main trial. Then, participants ran 14 km. Blood samples were taken before supplementation, before exercise, immediately, 2h and 24h after exercise. Creatine kinase (CK), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were measured. Results: Serum CK and LDH significantly increased after exercise in both groups (p < 0.05). Serum LDH was significantly lower in C group than P group 2h and 24h after exercise (p < 0.05). Furthermore, CK was significantly lower in C group compared with P group just 24h after exercise (p < 0.05). Plasma TAC increased significantly 14 days after supplementation and 24h after exercise in C group compared with P group (p < 0.05). Discussion and conclusion: These results suggest two-week daily oral supplementation of L-carnitine has been able to promote antioxidant capacity before and after exercise and decrease muscle damage markers through possibly inhibition of exercise-induced oxidative stress.

Keywords: L-carnitine, muscle damage, creatine kinase, Lactate dehydrogenase

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5264 Finite Element Modeling of a Lower Limb Based on the East Asian Body Characteristics for Pedestrian Protection

Authors: Xianping Du, Runlu Miao, Guanjun Zhang, Libo Cao, Feng Zhu

Abstract:

Current vehicle safety standards and human body injury criteria were established based on the biomechanical response of Euro-American human body, without considering the difference in the body anthropometry and injury characteristics among different races, particularly the East Asian people with smaller body size. Absence of such race specific design considerations will negatively influence the protective performance of safety products for these populations, and weaken the accuracy of injury thresholds derived. To resolve these issues, in this study, we aim to develop a race specific finite element model to simulate the impact response of the lower extremity of a 50th percentile East Asian (Chinese) male. The model was built based on medical images for the leg of an average size Chinese male and slightly adjusted based on the statistical data. The model includes detailed anatomic features and is able to simulate the muscle active force. Thirteen biomechanical tests available in the literature were used to validate its biofidelity. Using the validated model, a pedestrian-car impact accident taking place in China was re-constructed computationally. The results show that the newly developed lower leg model has a good performance in predicting dynamic response and tibia fracture pattern. An additional comparison on the fracture tolerance of the East Asian and Euro-American lower limb suggests that the current injury criterion underestimates the degree of injury of East Asian human body.

Keywords: lower limb, East Asian body characteristics, traffic accident reconstruction, finite element analysis, injury tolerance

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5263 Effective Virtual Tunnel Shape for Motion Modification in Upper-Limb Perception-Assist with a Power-Assist Robot

Authors: Kazuo Kiguchi, Kouta Ikegami

Abstract:

In the case of physically weak persons, not only motor abilities, but also sensory abilities are sometimes deteriorated. The concept of perception-assist has been proposed to assist the sensory ability of the physically weak persons with a power-assist robot. Since upper-limb motion is very important in daily living, perception-assist for upper-limb motion has been proposed to assist upper-limb motion in daily living. A virtual tunnel was applied to modify the user’s upper-limb motion if it was necessary. In this paper, effective shape of the virtual tunnel which is applied in the perception-assist for upper-limb motion is proposed. Not only the position of the grasped tool but also the angle of the grasped tool are modified if it is necessary. Therefore, the upper-limb motion in daily living can be effectively modified to realize certain proper daily motion. The effectiveness of the proposed virtual tunnel was evaluated by performing the experiments.

Keywords: motion modification, power-assist robots, perception-assist, upper-limb motion

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5262 The Effect of Different Patterns of Upper, Lower and Whole Body Resistance Exercise Training on Systemic and Vascular Inflammatory Factors in Healthy Untrained Women

Authors: Leyla Sattarzadeh, Shahin Fathi Molk Kian, Maghsoud Peeri, Mohammadali Azarbaijani, Hasan Matin Homaee

Abstract:

Inflammation by various mechanisms may cause atherosclerosis. Systemic circulating inflammatory markers such as C-reactive protein (CRP), pro-inflammatory cytokines such as Interleukin-6 (IL-6), vascular inflammatory markers as adhesion molecules like Intracellular Adhesion Molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 (VCAM-1) are the predictors of cardiovascular diseases. Regarding the conflicting results about the effect of different patterns of resistance exercise training on these inflammatory markers, present study aimed to examine the effect of different patterns of eight week resistance exercise training on CRP, IL-6, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 levels in healthy untrained women. 56 healthy volunteered untrained female university students (aged: 21 ± 3 yr., Body Mass Index: 21.5 ± 3.5 kg/m²) were selected purposefully and divided into four groups. At the end of training protocol and after subject drop during the protocol, upper body exercise training (n=11), lower body (n=12) and whole body resistance exercise training group (n=11) completed the eight weeks of training period although the control group (n=7) did anything. Blood samples gathered pre and post-experimental period and CRP, IL-6, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 levels were evaluated using special laboratory kits, then the difference of pre and post values of each indices analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (α < 0.05). The results of one way ANOVA for difference of pre and post values of CRP, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 showed no significant changes due to the exercise training, but there were significant differences between groups about IL-6. Tukey post- hoc test indicated that there is significant difference between the differences of pre and post values of IL-6 between lower body exercise training group and control group, and eight weeks of lower body exercise training lead to significant changes in IL-6 values. There were no changes in anthropometric indices. The findings show that the different patterns of upper, lower and whole body exercise training by involving the different amounts of muscles altered the IL-6 values in lower body exercise training group probably because of engaging the bigger amount of muscles, but showed any significant changes about CRP, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 probably due to intensity and duration of exercise or the lower levels of these markers at baseline of healthy people.

Keywords: resistance training, C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, intracellular adhesion molecule-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1

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5261 Comparison of Cardiovascular and Metabolic Responses Following In-Water and On-Land Jump in Postmenopausal Women

Authors: Kuei-Yu Chien, Nai-Wen Kan, Wan-Chun Wu, Guo-Dong Ma, Shu-Chen Chen

Abstract:

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the responses of systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), heart rate (HR), rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and lactate following continued high-intensity interval exercise in water and on land. The results of studies can be an exercise program design reference for health care and fitness professionals. Method: A total of 20 volunteer postmenopausal women was included in this study. The inclusion criteria were: duration of menopause > 1 year; and sedentary lifestyle, defined as engaging in moderate-intensity exercise less than three times per week, or less than 20 minutes per day. Participants need to visit experimental place three times. The first time visiting, body composition was performed and participant filled out the questionnaire. Participants were assigned randomly to the exercise environment (water or land) in second and third time visiting. Water exercise testing was under water of trochanter level. In continuing jump testing, each movement consisted 10-second maximum volunteer jump for two sets. 50% heart rate reserve dynamic resting (walking or running) for one minute was within each set. SBP, DBP, HR, RPE of whole body/thigh (RPEW/RPET) and lactate were performed at pre and post testing. HR, RPEW, and RPET were monitored after 1, 2, and 10 min of exercise testing. SBP and DBP were performed after 10 and 30 min of exercise testing. Results: The responses of SBP and DBP after exercise testing in water were higher than those on land. Lactate levels after exercise testing in water were lower than those on land. The responses of RPET were lower than those on land post exercise 1 and 2 minutes. The heart rate recovery in water was faster than those on land at post exercise 5 minutes. Conclusion: This study showed water interval jump exercise induces higher cardiovascular responses with lower RPE responses and lactate levels than on-land jumps exercise in postmenopausal women. Fatigue is one of the major reasons to obstruct exercise behavior. Jump exercise could enhance cardiorespiratory fitness, the lower-extremity power, strength, and bone mass. There are several health benefits to the middle to older adults. This study showed that water interval jumping could be more relaxed and not tried to reach the same land-based cardiorespiratory exercise intensity.

Keywords: interval exercise, power, recovery, fatigue

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5260 Phantom Phenomena in Subjects after Limb Amutation Who Regularly Practice High Intensity Sports

Authors: Jolanta Uszko, Tomasz Wloch, Aneta Pirowska, Roman Nowobilski

Abstract:

Introduction: Phantom phenomena are often reported by subjects who have undergone limb amputation. Mostly, patients feel the amputated part of the limb as if it was still attached to the body. Two types of phantom phenomena: painless (phantom sensation) and painful (phantom pain) were described. Triggers of phantom sensations and phantom pain, as well as fully effective treatment, have not been clearly described yet. Purpose: To assess the influence of psychosocial factors and some clinical conditions on the occurrence of phantom phenomena in amputee athletes. Subjects: 21 men (age: 31 years, SD = 7.5 years) after lower or upper extremity amputation, who regularly performed high-intensity sports (Amp Football Team Players) were included to the study. Method and equipment: In the research, the following method and tools were used: Questionnaire [Pirowska] adapted for athletes with disabilities, Numerical Rating Scale (NRS) - for phantom pain assessment, McGill Pain Assessment Questionnaire (short version), Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI), State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI): X-1 and X-2, shortened version of The World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOLBREFF). Results: In the study group, the lower leg amputations with traumatic etiology were predominant. Phantom sensations were present in all subjects. Half of the respondents claimed to experience phantom sensations at least once a day, paroxysmally. There was a prevalence of phantom sensations characterized as incomplete, immobile limb. Phantom pain was reported by over 85% of respondents. The nature of phantom pain was frequently described as stabbing, squeezing, shooting, pulsing, tiring. There was a significant correlation between phantom pain intensity and anxiety, quality of life, depressive tendencies, perception of phantom pain as the obstacle in daily functioning and intensity of the limb pain before amputation. Conclusions: The etiology of phantom phenomena is complex. Psychological factors seem to have a significant influence on the intensity of the phantom pain. Particular attention should be paid to patients who complain about persistent limb pain before the amputation. These are patients with an increased risk of the phantom pain of relatively high intensity.

Keywords: amputation, phantom pain, phantom sensations, adaptive sports

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5259 Effect of Oral Immonoglobulin (IgY) Ingestion on Post Exercise Muscle Soreness and Muscle Damage Markers in Females

Authors: Bert H. Jacobson, Taylor Monaghan, John Sellers

Abstract:

Intense resistance-type activity generally elicits delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) in individuals unaccustomed to such action. DOMS is a combination of contractile tissue microtrauma, osmotic pressure changes, alteration calcium regulation, and inflammation. Elevated muscle-specific enzyme creatine kinase (CK) is a marker of striated muscle damage. Avian immunoglobulin (IgY) mediates inflammation and may thereby reduce post-exercise DOMS. Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare the effect of oral IgY and placebo (Pl) on CK, serum relevels, and perceived pain following induced DOMS. Methods: Healthy college-aged females (N=16) were randomly divided into an experimental group (IgY) and a control group (PL). CK serum levels were recorded followed by 14 days of supplementation of either IgY or Pl at the following doses: days 1-2 =4.5 g, days 3-5 =9.0 g, and days 6-14 =13.5 g. Following the 14 d, lower limb DOMS was induced using two methods of resistance training. After 48 hours, subjects reported for a second blood draw. Results: One-way ANOVA resulted in the IgY group posting significantly less (p < 0.05) serum CK than the PL group. Furthermore, the IgY group experienced significantly less post-test perceived soreness than the Pl group. Conclusion: IgY supplementation lessens muscle CK levels and perceived muscle soreness following exercise, possibly due to an anti-inflammatory effect. It was suggested that IgY may serve as a buffer for DOMS thereby allowing the participant to continue vigorous exercise without discomfort.

Keywords: muscle, soreness, damage, serum

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5258 Effects of Exercise on Klotho Expression and Klotho DNA Methylation in Obese Mice

Authors: Yao Huang, Hongjie Yu, Fangrong Xu, Longbiao Cai, Qiqiang He

Abstract:

The Klotho gene has been found to be involved in cardiovascular health, and epigenetic mechanism has risen as good candidates to understand the role of lifestyle factors in obesity. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of exercise intervention on the expression and DNA methylation of Klotho gene in high-fat diet induced obese mice. C57BL/6 male mice were fed a normal diet (ND) or a high-fat diet (HFD) for 12 weeks. HFD induced obese mice were divided into secondary group (SED) and exercise group (EX) randomly. The treadmill exercise was performed in EX group for 8 weeks. The expression and DNA methylation of Klotho were evaluated by Western blot, RT-PCR, and Methylation-specific PCR. Results indicated that Klotho protein and mRNA expression were significantly lower in the SED group than those in the ND and EX groups (P<0.01), whereas no significant difference, was found between ND group and EX group (P>0.05). Furthermore, mice in the ND group and SED group showed significantly lower levels of completely methylated Klotho DNA in ND group (0%) and SED group (50%) compared with the EX group (90%), and unmethylated Klotho DNA level in ND group (80%) was significantly higher than those in the SED (0%) and EX (0%) groups. These results suggested that exercise leads to increased Klotho expression and reduced Klotho DNA methylation level in HFD induced obese mice.

Keywords: DNA methylation, exercise intervention, klotho, obese mice

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5257 Effectiveness of Imagery Compared with Exercise Training on Hip Abductor Strength and EMG Production in Healthy Adults

Authors: Majid Manawer Alenezi, Gavin Lawrence, Hans-Peter Kubis

Abstract:

Imagery training could be an important treatment for muscle function improvements in patients who are facing limitations in exercise training by pain or other adverse symptoms. However, recent studies are mostly limited to small muscle groups and are often contradictory. Moreover, a possible bilateral transfer effect of imagery training has not been examined. We, therefore, investigated the effectiveness of unilateral imagery training in comparison with exercise training on hip abductor muscle strength and EMG. Additionally, both limbs were assessed to investigate bilateral transfer effects. Healthy individuals took part in an imagery or exercise training intervention for two weeks and were assesses pre and post training. Participants (n=30), after randomization into an imagery and an exercise group, trained 5 times a week under supervision with additional self-performed training on the weekends. The training consisted of performing, or to imagine, 5 maximal isometric hip abductor contractions (= one set), repeating the set 7 times. All measurements and trainings were performed laying on the side on a dynamometer table. The imagery script combined kinesthetic and visual imagery with internal perspective for producing imagined maximal hip abduction contractions. The exercise group performed the same number of tasks but performing the maximal hip abductor contractions. Maximal hip abduction strength and EMG amplitudes were measured of right and left limbs pre- and post-training period. Additionally, handgrip strength and right shoulder abduction (Strength and EMG) were measured. Using mixed model ANOVA (strength measures) and Wilcoxen-tests (EMGs), data revealed a significant increase in hip abductor strength production in the imagery group on the trained right limb (~6%). However, this was not reported for the exercise group. Additionally, the left hip abduction strength (not used for training) did not show a main effect in strength, however, there was a significant interaction of group and time revealing that the strength increased in the imagery group while it remained constant in the exercise group. EMG recordings supported the strength findings showing significant elevation of EMG amplitudes after imagery training on right and left side, while the exercise training group did not show any changes. Moreover, measures of handgrip strength and shoulder abduction showed no effects over time and no interactions in both groups. Experiments showed that imagery training is a suitable method for effectively increasing functional parameters of larger limb muscles (strength and EMG) which were enhanced on both sides (trained and untrained) confirming a bilateral transfer effect. Indeed, exercise training did not reveal any increases in the parameters above omitting functional improvements. The healthy individuals tested might not easily achieve benefits from exercise training within the time tested. However, it is evident that imagery training is effective in increasing the central motor command towards the muscles and that the effect seems to be segmental (no increase in handgrip strength and shoulder abduction parameters) and affects both sides (trained and untrained). In conclusion, imagery training was effective in functional improvements in limb muscles and produced a bilateral transfer on strength and EMG measures.

Keywords: imagery, exercise, physiotherapy, motor imagery

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