Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 15452

Search results for: rain-flow counting method

15452 Effect of Rainflow Cycle Number on Fatigue Lifetime of an Arm of Vehicle Suspension System

Authors: Hatem Mrad, Mohamed Bouazara, Fouad Erchiqui

Abstract:

Fatigue, is considered as one of the main cause of mechanical properties degradation of mechanical parts. Probability and reliability methods are appropriate for fatigue analysis using uncertainties that exist in fatigue material or process parameters. Current work deals with the study of the effect of the number and counting Rainflow cycle on fatigue lifetime (cumulative damage) of an upper arm of the vehicle suspension system. The major part of the fatigue damage induced in suspension arm is caused by two main classes of parameters. The first is related to the materials properties and the second is the road excitation or the applied force of the passenger’s number. Therefore, Young's modulus and road excitation are selected as input parameters to conduct repetitive simulations by Monte Carlo (MC) algorithm. Latin hypercube sampling method is used to generate these parameters. Response surface method is established according to fatigue lifetime of each combination of input parameters according to strain-life method. A PYTHON script was developed to automatize finite element simulations of the upper arm according to a design of experiments.

Keywords: fatigue, monte carlo, rainflow cycle, response surface, suspension system

Procedia PDF Downloads 185
15451 Counting People Utilizing Space-Time Imagery

Authors: Ahmed Elmarhomy, K. Terada

Abstract:

An automated method for counting passerby has been proposed using virtual-vertical measurement lines. Space-time image is representing the human regions which are treated using the segmentation process. Different color space has been used to perform the template matching. A proper template matching has been achieved to determine direction and speed of passing people. Distinguish one or two passersby has been investigated using a correlation between passerby speed and the human-pixel area. Finally, the effectiveness of the presented method has been experimentally verified.

Keywords: counting people, measurement line, space-time image, segmentation, template matching

Procedia PDF Downloads 353
15450 Sorting Fish by Hu Moments

Authors: J. M. Hernández-Ontiveros, E. E. García-Guerrero, E. Inzunza-González, O. R. López-Bonilla

Abstract:

This paper presents the implementation of an algorithm that identifies and accounts different fish species: Catfish, Sea bream, Sawfish, Tilapia, and Totoaba. The main contribution of the method is the fusion of the characteristics of invariance to the position, rotation and scale of the Hu moments, with the proper counting of fish. The identification and counting is performed, from an image under different noise conditions. From the experimental results obtained, it is inferred the potentiality of the proposed algorithm to be applied in different scenarios of aquaculture production.

Keywords: counting fish, digital image processing, invariant moments, pattern recognition

Procedia PDF Downloads 306
15449 Sentiment Classification Using Enhanced Contextual Valence Shifters

Authors: Vo Ngoc Phu, Phan Thi Tuoi

Abstract:

We have explored different methods of improving the accuracy of sentiment classification. The sentiment orientation of a document can be positive (+), negative (-), or neutral (0). We combine five dictionaries from [2, 3, 4, 5, 6] into the new one with 21137 entries. The new dictionary has many verbs, adverbs, phrases and idioms, that are not in five ones before. The paper shows that our proposed method based on the combination of Term-Counting method and Enhanced Contextual Valence Shifters method has improved the accuracy of sentiment classification. The combined method has accuracy 68.984% on the testing dataset, and 69.224% on the training dataset. All of these methods are implemented to classify the reviews based on our new dictionary and the Internet Movie data set.

Keywords: sentiment classification, sentiment orientation, valence shifters, contextual, valence shifters, term counting

Procedia PDF Downloads 422
15448 A Comparison of YOLO Family for Apple Detection and Counting in Orchards

Authors: Yuanqing Li, Changyi Lei, Zhaopeng Xue, Zhuo Zheng, Yanbo Long

Abstract:

In agricultural production and breeding, implementing automatic picking robot in orchard farming to reduce human labour and error is challenging. The core function of it is automatic identification based on machine vision. This paper focuses on apple detection and counting in orchards and implements several deep learning methods. Extensive datasets are used and a semi-automatic annotation method is proposed. The proposed deep learning models are in state-of-the-art YOLO family. In view of the essence of the models with various backbones, a multi-dimensional comparison in details is made in terms of counting accuracy, mAP and model memory, laying the foundation for realising automatic precision agriculture.

Keywords: agricultural object detection, deep learning, machine vision, YOLO family

Procedia PDF Downloads 70
15447 Robust and Real-Time Traffic Counting System

Authors: Hossam M. Moftah, Aboul Ella Hassanien

Abstract:

In the recent years the importance of automatic traffic control has increased due to the traffic jams problem especially in big cities for signal control and efficient traffic management. Traffic counting as a kind of traffic control is important to know the road traffic density in real time. This paper presents a fast and robust traffic counting system using different image processing techniques. The proposed system is composed of the following four fundamental building phases: image acquisition, pre-processing, object detection, and finally counting the connected objects. The object detection phase is comprised of the following five steps: subtracting the background, converting the image to binary, closing gaps and connecting nearby blobs, image smoothing to remove noises and very small objects, and detecting the connected objects. Experimental results show the great success of the proposed approach.

Keywords: traffic counting, traffic management, image processing, object detection, computer vision

Procedia PDF Downloads 199
15446 Compilation of Load Spectrum of Loader Drive Axle

Authors: Wei Yongxiang, Zhu Haoyue, Tang Heng, Yuan Qunwei

Abstract:

In order to study the preparation method of gear fatigue load spectrum for loaders, the load signal of four typical working conditions of loader is collected. The signal that reflects the law of load change is obtained by preprocessing the original signal. The torque of the drive axle is calculated by using the rain flow counting method. According to the operating time ratio of each working condition, the two-dimensional load spectrum based on the real working conditions of the drive axle of loader is established by the cycle extrapolation and synthesis method. The two-dimensional load spectrum is converted into one-dimensional load spectrum by means of the mean of torque equal damage method. Torque amplification includes the maximum load torque of the main reduction gear. Based on the theory of equal damage, the accelerated cycles are calculated. In this way, the load spectrum of the loading condition of the drive axle is prepared to reflect loading condition of the loader. The load spectrum can provide reference for fatigue life test and life prediction of loader drive axle.

Keywords: load spectrum, axle, torque, rain-flow counting method, extrapolation

Procedia PDF Downloads 193
15445 The Effect of Fetal Movement Counting on Maternal Antenatal Attachment

Authors: Esra Güney, Tuba Uçar

Abstract:

Aim: This study has been conducted for the purpose of determining the effects of fetal movement counting on antenatal maternal attachment. Material and Method: This research was conducted on the basis of the real test model with the pre-test /post-test control groups. The study population consists of pregnant women registered in the six different Family Health Centers located in the central Malatya districts of Yeşilyurt and Battalgazi. When power analysis is done, the sample size was calculated for each group of at least 55 pregnant women (55 tests, 55 controls). The data were collected by using Personal Information Form and MAAS (Maternal Antenatal Attachment Scale) between July 2015-June 2016. Fetal movement counting training was given to pregnant women by researchers in the experimental group after the pre-test data collection. No intervention was applied to the control group. Post-test data for both groups were collected after four weeks. Data were evaluated with percentage, chi-square arithmetic average, chi-square test and as for the dependent and independent group’s t test. Result: In the MAAS, the pre-test average of total scores in the experimental group is 70.78±6.78, control group is also 71.58±7.54 and so there was no significant difference in mean scores between the two groups (p>0.05). MAAS post-test average of total scores in the experimental group is 78.41±6.65, control group is also is 72.25±7.16 and so the mean scores between groups were found to have statistically significant difference (p<0.05). Conclusion: It was determined that fetal movement counting increases the maternal antenatal attachments.

Keywords: antenatal maternal attachment, fetal movement counting, pregnancy, midwifery

Procedia PDF Downloads 188
15444 Exploring Counting Methods for the Vertices of Certain Polyhedra with Uncertainties

Authors: Sammani Danwawu Abdullahi

Abstract:

Vertex Enumeration Algorithms explore the methods and procedures of generating the vertices of general polyhedra formed by system of equations or inequalities. These problems of enumerating the extreme points (vertices) of general polyhedra are shown to be NP-Hard. This lead to exploring how to count the vertices of general polyhedra without listing them. This is also shown to be #P-Complete. Some fully polynomial randomized approximation schemes (fpras) of counting the vertices of some special classes of polyhedra associated with Down-Sets, Independent Sets, 2-Knapsack problems and 2 x n transportation problems are presented together with some discovered open problems.

Keywords: counting with uncertainties, mathematical programming, optimization, vertex enumeration

Procedia PDF Downloads 262
15443 A Novel Combined Finger Counting and Finite State Machine Technique for ASL Translation Using Kinect

Authors: Rania Ahmed Kadry Abdel Gawad Birry, Mohamed El-Habrouk

Abstract:

This paper presents a brief survey of the techniques used for sign language recognition along with the types of sensors used to perform the task. It presents a modified method for identification of an isolated sign language gesture using Microsoft Kinect with the OpenNI framework. It presents the way of extracting robust features from the depth image provided by Microsoft Kinect and the OpenNI interface and to use them in creating a robust and accurate gesture recognition system, for the purpose of ASL translation. The Prime Sense’s Natural Interaction Technology for End-user - NITE™ - was also used in the C++ implementation of the system. The algorithm presents a simple finger counting algorithm for static signs as well as directional Finite State Machine (FSM) description of the hand motion in order to help in translating a sign language gesture. This includes both letters and numbers performed by a user, which in-turn may be used as an input for voice pronunciation systems.

Keywords: American sign language, finger counting, hand tracking, Microsoft Kinect

Procedia PDF Downloads 202
15442 A Note on the Fractal Dimension of Mandelbrot Set and Julia Sets in Misiurewicz Points

Authors: O. Boussoufi, K. Lamrini Uahabi, M. Atounti

Abstract:

The main purpose of this paper is to calculate the fractal dimension of some Julia Sets and Mandelbrot Set in the Misiurewicz Points. Using Matlab to generate the Julia Sets images that match the Misiurewicz points and using a Fractal software, we were able to find different measures that characterize those fractals in textures and other features. We are actually focusing on fractal dimension and the error calculated by the software. When executing the given equation of regression or the log-log slope of image a Box Counting method is applied to the entire image, and chosen settings are available in a FracLAc Program. Finally, a comparison is done for each image corresponding to the area (boundary) where Misiurewicz Point is located.

Keywords: box counting, FracLac, fractal dimension, Julia Sets, Mandelbrot Set, Misiurewicz Points

Procedia PDF Downloads 115
15441 Modelling of Passengers Exchange between Trains and Platforms

Authors: Guillaume Craveur

Abstract:

The evaluation of the passenger exchange time is necessary for railway operators in order to optimize and dimension rail traffic. Several influential parameters are identified and studied. Each parameter leads to a modeling completed with the buildingEXODUS software. The objective is the modelling of passenger exchanges measured by passenger counting. Population size is dimensioned using passenger counting files which are a report of the train service and contain following useful informations: number of passengers who get on and leave the train, exchange time. These information are collected by sensors placed at the top of each train door. With passenger counting files it is possible to know how many people are engaged in the exchange and how long is the exchange, but it is not possible to know passenger flow of the door. All the information about observed exchanges are thus not available. For this reason and in order to minimize inaccuracies, only short exchanges (less than 30 seconds) with a maximum of people are performed.

Keywords: passengers exchange, numerical tools, rolling stock, platforms

Procedia PDF Downloads 145
15440 Microfluidic Impedimetric Biochip and Related Methods for Measurement Chip Manufacture and Counting Cells

Authors: Amina Farooq, Nauman Zafar Butt

Abstract:

This paper is about methods and tools for counting particles of interest, such as cells. A microfluidic system with interconnected electronics on a flexible substrate, inlet-outlet ports and interface schemes, sensitive and selective detection of cells specificity, and processing of cell counting at polymer interfaces in a microscale biosensor for use in the detection of target biological and non-biological cells. The development of fluidic channels, planar fluidic contact ports, integrated metal electrodes on a flexible substrate for impedance measurements, and a surface modification plasma treatment as an intermediate bonding layer are all part of the fabrication process. Magnetron DC sputtering is used to deposit a double metal layer (Ti/Pt) over the polypropylene film. Using a photoresist layer, specified and etched zones are established. Small fluid volumes, a reduced detection region, and electrical impedance measurements over a range of frequencies for cell counts improve detection sensitivity and specificity. The procedure involves continuous flow of fluid samples that contain particles of interest through the microfluidic channels, counting all types of particles in a portion of the sample using the electrical differential counter to generate a bipolar pulse for each passing cell—calculating the total number of particles of interest originally in the fluid sample by using MATLAB program and signal processing. It's indeed potential to develop a robust and economical kit for cell counting in whole-blood samples using these methods and similar devices.

Keywords: impedance, biochip, cell counting, microfluidics

Procedia PDF Downloads 82
15439 Multiple-Channel Coulter Counter for Cell Sizing and Enumeration

Authors: Yu Chen, Seong-Jin Kim, Jaehoon Chung

Abstract:

High throughput cells counting and sizing are often required for biomedical applications. Here we report design, fabrication and validating of a micro-machined Coulter counter device with multiple-channel to realize such application for low cost. Multiple vertical through-holes were fabricated on a silicon chip, combined with the PDMS micro-fluidics channel that serves as the sensing channel. In order to avoid the crosstalk introduced by the electrical connection, instead of measuring the current passing through, the potential of each channel is monitored, thus the high throughput is possible. A peak of the output potential can be captured when the cell/particle is passing through the microhole. The device was validated by counting and sizing the polystyrene beads with diameter of 6 μm, 10 μm and 15 μm. With the sampling frequency to be set at 100 kHz, up to 5000 counts/sec for each channel can be realized. The counting and enumeration of MCF7 cancer cells are also demonstrated.

Keywords: Coulter counter, cell enumeration, high through-put, cell sizing

Procedia PDF Downloads 496
15438 Design and Implementation of a Counting and Differentiation System for Vehicles through Video Processing

Authors: Derlis Gregor, Kevin Cikel, Mario Arzamendia, Raúl Gregor

Abstract:

This paper presents a self-sustaining mobile system for counting and classification of vehicles through processing video. It proposes a counting and classification algorithm divided in four steps that can be executed multiple times in parallel in a SBC (Single Board Computer), like the Raspberry Pi 2, in such a way that it can be implemented in real time. The first step of the proposed algorithm limits the zone of the image that it will be processed. The second step performs the detection of the mobile objects using a BGS (Background Subtraction) algorithm based on the GMM (Gaussian Mixture Model), as well as a shadow removal algorithm using physical-based features, followed by morphological operations. In the first step the vehicle detection will be performed by using edge detection algorithms and the vehicle following through Kalman filters. The last step of the proposed algorithm registers the vehicle passing and performs their classification according to their areas. An auto-sustainable system is proposed, powered by batteries and photovoltaic solar panels, and the data transmission is done through GPRS (General Packet Radio Service)eliminating the need of using external cable, which will facilitate it deployment and translation to any location where it could operate. The self-sustaining trailer will allow the counting and classification of vehicles in specific zones with difficult access.

Keywords: intelligent transportation system, object detection, vehicle couting, vehicle classification, video processing

Procedia PDF Downloads 238
15437 Box Counting Dimension of the Union L of Trinomial Curves When α ≥ 1

Authors: Kaoutar Lamrini Uahabi, Mohamed Atounti

Abstract:

In the present work, we consider one category of curves denoted by L(p, k, r, n). These curves are continuous arcs which are trajectories of roots of the trinomial equation zn = αzk + (1 − α), where z is a complex number, n and k are two integers such that 1 ≤ k ≤ n − 1 and α is a real parameter greater than 1. Denoting by L the union of all trinomial curves L(p, k, r, n) and using the box counting dimension as fractal dimension, we will prove that the dimension of L is equal to 3/2.

Keywords: feasible angles, fractal dimension, Minkowski sausage, trinomial curves, trinomial equation

Procedia PDF Downloads 96
15436 Tumor Detection of Cerebral MRI by Multifractal Analysis

Authors: S. Oudjemia, F. Alim, S. Seddiki

Abstract:

This paper shows the application of multifractal analysis for additional help in cancer diagnosis. The medical image processing is a very important discipline in which many existing methods are in search of solutions to real problems of medicine. In this work, we present results of multifractal analysis of brain MRI images. The purpose of this analysis was to separate between healthy and cancerous tissue of the brain. A nonlinear method based on multifractal detrending moving average (MFDMA) which is a generalization of the detrending fluctuations analysis (DFA) is used for the detection of abnormalities in these images. The proposed method could make separation of the two types of brain tissue with success. It is very important to note that the choice of this non-linear method is due to the complexity and irregularity of tumor tissue that linear and classical nonlinear methods seem difficult to characterize completely. In order to show the performance of this method, we compared its results with those of the conventional method box-counting.

Keywords: irregularity, nonlinearity, MRI brain images, multifractal analysis, brain tumor

Procedia PDF Downloads 365
15435 Design of Traffic Counting Android Application with Database Management System and Its Comparative Analysis with Traditional Counting Methods

Authors: Muhammad Nouman, Fahad Tiwana, Muhammad Irfan, Mohsin Tiwana

Abstract:

Traffic congestion has been increasing significantly in major metropolitan areas as a result of increased motorization, urbanization, population growth and changes in the urban density. Traffic congestion compromises efficiency of transport infrastructure and causes multiple traffic concerns; including but not limited to increase of travel time, safety hazards, air pollution, and fuel consumption. Traffic management has become a serious challenge for federal and provincial governments, as well as exasperated commuters. Effective, flexible, efficient and user-friendly traffic information/database management systems characterize traffic conditions by making use of traffic counts for storage, processing, and visualization. While, the emerging data collection technologies continue to proliferate, its accuracy can be guaranteed through the comparison of observed data with the manual handheld counters. This paper presents the design of tablet based manual traffic counting application and framework for development of traffic database management system for Pakistan. The database management system comprises of three components including traffic counting android application; establishing online database and its visualization using Google maps. Oracle relational database was chosen to develop the data structure whereas structured query language (SQL) was adopted to program the system architecture. The GIS application links the data from the database and projects it onto a dynamic map for traffic conditions visualization. The traffic counting device and example of a database application in the real-world problem provided a creative outlet to visualize the uses and advantages of a database management system in real time. Also, traffic data counts by means of handheld tablet/ mobile application can be used for transportation planning and forecasting.

Keywords: manual count, emerging data sources, traffic information quality, traffic surveillance, traffic counting device, android; data visualization, traffic management

Procedia PDF Downloads 100
15434 Chemiluminescent Detection of Microorganisms in Food/Drug Product Using Reducing Agents and Gold Nanoplates

Authors: Minh-Phuong Ngoc Bui, Abdennour Abbas

Abstract:

Microbial spoilage of food/drug has been a constant nuisance and an unavoidable problem throughout history that affects food/drug quality and safety in a variety of ways. A simple and rapid test of fungi and bacteria in food/drugs and environmental clinical samples is essential for proper management of contamination. A number of different techniques have been developed for detection and enumeration of foodborne microorganism including plate counting, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), polymer chain reaction (PCR), nucleic acid sensor, electrical and microscopy methods. However, the significant drawbacks of these techniques are highly demand of operation skills and the time and cost involved. In this report, we introduce a rapid method for detection of bacteria and fungi in food/drug products using a specific interaction between a reducing agent (tris(2-carboxylethyl)phosphine (TCEP)) and the microbial surface proteins. The chemical reaction was transferred to a transduction system using gold nanoplates-enhanced chemiluminescence. We have optimized our nanoplates synthetic conditions, characterized the chemiluminescence parameters and optimized conditions for the microbial assay. The new detection method was applied for rapid detection of bacteria (E.coli sp. and Lactobacillus sp.) and fungi (Mucor sp.), with limit of detection as low as single digit cells per mL within 10 min using a portable luminometer. We expect our simple and rapid detection method to be a powerful alternative to the conventional plate counting and immunoassay methods for rapid screening of microorganisms in food/drug products.

Keywords: microorganism testing, gold nanoplates, chemiluminescence, reducing agents, luminol

Procedia PDF Downloads 233
15433 To Present and Explain Effective Methods in Teaching Social Science

Authors: Sulmaz Mozaffari, Zahra Mozaffari, Saman Mozaffari

Abstract:

Training is a counting and orderly process which purpose is to grow all as peals of the students to get the human knowledge and have the social norms. Also to help them grow their talents. Social science as in educational and training science at the sometime is very important for schools and universities. Unfortunately the method which is mostly used for teaching and training at present is student- teacher method and because of its ease the other methods are ignored. This research is to consider the most efficient methods in social science and analyse them. The Results show that the best methods in which the students are present during the teaching procedure.

Keywords: social science, methodology, student base methodology, technology

Procedia PDF Downloads 356
15432 A Review of Fractal Dimension Computing Methods Applied to Wear Particles

Authors: Manish Kumar Thakur, Subrata Kumar Ghosh

Abstract:

Various types of particles found in lubricant may be characterized by their fractal dimension. Some of the available methods are: yard-stick method or structured walk method, box-counting method. This paper presents a review of the developments and progress in fractal dimension computing methods as applied to characteristics the surface of wear particles. An overview of these methods, their implementation, their advantages and their limits is also present here. It has been accepted that wear particles contain major information about wear and friction of materials. Morphological analysis of wear particles from a lubricant is a very effective way for machine condition monitoring. Fractal dimension methods are used to characterize the morphology of the found particles. It is very useful in the analysis of complexity of irregular substance. The aim of this review is to bring together the fractal methods applicable for wear particles.

Keywords: fractal dimension, morphological analysis, wear, wear particles

Procedia PDF Downloads 336
15431 Evaluation of Different Liquid Scintillation Counting Methods for 222Rn Determination in Waters

Authors: Jovana Nikolov, Natasa Todorovic, Ivana Stojkovic

Abstract:

Monitoring of 222Rn in drinking or surface waters, as well as in groundwater has been performed in connection with geological, hydrogeological and hydrological surveys and health hazard studies. Liquid scintillation counting (LSC) is often preferred analytical method for 222Rn measurements in waters because it allows multiple-sample automatic analysis. LSC method implies mixing of water samples with organic scintillation cocktail, which triggers radon diffusion from the aqueous into organic phase for which it has a much greater affinity, eliminating possibility of radon emanation in that manner. Two direct LSC methods that assume different sample composition have been presented, optimized and evaluated in this study. One-phase method assumed direct mixing of 10 ml sample with 10 ml of emulsifying cocktail (Ultima Gold AB scintillation cocktail is used). Two-phase method involved usage of water-immiscible cocktails (in this study High Efficiency Mineral Oil Scintillator, Opti-Fluor O and Ultima Gold F are used). Calibration samples were prepared with aqueous 226Ra standard in glass 20 ml vials and counted on ultra-low background spectrometer Quantulus 1220TM equipped with PSA (Pulse Shape Analysis) circuit which discriminates alpha/beta spectra. Since calibration procedure is carried out with 226Ra standard, which has both alpha and beta progenies, it is clear that PSA discriminator has vital importance in order to provide reliable and precise spectra separation. Consequentially, calibration procedure was done through investigation of PSA discriminator level influence on 222Rn efficiency detection, using 226Ra calibration standard in wide range of activity concentrations. Evaluation of presented methods was based on obtained efficiency detections and achieved Minimal Detectable Activity (MDA). Comparison of presented methods, accuracy and precision as well as different scintillation cocktail’s performance was considered from results of measurements of 226Ra spiked water samples with known activity and environmental samples.

Keywords: 222Rn in water, Quantulus1220TM, scintillation cocktail, PSA parameter

Procedia PDF Downloads 128
15430 Distribution of Traffic Volume at Fuel Station during Peak Hour Period on Arterial Road

Authors: Surachai Ampawasuvan, Supornchai Utainarumol

Abstract:

Most of fuel station’ customers, who drive on the major arterial road wants to use the stations to fill fuel to their vehicle during their journey to destinations. According to the survey of traffic volume of the vehicle using fuel stations by video cameras, automatic counting tools, or questionnaires, it was found that most users prefer to use fuel stations on holiday rather than on working day. They also prefer to use fuel stations in the morning rather than in the evening. When comparing the ratio of the distribution pattern of traffic volume of the vehicle using fuel stations by video cameras, automatic counting tools, there is no significant difference. However, when comparing the ratio of peak hour (peak hour rate) of the results from questionnaires at 13 to 14 percent with the results obtained by using the methods of the Institute of Transportation Engineering (ITE), it is found that the value is similar. However, it is different from a survey by video camera and automatic traffic counting at 6 to 7 percent of about half. So, this study suggests that in order to forecast trip generation of vehicle using fuel stations on major arterial road which is mostly characterized by Though Traffic, it is recommended to use the value of half of peak hour rate, which would make the forecast for trips generation to be more precise and accurate and compatible to surrounding environment.

Keywords: peak rate, trips generation, fuel station, arterial road

Procedia PDF Downloads 167
15429 Deep Learning-Based Object Detection on Low Quality Images: A Case Study of Real-Time Traffic Monitoring

Authors: Jean-Francois Rajotte, Martin Sotir, Frank Gouineau

Abstract:

The installation and management of traffic monitoring devices can be costly from both a financial and resource point of view. It is therefore important to take advantage of in-place infrastructures to extract the most information. Here we show how low-quality urban road traffic images from cameras already available in many cities (such as Montreal, Vancouver, and Toronto) can be used to estimate traffic flow. To this end, we use a pre-trained neural network, developed for object detection, to count vehicles within images. We then compare the results with human annotations gathered through crowdsourcing campaigns. We use this comparison to assess performance and calibrate the neural network annotations. As a use case, we consider six months of continuous monitoring over hundreds of cameras installed in the city of Montreal. We compare the results with city-provided manual traffic counting performed in similar conditions at the same location. The good performance of our system allows us to consider applications which can monitor the traffic conditions in near real-time, making the counting usable for traffic-related services. Furthermore, the resulting annotations pave the way for building a historical vehicle counting dataset to be used for analysing the impact of road traffic on many city-related issues, such as urban planning, security, and pollution.

Keywords: traffic monitoring, deep learning, image annotation, vehicles, roads, artificial intelligence, real-time systems

Procedia PDF Downloads 122
15428 Verification of Sr-90 Determination in Water and Spruce Needles Samples Using IAEA-TEL-2016-04 ALMERA Proficiency Test Samples

Authors: S. Visetpotjanakit, N. Nakkaew

Abstract:

Determination of 90Sr in environmental samples has been widely developed with several radioanlytical methods and radiation measurement techniques since 90Sr is one of the most hazardous radionuclides produced from nuclear reactors. Liquid extraction technique using di-(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (HDEHP) to separate and purify 90Y and Cherenkov counting using liquid scintillation counter to determine 90Y in secular equilibrium to 90Sr was developed and performed at our institute, the Office of Atoms for Peace. The approach is inexpensive, non-laborious, and fast to analyse 90Sr in environmental samples. To validate our analytical performance for the accurate and precise criteria, determination of 90Sr using the IAEA-TEL-2016-04 ALMERA proficiency test samples were performed for statistical evaluation. The experiment used two spiked tap water samples and one naturally contaminated spruce needles sample from Austria collected shortly after the Chernobyl accident. Results showed that all three analyses were successfully passed in terms of both accuracy and precision criteria, obtaining “Accepted” statuses. The two water samples obtained the measured results of 15.54 Bq/kg and 19.76 Bq/kg, which had relative bias 5.68% and -3.63% for the Maximum Acceptable Relative Bias (MARB) 15% and 20%, respectively. And the spruce needles sample obtained the measured results of 21.04 Bq/kg, which had relative bias 23.78% for the MARB 30%. These results confirm our analytical performance of 90Sr determination in water and spruce needles samples using the same developed method.

Keywords: ALMERA proficiency test, Cerenkov counting, determination of 90Sr, environmental samples

Procedia PDF Downloads 165
15427 Cleaning Performance of High-Frequency, High-Intensity 360 kHz Frequency Operating in Thickness Mode Transducers

Authors: R. Vetrimurugan, Terry Lim, M. J. Goodson, R. Nagarajan

Abstract:

This study investigates the cleaning performance of high intensity 360 kHz frequency on the removal of nano-dimensional and sub-micron particles from various surfaces, uniformity of the cleaning tank and run to run variation of cleaning process. The uniformity of the cleaning tank was measured by two different methods i.e 1. ppbTM meter and 2. Liquid Particle Counting (LPC) technique. In the second method, aluminium metal spacer components was placed at various locations of the cleaning tank (such as centre, top left corner, bottom left corner, top right corner, bottom right corner) and the resultant particles removed by 360 kHz frequency was measured. The result indicates that the energy was distributed more uniformly throughout the entire cleaning vessel even at the corners and edges of the tank when megasonic sweeping technology is applied. The result also shows that rinsing the parts with 360 kHz frequency at final rinse gives lower particle counts, hence higher cleaning efficiency as compared to other frequencies. When megasonic sweeping technology is applied each piezoelectric transducers will operate at their optimum resonant frequency and generates stronger acoustic cavitational force and higher acoustic streaming velocity. These combined forces are helping to enhance the particle removal and at the same time improve the overall cleaning performance. The multiple extractions study was also carried out for various frequencies to measure the cleaning potential and asymptote value.

Keywords: power distribution, megasonic sweeping, cavitation intensity, particle removal, laser particle counting, nano, submicron

Procedia PDF Downloads 347
15426 A Combined Deep Learning and Distance Transform- Based Strategy for Carrot Yield Prediction on UAV Images

Authors: Oumaima El Mansouri, Paul Charnay, Grégoire Dupre

Abstract:

This is paper introduces a new method for carrot yield prediction (CaYi), using imagery provided by unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). Carrots are one of the most economically important vegetables in the world because of their importance to food security and their dietary benefits to humans. Accurate yield estimation is important for all crop industries to support better decisionmaking for crop management, labor requirements, storage, transportation, and marketing hence the importance of carrot yield prediction. The proposed method CaYi aims at combining a distance transform-based method and a deep learning approach. It starts with a pixel-based segmentation algorithm to restrict the analysis to the crop pixels, which has been shown to generally improve crop yield forecasting ability. Then, a map distance is computed using the transform distance, and the local maxima are estimated to detect centers of carrot plants. Given that carrot crops are organized in rows, we propose a crop row detection method based on the random Hough transform to simplify the separation between weeds and carrot plants. Finally, the resulting labeled images are used to train a Faster R-CNN object detection model. The accuracy and the interest of this method are shown quantitatively and qualitatively via evaluations of UAV images. We deployed this method on a 50-hectare field and compared the density maps with a manual counting on several regions of the field.

Keywords: crop yield, deep learning, image segmentation, precision agriculture, random hough transform

Procedia PDF Downloads 50
15425 Influence of Wind Induced Fatigue Damage in the Reliability of Wind Turbines

Authors: Emilio A. Berny-Brandt, Sonia E. Ruiz

Abstract:

Steel tubular towers serving as support structures for large wind turbines are subject to several hundred million stress cycles arising from the turbulent nature of the wind. This causes high-cycle fatigue which can govern tower design. The practice of maintaining the support structure after wind turbines reach its typical 20-year design life have become common, but without quantifying the changes in the reliability on the tower. There are several studies on this topic, but most of them are based on the S-N curve approach using the Miner’s rule damage summation method, the de-facto standard in the wind industry. However, the qualitative nature of Miner’s method makes desirable the use of fracture mechanics to measure the effects of fatigue in the capacity curve of the structure, which is important in order to evaluate the integrity and reliability of these towers. Temporal and spatially varying wind speed time histories are simulated based on power spectral density and coherence functions. Simulations are then applied to a SAP2000 finite element model and step-by-step analysis is used to obtain the stress time histories for a range of representative wind speeds expected during service conditions of the wind turbine. Rainflow method is then used to obtain cycle and stress range information of each of these time histories and a statistical analysis is performed to obtain the distribution parameters of each variable. Monte Carlo simulation is used here to evaluate crack growth over time in the tower base using the Paris-Erdogan equation. A nonlinear static pushover analysis to assess the capacity curve of the structure after a number of years is performed. The capacity curves are then used to evaluate the changes in reliability of a steel tower located in Oaxaca, Mexico, where wind energy facilities are expected to grow in the near future. Results show that fatigue on the tower base can have significant effects on the structural capacity of the wind turbine, especially after the 20-year design life when the crack growth curve starts behaving exponentially.

Keywords: crack growth, fatigue, Monte Carlo simulation, structural reliability, wind turbines

Procedia PDF Downloads 441
15424 iCount: An Automated Swine Detection and Production Monitoring System Based on Sobel Filter and Ellipse Fitting Model

Authors: Jocelyn B. Barbosa, Angeli L. Magbaril, Mariel T. Sabanal, John Paul T. Galario, Mikka P. Baldovino

Abstract:

The use of technology has become ubiquitous in different areas of business today. With the advent of digital imaging and database technology, business owners have been motivated to integrate technology to their business operation ranging from small, medium to large enterprises. Technology has been found to have brought many benefits that can make a business grow. Hog or swine raising, for example, is a very popular enterprise in the Philippines, whose challenges in production monitoring can be addressed through technology integration. Swine production monitoring can become a tedious task as the enterprise goes larger. Specifically, problems like delayed and inconsistent reports are most likely to happen if counting of swine per pen of which building is done manually. In this study, we present iCount, which aims to ensure efficient swine detection and counting that hastens the swine production monitoring task. We develop a system that automatically detects and counts swine based on Sobel filter and ellipse fitting model, given the still photos of the group of swine captured in a pen. We improve the Sobel filter detection result through 8-neigbhorhood rule implementation. Ellipse fitting technique is then employed for proper swine detection. Furthermore, the system can generate periodic production reports and can identify the specific consumables to be served to the swine according to schedules. Experiments reveal that our algorithm provides an efficient way for detecting swine, thereby providing a significant amount of accuracy in production monitoring.

Keywords: automatic swine counting, swine detection, swine production monitoring, ellipse fitting model, sobel filter

Procedia PDF Downloads 222
15423 The Influence of Environmental Factors on Honey Bee Activities: A Quantitative Analysis

Authors: Hung-Jen Lin, Chien-Hao Wang, Chien-Peng Huang, Yu-Sheng Tseng, En-Cheng Yang, Joe-Air Jiang

Abstract:

Bees’ incoming and outgoing behavior is a decisive index which can indicate the health condition of a colony. Traditional methods for monitoring the behavior of honey bees (Apis mellifera) take too much time and are highly labor-intensive, and the lack of automation and synchronization disables researchers and beekeepers from obtaining real-time information of beehives. To solve these problems, this study proposes to use an Internet of Things (IoT)-based system for counting honey bees’ incoming and outgoing activities using an infrared interruption technique, while environmental factors are recorded simultaneously. The accuracy of the established system is verified by comparing the counting results with the outcomes of manual counting. Moreover, this highly -accurate device is appropriate for providing quantitative information regarding honey bees’ incoming and outgoing behavior. Different statistical analysis methods, including one-way ANOVA and two-way ANOVA, are used to investigate the influence of environmental factors, such as temperature, humidity, illumination and ambient pressure, on bees’ incoming and outgoing behavior. With the real-time data, a standard model is established using the outcomes from analyzing the relationship between environmental factors and bees’ incoming and outgoing behavior. In the future, smart control systems, such as a temperature control system, can also be combined with the proposed system to create an appropriate colony environment. It is expected that the proposed system will make a considerable contribution to the apiculture and researchers.

Keywords: ANOVA, environmental factors, honey bee, incoming and outgoing behavior

Procedia PDF Downloads 295