Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 31

Search results for: axle

31 Improvement of Brige Weigh-In-Motion Technique Considering the Driving Conditions of Vehicles

Authors: Changgil Lee, Jooyoung Park, Seunghee Park


In this study, bridge weigh-in-motion (BWIM) system was simulated under various driving conditions of vehicles to improve the performance of the BWIM system. Two driving conditions were considered. One was the number of the axle of the vehicles. Since the vehicles have different number of axle according to the types of the vehicle, the vehicles were modeled considering the number of the axle. The other was the speed of the vehicles because the speed of the vehicles is not consistent on the bridge. To achieve the goal, the dynamic characteristics of a bridge such as modal parameters were considered in numerical simulation by analyzing precision models. Also, the driving vehicles were modeled as mass-spring-damping systems reflecting the axle information.

Keywords: bridge weigh-in-motion (BWIM) system, driving conditions, precision analysis model, the number of axle, the speed of vehicle

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30 Reduced Vibration in a Levitating Motor

Authors: S. Kazadi, A. An, B. Shen


We investigate the fitness of a male and female permanent magnetic levitation support for use as an axle on a rotor for a levitating motor. The support enables passive thrust and axial support for the axle as a result of the unique arrangement of permanent magnets. As the axial and thrust bearing aspects are derived from magnetic repulsion, it is not immediately clear that the repulsion is stiff enough to enable even low power motors. This paper describes the design and performance of two low power motors based on the magnetic levitation support. We find that our low power motors, with rotational speeds of 618 and 833 rpms, exhibit performance free from excess vibrations that might hinder performance. This means that the actuation of the motors is adequately stabilized by the axle and results in motors capable of being utilized despite the levitation support.

Keywords: levitating motor, magnetic levitation support, fitness, axle

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29 Compilation of Load Spectrum of Loader Drive Axle

Authors: Wei Yongxiang, Zhu Haoyue, Tang Heng, Yuan Qunwei


In order to study the preparation method of gear fatigue load spectrum for loaders, the load signal of four typical working conditions of loader is collected. The signal that reflects the law of load change is obtained by preprocessing the original signal. The torque of the drive axle is calculated by using the rain flow counting method. According to the operating time ratio of each working condition, the two-dimensional load spectrum based on the real working conditions of the drive axle of loader is established by the cycle extrapolation and synthesis method. The two-dimensional load spectrum is converted into one-dimensional load spectrum by means of the mean of torque equal damage method. Torque amplification includes the maximum load torque of the main reduction gear. Based on the theory of equal damage, the accelerated cycles are calculated. In this way, the load spectrum of the loading condition of the drive axle is prepared to reflect loading condition of the loader. The load spectrum can provide reference for fatigue life test and life prediction of loader drive axle.

Keywords: load spectrum, axle, torque, rain-flow counting method, extrapolation

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28 Modeling of Crack Growth in Railway Axles under Static Loading

Authors: Zellagui Redouane, Bellaouar Ahmed, Lachi Mohammed


The railway axles are the essential parts in the bogie of train, and its failure creates a big problem in the railway transport; during the work of this parts we noticed a premature deterioration. The aim has been presented a predictive model allowing the identification of the probable causes that are the cause of these premature deterioration. The results are employed for predicting fatigue crack growth in the railway axle, Also we want to present the variation value of stress intensity factor in different positions of elliptical crack tip. The modeling of axle in performed by the SOLID WORKS software and imported into ANSYS.

Keywords: crack growth, static load, railway axle, lifetime

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27 Clarifications on the Damping Mechanism Related to the Hunting Motion of the Wheel Axle of a High-Speed Railway Vehicle

Authors: Barenten Suciu


In order to explain the damping mechanism, related to the hunting motion of the wheel axle of a high-speed railway vehicle, a generalized dynamic model is proposed. Based on such model, analytic expressions for the damping coefficient and damped natural frequency are derived, without imposing restrictions on the ratio between the lateral and vertical creep coefficients. Influence of the travelling speed, wheel conicity, dimensionless mass of the wheel axle, ratio of the creep coefficients, ratio of the track span to the yawing diameter, etc. on the damping coefficient and damped natural frequency, is clarified.

Keywords: high-speed railway vehicle, hunting motion, wheel axle, damping, creep, vibration model, analysis.

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26 Measured versus Default Interstate Traffic Data in New Mexico, USA

Authors: M. A. Hasan, M. R. Islam, R. A. Tarefder


This study investigates how the site specific traffic data differs from the Mechanistic Empirical Pavement Design Software default values. Two Weigh-in-Motion (WIM) stations were installed in Interstate-40 (I-40) and Interstate-25 (I-25) to developed site specific data. A computer program named WIM Data Analysis Software (WIMDAS) was developed using Microsoft C-Sharp (.Net) for quality checking and processing of raw WIM data. A complete year data from November 2013 to October 2014 was analyzed using the developed WIM Data Analysis Program. After that, the vehicle class distribution, directional distribution, lane distribution, monthly adjustment factor, hourly distribution, axle load spectra, average number of axle per vehicle, axle spacing, lateral wander distribution, and wheelbase distribution were calculated. Then a comparative study was done between measured data and AASHTOWare default values. It was found that the measured general traffic inputs for I-40 and I-25 significantly differ from the default values.

Keywords: AASHTOWare, traffic, weigh-in-motion, axle load distribution

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25 Reliability Analysis for Cyclic Fatigue Life Prediction in Railroad Bolt Hole

Authors: Hasan Keshavarzian, Tayebeh Nesari


Bolted rail joint is one of the most vulnerable areas in railway track. A comprehensive approach was developed for studying the reliability of fatigue crack initiation of railroad bolt hole under random axle loads and random material properties. The operation condition was also considered as stochastic variables. In order to obtain the comprehensive probability model of fatigue crack initiation life prediction in railroad bolt hole, we used FEM, response surface method (RSM), and reliability analysis. Combined energy-density based and critical plane based fatigue concept is used for the fatigue crack prediction. The dynamic loads were calculated according to the axle load, speed, and track properties. The results show that axle load is most sensitive parameter compared to Poisson’s ratio in fatigue crack initiation life. Also, the reliability index decreases slowly due to high cycle fatigue regime in this area.

Keywords: rail-wheel tribology, rolling contact mechanic, finite element modeling, reliability analysis

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24 Neural Network Approach to Classifying Truck Traffic

Authors: Ren Moses


The process of classifying vehicles on a highway is hereby viewed as a pattern recognition problem in which connectionist techniques such as artificial neural networks (ANN) can be used to assign vehicles to their correct classes and hence to establish optimum axle spacing thresholds. In the United States, vehicles are typically classified into 13 classes using a methodology commonly referred to as “Scheme F”. In this research, the ANN model was developed, trained, and applied to field data of vehicles. The data comprised of three vehicular features—axle spacing, number of axles per vehicle, and overall vehicle weight. The ANN reduced the classification error rate from 9.5 percent to 6.2 percent when compared to an existing classification algorithm that is not ANN-based and which uses two vehicular features for classification, that is, axle spacing and number of axles. The inclusion of overall vehicle weight as a third classification variable further reduced the error rate from 6.2 percent to only 3.0 percent. The promising results from the neural networks were used to set up new thresholds that reduce classification error rate.

Keywords: artificial neural networks, vehicle classification, traffic flow, traffic analysis, and highway opera-tions

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23 Damping and Stability Evaluation for the Dynamical Hunting Motion of the Bullet Train Wheel Axle Equipped with Cylindrical Wheel Treads

Authors: Barenten Suciu


Classical matrix calculus and Routh-Hurwitz stability conditions, applied to the snake-like motion of the conical wheel axle, lead to the conclusion that the hunting mode is inherently unstable, and its natural frequency is a complex number. In order to analytically solve such a complicated vibration model, either the inertia terms were neglected, in the model designated as geometrical, or restrictions on the creep coefficients and yawing diameter were imposed, in the so-called dynamical model. Here, an alternative solution is proposed to solve the hunting mode, based on the observation that the bullet train wheel axle is equipped with cylindrical wheels. One argues that for such wheel treads, the geometrical hunting is irrelevant, since its natural frequency becomes nil, but the dynamical hunting is significant since its natural frequency reduces to a real number. Moreover, one illustrates that the geometrical simplification of the wheel causes the stabilization of the hunting mode, since the characteristic quartic equation, derived for conical wheels, reduces to a quadratic equation of positive coefficients, for cylindrical wheels. Quite simple analytical expressions for the damping ratio and natural frequency are obtained, without applying restrictions into the model of contact. Graphs of the time-depending hunting lateral perturbation, including the maximal and inflexion points, are presented both for the critically-damped and the over-damped wheel axles.

Keywords: bullet train, creep, cylindrical wheels, damping, dynamical hunting, stability, vibration analysis

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22 Investigating Effects of Vehicle Speed and Road PSDs on Response of a 35-Ton Heavy Commercial Vehicle (HCV) Using Mathematical Modelling

Authors: Amal G. Kurian


The use of mathematical modeling has seen a considerable boost in recent times with the development of many advanced algorithms and mathematical modeling capabilities. The advantages this method has over other methods are that they are much closer to standard physics theories and thus represent a better theoretical model. They take lesser solving time and have the ability to change various parameters for optimization, which is a big advantage, especially in automotive industry. This thesis work focuses on a thorough investigation of the effects of vehicle speed and road roughness on a heavy commercial vehicle ride and structural dynamic responses. Since commercial vehicles are kept in operation continuously for longer periods of time, it is important to study effects of various physical conditions on the vehicle and its user. For this purpose, various experimental as well as simulation methodologies, are adopted ranging from experimental transfer path analysis to various road scenario simulations. To effectively investigate and eliminate several causes of unwanted responses, an efficient and robust technique is needed. Carrying forward this motivation, the present work focuses on the development of a mathematical model of a 4-axle configuration heavy commercial vehicle (HCV) capable of calculating responses of the vehicle on different road PSD inputs and vehicle speeds. Outputs from the model will include response transfer functions and PSDs and wheel forces experienced. A MATLAB code will be developed to implement the objectives in a robust and flexible manner which can be exploited further in a study of responses due to various suspension parameters, loading conditions as well as vehicle dimensions. The thesis work resulted in quantifying the effect of various physical conditions on ride comfort of the vehicle. An increase in discomfort is seen with velocity increase; also the effect of road profiles has a considerable effect on comfort of the driver. Details of dominant modes at each frequency are analysed and mentioned in work. The reduction in ride height or deflection of tire and suspension with loading along with load on each axle is analysed and it is seen that the front axle supports a greater portion of vehicle weight while more of payload weight comes on fourth and third axles. The deflection of the vehicle is seen to be well inside acceptable limits.

Keywords: mathematical modeling, HCV, suspension, ride analysis

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21 Novel Animal Drawn Wheel-Axle Mechanism Actuated Knapsack Boom Sprayer

Authors: Ibrahim O. Abdulmalik, Michael C. Amonye, Mahdi Makoyo


Manual knapsack sprayer is the most popular means of farm spraying in Nigeria. It has its limitations. Apart from the human fatigue, which leads to unsteady walking steps, their field capacities are small. They barely cover about 0.2hectare per hour. Their small swath implies that a sizeable farm would take several days to cover. Weather changes are erratic and often it is desired to spray a large farm within hours or few days for even effect, uniformity and to avoid adverse weather interference. It is also often required that a large farm be covered within a short period to avoid re-emergence of weeds before crop emergence. Deployment of many knapsack operators to large farms has not been successful. Human error in taking equally spaced swaths usually result in over dosage of overlaps and in unapplied areas due to error at edges overlaps. Large farm spraying require boom equipment with larger swath. Reduced error in swath overlaps and spraying within the shortest possible time are then assured. Tractor boom sprayers would readily overcome these problems and achieve greater coverage, but they are not available in the country. Tractor hire for cultivation is very costly with the attendant lack of spare parts and specialized technicians for maintenance wherefore farmers find it difficult to engage tractors for cultivation and would avoid considering the employment of a tractor boom sprayer. Animal traction in farming is predominant in Nigeria, especially in the Northern part of the country. Development of boom sprayers drawn by work animals surely implies the maximization of animal utilization in farming. The Hydraulic Equipment Development Institute, Kano, in keeping to its mandate of targeted R&D in hydraulic and pneumatic systems, has developed an Animal Drawn Knapsack Boom Sprayer with four nozzles using the axle mechanism of a two wheeled cart to actuate the piston pump of two knapsack sprayers in line with appropriate technology demand of the country. It is hoped that the introduction of this novel contrivance shall enhance crop protection practice and lead to greater crop and food production in Nigeria.

Keywords: boom, knapsack, farm, sprayer, wheel axle

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20 Development of Structural Deterioration Models for Flexible Pavement Using Traffic Speed Deflectometer Data

Authors: Sittampalam Manoharan, Gary Chai, Sanaul Chowdhury, Andrew Golding


The primary objective of this paper is to present a simplified approach to develop the structural deterioration model using traffic speed deflectometer data for flexible pavements. Maintaining assets to meet functional performance is not economical or sustainable in the long terms, and it would end up needing much more investments for road agencies and extra costs for road users. Performance models have to be included for structural and functional predicting capabilities, in order to assess the needs, and the time frame of those needs. As such structural modelling plays a vital role in the prediction of pavement performance. A structural condition is important for the prediction of remaining life and overall health of a road network and also major influence on the valuation of road pavement. Therefore, the structural deterioration model is a critical input into pavement management system for predicting pavement rehabilitation needs accurately. The Traffic Speed Deflectometer (TSD) is a vehicle-mounted Doppler laser system that is capable of continuously measuring the structural bearing capacity of a pavement whilst moving at traffic speeds. The device’s high accuracy, high speed, and continuous deflection profiles are useful for network-level applications such as predicting road rehabilitations needs and remaining structural service life. The methodology adopted in this model by utilizing time series TSD maximum deflection (D0) data in conjunction with rutting, rutting progression, pavement age, subgrade strength and equivalent standard axle (ESA) data. Then, regression analyses were undertaken to establish a correlation equation of structural deterioration as a function of rutting, pavement age, seal age and equivalent standard axle (ESA). This study developed a simple structural deterioration model which will enable to incorporate available TSD structural data in pavement management system for developing network-level pavement investment strategies. Therefore, the available funding can be used effectively to minimize the whole –of- life cost of the road asset and also improve pavement performance. This study will contribute to narrowing the knowledge gap in structural data usage in network level investment analysis and provide a simple methodology to use structural data effectively in investment decision-making process for road agencies to manage aging road assets.

Keywords: adjusted structural number (SNP), maximum deflection (D0), equant standard axle (ESA), traffic speed deflectometer (TSD)

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19 Preparing Data for Calibration of Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design Guide in Central Saudi Arabia

Authors: Abdulraaof H. Alqaili, Hamad A. Alsoliman


Through progress in pavement design developments, a pavement design method was developed, which is titled the Mechanistic Empirical Pavement Design Guide (MEPDG). Nowadays, the evolution in roads network and highways is observed in Saudi Arabia as a result of increasing in traffic volume. Therefore, the MEPDG currently is implemented for flexible pavement design by the Saudi Ministry of Transportation. Implementation of MEPDG for local pavement design requires the calibration of distress models under the local conditions (traffic, climate, and materials). This paper aims to prepare data for calibration of MEPDG in Central Saudi Arabia. Thus, the first goal is data collection for the design of flexible pavement from the local conditions of the Riyadh region. Since, the modifying of collected data to input data is needed; the main goal of this paper is the analysis of collected data. The data analysis in this paper includes processing each: Trucks Classification, Traffic Growth Factor, Annual Average Daily Truck Traffic (AADTT), Monthly Adjustment Factors (MAFi), Vehicle Class Distribution (VCD), Truck Hourly Distribution Factors, Axle Load Distribution Factors (ALDF), Number of axle types (single, tandem, and tridem) per truck class, cloud cover percent, and road sections selected for the local calibration. Detailed descriptions of input parameters are explained in this paper, which leads to providing of an approach for successful implementation of MEPDG. Local calibration of MEPDG to the conditions of Riyadh region can be performed based on the findings in this paper.

Keywords: mechanistic-empirical pavement design guide (MEPDG), traffic characteristics, materials properties, climate, Riyadh

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18 Productivity Improvement in the Propeller Shaft Manufacturing Process

Authors: Won Jung


In automotive, propeller shaft is the device for transferring power from engine to axle via transmission, and the slip yoke is one of the main parts in the component. Since the propeller shafts are subject to torsion and shear stress, they need to be strong enough to bear the stress. The purpose of this research is to improve the productivity of slip yoke for automotive propeller shaft. We present how to redesign the component that currently manufactured as a forged single body type. The research was focused on not only reducing processing time but insuring durability of the component simultaneously.

Keywords: automotive, propeller shaft, productivity, durability, slip yoke

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17 Thermal and Acoustic Design of Mobile Hydraulic Vehicle Engine Room

Authors: Homin Kim, Hyungjo Byun, Jinyoung Do, Yongil Lee, Hyunho Shin, Seungbae Lee


Engine room of mobile hydraulic vehicle is densely packed with an engine and many hydraulic components mostly generating heat and sound. Though hydraulic oil cooler, ATF cooler, and axle oil cooler etc. are added to vehicle cooling system of mobile vehicle, the overheating may cause downgraded performance and frequent failures. In order to improve thermal and acoustic environment of engine room, the computational approaches by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and Boundary Element Method (BEM) are used together with necessary modal analysis of belt-driven system. The engine room design layout and process, which satisfies the design objectives of sound power level and temperature levels of radiator water, charged air cooler, transmission and hydraulic oil coolers, is discussed.

Keywords: acoustics, CFD, engine room design, mobile hydraulics

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16 Artificial Neural Network-Based Bridge Weigh-In-Motion Technique Considering Environmental Conditions

Authors: Changgil Lee, Junkyeong Kim, Jihwan Park, Seunghee Park


In this study, bridge weigh-in-motion (BWIM) system was simulated under various environmental conditions such as temperature, humidity, wind and so on to improve the performance of the BWIM system. The environmental conditions can make difficult to analyze measured data and hence those factors should be compensated. Various conditions were considered as input parameters for ANN (Artificial Neural Network). The number of hidden layers for ANN was decided so that nonlinearity could be sufficiently reflected in the BWIM results. The weight of vehicles and axle weight were more accurately estimated by applying ANN approach. Additionally, the type of bridge which was a target structure was considered as an input parameter for the ANN.

Keywords: bridge weigh-in-motion (BWIM) system, environmental conditions, artificial neural network, type of bridges

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15 Influence of Shock Absorber Condition on the Vertical Dynamic Load Applied on the Pavement by a Truck’s Front Suspension

Authors: Pablo Kubo, Cassio Paiva, Adelino Ferreira


The main objective of this research study is to present the results of the influence of shock absorber condition, from a truck front suspension, on the vertical dynamic load applied on the pavement. For the measurements, it has been used a durability test track located in Brazil. The shock absorber conditions were new, used and failed with a constant load of 6 tons on the front suspension, the maximum allowed load for front axle according to Brazilian legislation. By applying relative damage concept, it is possible to conclude that the variation on the shock absorber conditions will significantly affect the load applied on the pavement. Although, it is recommended to repeat the same methodology in order to analyze the influence on the variation of the quarter car model variants.

Keywords: damage, shock absorber, vertical dynamic load, absorber

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14 Design of a Laboratory Test for InvestigatingPermanent Deformation of Asphalt

Authors: Esmaeil Ahmadinia, Frank Bullen, Ron Ayers


Many concerns have been raised in recent years about the adequacy of existing creep test methods for evaluating rut-resistance of asphalt mixes. Many researchers believe the main reason for the creep tests being unable to duplicate field results is related to a lack of a realistic confinement for laboratory specimens. In-situ asphalt under axle loads is surrounded by a mass of asphalt, which provides stress-strain generated confinement. However, most existing creep tests are largely unconfined in their nature. It has been hypothesised that by providing a degree of confinement, representative of field conditions, in a creep test, it could be possible to establish a better correlation between the field and laboratory. In this study, a new methodology is explored where confinement for asphalt specimens is provided. The proposed methodology is founded on the current Australian test method, adapted to provide simulated field conditions through the provision of sample confinement.

Keywords: asphalt mixture, creep test, confinements, permanent deformation

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13 Axle Load Estimation of Moving Vehicles Using BWIM Technique

Authors: Changgil Lee, Seunghee Park


Although vehicle driving test for the development of BWIM system is necessary, but it needs much cost and time in addition application of various driving condition. Thus, we need the numerical-simulation method resolving the cost and time problems of vehicle driving test and the way of measuring response of bridge according to the various driving condition. Using the precision analysis model reflecting the dynamic characteristic is contributed to increase accuracy in numerical simulation. In this paper, we conduct a numerical simulation to apply precision analysis model, which reflects the dynamic characteristic of bridge using Bridge Weigh-in-Motion technique and suggest overload vehicle enforcement technology using precision analysis model.

Keywords: bridge weigh-in-motion(BWIM) system, precision analysis model, dynamic characteristic of bridge, numerical simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 212
12 Light Car Assisted by PV Panels

Authors: Soufiane Benoumhani, Nadia Saifi, Boubekeur Dokkar, Mohamed Cherif Benzid


This work presents the design and simulation of electric equipment for a hybrid solar vehicle. The new drive train of this vehicle is a parallel hybrid system which means a vehicle driven by a great percentage of an internal combustion engine with 49.35 kW as maximal power and electric motor only as assistance when is needed. This assistance is carried out on the rear axle by a single electric motor of 7.22 kW as nominal power. The motor is driven by 12 batteries connecting in series, which are charged by three PV panels (300 W) installed on the roof and hood of the vehicle. The individual components are modeled and simulated by using the Matlab Simulink environment. The whole system is examined under different load conditions. The reduction of CO₂ emission is obtained by reducing fuel consumption. With the use of this hybrid system, fuel consumption can be reduced from 6.74 kg/h to 5.56 kg/h when the electric motor works at 100 % of its power. The net benefit of the system reaches 1.18 kg/h as fuel reduction at high values of power and torque.

Keywords: light car, hybrid system, PV panel, electric motor

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11 Failure of Agriculture Soil following the Passage of Tractors

Authors: Anis Eloud, Sayed Chehaibi


Compaction of agricultural soils as a result of the passage of heavy machinery on the fields is a problem that affects many agronomists and farmers since it results in a loss of yield of most crops. To remedy this, and raise the overall future of the food security challenge, we must study and understand the process of soil degradation. The present review is devoted to understanding the effect of repeated passages on agricultural land. The experiments were performed on a plot of the area of the ESIER, characterized by a clay texture in order to quantify the soil compaction caused by the wheels of the tractor during repeated passages on agricultural land. The test tractor CASE type puissance 110 hp and 5470 kg total mass of 3500 kg including the two rear axles and 1970 kg on the front axle. The state of soil compaction has been characterized by measuring its resistance to penetration by means of a penetrometer and direct manual reading, the density and permeability of the soil. Soil moisture was taken jointly. The measurements are made in the initial state before passing the tractor and after each pass varies from 1 to 7 on the track wheel inflated to 1.5 bar for the rear wheel and broke water to the level of valve and 4 bar for the front wheels. The passages are spaced to the average of one week. The results show that the passage of wheels on a farm tilled soil leads to compaction and the latter increases with the number of passages, especially for the upper 15 cm depth horizons. The first passage is characterized by the greatest effect. However, the effect of other passages do not follow a definite law for the complex behavior of granular media and the history of labor and the constraints it suffers from its formation.

Keywords: wheel traffic, tractor, soil compaction, wheel

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10 Pavement Failures and Its Maintenance

Authors: Maulik L. Sisodia, Tirth K. Raval, Aarsh S. Mistry


This paper summarizes the ongoing researches about the defects in both flexible and rigid pavement and the maintenance in both flexible and rigid pavements. Various defects in pavements have been identified since the existence of both flexible and rigid pavement. Flexible Pavement failure is defined in terms of decreasing serviceability caused by the development of cracks, ruts, potholes etc. Flexible Pavement structure can be destroyed in a single season due to water penetration. Defects in flexible pavements is a problem of multiple dimensions, phenomenal growth of vehicular traffic (in terms of no. of axle loading of commercial vehicles), the rapid expansion in the road network, non-availability of suitable technology, material, equipment, skilled labor and poor funds allocation have all added complexities to the problem of flexible pavements. In rigid pavements due to different type of destress the failure like joint spalling, faulting, shrinkage cracking, punch out, corner break etc. Application of correction in the existing surface will enhance the life of maintenance works as well as that of strengthening layer. Maintenance of a road network involves a variety of operations, i.e., identification of deficiencies and planning, programming and scheduling for actual implementation in the field and monitoring. The essential objective should be to keep the road surface and appurtenances in good condition and to extend the life of the road assets to its design life. The paper describes lessons learnt from pavement failures and problems experienced during the last few years on a number of projects in India. Broadly, the activities include identification of defects and the possible cause there off, determination of appropriate remedial measures; implement these in the field and monitoring of the results.

Keywords: Flexible Pavements, Rigid Pavements, Defects, Maintenance

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9 Pavement Management for a Metropolitan Area: A Case Study of Montreal

Authors: Luis Amador Jimenez, Md. Shohel Amin


Pavement performance models are based on projections of observed traffic loads, which makes uncertain to study funding strategies in the long run if history does not repeat. Neural networks can be used to estimate deterioration rates but the learning rate and momentum have not been properly investigated, in addition, economic evolvement could change traffic flows. This study addresses both issues through a case study for roads of Montreal that simulates traffic for a period of 50 years and deals with the measurement error of the pavement deterioration model. Travel demand models are applied to simulate annual average daily traffic (AADT) every 5 years. Accumulated equivalent single axle loads (ESALs) are calculated from the predicted AADT and locally observed truck distributions combined with truck factors. A back propagation Neural Network (BPN) method with a Generalized Delta Rule (GDR) learning algorithm is applied to estimate pavement deterioration models capable of overcoming measurement errors. Linear programming of lifecycle optimization is applied to identify M&R strategies that ensure good pavement condition while minimizing the budget. It was found that CAD 150 million is the minimum annual budget to good condition for arterial and local roads in Montreal. Montreal drivers prefer the use of public transportation for work and education purposes. Vehicle traffic is expected to double within 50 years, ESALS are expected to double the number of ESALs every 15 years. Roads in the island of Montreal need to undergo a stabilization period for about 25 years, a steady state seems to be reached after.

Keywords: pavement management system, traffic simulation, backpropagation neural network, performance modeling, measurement errors, linear programming, lifecycle optimization

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8 A Multi Criteria Approach for Prioritization of Low Volume Rural Roads for Maintenance and Improvement

Authors: L. V. S. S. Phaneendra Bolem, S. Shankar


Low Volume Rural Roads (LVRRs) constitute an integral component of the road system in all countries. These encompass all aspects of the social and economic development of rural communities. It is known that on a worldwide basis the number of low traffic roads far exceeds the length of high volume roads. Across India, 90% of the roads are LVRRs, and they often form the most important link in terms of providing access to educational, medical, recreational and commercial activities in local and regional areas. In the recent past, Government of India (GoI), with the initiation of the ambitious programme namely 'Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana' (PMGSY) gave greater importance to LVRRs realizing their role in economic development of rural communities. The vast expansion of the road network has brought connectivity to the rural areas of the country. Further, it is noticed that due to increasing axle loads and lack of timely maintenance, is accelerated the process of deterioration of LVRRs. In addition to this due to limited budget for maintenance of these roads systematic and scientific approach in utilizing the available resources has been necessitated. This would enable better prioritization and ranking for the maintenance and make ‘all-weather roads’. Taking this into account the present study has adopted a multi-criteria approach. The multi-criteria approach includes parameters such as social, economic, environmental and pavement condition as the main criterion and some sub-criteria to find the best suitable parameters and their weight. For this purpose the expert’s opinion survey was carried out using Delphi Technique (DT) considering Likert scale, pairwise comparison and ranking methods and entire data was analyzed. Finally, this study developed the maintenance criterion considering the socio-economic, environmental and pavement condition parameters for effective maintenance of low volume roads based on the engineering judgment.

Keywords: Delphi technique, experts opinion survey, low volume rural road maintenance, multi criteria analysis

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7 Determination of Influence Lines for Train Crossings on a Tied Arch Bridge to Optimize the Construction of the Hangers

Authors: Martin Mensinger, Marjolaine Pfaffinger, Matthias Haslbeck


The maintenance and expansion of the railway network represents a central task for transport planning in the future. In addition to the ultimate limit states, the aspects of resource conservation and sustainability are increasingly more necessary to include in the basic engineering. Therefore, as part of the AiF research project, ‘Integrated assessment of steel and composite railway bridges in accordance with sustainability criteria’, the entire lifecycle of engineering structures is involved in planning and evaluation, offering a way to optimize the design of steel bridges. In order to reduce the life cycle costs and increase the profitability of steel structures, it is particularly necessary to consider the demands on hanger connections resulting from fatigue. In order for accurate analysis, a number simulations were conducted as part of the research project on a finite element model of a reference bridge, which gives an indication of the internal forces of the individual structural components of a tied arch bridge, depending on the stress incurred by various types of trains. The calculations were carried out on a detailed FE-model, which allows an extraordinarily accurate modeling of the stiffness of all parts of the constructions as it is made up surface elements. The results point to a large impact of the formation of details on fatigue-related changes in stress, on the one hand, and on the other, they could depict construction-specific specifics over the course of adding stress. Comparative calculations with varied axle-stress distribution also provide information about the sensitivity of the results compared to the imposition of stress and axel distribution on the stress-resultant development. The calculated diagrams help to achieve an optimized hanger connection design through improved durability, which helps to reduce the maintenance costs of rail networks and to give practical application notes for the formation of details.

Keywords: fatigue, influence line, life cycle, tied arch bridge

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6 Durability Analysis of a Knuckle Arm Using VPG System

Authors: Geun-Yeon Kim, S. P. Praveen Kumar, Kwon-Hee Lee


A steering knuckle arm is the component that connects the steering system and suspension system. The structural performances such as stiffness, strength, and durability are considered in its design process. The former study suggested the lightweight design of a knuckle arm considering the structural performances and using the metamodel-based optimization. The six shape design variables were defined, and the optimum design was calculated by applying the kriging interpolation method. The finite element method was utilized to predict the structural responses. The suggested knuckle was made of the aluminum Al6082, and its weight was reduced about 60% in comparison with the base steel knuckle, satisfying the design requirements. Then, we investigated its manufacturability by performing foraging analysis. The forging was done as hot process, and the product was made through two-step forging. As a final step of its developing process, the durability is investigated by using the flexible dynamic analysis software, LS-DYNA and the pre and post processor, eta/VPG. Generally, a car make does not provide all the information with the part manufacturer. Thus, the part manufacturer has a limit in predicting the durability performance with the unit of full car. The eta/VPG has the libraries of suspension, tire, and road, which are commonly used parts. That makes a full car modeling. First, the full car is modeled by referencing the following information; Overall Length: 3,595mm, Overall Width: 1,595mm, CVW (Curve Vehicle Weight): 910kg, Front Suspension: MacPherson Strut, Rear Suspension: Torsion Beam Axle, Tire: 235/65R17. Second, the road is selected as the cobblestone. The road condition of the cobblestone is almost 10 times more severe than that of usual paved road. Third, the dynamic finite element analysis using the LS-DYNA is performed to predict the durability performance of the suggested knuckle arm. The life of the suggested knuckle arm is calculated as 350,000km, which satisfies the design requirement set up by the part manufacturer. In this study, the overall design process of a knuckle arm is suggested, and it can be seen that the developed knuckle arm satisfies the design requirement of the durability with the unit of full car. The VPG analysis is successfully performed even though it does not an exact prediction since the full car model is very rough one. Thus, this approach can be used effectively when the detail to full car is not given.

Keywords: knuckle arm, structural optimization, Metamodel, forging, durability, VPG (Virtual Proving Ground)

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5 An Evaluation of the Lae City Road Network Improvement Project

Authors: Murray Matarab Konzang


Lae Port Development Project, Four Lane Highway and other development in the extraction industry which have direct road link to Lae City are predicted to have significant impact on its road network system. This paper evaluates Lae roads improvement program with forecast on planning, economic and the installation of bypasses to ease congestion, effective and convenient transport service for bulk goods and reduce travel time. Land-use transportation study and plans for local area traffic management scheme will be considered. City roads are faced with increased number of traffic and some inadequate road pavement width, poor transport plans, and facilities to meet this transportation demand. Lae also has drainage system which might not hold a 100 year flood. Proper evaluation, plan, design and intersection analysis is needed to evaluate road network system thus recommend improvement and estimate future growth. Repetitive and cyclic loading by heavy commercial vehicles with different axle configurations apply on the flexible pavement which weakens and tear the pavement surface thus small cracks occur. Rain water seeps through and overtime it creates potholes. Effective planning starts from experimental research and appropriate design standards to enable firm embankment, proper drains and quality pavement material. This paper will address traffic problems as well as road pavement, capacities of intersections, and pedestrian flow during peak hours. The outcome of this research will be to identify heavily trafficked road sections and recommend treatments to reduce traffic congestions, road classification, and proposal for bypass routes and improvement. First part of this study will describe transport or traffic related problems within the city. Second part would be to identify challenges imposed by traffic and road related problems and thirdly to recommend solutions after the analyzing traffic data that will indicate current capacities of road intersections and finally recommended treatment for improvement and future growth.

Keywords: Lae, road network, highway, vehicle traffic, planning

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4 Evaluation of Commercial Back-analysis Package in Condition Assessment of Railways

Authors: Shadi Fathi, Moura Mehravar, Mujib Rahman


Over the years,increased demands on railways, the emergence of high-speed trains and heavy axle loads, ageing, and deterioration of the existing tracks, is imposing costly maintenance actions on the railway sector. The need for developing a fast andcost-efficient non-destructive assessment method for the structural evaluation of railway tracksis therefore critically important. The layer modulus is the main parameter used in the structural design and evaluation of the railway track substructure (foundation). Among many recently developed NDTs, Falling Weight Deflectometer (FWD) test, widely used in pavement evaluation, has shown promising results for railway track substructure monitoring. The surface deflection data collected by FWD are used to estimate the modulus of substructure layers through the back-analysis technique. Although there are different commerciallyavailableback-analysis programs are used for pavement applications, there are onlya limited number of research-based techniques have been so far developed for railway track evaluation. In this paper, the suitability, accuracy, and reliability of the BAKFAAsoftware are investigated. The main rationale for selecting BAKFAA as it has a relatively straightforward user interfacethat is freely available and widely used in highway and airport pavement evaluation. As part of the study, a finite element (FE) model of a railway track section near Leominsterstation, Herefordshire, UK subjected to the FWD test, was developed and validated against available field data. Then, a virtual experimental database (including 218 sets of FWD testing data) was generated using theFE model and employed as the measured database for the BAKFAA software. This database was generated considering various layers’ moduli for each layer of track substructure over a predefined range. The BAKFAA predictions were compared against the cone penetration test (CPT) data (available from literature; conducted near to Leominster station same section as the FWD was performed). The results reveal that BAKFAA overestimatesthe layers’ moduli of each substructure layer. To adjust the BAKFA with the CPT data, this study introduces a correlation model to make the BAKFAA applicable in railway applications.

Keywords: back-analysis, bakfaa, railway track substructure, falling weight deflectometer (FWD), cone penetration test (CPT)

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3 Multi-Plane Wrist Movement: Pathomechanics and Design of a 3D-Printed Splint

Authors: Sigal Portnoy, Yael Kaufman-Cohen, Yafa Levanon


Introduction: Rehabilitation following wrist fractures often includes exercising flexion-extension movements with a dynamic splint. However, during daily activities, we combine most of our wrist movements with radial and ulnar deviations. Also, the multi-plane wrist motion, named the ‘dart throw motion’ (DTM), was found to be a more stable motion in healthy individuals, in term of the motion of the proximal carpal bones, compared with sagittal wrist motion. The aim of this study was therefore to explore the pathomechanics of the wrist in a common multi-plane movement pattern (DTM) and design a novel splint for rehabilitation following distal radius fractures. Methods: First, a multi-axis electro-goniometer was used to quantify the plane angle of motion of the dominant and non-dominant wrists during various activities, e.g. drinking from a glass of water and answering a phone in 43 healthy individuals. The following protocols were then implemented with a population following distal radius fracture. Two dynamic scans were performed, one of the sagittal wrist motion and DTM, in a 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) device, bilaterally. The scaphoid and lunate carpal bones, as well as the surface of the distal radius, were manually-segmented in SolidWorks and the angles of motion of the scaphoid and lunate bones were calculated. Subsequently, a patient-specific splint was designed using 3D scans of the hand. The brace design comprises of a proximal attachment to the arm and a distal envelope of the palm. An axle with two wheels is attached to the proximal part. Two wires attach the proximal part with the medial-palmar and lateral-ventral aspects of the distal part: when the wrist extends, the first wire is released and the second wire is strained towards the radius. The opposite occurs when the wrist flexes. The splint was attached to the wrist using Velcro and constrained the wrist movement to the desired calculated multi-plane of motion. Results: No significant differences were found between the multi-plane angles of the dominant and non-dominant wrists. The most common daily activities occurred at a plane angle of approximately 20° to 45° from the sagittal plane and the MRI studies show individual angles of the plane of motion. The printed splint fitted the wrist of the subjects and constricted movement to the desired multi-plane of motion. Hooks were inserted on each part to allow the addition of springs or rubber bands for resistance training towards muscle strengthening in the rehabilitation setting. Conclusions: It has been hypothesized that activation of the wrist in a multi-plane movement pattern following distal radius fractures will accelerate the recovery of the patient. Our results show that this motion can be determined from either the dominant or non-dominant wrists. The design of the patient-specific dynamic splint is the first step towards assessing whether splinting to induce combined movement is beneficial to the rehabilitation process, compared to conventional treatment. The evaluation of the clinical benefits of this method, compared to conventional rehabilitation methods following wrist fracture, are a part of a PhD work, currently conducted by an occupational therapist.

Keywords: distal radius fracture, rehabilitation, dynamic magnetic resonance imaging, dart throw motion

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2 Evaluation of Alternative Approaches for Additional Damping in Dynamic Calculations of Railway Bridges under High-Speed Traffic

Authors: Lara Bettinelli, Bernhard Glatz, Josef Fink


Planning engineers and researchers use various calculation models with different levels of complexity, calculation efficiency and accuracy in dynamic calculations of railway bridges under high-speed traffic. When choosing a vehicle model to depict the dynamic loading on the bridge structure caused by passing high-speed trains, different goals are pursued: On the one hand, the selected vehicle models should allow the calculation of a bridge’s vibrations as realistic as possible. On the other hand, the computational efficiency and manageability of the models should be preferably high to enable a wide range of applications. The commonly adopted and straightforward vehicle model is the moving load model (MLM), which simplifies the train to a sequence of static axle loads moving at a constant speed over the structure. However, the MLM can significantly overestimate the structure vibrations, especially when resonance events occur. More complex vehicle models, which depict the train as a system of oscillating and coupled masses, can reproduce the interaction dynamics between the vehicle and the bridge superstructure to some extent and enable the calculation of more realistic bridge accelerations. At the same time, such multi-body models require significantly greater processing capacities and precise knowledge of various vehicle properties. The European standards allow for applying the so-called additional damping method when simple load models, such as the MLM, are used in dynamic calculations. An additional damping factor depending on the bridge span, which should take into account the vibration-reducing benefits of the vehicle-bridge interaction, is assigned to the supporting structure in the calculations. However, numerous studies show that when the current standard specifications are applied, the calculation results for the bridge accelerations are in many cases still too high compared to the measured bridge accelerations, while in other cases, they are not on the safe side. A proposal to calculate the additional damping based on extensive dynamic calculations for a parametric field of simply supported bridges with a ballasted track was developed to address this issue. In this contribution, several different approaches to determine the additional damping of the supporting structure considering the vehicle-bridge interaction when using the MLM are compared with one another. Besides the standard specifications, this includes the approach mentioned above and two additional recently published alternative formulations derived from analytical approaches. For a bridge catalogue of 65 existing bridges in Austria in steel, concrete or composite construction, calculations are carried out with the MLM for two different high-speed trains and the different approaches for additional damping. The results are compared with the calculation results obtained by applying a more sophisticated multi-body model of the trains used. The evaluation and comparison of the results allow assessing the benefits of different calculation concepts for the additional damping regarding their accuracy and possible applications. The evaluation shows that by applying one of the recently published redesigned additional damping methods, the calculation results can reflect the influence of the vehicle-bridge interaction on the design-relevant structural accelerations considerably more reliable than by using normative specifications.

Keywords: Additional Damping Method, Bridge Dynamics, High-Speed Railway Traffic, Vehicle-Bridge-Interaction

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