Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3345

Search results for: national

3345 The Role of Accounting in the Run-Added Tax in Iran

Authors: Zahra Karimi

Abstract:

Money is not the only medium of economic exchanges, but also affects the national identity of citizens and national sovereignty of the government. Hence, money can be used as a tool to strengthen the national and political identity of nations. In other words, the value of the national currency can be affecting citizen’s view to the economic situation of their country and national identity. Government with the maintenance of the value of the national currency must increase the confidence of its citizens into national currency and prevents that "currency substitution phenomenon" occurred and people turn to foreign currencies. Hence, this article intends to explain the zeros elimination from the national currency and study of experience of other countries and discussion history analyzed benefits and harms of zeroes elimination from the national currency, And then to evaluate the effect or lack of effect of removing of zeros from the national currency on inflation answer the question whether it is appropriate and on time to delete three zeros from the Riyal of Iran is or not?

Keywords: zeros elimination from the national currency, value of the national currency, Riyal, inflation, Iran, money, government

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3344 The Georgians’ Discourses of National Identity in the Context of Europeanisation

Authors: Lia Tsuladze

Abstract:

The paper discusses the Georgians’ online discourses of national identity in the context of Europeanisation focusing on two periods - initialing of the EU-Georgia Association Agreement in November 2013 and signing it in June 2014. Discussing how the Georgians’ aspiration to integrate with the EU is combined with their perception of Europeanisation as a threat to the national identity, the author explores how the national sentiment is expressed in the above discourses while performed for the local vs. international audiences.

Keywords: Europeanisation, frontstage, backstage discourses, Georgia, national identity

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3343 Does the Perceived Value of a National Park Increases Visitor Satisfaction and Loyalty?

Authors: Yoo-Shik Yoon, Hae-Kyung Sohn, Young-Hae Yoon, Hai-Long Cui

Abstract:

This study focused on tourist subjects who have experience visiting national parks in Korea. The reason for selecting national parks as the subject of this study was that many Koreans visit national parks on weekends, and their visits continue even as changes are made to the parks. The purpose of this study was to evaluate what type of value perceived by tourists who visit national parks positively influences their satisfaction. Concurrently, the relationship between satisfaction and future behavioral intention was also examined. The understanding and analysis of this relationship is very important for the success of destination tourism development. This analysis can contribute to the creation of a marketing strategy that will induce tourists to stay longer, revisit, and recommend a national park to others. If national park administrators fully utilize the study results, they will be able to increase the number of visitors to their national parks. Furthermore, the results of this study will contribute to the development of Korean national parks as a tourist destination.

Keywords: national park, visitor satisfaction, loyalty, tourism management

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3342 The Needs Programme and Poverty Reduction for National Development of Nigeria at 53

Authors: Owulo Thomas

Abstract:

Despite Nigeria’s ranking as the 6th among oil producing countries, the country faces great challenges. One of such challenges is how to reduce poverty or eradicating it in the land that promises milk and honey to enhance national development. The government of Nigeria initiated various programmes including the NEEDS programme in which it committed her to meeting these challenges. This paper is an attempt to discuss the concept of National Development, the Nigerian poverty profile and its implication for national development, the NEEDS programmes and the extent to which it has addressed the poverty problem in Nigeria at 53.

Keywords: challenges, poverty, national development, NEEDS programme

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3341 Towards an Indigenous Language Policy for National Integration

Authors: Odoh Dickson Akpegi

Abstract:

The paper is about the need for an indigenous language in order to meaningfully harness both our human and material resources for the nation’s integration. It then examines the notty issue of the national language question and advocates a piece meal approach in solving the problem. This approach allows for the development and use of local languages in minority areas, especially in Benue State, as a way of preparing them for consideration as possible replacement for English language as Nigeria’s national or official language. Finally, an arrangement to follow to prepare the languages for such competition at the national level is presented.

Keywords: indigenous language, English language, official language, National integration

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3340 National System of Innovation in Zambia: Towards Socioeconomic Development

Authors: Ephraim Daka, Maxim Kotsemir

Abstract:

The National system Innovation (NSI) have recently proliferated as a vehicle for addressing poverty and national competitiveness in the developing countries. While several governments in Sub-Saharan Africa have adopted the developed countries’ models of innovation to local conditions, the Zambian case is rather unique. This study highlights conceptual and socioeconomic challenges directed to the performances of the NSI. The paper analyses science and technology strategies with the inclusion of “innovation” and its effect towards improving socioeconomic elements. The authors reviewed STI policy and national strategy documents, followed by interviews compared to economical regional and national data sets. The NSI and its related to inter-linkages and support mechanism to socioeconomic development were explored.

Keywords: national system of innovation, socioeconomics, development, Zambia

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3339 The Law of Treaties and National Security of Islamic Republic of Iran

Authors: S. M. Tavakoli Sani, M. Sabbet Moghadam, Y. Khorram Farhadi, Iraj Rezayi Nejad

Abstract:

The concept of national security in Iran is a permanently effective factor in acceptance or rejection of many international obligations. These obligations had been defined according to the type of legislation of Iran in many aspects. Therefore, there are several treaties at international level which requires Iran’s security to come in contact with obligations in these treaties in a way that an obstacle to join to them and their passage in parliament. This issue is a typical category which every country pays attention to be accepted in treaties or to include their national security in that treaties and also they can see the related treaties from this perspective, but this issue that 'what is the concept of Iran’s national security', and 'To what extent it is changed in recent years, especially after Islamic Revolution' are important issues that can be criticized. Thus, this study is trying to assess singed treaties from the perspective of Iran’s national security according of the true meaning of treaty and to investigate how the international treaties may be in conflict with Iran’s national security.

Keywords: treaties, national security, Iran, Islamic Revolution

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3338 English and the Question of National Language in Nigeria

Authors: Foyewa R. A.

Abstract:

This paper examined the role of English language and the quest for a national language in Nigeria. Various hindrances to the choice of a national language in Nigeria were observed. These include: The dominant role of English language, political instability and multilingual nature of the country. The writer suggested that ’’the three big’’ that is, Hausa, Igbo and Yoruba should be selected as the national languages. It was also suggested that a credit pass in a student’s mother tongue and one of “the three big” (Hausa, Igbo and Yoruba) should constitute the prerequisite for admission into Nigerian higher institutions.

Keywords: English, roles of English, national language, Nigerian languages, Hausa, Igbo, Yoruba

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3337 The 'Human Medium' in Communicating the National Image: A Case Study of Chinese Middle-Class Tourists Visiting Japan

Authors: Abigail Qian Zhou

Abstract:

In recent years, the prosperity of mass tourism in China has accelerated the breadth and depth of direct communication between countries, and the national image has been placed in a new communication context. Outbound tourists are not only directly involved in the formation of the national image, but are also the most direct medium and the most active symbol representing the national image. This study uses Chinese middle-class tourists visiting Japan as a case study, and analyzes, through participant observation and semi-structured interviews, the communication function of the national image transmitted by 'human medium' in tourism activities. It also explores the 'human medium' in the era of mass tourism. This study hopes to build a bridge for tourism research and national image and media studies. It will provide a theoretical basis and practical guidance for promoting the national image, strengthening exchanges between tourists and local populations, and expanding the tourism market in the future.

Keywords: human medium, national image, communication, Chinese middle class, outbound tourists

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3336 Formal Thai National Costume in the Reign of King Bhumibol Adulyadej

Authors: Chanoknart Mayusoh

Abstract:

The research about Formal Thai National Costume in the reign of King Bhumibol Adulyadej is an applied research that aimed to study the accurate knowledge concerning to Thai national costume in the reign of King Rama IX, also to study origin of all costumes in the reign of King Rama IX and to study the style, material used, and using accasion. This research methodology which are collect quanlitative data through observation, document, and photograph from key informant of costume in the reign of King Rama IX and from another who related to this field. The formal Thai national costume of the reign of King Bhumibol Adulyadej originated from the visit of His Majesty the King to Europe and America in 1960. Since Thailand had no traditional national costume; Her Majesty the Queen initiated the idea to create formal Thai national costumes. In 1964, Her Majesty the Queen selected 8 styles of formal Thai national costume. Later, Her Majesty the Queen confered another 3 formal Thai national costume for men. There are 8 styles of formal Thai national costume for women: Thai Ruean Ton, Thai Chit Lada, Thai Amarin, Thai Borom Phiman, Thai Siwalia, Thai Chakkri, Thai Dusit, and Thai Chakkraphat. There are 3 styles of formal Thai national costume for men: short-sleeve shirt, long-sleeve shirt, and long-sleeve shirt with breechcloth. The costume is widely used in formal ceremony such as greeting ceremony for official foreign visitors, wedding ceremony, or other auspicious ceremonies. Now a day, they are always used as a bridal gown as well. The formal Thai national costume is valuable art that shows Thai identity and, should be preserved for the next generation.

Keywords: formal Thai national costume for women, formal Thai national costume for men, His Majesty King Bhumibol Adulyadej the Great King Rama IX, Her Majesty Queen Sirikit Queen

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3335 National Project 'Environment' of Russian Federation as a Management Tool in Achieving SDGs

Authors: Ekaterina Posokhova, Boris Gavrilov

Abstract:

Priority national projects have become an essential phenomenon in the Russian Federation. Both regional and local government institutions and a significant part of the society have been involved in their implementation. The scale and multispectricity of the national projects give a reason to believe that their concept is beyond the scope of the individual state programs. The national project “environment” contains federal projects on waste management, water, and air quality, ecotourism development, and biodiversity conservation highlights the importance of the preservation and restoration of Volga River and Lake Baikal ecosystems. This study assesses the national projects according to their relativeness with the current SDGs (i.e., SGD 14 and 15), evaluates the methodology of the projects. The paper considers the peculiarities of the national projects as strategic management tools as well as the possibility of amending the project objective indicators. Conclusion on the effectiveness of NP in terms of achieving SDGs is provided.

Keywords: management, SDP, russia, conservation, law

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3334 A Holistic Approach to Institutional Cyber Security

Authors: Mehmet Kargaci

Abstract:

It is more important to access information than to get the correct information and to transform it to the knowledge in a proper way. Every person, organizations or governments who have the knowledge now become the target. Cyber security involves the range of measures to be taken from individual to the national level. The National institutions refer to academic, military and major public and private institutions, which are very important for the national security. Thus they need further cyber security measures. It appears that the traditional cyber security measures in the national level are alone not sufficient, while the individual measures remain in a restricted level. It is evaluated that the most appropriate method for preventing the cyber vulnerabilities rather than existing measures are to develop institutional measures. This study examines the cyber security measures to be taken, especially in the national institutions.

Keywords: cyber defence, information, critical infrastructure, security

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3333 Need of National Space Legislation for Space Faring Nations

Authors: Muhammad Naveed, Yang Caixia

Abstract:

The need for national space legislation is pivotal, particularly in light of the fact that in recent years space activities have grown immensely both in volume and diversity. Countries are progressively developing capabilities in space exploration and scientific discoveries, market their capabilities to manufacture satellites, provide launch services from their facilities and are looking to privatize and commercialize their space resources. Today, nations are also seeking to comprehend the technological and financial potential of the private sector and are considering to share their financial burdens with them and to limit their exposures to risks, but they are lagging behind in legal framework in this regard. In the perspective of these emerging developments, it is therefore, felt that national space legislation should be enacted with the goal of building and implementing a vibrant and transparent legal framework at the national level to hasten investments and to ensure growth in this capital intensive - highly yield strategic sector. This study looks at (I) the international legal framework that governs space activities; (II) motivation behind making national space laws; and (III) the need for national space legislation. The paper concludes with some recommendations with regards to the conceivable future direction for national space legislation, in particular space empowered sub-areas for countries.

Keywords: international conventions, national legislation, space faring nations, space law

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3332 The Antecedents of Thai Women's Entry into National Politics in Thailand

Authors: Somsak Assavasirisilp

Abstract:

The purposes of this research were to study the level of participation in the politic activities of Thai women, to study the factors influencing the Thai women’s entry into national politics, and to study the problems and obstacles to prevent women from enter national politics. This was a mixed research method of both qualitative and quantitative technique. The findings revealed that there were many problems and obstacles, especially culture and social norm, to prevent women from enter national politics and did not have many factors to support Thai women to become successful women politician.

Keywords: culture, social norm, national politics, Thai women

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3331 The National Idea and Selthindentification of Nation is the Foundation of the Society’s Development

Authors: K. Aisultanova, O. Abdimanuly

Abstract:

The article is told about the factors influencing the formation of the national idea and national identity. Paying attention to the idea and purpose of 'Eternal county', historical dates and examples are given. The structure of the idea 'The eternal country' by ancient Turks is discussed and the history of the legend prevalent among the Kazakh people, the image of the mythical historical figures are analyzed. Al-Farabi’s philosophical work 'Honest city', Zhysip Balasagun’s poem 'Happy Knowledge' are told, the opinions of scholars researching the nation's history, literature, and culture are given. As international experience shows, the idea of a new stage in the development of the country's great national society and the state for the purpose of political, social, economic, cultural, spiritual, and the other efforts are consolidated. The idea of the national, ethnic, religious, cultural and other communities united by a group of people sharing a collective memory, goals, ideas and dreams and , world view, a complex set of beliefs and values are expressed.

Keywords: independence, historical process, national idea, the national ideology, society, state

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3330 Spreading Japan's National Image through China during the Era of Mass Tourism: The Japan National Tourism Organization’s Use of Sina Weibo

Authors: Abigail Qian Zhou

Abstract:

Since China has entered an era of mass tourism, there has been a fundamental change in the way Chinese people approach and perceive the image of other countries. With the advent of the new media era, social networking sites such as Sina Weibo have become a tool for many foreign governmental organizations to spread and promote their national image. Among them, the Japan National Tourism Organization (JNTO) was one of the first foreign official tourism agencies to register with Sina Weibo and actively implement communication activities. Due to historical and political reasons, cognition of Japan's national image by the Chinese has always been complicated and contradictory. However, since 2015, China has become the largest source of tourists visiting Japan. This clearly indicates that the broadening of Japan's national image in China has been effective and has value worthy of reference in promoting a positive Chinese perception of Japan and encouraging Japanese tourism. Within this context and using the method of content analysis in media studies through content mining software, this study analyzed how JNTO’s Sina Weibo accounts have constructed and spread Japan's national image. This study also summarized the characteristics of its content and form, and finally revealed the strategy of JNTO in building its international image. The findings of this study not only add a tourism-based perspective to traditional national image communications research, but also provide some reference for the effective international dissemination of national image in the future.

Keywords: national image, international communication, tourism, Japan, China

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3329 Selection Standards for National Teams: Theory and Practice

Authors: Alexey Kulik

Abstract:

This article deals with selection standards for national sport teams. The author examines the legal framework for selection criteria and suggests using the most honest criteria.

Keywords: national teams, standards of forming teams, selection standards, sport legislations

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3328 Analysis of National Science and Technology Policies: The Case of South Korea

Authors: Jeonghwan Jeon

Abstract:

As the science and technology (S&T) has been rapidly advanced, the national government attempts to reflect changes in the S&T for promoting public R&D activities and economic development. Amongst others, due to the rapid advances and changes of S&T, it becomes important to analyze the trends of S&T policies for formulating the new policy and investigating promising S&T fields. Thus, this paper aims to trace the national S&T policies during this decade for analyzing the change of major S&T fields in the case of South Korea. As one of the organization for S&T policy in South Korea, the National Science and Technology Council (NSTC) has been established to coordinate inter-ministerial policies and programs and to determine all of the national and public S&T policy of South Korea. In this regard, the items on national S&T policy determined by the NSTC are useful for understanding the needs for major S&T fields and adapting to the rapid change of S&T. To this end, we first gathered the data on 512 items on the S&T agenda from 1999 to 2013. Based on these items, the trend of S&T policies is monitored and the major S&T fields are derived. Differences of policy purposes between S&T fields are identified to provide guideline for policy making such as budget allocation or investment promotion as well.

Keywords: national science and technology, policy, trends, S&T field

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3327 Managing Education through, Effective School Community Relationships/Participation for National Security

Authors: Shehu S. Janguza

Abstract:

The need for national security cannot be over Emphasis, which should be pursued by any means. Thus the need for effective management of education through effective school community Relationship/participation. In preparing and implementing only effort to promote community involvement in manning Education, it is importance to understand the whole picture of community participation, how it works, what forms are used, what benefit it can yield and what we should expect in the process of carrying out the efforts finally emphasis will be made on how effective school community relationship/participation and lead to national security.

Keywords: community participation, managing, school community, national security

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3326 The Effects of Cross-Border Use of Drones in Nigerian National Security

Authors: H. P. Kerry

Abstract:

Drone technology has become a significant discourse in a nation’s national security, while this technology could constitute a danger to national security on the one hand, on the other hand, it is used in developed and developing countries for border security, and in some cases, for protection of security agents and migrants. In the case of Nigeria, drones are used by the military to monitor and tighten security around the borders. However, terrorist groups have devised a means to utilize the technology to their advantage. Therefore, the potential danger in the widespread proliferation of this technology has become a myriad of risks. The research on the effects of cross-border use of drones in Nigerian national security looks at the negative and positive consequences of using drone technology. The study employs the use of interviews and relevant documents to obtain data while the study applied the Just War theory to justify the reason why countries use force; it further buttresses the points with what the realist theory thinks about the use of force. In conclusion, the paper recommends that the Nigerian government through the National Assembly should pass a bill for the establishment of a law that will guide the use of armed and unarmed drones in Nigeria enforced by the Nigeria Civil Aviation Authority and the office of the National Security Adviser.

Keywords: armed drones, drones, cross-border, national security

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3325 The Relationship between the Feeling of Distributive Justice and National Identity of the Youth

Authors: Leila Batmany

Abstract:

This research studies the relationship between the feeling of distributive justice and national identity of the youth. The present analysis intends to experimentally investigate the various dimensions of the justice feeling and its effect on the national identity components. The study has taken justice into consideration from four different points of view on the basis of availability of valuable social sources such as power, wealth, knowledge and status in the political, economic, and cultural and status justice respectively. Furthermore, the national identity has been considered as the feeling of honour, attachment and commitment towards national society and its seven components i.e. history, language, culture, political system, religion, geographical territory and society. The 'field study' has been used as the method for the research with the individual as unit, taking 368 young between the age of 18 and 29 living in Tehran, chosen randomly according to Cochran formula. The individual samples have been randomly chosen among five districts in north, south, west, east, and centre of Tehran, based on the multistage cluster sampling. The data collection has been performed with the use of questionnaire and interview. The most important results are as follows: i) The feeling of economic justice is the weakest one among the youth. ii) The strongest and the weakest dimensions of the national identity are, respectively, the historical and the social dimension. iii) There is a positive and meaningful relationship between the feeling political and statues justice and then national identity, whereas no meaningful relationship exists between the economic and cultural justice and the national identity. iv) There is a positive and meaningful relationship between the feeling of justice in all dimensions and legitimacy of the political system. There is also such a relationship between the legitimacy of the political system and national identity. v) Generally, there is a positive and meaningful relationship between the feeling of distributive justice and national identity among the youth. vi) It is through the legitimacy of the political system that justice feeling can have an influence on the national identity.

Keywords: distributive justice, national identity, legitimacy of political system, Cochran formula, multistage cluster sampling

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3324 Relevance of History to National Development

Authors: Abdulsalami Muyideen Deji

Abstract:

Achievement of one age serves as a starting point for the next generation. History explains the significance of past and present achievement which serves a guide principle for great minds to determine the next line of action in personal life which translate to national development. If history does this in human life, it is not out of place to accept history as a vanguard of national development. History remained the only relevant discipline which shapes the affairs of developed society. It gives adequate knowledge of great people in any society, how they used their ability and leadership prowess to develop their environment. As a result of this people use the idea of those heroes as guiding principle to determine the present issues. The custodian of identity is history, while identity builds confidence in man; it also makes man to master his environment for rapid development. Adequate developments of man’s environment translate to national development.

Keywords: history, national development, leadership prowess, identity

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3323 Steps towards the Development of National Health Data Standards in Developing Countries

Authors: Abdullah I. Alkraiji, Thomas W. Jackson, Ian Murray

Abstract:

The proliferation of health data standards today is somewhat overlapping and conflicting, resulting in market confusion and leading to increasing proprietary interests. The government role and support in standardization for health data are thought to be crucial in order to establish credible standards for the next decade, to maximize interoperability across the health sector, and to decrease the risks associated with the implementation of non-standard systems. The normative literature missed out the exploration of the different steps required to be undertaken by the government towards the development of national health data standards. Based on the lessons learned from a qualitative study investigating the different issues to the adoption of health data standards in the major tertiary hospitals in Saudi Arabia and the opinions and feedback from different experts in the areas of data exchange and standards and medical informatics in Saudi Arabia and UK, a list of steps required towards the development of national health data standards was constructed. Main steps are the existence of: a national formal reference for health data standards, an agreed national strategic direction for medical data exchange, a national medical information management plan and a national accreditation body, and more important is the change management at the national and organizational level. The outcome of this study can be used by academics and practitioners to develop the planning of health data standards, and in particular those in developing countries.

Keywords: interoperabilty, medical data exchange, health data standards, case study, Saudi Arabia

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3322 Exploring Relationship of National Talent Retention and National Value Proposition

Authors: Dzul Fahmi Md. Nordin, Rosmini Omar

Abstract:

This conceptual paper aims to explore the concept of National Talent Retention for a nation by extending the works on Talent Retention in organizations to the scope of nations. The objective of this paper is to explore the relationship of National Talent Retention as the dependent variable with the three explored value propositions namely Firm Value Proposition, Higher Education and Training Value Proposition and National Attractiveness Value Proposition as the independent variables. Life Satisfaction is introduced in this study as a moderating variable to explore possibilities of Life Satisfaction as a mediator for the relationship between National Value Proposition and National Talent Retention. Theories such as Migration, Value Propositions, Life Satisfaction, Human Resource Management and Resource Based View are referred to in order to understand and explore the concept of National Talent Retention. Malaysia is chosen as the background of this study since Malaysia represents a developing nation with progressive economic, education and national policy which presents an interesting background for this exploratory paper. Surprisingly, Malaysia is still facing the phenomenon of Brain Drain which if not handled properly will hinder its Vision 2020 to progress a fully developed nation by year 2020. Mixed methodology analysis is proposed in this paper to include both qualitative face-to-face interview as well as quantitative survey questionnaire to study on the value proposition factors explored. Target respondents are strictly confined to Malaysia’s local high skilled talents either residing in Malaysia or migrated abroad since this paper is mainly interested to study on the concept of National Talent Retention and how successful Malaysia is projecting its value propositions from the perception of high skilled talent Malaysians. It is hoped that this paper could contribute towards understanding National Talent Retention concept where, the model could be replicated to identify influential factors specific to other nations.

Keywords: national talent retention, national value proposition, life satisfaction, high skilled talents

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3321 Comparison Analysis of Science and Technology Council between Korea, USA, and Japan

Authors: Daekook Kang, Wooseok Jang, Jeonghwan Jeon

Abstract:

As Korea government has expanded the budget for the national research and development business, the need for the installation of institute taking a role of deliberation, coordination, and operation of research development business and its budget has been increased continuously. In response to the demands of the times, recently, the National Science & Technology Council (NSTC) was installed. However, to achieve a creative economy more efficiently, the fundamental introspection on the current state of the national administration system of science and technology in Korea should be needed. Accordingly, this study, firstly, analyzes the function and organizational structure of NSTC in Korea. Then, this study investigates the current state of the National Science and Technology Council in main world countries. Lastly, this study derives some implications based on the comparison analysis of the current state of the National Science and Technology Council between Korea and these countries. The present study will help in finding the way for the advancement of the NSTC in Korea.

Keywords: Comparison Analysis of Science & Technology Council (NSTC), CSTP, National Science & Technology Council in Korea, operating system of NSTC

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3320 Captives on the Frontier: An Exploration of National Identity in Argentine Literature and Art

Authors: Carlos Riobo

Abstract:

This paper analyzes literature and art in Argentina from the nineteenth to the twenty-first centuries as these media used the figure of the white female captive to define a developing national identity. This identity excluded the Indians whose lands the whites were taking and who appeared as the aggressors and captors in writing and paintings. The paper identifies the complicit relationship between art and history in crafting national memory. It also identifies a movement toward purity (as defined by separation of entities) and away from mestizaje (racial and cultural mixtures).

Keywords: Argentina, borders, captives, literature, painting

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3319 National Health Insurance: An Exploratory Study of Patient Satisfaction

Authors: Nihayatul Munaa, Nyoman A. Damayanti

Abstract:

This study seeks to understand what factors might influence a patient’s perception of health care under national health insurance in early implementation. In Indonesia, National Health Insurance was first implemented in 2014 and planned to achieve universal health coverage by 2019. However, the little understanding of this new policy lead to increase of complaint in hospital as a health care provider. This is a observational descriptive study with cross sectional design method. Data was collected through in-depth interview with 96 patient from Jemursari Islamic Hospital of Surabaya (Rumah Sakit Islam Jemursari Surabaya) who participate in National Health Insurance. Subject was selected by simple random sampling. The findings demonstrated that from five categories, 82,3% patient was satisfied in reliability aspect and 85,4% in assurance aspect, while in tangible, responsiveness and empathy aspect > 90% patient was satisfied. Meanwhile, in Indonesia, the minimum service standard of healthcare of patient satisfaction is 90%.

Keywords: patient’s satisfaction, national health insurance, hospital, complaint

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3318 Measuring Science and Technology Innovation Capacity in Developing Countries: From a National Innovation System

Authors: Haeng A. Seo, Changseok Oh, Seung Jun Yoo

Abstract:

This study attempts to examine the disparities in S&T innovation capacity from 14 developing countries to discuss how to support specific features in national innovation systems. It includes East-Asian, Middle-Asian, Central American and African countries. Here, we particularly focus on five dimensions- resources, activities, network, environment and performance- with 37 indicators. They were derived as structuring components of the relevant diagnostic model, which encompasses the whole process of S&T innovation from the input of resources to the output of economically valuable results. For many developing nations, economic industries remain weaker than actual S&T capabilities, and relevant regulatory authorities may not exist. This paper will be helpful to provide basic evidence and to set directions for better national S&T Innovation capacities and toward national competitiveness.

Keywords: developing countries, measurement, NIS, S&T innovation capacity

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3317 Foreign Artificial Intelligence Investments and National Security Exceptions in International Investment Law

Authors: Ying Zhu

Abstract:

Recent years have witnessed a boom of foreign investments in the field of artificial intelligence (AI). Foreign investments provide critical capital for AI development but also trigger national security concerns of host states. A notable example is an increasing number of cases in which the Committee on Foreign Investment in the United States (CFIUS) has denied Chinese acquisitions of US technology companies on national security grounds. On July 19, 2018, the Congress has reached a deal on the final draft of a new provision to strengthen CFIUS’s authority to review overseas transactions involving sensitive US technology. The question is: how to reconcile the emerging tension between, on the one hand, foreign AI investors’ expectations of a predictable investment environment, and on the other hand, host states’ regulatory power on national security? This paper provides a methodology to reconcile this tension under international investment law. Based on an examination, the national security exception clauses in international investment treaties and the application of national security justification in investor-state arbitration jurisprudence, the paper argues that a traditional interpretation of the national security exception, based on the necessity concept in customary international law, fails to take into account new risks faced by countries, including security concerns over strategic industries such as AI. To overcome this shortage, the paper proposes to incorporate an integrated national security clause in international investment treaties, which includes a two-tier test: a ‘self-judging’ test in the pre-establishment period and a ‘proportionality’ test in the post-establishment period. At the end, the paper drafts a model national security clause for future treaty-drafting practice.

Keywords: foreign investment, artificial intelligence, international investment law, national security exception

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3316 Nationalist Approach to the Music Culture in Early Republic Period in Turkey

Authors: Hilmi Yazici

Abstract:

Just after Ottoman period, new more homogenic republic was struggling to form a national identity and dealing with the cultural and historical background of the nation. This new republic had an aim of modernization and westernization which started in the late ottoman period. In this process, the culture was an important basis to form a new nation and it clearly put forward that the new citizens of the new national republic are to have a modern and national culture. The result of this aimed change was to find the Turkish culture suppressed among the common people of the Anatolia and to take the western modernization and breed this with national culture. So in this context, we can say that this approach separated the people from ottoman culture and its roots to empower the national identity. Repeatedly, it may be said that Turkish folkloric music was an important basis for the new revolution, on the other hand classical Turkish music was alienated with the idea that it didn’t belong to Turkish culture. So the aim of this study is to determine how these efforts to nationalize a new identity and culture was successful and conscious intervention to folkloric Turkish music became efficient.

Keywords: opera, nationalism in music, Turkish music

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