Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 901

Search results for: bridging exercise

901 Comparison of Trunk and Hip Muscle Activities and Anterior Pelvic Tilt Angle during Three Different Bridging Exercises in Subjects with Chronic Low Back Pain

Authors: Da-Eun Kim, Heon-Seock Cynn, Sil-Ah Choi, A-Reum Shin

Abstract:

Bridging exercise in supine position with the hips and knees flexed have been commonly performed as one of the therapeutic exercises and is a comfortable and pain-free position to most individuals with chronic low back pain (CLBP). Many previous studies have investigated the beneficial way of performing bridging exercises to improve activation of abdominal and gluteal muscle and reduce muscle activity of hamstrings (HAM) and erector spinae (ES) and compensatory lumbopelvic motion. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of three different bridging exercises on the HAM, ES, gluteus maximus (Gmax), gluteus medius (Gmed), and transverse abdominis/internal abdominis oblique (TrA/IO) activities and anterior pelvic tilt angle in subjects with CLBP. Seventeen subjects with CLBP participated in this study. They performed bridging under three different conditions (with 30° hip abduction, isometric hip abduction, and isometric hip adduction). Surface electromyography was used to measure muscle activity, and the ImageJ software was used to calculate anterior pelvic tilt angle. One-way repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to assess the statistical significance of the measured variables. HAM activity was significantly lower in bridging with 30° hip abduction and isometric hip abduction than in bridging with isometric hip adduction. Gmax and Gmed activities were significantly greater in bridging with isometric hip abduction than in bridging with 30° hip abduction and isometric hip adduction. TrA/IO muscle activity was significantly greater and anterior pelvic tilt angle was significantly lower in bridging with isometric hip adduction than in bridging with 30° hip abduction and isometric hip abduction. Bridging with isometric hip abduction using Thera-Band can effectively reduce HAM activity, and increase Gmax and Gmed activities in subjects with CLBP. Bridging with isometric hip adduction using a pressure biofeedback unit can be a beneficial exercise to improve TrA/IO activity and minimize anterior pelvic tilt in subjects with CLBP.

Keywords: bridging exercise, electromyography, low back pain, lower limb exercise

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900 Study of the Toughening by Crack Bridging in Mullite Alumina Zirconia Ceramics

Authors: F. Gheldane, S. Bouras

Abstract:

Crack propagation behaviour of alumina mullite zirconia ceramic is investigated under monotonic and cyclic loading by means SENB bending method. This material show R-curve effects, i.e. an increase in crack growth resistance with increasing crack depth. The morphological study showed that the resistance of the crack propagation is mainly connected to the crack bridging. The value of bridging stress is in good agreement with the literature. Furthermore, cyclic-loading fatigue is caused by a decrease in the stress-shielding effect, due to degradation of bridging sites under cyclic loading.

Keywords: alumina mullite zirconia, R-curve, bridging, toughening, crack

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899 Bridging the Gap: Gender Equity in Nigerian Science Education

Authors: Onyia Comfort Ngozi, Iketaku Ifeoma Roseline

Abstract:

Inspite of the laudable goals and objectives in education, Nigerian women, still face a lot of challenges that hinder the personal and national development. There are unbalances between males and females at all levels of the science education sector in Nigeria. Educate a woman, and you educate a nation, and if you educate a man, you educate an individual. It is on this note that the paper focuses on bridging the gender gap as it concerns science education in Nigeria. Suggestions were made as measures of bridging the gender gap in Nigerian education sector. The researchers concluded that achieving gender equality will promote greater equality in employment, help postpone early marriages, reduce infant mortality rates and improve health and education for a future generation. Thus, the paper recommended that government should involve women in policy making to take care of any gender issue and bias that may be included either consciously or not, during formulation stage.

Keywords: education, gender, science education, women, equality

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898 The Relationship between Exercise Attitude and Performance with Self-Image in Elderly Men in Iran

Authors: Hadis Mahmoodsalehi, Elham Shakoor, Maryam Koushkie Jahromi

Abstract:

Background and aims: Given the importance of health promotion in elderly and attention to health factors including physical activity and self-image reinforcing, this study aimed to investigate the relationship between exercise attitude and performance with self-image concept in elderly men. Methods: In this descriptive–correlational study, 50 different daily exercise activities of the elderly men living in Iran (mean age: 60.94 years) were selected through simple sampling method. Participants completed a questionnaire regarding exercise attitude and performance and Beck self-image concept. Pearson correlation test was used for analysis of the data. Results: The results showed the significant correlation between optimism and exercise performance (p = 0.012) and exercise attitude (p = 0.005). Conclusion: Findings show that exercise performance and attitude are associated positively with optimism in elderly women. So, increasing exercise or improving attitude toward exercise can lead to improving optimism.

Keywords: elderly, exercise performance and attitude, self-image, descriptive–correlational study

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897 The Relation Between Social Capital and Trust with Social Network Analysis (SNA)

Authors: Safak Baykal

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is analyzing the relationship between self leadership and social capital of people with using Social Network Analysis. In this study, two aspects of social capital will be focused: bonding, homophilous social capital (BoSC) which implies better, strong, dense or closed network ties, and bridging, heterophilous social capital (BrSC) which implies weak ties, bridging the structural holes. The other concept of the study is Trust (Tr), namely interpersonal trust, willingness to ascribe good intentions to and have confidence in the words and actions of other people. In this study, the sample group, 61 people, was selected from a private firm from the defense industry. The relation between BoSC/BrSC and Tr is shown by using Social Network Analysis (SNA) and statistical analysis with Likert type-questionnaire. The results of the analysis show the Cronbach’s alpha value is 0.73 and social capital values (BoSC/BrSC) is highly correlated with Tr values of the people.

Keywords: bonding social capital, bridging social capital, trust, social network analysis (SNA)

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896 Electromyography Activity of the Lower Limb Muscles during Prostration and Squat Exercise

Authors: M. K. Mohd Safee, W. A. B. Wan Abas, F. Ibrahim, N. A. Abu Osman, N. A. Abdul Malik

Abstract:

This paper investigates the activity of the rectus femoris (RF) and biceps femoris (BF) in healthy subjects during salat (prostration) and specific exercise (squat exercise) using electromyography (EMG). A group of undergraduates aged between 19 to 25 years voluntarily participated in this study. The myoelectric activity of the muscles were recorded and analyzed. The finding indicated that there were contractions of the muscles during the salat and exercise with almost same EMG’s level. From the result, Wilcoxon’s Rank Sum test showed significant difference between prostration and squat exercise (p < 0.05) but the differences was very small; RF (8.63% MVC) and BF (11.43% MVC). Therefore, salat may be useful in strengthening exercise and also in rehabilitation programs for lower limb activities. This pilot study conducted initial research into the bio mechanical responses of human muscles in various positions of salat.

Keywords: electromyography, exercise, muscle, salat

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895 Predictive Factors of Exercise Behaviors of Junior High School Students in Chonburi Province

Authors: Tanida Julvanichpong

Abstract:

Exercise has been regarded as a necessary and important aspect to enhance physical performance and psychology health. Body weight statistics of students in junior high school students in Chonburi Province beyond a standard risk of obesity. Promoting exercise among Junior high school students in Chonburi Province, essential knowledge concerning factors influencing exercise is needed. Therefore, this study aims to (1) determine the levels of perceived exercise behavior, exercise behavior in the past, perceived barriers to exercise, perceived benefits of exercise, perceived self-efficacy to exercise, feelings associated with exercise behavior, influence of the family to exercise, influence of friends to exercise, and the perceived influence of the environment on exercise. (2) examine the predicting ability of each of the above factors while including personal factors (sex, educational level) for exercise behavior. Pender’s Health Promotion Model was used as a guide for the study. Sample included 652 students in junior high schools, Chonburi Provience. The samples were selected by Multi-Stage Random Sampling. Data Collection has been done by using self-administered questionnaires. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Pearson’s product moment correlation coefficient, Eta, and stepwise multiple regression analysis. The research results showed that: 1. Perceived benefits of exercise, influence of teacher, influence of environmental, feelings associated with exercise behavior were at a high level. Influence of the family to exercise, exercise behavior, exercise behavior in the past, perceived self-efficacy to exercise and influence of friends were at a moderate level. Perceived barriers to exercise were at a low level. 2. Exercise behavior was positively significant related to perceived benefits of exercise, influence of the family to exercise, exercise behavior in the past, perceived self-efficacy to exercise, influence of friends, influence of teacher, influence of environmental and feelings associated with exercise behavior (p < .01, respectively) and was negatively significant related to educational level and perceived barriers to exercise (p < .01, respectively). Exercise behavior was significant related to sex (Eta = 0.243, p=.000). 3. Exercise behavior in the past, influence of the family to exercise significantly contributed 60.10 percent of the variance to the prediction of exercise behavior in male students (p < .01). Exercise behavior in the past, perceived self-efficacy to exercise, perceived barriers to exercise, and educational level significantly contributed 52.60 percent of the variance to the prediction of exercise behavior in female students (p < .01).

Keywords: predictive factors, exercise behaviors, Junior high school, Chonburi Province

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894 Descriptive Study of Role Played by Exercise and Diet on Brain Plasticity

Authors: Mridul Sharma, Praveen Saroha

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In today's world, everyone has become so busy in their to-do tasks and daily routine that they tend to ignore some of the basal components of our life, including exercise and diet. This comparative study analyzes the pathways of the relationship between exercise and brain plasticity and also includes another variable diet to study the effects of diet on learning by answering questions including which diet is known to be the best learning supporter and what are the recommended quantities of the same. Further, this study looks into inter-relation between diet and exercise, and also some other approach of the relation between diet and exercise on learning apart from through Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF).

Keywords: brain derived neurotrophic factor, brain plasticity, diet, exercise

Procedia PDF Downloads 58
893 Electromyography Activity of the Rectus Femoris and Biceps Femoris Muscles during Prostration and Squat Exercise

Authors: M. K. Mohd Safee, W. A. B. Wan Abas, F. Ibrahim, N. A. Abu Osman, N. A Abdul Malik

Abstract:

This paper investigates the activity of the rectus femoris (RF) and biceps femoris (BF) in healthy subjects during salat (prostration) and specific exercise (squat exercise) using electromyography (EMG). A group of undergraduates aged between 19 to 25 years voluntarily participated in this study. The myoelectric activity of the muscles were recorded and analyzed. The finding indicated that there were contractions of the muscles during the salat and exercise with almost same EMG’s level. From the result, Wilcoxon’s Rank Sum test showed significant difference between prostration and squat exercise (p<0.05) but the differences was very small; RF (8.63%MVC) and BF (11.43%MVC). Therefore, salat may be useful in strengthening exercise and also in rehabilitation programs for lower limb activities. This pilot study conducted initial research into the biomechanical responses of human muscles in various positions of salat.

Keywords: electromyography, exercise, muscle, salat

Procedia PDF Downloads 573
892 Social Media Use and Exercise Behaviors

Authors: Justin M. Swanson, Anna Nelson, Daniel Handysides, Patti Herring, Christopher Hill

Abstract:

Not only may social media use have a psychological impact, but increased use may be tied to decreases in physical activity and influencing sedentary behaviors. Social media can be used to share physically active lifestyles and possibly influence others to participate. In contrast, social media use may have adverse effects by decreasing participation in exercise. This study used a qualitative design to examine the relationship between social media use and exercise patterns. Participants were asked questions about their social media habits and how it might impact their physical activity behaviors. Self-reported exercise seemed to increase after viewing others engage in relatable activities or viewing someone that has overcame challenges. To increase the likelihood of engaging in exercise, exercise related posts should be low in difficulty, require few materials, or displayed progress from the individual posting.

Keywords: social media, exercise, physical activity, adults

Procedia PDF Downloads 102
891 Relationship between Exercise Activity with Incidence of Overweight-Obesity in Medical Students

Authors: Randy M. Fitratullah, Afriwardi, Nurhayati

Abstract:

Overweight-obesity caused by exercise. The objective of this research is to analyze the relation between exercise with the incidence of overweight-obesity of medical students of medical faculty of Andalas Univesity batch 2013. This is an analytical observational research with case-control method. This research conducted in FK Unand on September-October 2015. The population of this research is medical students batch 2013. 26 samples (13 samples were case, 13 samples were control) were taken by purposive sampling technique and analysed using statistical univariate and bivariate analysis. Exercise questionnaire was used as research instruments. Based on the interview with questionnaire, anaerobic exercise was majority in case group and aerobic exercise was majority in control group. The case and control group have a rare category in exercise. Less category was majority in exercise duration of case and enough category was majority in control group. Bivariate analysis is using chi-square test with cell combining to 2x2 table, obtained p-value=0.097 in sort of exercise, p-value=1,000 in the frequency of exercise, and p-value=0,112 in duration of exercise, which means statistically unsignificant. There is no relation between exercise with the incidence of overweight-obesity of medical students of FK Unand batch 2013. For medical students suffers overweight-obesity is suggested for increase the frequency of exercise.

Keywords: overweight-obesity, exercise, aerobic, anaerobic, frequency, duration

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890 Comparing Effects of Supervised Exercise Therapy versus Home-Based Exercise Therapy on Low Back Pain Severity, Muscle Strength and Anthropometric Parameters in Patients with Nonspecific Chronic Low Back Pain

Authors: Haleh Dadgostar, Faramarz Akbari, Hosien Vahid Tari, Masoud Solaymani-Dodaran, Mohammad Razi

Abstract:

Introduction: There are a number of exercises-protocols have been applied to improve low back pain. We compared the effect of supervised exercise therapy and home-based exercise therapy among patients with nonspecific chronic low back pain. Methods: 70 patients with nonspecific chronic low back pain were randomly (using a random number generator, excel) divided into two groups to compare the effects of two types of exercise therapy. After a common educational session to learn how to live with low back pain as well as to use core training protocols to strengthen the muscles, the subjects were randomly assigned to follow supervised exercise therapy (n = 31) or home-based exercise therapy (n = 34) for 20 weeks. Results: Although both types of exercise programs resulted in reduced pain, this factor decreased more significantly in supervised exercise program. All scores of fitness improved significantly in supervised exercise group. But only knee extensor strength score was increased in the home base exercise group. Conclusion: Comparing between two types of exercise, supervised group exercise showed more effective than the other one. Reduction in low back pain severity and improvement in muscle flexibility and strength can be more achieved by using a 20-week supervised exercise program compared to the home-based exercise program in patients with nonspecific chronic low back pain.

Keywords: low back pain, anthropometric parameters, supervised exercise therapy, home-based exercise therapy

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889 Sexually Dimorphic Effects of Chronic Exercise and Myocytic Androgen Receptor Overexpression on Body Composition in Sprague dawley Rats

Authors: Sabrina Barsky, Ashley Monks

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In humans, exercise improves symptoms of various pathological states, although exercise adaptations seem to differ in response to sex. Skeletal muscle anabolism is thought to be regulated by androgen receptor (AR) through poorly specified mechanisms. Interactions of AR and exercise on muscle phenotype remain inconclusive in males, and undetermined in females. We hypothesized that sex differences in exercise adaptations are regulated by the androgenic system and the type of exercise performed. Here we examined interactions between a muscle-specific AR overexpression transgene (HSA-AR) and forced aerobic exercise paradigm on muscle and adipose exercise adaptation in male and female rats. We used dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) to examine body composition adaptations post 9-week exercise protocol. We replicated the effects of HSA-AR on body composition, with males only having increased % lean mass and reduced % fat mass (P<0.05). Aerobic exercise improved lean body phenotype significantly, with lesser indices of total and % fat mass (P<0.01) in both sexes. Sex-specific effects of exercise included decreased total body mass (P<0.01) in males and increased lean mass % (P<0.001) in females. Surprisingly, neither AR manipulation nor exercise affected bone parameters in either sex. This varied response in total mass and lean mass according to exercise presents a sexually dimorphic response to exercise. Neither sex showed an interaction between HSA-AR and forced aerobic exercise on body composition. Future work is proposed to examine the effects of exercise type (aerobic versus resistance) and the role of gonadal androgens in sexually dimorphic exercise-mediated mitochondrial adaptations. This work implicates the development of sex-specific exercise therapies.

Keywords: androgen receptor, forced exercise, muscle physiology, sexual dimorphism

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888 The Effects of Passive and Active Recoveries on Responses of Platelet Indices and Hemodynamic Variables to Resistance Exercise

Authors: Mohammad Soltani, Sajad Ahmadizad, Fatemeh Hoseinzadeh, Atefe Sarvestan

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The exercise recovery is an important variable in designing resistance exercise training. This study determined the effects of passive and active recoveries on responses of platelet indices and hemodynamic variables to resistance exercise. Twelve healthy subjects (six men and six women, age, 25.4 ±2.5 yrs) performed two types of resistance exercise protocols (six exercises including upper- and lower-body parts) at two separate sessions with one-week intervening. First resistance protocol included three sets of six repetitions at 80% of 1RM with 2 min passive rest between sets and exercises; while, the second protocol included three sets of six repetitions at 60% of 1RM followed by active recovery included six repetitions of the same exercise at 20% of 1RM. The exercise volume was equalized. Three blood samples were taken before exercise, immediately after exercise and after 1-hour recovery, and analyzed for fibrinogen and platelet indices. Blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR) and rate pressure product (RPP), were measured before, immediately after exercise and every 5 minutes during recovery. Data analyzes showed a significant increase in SBP (systolic blood pressure), HR, rate of pressure product (RPP) and PLT in response to resistance exercise (P<0.05) and that changes for HR and RPP were significantly different between two protocols (P<0.05). Furthermore, MPV and P_LCR did not change in response to resistance exercise, though significant reductions were observed after 1h recovery compared to before and after exercise (P<0.05). No significant changes in fibrinogen and PDW following two types of resistance exercise protocols were observed (P>0.05). On the other hand, no significant differences in platelet indices were found between the two protocols (P>0.05). Resistance exercise induces changes in platelet indices and hemodynamic variables, and that these changes are not related to the type of recovery and returned to normal levels after 1h recovery.

Keywords: hemodynamic variables, platelet indices, resistance exercise, recovery intensity

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887 Motivational Qualities of and Flow State Responses to Participant-Selected Music and Researcher-Selected Music

Authors: Nurul A. Hamzah, Tony Morris, Dan Van Der Westhuizen

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Music listening can potentially promote the achievement of flow state during exercise. Selecting music for exercise should consider the motivational factors-internal factors (music tempo and musicality) and external factors (cultural impact and association). This study was a cross-over study which was designed to examine the motivational qualities of music (participant-selected music and researcher-selected music) and flow state responses during exercise accompanying with music. 17 healthy participants (M=30.2, SD=6.3 years old) were among low physical activity individuals. Participants completed two separate sessions of 30 minutes of moderate intensity exercise (40-60% of Heart Rate Reserve) while listening to music. Half the participants at random were assigned to exercise with participant-selected music first, and half were assigned to exercise with researcher-selected music first. Parameters including flow state responses (Flow State Scale-2) and motivational music rating (Brunel Music Rating Inventory-2) were administered immediately after the exercise. Results from this study showed that there were no significant differences for both flow state t(32)=0.00, p>0.05 and motivational music rating t(32)= .393, p>0.05 between exercise with participant-selected music and exercise with researcher-selected music. Listening to music either participant or researcher selected music could promote flow experience during exercise when music is perceived as motivational. Music tempo and music preference are factors that could influence individuals to enjoy exercise and improve the exercise performance.

Keywords: motivational music, flow state, researcher-selected music, participant-selected music

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886 Bridging Biomedical Engineering Bachelor's Degree Programs in Saudi Arabia: A Study Case of Riyadh College of Technology

Authors: Hamad Albadr

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With a rapid influence to sustain the needs for global trends that had arisen for the increasing complexities in health-care provision, the increasing number of health professionals at different levels, and the need to assure more equitable access to health care, the great variation in the levels of initial education for health care professional around the world had been assign bachelor's degree as the minimum point of entry to the health professions. This intent had affected all the health care professions including biomedical engineering. In Saudi Arabia, these challenges add more pressure to retain the global trends for associate degree graduates to upgrade their education to the bachelor's degree or called birding. This paper is to review the reality of biomedical technology programs that offered in Saudi Arabia by Technical Colleges or Community Colleges nationwide and the challenges that face these colleges to run such bridging program to achieve the Bachelor's degree in biomedical engineering and the official requirements by the Ministry of Higher Education and to maintain the international standards. The author will use strategic planning methodology for designing the biomedical engineering bridging of bachelor's program by reviewing the responsibilities of the biomedical engineers in hospitals through their job descriptions to determine the job assessment needs in advance to Developing a Curriculum (DACUM) through Instructional System Design (ISD) approach via five steps: Analysis, Design, Development, Implement, Evaluate (ADDIE).

Keywords: bachelor's degree bridging, biomedical engineering program, Saudi Arabia, Riyadh College of Technology

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885 The Role of Bridging Stakeholder in Water Management: Examining Social Networks in Working Groups and Co-Management

Authors: Fariba Ebrahimi, Mehdi Ghorbani

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Comprehensive water management considers economic, environmental, technical and social sustainability of water resources for future generations. Integrated water management implies cooperative approach and involves all stakeholders and also introduces issues to managers and decision makers. Solving these issues needs integrated and system approach according to the recognition of actors or key persons in necessary to apply cooperative management of water resources. Therefore, social network analysis can be used to demonstrate the most effective actors for environmental base decisions. The linkage of diverse sets of actors and knowledge systems across management levels and institutional boundaries often poses one of the greatest challenges in adaptive water management. Bridging stakeholder can facilitate interactions among actors in management settings by lowering the transaction costs of collaboration. This research examines how network connections between group members affect in co- management. Cohesive network structures allow groups to more effectively achieve their goals and objectives Strong; centralized leadership is a better predictor of working group success in achieving goals and objectives. Finally, geometric position of each actor was illustrated in the network. The results of the research based on between centrality index have a key and bridging actor in recognition of cooperative management of water resources in Darbandsar village and also will help managers and planners of water in the case of recognition to organization and implementation of sustainable management of water resources and water security.

Keywords: co-management, water management, social network, bridging stakeholder, darbandsar village

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884 Comparing the Effect of Exercise Time (Morning and Evening) on Troponin T in Males with Cardiovascular Disease

Authors: Amin Mehrabi, Mohsen Salesi, Pourya Pasavand

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Context and objective: The purpose of this research is to study the effect of exercise time (morning/evening) on amount of Troponin T in males' plasma suffering from cardiovascular disease. Method: 15 cardiovascular patients selected as the research subjects. At 7 a.m. pretest blood samples taken from the subjects and they did the exercise protocol in presence of a doctor. Immediately after and 3 hours after that blood measurements done. A week later, the subjects did the same steps at 7 p.m. The SPSS v.20 software used to analyze data. Findings: This study proved that circadian rhythm does not have any effect on the response of myocarditis tissue to exercise and cardiovascular patients allowed to exercise in any times of a day.

Keywords: cardiovascular disease, time of exercise, troponin T (cTnT), myocarditis

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883 The Writing Eight Exercise and Its Impact on Kindergartners

Authors: Karima Merchant

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The aim of this study was to analyze the impact of the Writing Eight Exercise, an exercise from the Brain Integration Therapy, with Kindergartners who are struggling with writing tasks in school. With the help of this exercise, children were able to cross the midline, an invisible line running from our brain to our feet, which separates the body’s right from left. Crossing the midline integrates the brain hemispheres, thus encouraging bilateral movement. The study was spread over 15 weeks where the children were required to do the Writing Eight Exercise 4 times a week. The data collection methods included observations, student work samples and feedback from teachers and parents. Based on the results of this study, it can be concluded that the Writing Eight Exercise had a positive impact on students’ approach towards writing tasks, letter formation, and fine motor skills.

Keywords: crossing the midline, fine motor skills, letter formation, writing

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882 Eight-Week Exercise for Women: Impact on Anomalies in Width Depth and Environmental Dimension

Authors: Yalcin Kaya, Fatma Arslan, Ahmet Selim Kaya

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This study aimed to determine the undesirable hypertrophic anomalies in the body of females and to investigate how they can be affected by the exercise program according to the applied 8 week individual conditions. The research was carried out on 35 women who did not have any regular previous sports practice and had an approximate age of 30 ± 5.0 at the gymnasium because of their asymmetric structure and weight gain of the body. Measurements of width, depth, and periphery were taken from the participants' body, and the exercise protocol was applied for 8 weeks according to the individual measurements in accordance with the obtained measurements. After 8 weeks, the same measurements were applied again. Measurements were made by using ruler and paper tape. The findings were evaluated and differences were analyzed by paired sample t test. According to the findings obtained, ulnae distal proiecturas width averages were 44.77 ± 3.65 and 43.52 ± 3.47 pre- and post-exercise respectively. Bithorachanteric width averages were 29.3 ± 3.12 before exercise and 26.67 ± 3.27 after exercise. Average abdominal widths were observed as 18.64 ± 4.14 (before exercise) and 18.01 ± 6.27 (after exercise). The distances between the malleolus were measured as 16.98 ± 1.62 (before exercise) and 16.70 ± 1.64 (after exercise). The results were statistically significant (p < 0.05). The mean of pre-exercise Externus abdominis circumference was 93.97 ± 8.91, and the mean of post-exercise mean was 90.82 ± 8.24. The results are statistically significant (p < 0.05). In conclusion, findings of the study show that inactivity, daily uncontrolled activities or erroneous postural postures, malnutrition cause some anomalies in the human body. However, with consciously standardized and regular exercises, these abnormalities are reduced by an eight-week exercise protocol in parallel with the expulsion of excess kilos and can be removed when working much longer and fitter, it is proposed to be healthier and more beautiful in appearance.

Keywords: women, body, circumference-width and depth measurements, hypertrophy, exercise

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881 Attitude and Perception of Multiple Sclerosis Patients toward Exercise

Authors: Ali Fuad Ashour

Abstract:

Introduction: Contrary to the common belief that physical training for multiple sclerosis (MS) patients might exacerbate fatigue and provoke other symptoms of the illness, it is now widely accepted that exercise can be actually beneficial in terms of activities of daily living, reduced fatigue, and improved quality of life. The aim of this study was to assess the attitude of MS patients toward exercise. Methodology: 112 MS patients who were recruited from the local community participated in this study. We utilised a self-developed questionnaire targeting attitudes and perceptions of MS patients towards physical exercise. The questionnaire was piloted and tested for validity and reliability. Results: Before being diagnosed with MS, 49.9% of our MS patients’ respondents used to engage in different types of physical activities and sports, namely aerobics/walking (35.3%), stretching exercise (18.7%), and strengthening exercise (11.4%). After being diagnosed with MS, 40.8% of our sample showed determination to remain physically active. The interest in sports activities was consistent after the diagnoses with MS and included aerobics/walking (33.8%), stretching exercise (22.6%), and strengthening exercise (19.7%). Discussion: The Kuwaiti respondents thought that lack of encouragement was the main reason for them not exercise. Aptly put, if they try to exercise, they will be discouraged by the loved ones lest the worse happens. On the other side, British patients are generally aware of the benefits of physical and mental health-promoting activities; they can seek help from a wide range of professionals and are more actively involved in the management of their condition. It is therefore important that the benefits of physical activity are promoted among MS patients, and that attitude towards MS and MS patients is changed through education.

Keywords: perception, multiple sclerosis, exercise, physical training

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880 Using Photo-Elicitation to Explore the Cosmology of Personal Training

Authors: John Gray, Andy Smith, Hazel James

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With the introduction of projects such as GP referral and other medical exercise schemes, there has been a shift in the cosmology underpinning exercise leadership. That is, the knowledge base of exercise leaders, specifically personal trainers, has moved from a cosmology based on aesthetic and physical fitness demands to one requiring interaction with the dominant biomedical model underpinning contemporary medicine. In line with this shift research has demonstrated that personal trainer education has aligned itself to a biotechnological model. However, whilst there is a need to examine exercise as medicine, and consider the role of personal trainers as prescribers of these interventions, the possible issues surrounding the growing medicalization of the exercise cosmology have not been explored. Using a phenomenological methodology, and the novel approach of photo-elicitation, this research examined the practices of successful personal trainers. The findings highlight that a growing focus on an iatro-biological based scientific process of exercise prescription may prove problematical. Through the development of a model of practitioner-based knowledge, it is argued there is a possible growing disconnection between the theoretical basis of exercise science and the working cosmology of exercise practitioners.

Keywords: biomedicine, cosmology, personal training, photo-elicitation

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879 Systolic Blood Pressure Responses to Aerobic Exercise among HIV Positive Patients

Authors: Ka'abu Mu'azu

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The study examines the effect of varied intensities of aerobic exercise on Systolic Blood Pressure (SBP) among HIV/AIDS positive patients. Participants of mean age of 20.4 years were randomized into four groups. High Intensity Group (HIG), Moderate Intensity Group (MIG), Low Intensity Group (LIG) and Control Group (COG). SBP was measured at baseline (pre-exercise) and post-exercise (8 weeks). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) indicates a significant training effect on resting values of SBP (F [3, 15] = 8.9, P < 0.05). Sheffe post hoc analysis indicated that both HIG and MIG significantly differ from control (P < 0.05). Dependent t- test indicates difference in HIG (t [7] = 6.5, P < 0.05) and slightly in MIG (t [7] = 5.4, P < 0.05). The study concluded that aerobic exercise is effective in reducing resting values of SBP particularly the activities that are high intensity in nature. The study recommends that high and moderate intensity aerobic exercise should be used for improving health condition of HIV/AIDS patients as regard to decrease in resting value of SBP.

Keywords: systolic blood pressure, aerobic exercise, HIV patients, health sciences

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878 L-Carnitine Supplementation and Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage

Authors: B. Nakhostin-Roohi, F. Khoshkhahesh, KH. Parandak, R. Ramazanzadeh

Abstract:

Introduction: The protective effect of antioxidants in diminishing the post-exercise rise of serum CK and LDH in individuals trained for competitive sports has come to light in recent years. This study was conducted to assess the effect of Two-week L-carnitine supplementation on exercise-induced muscle damage, as well as antioxidant capacity after a bout of strenuous exercise in active healthy young men. Methodology: Twenty active healthy men volunteered for this study. Participants were randomized in a double-blind placebo-controlled fashion into two groups: L-carnitine (C group; n = 10) and placebo group (P group; n = 10). The participants took supplementation (2000 mg L-carnitine) or placebo (2000 mg lactose) daily for 2weeks before the main trial. Then, participants ran 14 km. Blood samples were taken before supplementation, before exercise, immediately, 2h and 24h after exercise. Creatine kinase (CK), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were measured. Results: Serum CK and LDH significantly increased after exercise in both groups (p < 0.05). Serum LDH was significantly lower in C group than P group 2h and 24h after exercise (p < 0.05). Furthermore, CK was significantly lower in C group compared with P group just 24h after exercise (p < 0.05). Plasma TAC increased significantly 14 days after supplementation and 24h after exercise in C group compared with P group (p < 0.05). Discussion and conclusion: These results suggest two-week daily oral supplementation of L-carnitine has been able to promote antioxidant capacity before and after exercise and decrease muscle damage markers through possibly inhibition of exercise-induced oxidative stress.

Keywords: L-carnitine, muscle damage, creatine kinase, Lactate dehydrogenase

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877 Effects of Resistance Exercise Training on Blood Profile and CRP in Men with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Authors: Mohsen Salesi, Seyyed Zoheir Rabei

Abstract:

Exercise has been considered a cornerstone of diabetes prevention and treatment for decades, but the benefits of resistance training are less clear. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of resistance training on blood profile and inflammatory marker (CRP) of type 2 diabetes mellitus people. Thirty diabetic male were recruited (age: 50.34±10.28 years) and randomly assigned to 8 weeks resistance exercise training (n=15) and control groups (n=15). Before and after training blood pressure, weight, lipid profile (TC, TG, LDL-c, and HDL-c) and hs-CRP were measured. The resistance exercise training group took part in supervised 50–80 minutes resistance training sessions, three days a week on non-consecutive days for 8 weeks. Each exercise session included approximately 10 min of warm-up and cool-down periods. Results showed that TG significantly decreased (pre 210.19±9.31 vs. 101.12±7.25, p=0.03) and HDL-c significantly increased (pre 42.37±3.15 vs. 47.50±2.19, p=0.01) after exercise training. However, there was no difference between groups in TC, LDL-c, BMI and weight. In addition, a decrease in fasting blood glucose levels showed significant difference between groups (pre 144.65±5.73 vs. 124.21±6.48 p=0.04). Regular resistance exercise training can improve the lipid profile and reducing the cardiovascular risk factors in T2DM patients.

Keywords: lipid profile, resistance exercise, type 2 diabetes mellitus, men

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876 Sport and Exercise Behavior of Students in Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University

Authors: Pimporn Thongmuang

Abstract:

The purpose of this research is to study sport and exercise behavior of students in Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University in September of 2012. The sample group used in this research was a group of regular students in undergraduate school enrolled in faculty of science and technology. This sample group consisted of 1,858 students. The research tool used to collect result was the checklist. The data was calculated by statistical percentage. From the research, it was discovered that most students did exercise in previous month. 71.6% of students exercised by running. 61.1% of students exercised in their neighborhood. 60.4% of students exercised in order to keep fit. 60.2% of students agreed that the result from this research can be educational and inspirational for students in campus in terms of living healthily by exercise.

Keywords: exercise behavior, sport behavior, students, health

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875 The Correlation between of Medicine and Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome (POTS)

Authors: Dian Ariyawati, Romi Sukoco, Sinung Agung Joko

Abstract:

Background: Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome (POTS) is a form of orthostatic intolerance caused by autonomic dysfunction. POTS predominantly occurs in young women. Regular exercise has proven to improve the organ system functions, including autonomous systems. The aim of this research was to determine the correlation between exercise frequency and POTS in young women. Method: 510 young women (16-23 years of age) were screened. They were obtained by interview and physical examination. The diagnosis of POTS was performed with Active Stand Test (AST) and heart rate measurement using a pulsemeter. There were 29 young women who suffered from POTS. The exercise frequency was obtained by interview. Data was statistically analyzed using Spearman Correlation test. Result: The subjects’, who tested positive for POTS didn’t perform regular exercise. The Spearman correlation test showed there was a moderate negative correlation between exercise frequency and POTS in young women (r = -0.487, p < 0.00). Conclusion: There is a moderate reverse correlation between exercise frequency and POTS in young women. Further studies are suggested to develop an exercise program for young who suffered from POTS.

Keywords: POTS, autonomic dysfunction, exercise frequency, young woman

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874 Uncommon Case of Falx Subdural Hematoma

Authors: Thu Nguyen, Jane Daugherty-Luck

Abstract:

Falx subdural hematoma is a life-threatening condition associated with high mortality. We present a patient case who had fallen with no head injury or loss of conspicuousness. She had tenderness along cervical and thoracic lumbar spine. CT head revealed falx subdural hematoma. The patient was managed medically. The pathophysiology of falx subdural hematoma is linked to laceration of bridging veins provoked by frontal or occipital impact. Posttraumatic subdural hematoma is commonly caused by inertia instead of facture or cerebral contusion resulting from direct impact. The theory is consistent with the lack of fracture in most cases in the literature. Our patient had neither contusion nor fracture.

Keywords: falx subdural hematoma, traumatic head injury, CT head scan, bridging veins, inertia

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873 Bridging Stress Modeling of Composite Materials Reinforced by Fiber Using Discrete Element Method

Authors: Chong Wang, Kellem M. Soares, Luis E. Kosteski

Abstract:

The problem of toughening in brittle materials reinforced by fibers is complex, involving all the mechanical properties of fibers, matrix, the fiber/matrix interface, as well as the geometry of the fiber. An appropriate method applicable to the simulation and analysis of toughening is essential. In this work, we performed simulations and analysis of toughening in brittle matrix reinforced by randomly distributed fibers by means of the discrete elements method. At first, we put forward a mechanical model of the contribution of random fibers to the toughening of composite. Then with numerical programming, we investigated the stress, damage and bridging force in the composite material when a crack appeared in the brittle matrix. From the results obtained, we conclude that: (i) fibers with high strength and low elasticity modulus benefit toughening; (ii) fibers with relatively high elastic modulus compared to the matrix may result in considerable matrix damage (spalling effect); (iii) employment of high-strength synthetic fiber is a good option. The present work makes it possible to optimize the parameters in order to produce advanced ceramic with desired performance. We believe combination of the discrete element method (DEM) with the finite element method (FEM) can increase the versatility and efficiency of the software developed.

Keywords: bridging stress, discrete element method, fiber reinforced composites, toughening

Procedia PDF Downloads 378
872 Development and Effects of Transtheoretical Model Exercise Program for Elderly Women with Chronic Back Pain

Authors: Hyun-Ju Oh, Soon-Rim Suh, Mihan Kim

Abstract:

The steady and rapid increase of the older population is a global phenomenon. Chronic diseases and disabilities are increased due to aging. In general, exercise has been known to be most effective in preventing and managing chronic back pain. However, it is hard for the older women to initiate and maintain the exercise. Transtheoretical model (TTM) is one of the theories explain behavioral changes such as exercise. The application of the program considering the stage of behavior change is effective for the elderly woman to start and maintain the exercise. The purpose of this study was to develop TTM based exercise program and to examine its effect for elderly women with chronic back-pain. For the program evaluation, the non-equivalent control pre-posttest design was applied. The independent variable of this study is exercise intervention program. The contents of the program were constructed considering the characteristics of the elderly women with chronic low back pain, focusing on the process of change, the stage of change by the previous studies. The developed exercise program was applied to the elderly women with chronic low back pain in the planning stage and the preparation stage. The subjects were 50 older women over 65 years of age with chronic back-pain who did not practice regular exercise. The experimental group (n=25) received the 8weeks TTM based exercise program. The control group received the book which named low back pain management. Data were collected at three times: before the exercise intervention, right after the intervention, and 4weeks after the intervention. The dependent variables were the processes of change, decisional balance, exercise self-efficacy, back-pain, depression and muscle strength. The results of this study were as follows. Processes of change (<.001), pros of decisional balance (<.001), exercise self-efficacy (<.001), back pain (<.001), depression (<.001), muscle strength (<.001) were higher in the experimental group than in the control group right after the program and 4weeks after the programs. The results of this study show that applying the TTM based exercise program increases the use of the change process, increases the exercise self-efficacy, increases the stage of changing the exercise behavior and strengthens the muscular strength by lowering the degree of pain and depression Respectively. The significance of the study was to confirm the effect of continuous exercise by maintaining regular exercise habits by applying exercise program of the transtheoretical model to the chronic low back pain elderly with exercise intention.

Keywords: chronic back pain, elderly, exercise, women

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