Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 663

Search results for: Wistar Albinos rats

663 Evaluation of Activity of Anacyclus Pyrethrum Methanolic Extract on Acute Inflammation Induced in Rats

Authors: Dalila Bouamra, Chekib Arslane Baki, Abdelhamid Bouchebour, Fatiha Koussa, Amel Benamara, Seoussen Kada


The activity of methanolic extract from Anacyclus pyrethrum was evaluated using λ-carrageenan 1% induced paw edema in Wistar Albinos rats. The oral administration of 200 mg/kg, 400 mg/kg and 600 mg/kg, body weight of methanolic extract, one hour before induction of inflammation, exerted a significant inhibition effect of 47%, 57% and 62% respectively after 4h λ-carrageenan treatment and highly significant inhibition effect of 57%, 66% and 75% respectively after 8h λ-carrageenan treatment, compared to non treated group (100%) and that treated with aspirin, a standard anti-inflammatory drug. On the other hand, the effect of the plant extract on stomach was macroscopically and microscopically studied. The plant extract has an impact on the loss ratio of granulocytes that have invaded the stomach after a period of inflammation at a dose of 600 mg/kg body weight.

Keywords: inflammation, Anacyclus pyrethrum, gastritis, Wistar Albinos rats

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662 Evaluation of Wound Healing Activity of Phlomis bovei De Noe in Wistar Albino Rats

Authors: W. Khitri, J. Zenaki, A. Abi, N. Lachgueur, A. Lardjem


Healing is a biological phenomenon that is automatically and immediately implemented by the body that is able to repair the physical damage of all tissues except nerve cells. Lot of medicinal plants is used for the treatment of a wound. Our ethnobotanical study has identified 19 species and 13 families of plants used in traditional medicine in Oran-Algeria for their healing activities. The Phlomis bovei De Noe was the species most recommended by herbalists. Its phytochemical study revealed different secondary metabolites such as terpenes, tannins, saponins and mucilage. The evaluation of the healing activity of Phlomis bovei in wistar albinos rats by excision wound model showed a significant amelioration with 5 % increase of the surface healing compared to the control group and a gain of three days of epithelialization time with a scar histologically better.

Keywords: Phlomis Bovei De Noe, ethnobanical study, wound healing, wistar albino rats

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661 Evaluation of Excision Wound Healing Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Michelia Champaca ın Diabetic Wistar Rats

Authors: Smita Shenoy, Amoolya Gowda, Tara Shanbhag, Krishnananda Prabhu, Venumadhav Nelluri


The study was undertaken to assess the effect of ethanolic extract of Michelia champaca on excision wound healing in diabetic wistar rats. Excision wound was made in five groups of rats after inducing diabetes with streptozotocin in four groups. Paraffin was applied to wounds in nondiabetic and diabetic control and 2.5%, 5%, 10% ointment of extract to wounds in three diabetic test groups. Monitoring of wound contraction rate, the period of epithelization and histopathological examination of granulation tissue was done. There was a significant (p < 0.05) decrease in the period of epithelization and a significant increase in the wound contraction rate on day 12 and 16 in rats treated with 5% and 10% ointment as compared to diabetic rats. There was a better organization of collagen fibers in the granulation tissue of wounds treated with 10% ointment. The higher dose of ethanolic extract of Michelia champaca promoted wound healing in diabetic Wistar rats.

Keywords: Michelia champaca, excision wound, contraction, epithelization

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660 Evaluation of Chemoprotective Effect of NBRIQU16 against N-Methyl-N-Nitro-N-Nitrosoguanidine and NaCl-Induced Gastric Carcinomas in Wistar Rats

Authors: Lubna Azmi, Ila Shukla, Shyam Sundar Gupta, Padam Kant, C. V. Rao


To investigate the chemoprotective potential of NBRIQU16 chemotype isolated from Argyreia speciosa (Family: Convolvulaceae) on N-methyl-N-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) and NaCl-induced gastric carcinomas in Wistar rats. Forty-six male 6-week-old Wistar rats were divided into two groups. Thirty rats in group A were fed with a diet supplemented with 8 % NaCl for 20 weeks and simultaneously given N-methyl-N’-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) in drinking water at a concentration of 100 ug/ml for the first 17 weeks. After administration of the carcinogen, 200 and 400 mg/kg of NBRIQU16 were administered orally once a day throughout the study. From week 18, these rats were given normal water. From week 21, these rats were fed with a normal diet for 15 weeks. Group B containing 16 rats was fed standard diet for thirty-five days. It served as control. Ten rats from group A were sacrificed after 20 weeks. Scarification of remaining animals was conducted after 35 weeks. Entire stomach and some part of the duodenum were incised parallel to the greater curvature, and the samples were collected. After opening the stomach location and size of tumors were recorded. The number of tumors with their locations and sizes were recorded. Expression of survivin was examined by recording the Immunohistochemistry of the specimens. The treatment with NBRIQU16 significantly reduced the nodule incidence and nodule multiplicity in the rats after MNNG administration. Surviving expression in glandular stomachs of normal rats, of rats in middle induction period, in adenocarcinomas and NBRIQU16 treated tissues adjacent to tumor were 0, 42.0 %, 79.3%, and 36.4 %, respectively. Expression of survivin was significantly different as compared to the normal rats. Histological observations of stomach tissues too correlated with the biochemical observations.These finding powerfully supports that NBRIQU16 chemopreventive effect by suppressing the tumor burden and restoring the activities of gastric cancer marker enzymes on MNNG and NaCl-induced gastric carcinomas in Wistar rats.

Keywords: Argyreia speciosa, gastric carcinoma, immunochemistry, NBRIQU16

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659 Physicochemical and Biochemical Characterization of Olea europea Var. Oleaster Oil and Determination of Its Effects on Blood Parameters

Authors: Asma Gherib, Imen Merzougui, Cherifa Henchiri


This present study has allowed to evaluate the physico chemical characteristics, fatty acid composition and the hypolipidemic effect of Oleaster oil Olea europea var. Oleaster, from the area of El Kala, "Eastern Algeria" on rats "Wistar albinos". The physico chemical characteristics: acidity (0,73%), peroxide value (14, 16 meqO2/kg oil) and iodine value (74,08 g iodine/100 g of oil) are consistent with international standards. The dosage of FA revealed a wealth of oil with UFA (76,7%), mainly composed of 65.43% of MUFA whose major fatty acid is oleic acid (63,57%). The experiment on rats receiving a diet rich in saturated fats and hydrogenated oils revealed that the consumption of Oleaster oil at the dose of 10 g and 20 g for 15 and 30 days improves plasma lipid profile by decreasing the rates of TC, TG, TL, and LDL-C with an increase in the rate of HDL-C serum. The importance of these effects depends on the dose and period of treatment.

Keywords: oleaster oil, fatty acid, Olea europea, oleic acid, lipid profile

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658 Therapeutic Effect of Diisopropyldithiocarbamate Sodium Salt Against Diclofenac Induced Testicular Damage in Male Wistar Rats

Authors: Tella Toluwani, Adegbegi Ademuyiwa, Musei Chiedu, Adekunle Odola, Ayangbenro Ayansina, Adaramoye Oluwatosin


Dithiocarbamates are very useful biological agents with antioxidant properties. Diclofenac (DIC) is a non-steroidal analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic agent. The use of diclofenac has been linked with reproductive toxicity/damage. The purpose of this study is (i) To investigate the therapeutic potential of diisopropyldithiocarbamate sodium salt (Na(i-Pr₂dtc)) and vitamin E (VIT E) against diclofenac induced toxicity in the testes of male Wistar rats. (ii) To investigate the effect of (Na(i-Pr₂dtc)) and vitamin E on ameliorating damage done to the testes through histological analysis of the testes. Thirty-six (36) male Wistar rats were used for the experiment, they were divided into six (6) groups, the animals in group 1 served as control, animals in groups 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 received DIC only, DIC and (Na(i-Pr₂dtc)), DIC and VIT E, (Na(i-Pr₂dtc) only and VIT E only respectively. A single dose of 100 mg/kg body weight of DIC was administered to male Wistar rats, while 30 mg/kg body weight of (Na(i-Pr₂dtc)) was used to treat both normal and DIC treated animals, control animals were treated with the vehicle, after 24 hrs of treatment the animals were euthanized and the testes were removed for analysis. The treatment of rats with Na(i-Pr₂dtc) significantly restored catalase (CAT) activity depressed by diclofenac. (Na(i-Pr₂dtc)) also restored glutathione levels reduced by DIC treatment and this was also accompanied by reduced lipid peroxidation (LPO) level. VIT E significantly restored superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity when compared with DIC only treated animals. Photomicrographs of testes from (Na(i-Pr₂dtc)) treated rats showed seminiferous epithelium with no lesions. We conclude that (Na(i-Pr₂dtc)) has an antioxidant effect, which might be related to the dose and duration of administration.

Keywords: diisopropyldithiocarbamate sodium salt, diclofenac, vitamin E, testes

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657 Hexavalent Chromium-Induced Changes in Biochemical Parameters of Wistar Albino Rats

Authors: Ounassa Adjroud


Potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7) is one of the most toxic elements to which man can be exposed at work or in the environment. The purpose of the current work is to compare the effect of K2Cr2O7 using variations in the dose, route of administration and duration of exposure in male and female Wistar albino rats with a special focus on biochemical parameters. K2Cr2O7 was subcutaneously administered alone (10, 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight) to female Wistar albino rats. Male rats received in their drinking water K2Cr2O7 30 mg/L/day) for 20 consecutive days. The Biochemical parameters were evaluated on days 3, 6 and 21 after subcutaneous (sc.) treatment in female rats and on days 10 and 20 after oral administration in male rats. The subcutaneous (s.c.) administration of 25 mg/kg of K2Cr2O7 to Wistar albino rats induced a slight change in plasma glucose levels during the experiment period. On the contrary, a significant decrease in plasma glucose levels was observed with 50 mg/kg mainly on days 3 (-26%) and 21 (-48%) after treatment compared to controls females rats. On the other hand, the higher dose provoked a significant increase in plasma glucose concentrations on days 6 (+31%) and 21 (+60%). similarly, the lower dose of chromium had no effect on the plasma urea levels. Conversely, a significant increase (122%) in this parameter was obtained during the first three days after treatment. In addition, a significant decrease in plasma glucose levels was observed with 50 mg/kg mainly on days 3 (-26%) and 21 (-48%) after treatment. On the other hand, the higher dose provoked a significant increase in plasma glucose concentrations on days 6 (+31%) and 21 (+60%). similarly, the lower dose of chromium had no effect on the plasma urea levels. Conversely, a significant increase in this parameter (122%) was obtained during the first three days after treatment. In addition, administration of 100 mg/kg of K2Cr2O7 by s.c markedly augmented the levels of plasma urea on days 3 (62%) and 6 (121%). Administration of 30 mg/L/day of K2Cr2O7 in the drinking water induced a significant augmentation in both of plasma glucose (27%) and urea (126%) during the first ten days of treatment. These results suggested that K2Cr2O7 administered subcutaneously or in the drinking water may induce harmful effects on biochemical parameters.

Keywords: glucose, potassium dichromate, Wistar albino rat, urea

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656 Immunohistochemical Evaluation of Moringa oleifera Seed Oil in Cadmium Induced Frontal Cortex Damage in Wistar Rats

Authors: Olusegun D. Omotoso


The use of Moringa oleifera seed oil in the prevention and cure of many ailments particularly, neurodegenerative diseases have been on increasing trend in Nigeria. The study was aimed at investigating the ameliorative or reversal effects by the intervention of Moringa oleifera seed oil on the damage to frontal cortex of Wistar rats by cadmium. Twenty-eight Wistar rats of both sexes weighed between 73g-151g were used. The animals were acclimatized and were fed on rat chow and water ad libitum. The rats were randomly divided into four groups A, B, C and D of 7 rats each. Group A served as control which received 2.5mg/kgbw phosphate buffer intra-peritoneally, while group D served as Moringa-treated control and received oral administration of 2.0 mg/kgbw Moringa oleifera oil. Groups B and C were injected intra-peritoneally with 3.5mg/kgbw CdSO₄.8H₂O single dose. Group C received orally administration of 2.0mg/kgbw Moringa oleifera oil. The intervention lasted for four weeks after which the animals were sacrificed by cervical dislocation and the tissues processed histologically. The immuno-histoarchitecture of the frontal cortex was characterized by pyknosis of nuclei as well as activation of astrocytes which was evidence in group B rats, while those animals in group C showed ameliorative effect that were evidence in reduction in the number of pyknotic nuclei and reduction of activated astrocytes as compared with control group A and Moringa-treated group D. It can be deduced that Moringa oleifera seed oil has natural antioxidant constituents that might have ameliorated the immuno-histoarchitectural damage caused by cadmium.

Keywords: cadmium, immuno-histoarchitecture, Moringa oleifera, pyknotic nuclei

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655 Influence of Alcohol Consumption on Attention in Wistar Albino Rats

Authors: Adekunle Adesina, Dorcas Adesina


This Research investigated the influence of alcohol consumption on attention in Wister albino rats. It was designed to test whether or not alcohol consumption affected visual and auditory attention. The sample of this study comprise of 3males albino rats and 3 females albino rats which were randomly assigned to 3 (male/female each) groups, 1, 2 and 3. The first group which was experimental Group 1 received 4ml of alcohol ingestion with cannula twice daily (morning and evening). The second group which was experimental group 2 received 2ml of alcohol ingestion with cannula twice daily (morning and evening). Third group which was the control group only received water (placebo), all these happened within a period of 2 days. Three hypotheses were advanced and testedf in the study. Hypothesis 1 stated that there will be no significant difference between the response speed of albino rats that consume alcohol and those that consume water on visual attention using 5-CSRTT. This was confirmed (DF (2, 9) = 0.72, P <.05). Hypothesis 2 stated that albino rats who consumed alcohol will perform better than those who consume water on auditory accuracy using 5-CSRTT. This was also tested but not confirmed (DF (2, 9) = 2.10, P< .05). The third hypothesis which stated that female albino rats who consumed alcohol would not perform better than male albino rats who consumed alcohol on auditory accuracy using 5-CSRTT was tested and not confirmed. (DF (4) = 0.17, P < .05). Data was analyzed using one-way ANOVA and T-test for independent measures. It was therefore recommended that government policies and programs should be directed at reducing to the barest minimum the rate of alcohol consumption especially among males as it is detrimental to the human auditory attentional organ.

Keywords: alcohol, attention, influence, rats, Wistar

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654 Chemopreventive and Therapeutic Efficacy of Salsola inermis Extract against N-Nitrosodiethylamine-Initiated and Phenobarbital-Promoted Hepatocellular Carcinogenesis in Wistar Rats

Authors: Ahlam H. Mahmoud, Samir F. Zohny, Ibrahim H. Boraia, Faten S. Bayoumic, Eman Eissa


Hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the most common cancers worldwide and is known to be resistant to conventional chemotherapy. Therefore, we aimed to assess the Salsola inermis extract as a novel chemopreventive and/or therapeutic agent against N-nitrosodiethylamine (DNE)/phenobarbital (PB)-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in rats. Adult male Wistar albino rats were divided into five groups: group1 rats were served as normal controls; group 2 rats were injected intraperitoneally with S. inermis extract (100 mg/kg body weight/day) for 20 weeks; group 3 rats were subjected to two-phase hepatocarcinogenic regimen (initiation of hepatocarcinogenesis was performed by a single intraperitoneal injection of DEN at a dose of 200 mg/kg body weight, 2 weeks later, the carcinogenic effect was promoted by supplementation of rats with 0.05% PB for 16 weeks); group 4 rats were injected intraperitoneally with S. inermis extract 2 weeks prior to the injection of DEN, the daily injection of S. inermis extract was then continued for 18 weeks along with two-phase hepatocarcinogenic regimen (chemoprevention group); and group 5 rats were subjected to the two-phase hepatocarcinogenic regimen, and then, the animals were injected intraperitoneally with S. inermis extract for 4 weeks (treatment group). The activities of serum liver enzymes and levels of total bilirubin, conjugated bilirubin, α-fetoprotein, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) in serum were decreased in chemopreventive and treated rats compared with DEN/PB-administered rats. Interestingly, the serum levels of total protein and albumin were normalized in chemopreventive and treated rats. Moreover, the majority of chemopreventive and treated rats showed an almost normal histological pattern of liver. In conclusion, S. inermis extract possessed chemopreventive and therapeutic activities against hepatocarcinogenesis in rats partially through the inhibition of VEGF and sICAM-1.

Keywords: Salsola inermis extract, hepatocarcinogenesis, α–fetoprotein, VEGF, sICAM-1

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653 Acrylamide-Induced Acute Nephrotoxicity in Rats

Authors: Keivan Jamshidi, Afshin Zahedi


Acrylamide (ACR) has been shown to cause neurotoxic effects in humans and neurotoxic, genotoxic, reproductive, and carcinogenic effects in laboratory animals. To investigate the nephrotoxic effect of Acrylamide (ACR), 50 adult male rats (Wistar, approximately 250 g) housed in polycarbonate boxes as 5 per each, and randomly assigned in 5 groups including 4 exposure groups as A, B, C, and D groups of rats (10 rats per exposure group., total) and were exposed to 0.5, 5, 50, 100 mg/kg ACR per day×11days i.p. respectively. The remaining 10 rats were housed in group (E) as control group. Control rats received daily i.p. injections of 0.9% saline (3ml/kg). On day 12, four rats, were randomly selected, perfused , dissected and proper samples were collected from their kidneys. Results of histopathological studies based on H&E technique did show no morphologic changes in kidneys of rats belong to groups A, B and E, while moderate to severe morphologic changes including glomerular hypercellularity, global pattern of proliferative glomerulonephritis, occupation of capsular space, tubular cell swelling and hyaline cast formation, were observed in different stained sections obtained from the kidneys of rats belong to group, C, and D. This finding, beside neurotoxic, reproductive and carcinogenic effects, seems to indicate for the first time another important aspect of toxic effect of ACR, i.e., acute nephrotoxicity.

Keywords: acrylamide, nephrotoxicity, glomerulonephritis, rats

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652 The Hypolipidemic and Anti-Nephrotoxic Potentials of Vernonia calvoana Extract in Acetaminophen-Treated Male Wistar Rats

Authors: Godwin E. Egbung, Item J. Atangwho, Diana O. Odey, Eyong U. Eyong


Background of the study: The frequent abuse of acetaminophen by field workers in Calabar metropolis necessitated the present study on the hypolipidemic and anti-nephrotoxic potentials of Vernonia calvoana (VC) extract in acetaminophen (paracetamol) treated male albino Wistar rats Methods:. Thirty-five (35) male albino Wistar rats weighing 100-150 g were divided into five (5) groups of seven rats each. Group 1 served as normal control, group 2 received normal saline after treatment with Acetaminophen (PCM), group 3 was treated with VC extracts (200 mg/kg body weight), group 4 received VC extracts ( 400 mg/kg body weight) and group 5 was administered 100 mg/kg body weight of Vitamin E. At the end of the 21 days treatment period, the animals were sacrificed using chloroform vapours, and blood was collected via cardiac puncture and used for analyses of haematological as well as biochemical indices. Results: Results indicated significant decreases (p < 0.001) in LDL-c, TC and TG levels in groups 3,4 and 5 relative to both the control as well as group 2, the atherogenic index showed a significant decrease at p < 0.001) in all treated groups compared with control and PCM- treated group. However, both extracts treated groups and vitamin E treated group showed significant (p < 0.001) increase in HDL-c relative to the control and PCM treated group. Serum potassium concentration was significantly (p < 0.05 and 0.001) reduced across all the treated groups compared with control and PCM- treated groups. Group 4 showed significant (p < 0.001) increase in RBC count, Hb, and PCV compared with PCM- treated group. Conclusions: We therefore conclude that ethanolic leaf extract of VC possesses probable anti-anemic, hypolipidemic potentials, and also ameliorates serum electrolyte imbalance in paracetamol- induced toxicity.

Keywords: acetaminophen, haematological indices, hypolipidemic potentials, serum lipid profile, vernonia calvoana, wistar rats

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651 Effects of Intracerebroventricular Injection of Ghrelin and Aerobic Exercise on Passive Avoidance Memory and Anxiety in Adult Male Wistar Rats

Authors: Mohaya Farzin, Parvin Babaei, Mohammad Rostampour


Ghrelin plays a considerable role in important neurological effects related to food intake and energy homeostasis. As was found, regular physical activity may make available significant improvement of the cognitive functions in various behavioral situations. Anxiety is one of the main concerns of the modern world, affecting millions of individuals’ health. There are contradictory results regarding Ghrelin's effects on anxiety-like behavior, and the plasma level of this peptide is increased during physical activity. Here we aimed to evaluate the coincident effects of exogenous Ghrelin and aerobic exercise on anxiety-like behavior and passive avoidance memory in Wistar rats. Forty-five male Wistar rats (250 ± 20 g) were divided into 9 groups (n=5) and received intra-hippocampal injections of 3.0 nmol Ghrelin and performed aerobic exercise training for 8 weeks. Control groups received the same volume of saline and diazepam as negative and positive control groups, respectively. Learning and memory were estimated using a shuttle box apparatus, and anxiety-like behavior was recorded by an elevated plus-maze test (EPM). Data were analyzed by ANOVA test, and P<0.05 was considered significant. Our findings showed that the combined effect of ghrelin and aerobic exercise improves the acquisition, consolidation, and retrieval of passive avoidance memory in Wistar rats. Furthermore, it is supposed that the ghrelin receiving group spent less time in open arms and fewer open arms entries compared with the control group (P<0.05). However, exercising Wistar rats spent more time in the open arm zone in comparison with a control group (P<0.05). The Exercise + Ghrelin administration established reduced anxiety (P<0.05). The results of this study demonstrate that aerobic exercise contributes to an increase in the endogenous production of ghrelin, and physical activity alleviates anxiety-related behaviors induced by intra-hippocampal injection of Ghrelin. In general, exercise and ghrelin can reduce anxiety and improve memory.

Keywords: anxiety, ghrelin, aerobic exercise, learning, passive avoidance memory

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650 The Effect of Tribulus Terresteris on Histomorphometrical Changes of Testis Induced by Ethanol Administration in Male Wistar Rats

Authors: Arash Esfandiari, Ebrahim Parsaei


The purpose of this research was to survey the effect of tribulus terresteris on histomorphometrical changes of testis induced by ethanol administration in male wistar rats. Fifteen male wistar rats divided into three groups: 1- control group (n=5). 2- Experimental group I (IP received 1 mg/gr Alcohole 20% for 30 days) (n=5). 3- Experimental group II (IP received 1 mg/gr Alcohole 20% for 30 days and IP received 100 mg/kg tribulus terresteris 15 days before received Alcohole for 45 days) (n=5). All procedures and care of the animals were conducted following protocols approved by the ethical committee (Iranian Society for the Prevention of cruelty to animal, and Iranian Veterinary Organization). Results showed that the thickness of the wall of seminiferous tubule, the weight of testis, the number of spermatogenic cells were decreased in experimental group I. In addition, all of these parameters were increased in experimental group II compared with experimental group I. These decrement of all of parameters in experimental group I with significant difference in comparison control group (p≤ 0.05). But all of parameters had increment in experimental group II with no significant difference compared with control group (p≥ 0.05) and significant difference with experimental group I (p≤ 0.05).It is concluded that tribulus terresteris may prevent from reducing the number of spermatogenic cell that has been created by the consumption of alcohole.

Keywords: ethanol, histomorphometric, testis, teribulus terresteris

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649 Biochemical Assessments of the Effects of Crude Oil Contaminated Diets Wistar Rats

Authors: Olawuyi Sikiru Owolabi


A research was carried out to assess the biochemical effects of crude oil contaminated cat fish on selected rat kidney function tests. Thirty-six (36) albino rats (rattus novergicus) were grouped into six (6) of (6) in each group. The rats in group one served as control and they were placed on feed formulated with catfish cultured in borehole water while those ones from group 2 to group 6 were placed on feed formulated with catfish exposed to various concentrations of crude oil (0.1%,0.25%,0.5%,0.75% and 1% respectively).The results obtained showed that there was a significant increase in serum concentration of creatinine, Urea, sodium and potassium ions in the kidney of experimental rats when compared with the control. This may be interpreted to mean possible adverse effects on the kidney. Several studies have been done especially on the biological effects of crude oil in fish. These include Direct Lethal Toxicity, Sub-Lethal disruption of physiological and behavioral activities, interference with feeding and reproduction, direct coating or tainting of fish, effect of entry of hydrocarbons into the food web as well as alteration of biological habitat. The present study attempts to assess the effects of crude oil contaminated diet on rat kidney by carrying out some kidney function tests like determination of serum sodium and potassium ions by flame photometry method, determination of serum urea and determination of serum creatinine.

Keywords: crude oil, serum urea, creatinine, wistar rats

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648 Effects of High Intensity Interval vs. Low Intensity Continuous Training on LXRβ, ABCG5 and ABCG8 Genes Expression in Male Wistar Rats

Authors: Sdiqeh Jalali, M. R. Khazdair


Liver X receptors (LXR) have an essential role in the regulation of cholesterol metabolism, and their activation increase ABCG5 and ABCG8 genes expression for the improvement of cholesterol excretion from the body during reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of high-intensity interval (HIT) and low intensity continuous (LIT) trainings on gene expression of these substances after a high-fat diet in Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Fifteen male Wistar rats were divided into 3 groups: control group (n = 5), HIT exercise group (n = 5) and LIT exercise group (n = 5). All groups used a high-fat diet for 13 weeks, and the HIT and LIT groups performed the specific training program. The expression of LXRβ, ABCG5, and ABCG8 genes was measured after the training period. Findings: Data analysis showed significantly higher levels of LXRβ, ABCG5, and ABCG8 gene expression in HIT and LIT groups compared to the control group (P ≤ 0.05). Conclusion: HIT and LIT trainings after a high-fat diet have beneficial effects on RCT that prevent heart attack. Also, HIT training may have a greater effect on cholesterol excretion during the reverse cholesterol transport mechanism than LIT.

Keywords: liver X receptor, atherosclerosis, interval training, endurance training

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647 Acrylamide Induced Chronic Nephrotoxicity in Rats

Authors: Afshin Zahedi, Keivan Jmahidi


Acrylamide (AA) has been shown to cause neurotoxic effects in humans and neurotoxic, genotoxic, reproductive, and carcinogenic effects in laboratory animals. To investigate the nephrotoxic effect of acrylamide (ACR) 50 adult male rats (Wistar, approximately 250 g) were randomly assigned in 4 groups; including 3 treatment groups and 1 control group named as A, B, C, and D respectively. Rats in treatment groups were exposed to 0.1, 1, and 10 mg/kg ACR per day×90 days p.o (gavage) respectively. The remaining 10 rats in control group received daily p.o (gavage) of 0.9% saline (3ml/kg). On day 91, two rats were randomly selected, perfused, dissected and proper samples were collected from their kidneys. Results of histopathological studies based on H&E technique did not show morphologic changes in kidneys of rats belong to groups A, B and D, while moderate to severe morphologic changes including glomerular hypercellularity, global pattern of proliferative glomerulonephritis, occupation of capsular space, and tubular cell swelling and hyaline cast formation, were observed in different stained sections obtained from the kidneys of rats belong to group, C. This finding, beside neurotoxic, reproductive and carcinogenic effects, indicates for the first time another important aspect of toxic effect of ACR, ie, chronic nephrotoxicity.

Keywords: acrylamide, nephrotoxicity, glomerulonephritis, rats

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646 Effects of Achillea millefolium L. Extract on Rat Spermatogenesis

Authors: Nasrin Takzaree, Gholamreza Hassanzadeh, Abbas Hadjiakhoondi, Mohammadreza Rouini


Introduction: Today herbal medicine are extensively used for various therapeutic reasons. Whereas Achillea millefolium L. comprises different chemical compounds it is used in classic and modern medicine for different purposes. Concerning the family planning as a principle matter, the idea of using specific herbal medicine is of great importance. Purpose: To investigate the effects of Achillea millefolium L. extract on fertility power and spermatogenesis process in male mature Wistar rats and the anti-fertility effects of this extract in male genital system. Material and methods: In this study 32 male mature Wistar rats were randomly divided in to 4 experimental groups. 1st experimental group included 8 rats receiving Achillea millefolium extract at the dose of 200 mg/kg intraperitoneally. Second and third groups received the extract the same at the doses of 400 and 800 mg/kg respectively. 4th group was considered as control group in which the parenteral distilled water was administered. after 20 days, rats were sacrificed and the spermatogenesis process was histologically examined. Results: In experimental groups receiving high doses of extract comparing with control group, thickness in seminiferous tubules basal membrane, decrease in germinal epithelium cells, congestion in testicular tissue, disarrangement in germinal epithelium cells as well as decrease in cellular condense were observed (p<0.001). Conclusion: Findings suggest that alcoholic extract of Achillea millefolium at high concentrations lead to the structural alterations and changes in spermatogenesis in testicular tissue.

Keywords: spermatogenesis, alcoholic extract of Achillea millefolium L., testis, Wistar rat

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645 Assessment of Lipid Lowering Effect of Shilajit in Adult Male Rats

Authors: U. P. Rathnakar, Sejpal Jaykumar, Shenoy K. Ashok


The effect of Shilajit was investigated for lipid lowering activity and its effect on weight gain in Wistar albino rats. Shilajit, semi-hard brownish black resin formed through long-term humidification of several plant types, mainly bryophytes, can be obtained from steep rocks of the Himalayas at altitudes between 1000 to 5000 meters. Hyperlipidemia was produced by feeding the rats with the cholesterol-rich high-fat diet (HFD) for 2 months. This diet contained deoxycholic acid, cholesterol and warm coconut oil in powdered rat chow diet. At the end of study, Shilajit treated rats showed significant decrease in serum LDL, triglyceride and total cholesterol level as well as increase in serum HDL level, in comparison to rats fed on high-fat diet with no treatment. Also during study period, increase in weight in Shilajit treated group was significantly less than in the other group of rats fed on high-fat diet with no treatment. Thus, Shilajit has significantly controlled the development of hyperlipidemia and weight gain in high-fat diet fed rats in the present study.

Keywords: Shilajit, hyperlipidemia, weight control, cholesterol-rich high-fat diet

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644 Histological Evaluation of the Neuroprotective Roles of Trans Cinnamaldehyde against High Fat Diet and Streptozotozin Induced Neurodegeneration in Wistar Rats

Authors: Samson Ehindero, Oluwole Akinola


Substantial evidence has shown an association between type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cognitive decline, Trans Cinnamaldehyde (TCA) has been shown to have many potent pharmacological properties. In this present study, we are currently investigating the effects of TCA on type II diabetes-induced neurodegeneration. Neurodegeneration was induced in forty (40) adult wistar rats using high fat diet (HFD) for 4 months followed by low dose of streptozotocin (STZ) (40 mg/kg, i.p.) administration. TCA was administered orally for 30 days at the doses of 40mg/kg and 60mg/kg body weight. Animals were randomized and divided into following groups; A- control group, B- diabetic group, C- TCA (high dose), D- diabetic + TCA (high dose), E- diabetic + TCA (high dose) with high fat diet, F- TCA Low dose, G- diabetic + TCA (low dose) and H- diabetic + TCA (low dose) with high fat diet. Animals were subjected to behavioral tests followed by histological studies of the hippocampus. Demented rats showed impaired behavior in Y- Maze test compared to treated and control groups. Trans Cinnamaldehyde restores the histo architecture of the hippocampus of demented rats. This present study demonstrates that treatment with trans- cinnamaldehyde improves behavioral deficits, restores cellular histo architecture in rat models of neurodegeneration.

Keywords: neurodegeneration, trans cinnamaldehyde, high fat diet, streptozotocin

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643 Hepatoprotective Effect of Mycophenolate Mofetil against Tacrolimus Exposure in Rat

Authors: Ferjani Hanen, El Arem Amira, Boussema Ayed Imen, Bacha Hassen


Tacrolimus (TAC), a calcineurin inhibitor, is clinically used as an immunosuppressive agent in the transplant recipient, but its use associated-hepatotoxicity. Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), an anti-metabolite, is a potent immunosuppressive drug. MMF is not hepatotoxic and is the most common adjunctive immunosuppressant for TAC. The effects of TAC and MMF combination in the liver is still not well understood. This work aimed to investigate their combined effect against in liver in rats Wistar after 24 h. The oral median lethal doses (LD50) of TAC and MMF alone were evaluated in rats are 240 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg respectively. Oral administration of the MMF at 50 mg/kg to male Wistar intoxicated with TAC at 60 mg/kg, demonstrated a significant protective effect by lowering the levels of hepatic markers enzymes (AST, ALT) in the serum rat. MMF attenuated oxidative stress by restoring the activities of SOD, CAT and by reducing the malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein carbonyl levels liver. This study provided evidence that MMF protects rat liver from TAC-induced injury and suggests a most combination use for organ transplantation.

Keywords: tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, combination, liver, rat

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642 The Effects of Early Maternal Separation on Risky Choice in Rats

Authors: Osvaldo Collazo, Cristiano Valerio Dos Santos


Early maternal separation has been shown to bring about many negative effects on behavior in rats. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of early maternal separation on risky choice in rats. One group of male and female Wistar rats was exposed to an early maternal separation protocol while a control group was left undisturbed. Then both groups were exposed to a series of behavioral tests, including a test of risky choice, where one alternative offered a constant reward while the other offered a variable reward. There was a difference between groups when they chose between a variable and a constant reward delay, but no other difference was significant. These results suggest that early maternal separation may be related to a greater preference for shorter delays, which is characteristic of more impulsive choices.

Keywords: early maternal separation, impulsivity, risky choice, variability

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641 Light and Electron Microscopy Study of Acrylamide-Induced Hypothalamic Neuropathy

Authors: Keivan Jmahidi, Afshin Zahedi


To evaluate neurotoxic effects of ACR on hypothalamus of rat, amino-cupric silver staining technique of de Olmos and electron microscopic examination were conducted. For this purpose 60 adult male Wistar rats (± 250 g) were selected. Randomly assigned groups of rats (10 rats per exposure group, as A, B, C, D, E) were exposed to 0.5, 5, 50, 100 and 500 mg/kg per day×11days i.p. respectively. The remaining 10 rats were housed in group F as control group. Control rats received daily i.p. injections of 0.9% saline (3ml/kg). As indices of developing neurotoxicity, daily weight gain, gait scores and landing hindlimb foot splay (LHF) were determined. After 11 days, two rats for silver stain, and two rats for EM, were randomly selected, dissected and proper samples were collected from hypothalamus. Rats in groups D and E died within 1-2 hours due to sever toxemia. In histopathological studies no argyrophilic neurons or processes were observed in stained sections obtained from hypothalamus of rats belong to groups A, B and F, while moderate to severe argyrophilic changes were observed in different nuclei and regions of stained sections obtained from hypothalamus of rats belong to group C. In ultrastructural studies some variations in the myelin sheet of injured axons including decompactation, interlaminar space formation, disruption of the laminar sheet, accumulation of neurofilaments, vacculation and clumping inside the axolem, and finaly complete disappearance of laminar sheet were observed.

Keywords: acrylamide (ACR), amino-cupric silver staining technique of de Olmos, argyrophilia, hypothalamic neuropathy

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640 Nephroprotective Effect of Aqueous Extract of Plectranthus amboinicus (Roxb.) Leaves in Adriamycin Induced Acute Renal Failure in Wistar Rats: A Biochemical and Histopathological Assessment

Authors: Ampe Mohottige Sachinthi Sandaruwani Amarasiri, Anoja Priyadarshani Attanayake, Kamani Ayoma Perera Wijewardana Jayatilaka, Lakmini Kumari Boralugoda Mudduwa


The search for alternative pharmacological therapies based on natural extracts for renal failure has become an urgent need, due to paucity of effective pharmacotherapy. The current study was undertaken to evaluate the acute nephroprotective effect of aqueous leaf extract of Plectranthus amboinicus (Roxb.) (Family: Lamiaceae), a medicinal plant used in traditional Ayurvedic medicine for the management of renal diseases in Sri Lanka. The study was performed in adriamycin (ADR) induced nephrotoxic in Wistar rats. Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups each with six rats. A single dose of ADR (20 mg/kg body wt., ip) was used for the induction of nephrotoxicity in all groups of rats except group one. The treatments were started 24 hours after induction of nephrotoxicity and continued for three days. Group one and two served as healthy and nephrotoxic control rats and were administered equivalent volumes of normal saline (0.9% NaCl) orally. Group three and four nephrotoxic rats were administered the lyophilized powder of the aqueous extract of P. amboinicus (400 mg/ kg body wt.; equivalent human therapeutic dose) and the standard drug, fosinopril sodium (0.09 mg/ kg body wt.) respectively. Urine and blood samples were collected from rats in each group at the end of the period of intervention for the estimation of selected renal parameters. H and E stained sections of the kidney tissues were examined for histopathological changes. Rats treated with the plant extract showed significant improvement in biochemical parameters and histopathological changes compared to ADR induced nephrotoxic group. The elevation of serum concentrations of creatinine and β2-microglobulin were decreased by 38%, and 66% in plant extract treated nephrotoxic rats respectively (p < 0.05). In addition, serum concentrations of total protein and albumin were significantly increased by 25% and 14% in rats treated with P. amboinicus respectively (p < 0.05). The results of β2 –microglobulin and serum total protein demonstrated a significant reduction in the elevated values in rats administered with the plant extract (400 mg/kg) compared to that of fosinopril (0.09 mg/kg). Urinary protein loss in 24hr urine samples was significantly decreased in rats treated with both fosinopril (86%) and P. ambonicus (56%) at the end of the intervention (p < 0.01). Accordingly, an attenuation of morphological destruction was observed in the H and E stained sections of the kidney with the treatments of plant extract and fosinopril. The results of the present study revealed that the aqueous leaf extract of P. amboinicus possesses significant nephroprotective activity at the equivalent therapeutic dose of 400 mg/ kg against adriamycin induced acute nephrotoxicity.

Keywords: biochemical assessment, histopathological assessment, nephroprotective activity, Plectranthus amboinicus

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639 Physicochemical and Biochemical Characterization of an Oil of Pistacia Lentiscus Fruits and Its Effects on Blood Lipid Profile (10364 EJSR)

Authors: Merzougui Imene, Gherib Asma, Henchiri Cherifa


This study has allowed to confirm the physico chemical characteristics and fatty acid composition by GC of the oil of Pistacia lentiscus extracted by traditional method and evaluate its effect on some blood lipid parameters. The results showed that the main physico chemical characteristics of Pistacia lentiscus oil are: moisture (0.84 %), a relatively high iodine value (80,44) indicating that this oil has an important degree of unsaturation. The oil is mainly composed of unsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) where oleic acid dominate with 47,01 % of total fatty acids and PUFA's represented by linoleic acid (19,26 %). Concerning the biological survey, oil, at 10% and 20% doses of diet for 15 and 30 days of two periods of treatment, resulted in beneficial effects on the lipid profile of Wistar albinos rats previously fed with animal and vegetable fats. We observed decreases in total cholesterol, triglycerides (TGA), total lipids and LDL-C, and an increase in HDL-C "good cholesterol" probably related to the presence of a large amount of (MUFA) and (PUFA).

Keywords: Pistacia lentiscus, oil, lipid profile, monounsaturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids

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638 Preventive Effect of Zinc on Nickel Hepatotoxicity and Nephrotoxicity in Albino (Wistar) Rats

Authors: Zine Kechrid, Samira Bouhalit


Aim: We studied the effect of intraperitonial zinc treatment on nickel sulphate-induced hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity in Wistar strain male albino rats. Materials and Methods: Liver and kidney dysfunction parameters represented by aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), blood glucose, serum total protein, serum urea, serum creatinine, and serum belurebin were estimated. Liver glutathione level, catalase and GPx activities were also determined in liver as indicators of oxidative damage. Result: Nickel treatment led to high serum glucose concentration and produced hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity characterized by increasing GPT, GOT and alkaline phosphatase activities, serum total protein, serum urea, serum creatinine and serum belurebin concentrations. In addition, liver glutathione level, catalase and GSH-Px activities diminished due to high lipid peroxidation. The simultaneous administration of zinc with nickel sulphate resulted in a remarkable improvement of the previous parameters compared with rats treated with nickel alone. Conclusion: In conclusion, nickel sulphate led to liver and kidney dysfunctions and hepatic lipid peroxidation in animals, but simultaneous treatment with zinc offers a relative protection against nickel induced hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity and lipid peroxidation.

Keywords: nickel, zinc, rats, GOT, GPT, nephrotoxicity, hepatotoxicity

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637 Paeonol Prevents Diabetic Nephropathy Progression in STZ-Induced Diabetic Rats

Authors: Xuan Li, Xiaobing Cui, Nan Meng, Shuangshuang Guo, Lingling Wang


Objective: To investigate the influence of Paeonol on diabetic nephropathy progression in streptozocin (STZ) -induced diabetic rats. Method Male Wistar rats were injected STZ combined with Freund's complete adjuvant (CFA) 0.1mL/rat once a week for three weeks. The diabetic rats were treated with Paenol for 13 weeks. At the end of the experiments, the rats were anesthetized. Serum and the kidney were collected. Serum superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, malondialdehyde (MDA), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine (Cr) and total cholesterol (Chol) level were detected; kidney paraffin sections were prepared and HE and PAS staining sections were used to evaluate the pathology changes of the kidney. Immunohistochemical analysis was used to observe the expression of VEGF and fibernectin expression in the kidney. Result The blood glucose level remained over 16mmol. L-1 for 13 weeks and the ECM accumulated in the diabetic kidney apparently. Paeonol treatment increased serum SOD activity, however, MDA, BUN, Cr, and Chol level was decreased by paeonol treatment. VEGF and fibernectin expression were increased significantly in the DN rats and paeonol treatment ameliorated the overexpression. Conclusion: paeonol prevented the progression of DN.

Keywords: paeonol, STZ, diabetic nephropathy, fibernectin expression, kidney paraffin sections

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636 Phytochemical Screening and Assessment of Hepatoprotective Activity of Geigeria alata Leaves Ethanolic Extract on Wistar Rats

Authors: Girgis Younan, Ikram Eltayeb


Geigeria alata belongs to the family Asteraceae, is an effective plant traditionally used in Sudan as a therapy for hepatic disease and as an antiepileptic, antispasmodic and to treat cough and intestinal complaints.The liver is responsible for many critical functions within the body and any liver disease or injury will result in the loss of those functions leading to significant damage in the body. Liver diseases cause increase in liver enzymes (AST, ALP ALT) and total bilirubin and a decrease in total blood protein level. The objective of this study is to investigate the hepato-protective activity of Geigeria alata leaves ethanolic extract. The plant leaves were extracted using 96% ethanol using Soxhlet apparatus. The hepatoprotective effect was determined using 25 wistar rats, the rats was divided to 5 groups, each group contain 5 rats: [Normal control group] receiving purified water, liver damage was induced in wistar rats by administering a 1:1 (v/v) mixture of CCl4 (1.25 ml/kg) and olive oil once at day four of the experiment [negative control group]. Two doses of extract [400mg/kg and 200mg/kg] was applied daily for 7 days, and standard drug Silymarin (200 mg/kg) were administered daily for 7 days to CCl4-treated rats. The degree of hepato-protective activity was evaluated by determining the hepatic marker enzymes AST, ALP, ALT, total Bilirubin and total proteins (TP). Results have shown that, the extract of G.alata leaves reduced the level of liver enzymes ALT, AST, ALP, total bilirubin and increased the level of total proteins. Since the levels of liver enzymes; bilirubin and total protein are considered as markers of liver function, the extract has proven to reduce the detrimental effects of liver toxicity induced using CCl4. The hepato-protective effect of extract on liver was found to be dose dependent, where the 400mg/kg dose of the extract exhibited higher activity than 200mg/kg dose. In addition, the effect of the higher dose (400mg/kg) of the extract was found to be higher than Silymarin standard drug. The result concludes that, G.alata leaves extract was found to exhibit profound hepato-protective activity, which justifies the traditional use of the plant for the treatment of hepatic diseases.

Keywords: alata, extract, geigeria, hepatoprotective

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635 The Effects of Maternal Exposure Riboflavin to Prevent Uterus Arsenic Damage in Offspring Rats

Authors: Ali Olfati, Parichehr Nouri


Objective: In this study, we have investigated for the first time in the literature the efficacy of riboflavin [VB2] in preventing uterus As₂O₃ damage. Methods: Rats received 40 μg LHRHa for estrus synchronization. 48 pregnant Wistar rats were included. Four groups were formed with 7 rats in each group: Sham, 1.5 mg arsenic trioxide (As₂O₃/L) alone or in combination with VB2 [20 and 40 mg/L] in drinking water [for 21 days continuously]. Similar to maternal generation treatment, the F1-female generation was also arranged [for 35 days continuously until puberty]. Results: Data indicated that As₂O₃ reduced body weight and feed intake (p<0.05). Furthermore, the serum malondialdehyde levels in the As₂O₃ group were significantly higher than that of the control group (p<0.05). At the same time, total antioxidative status and the activities of glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase were reduced (p<0.05). Meanwhile, As₂O₃ remarkably increased the production of inflammatory markers [interleukin 6 and C-reactive protein](p<0.05). As₂O₃ administration induced uterus apoptosis-related genes by upregulating caspase-3, iNOS, and Bax genes and downregulating Bcl-2 gene of pubertal F1-female rats (p<0.05). Conclusion: Our observation indicated that VB2 therapy is potentially an effective strategy to modifying the detrimental effects of As₂O₃ in pubertal F1-female rats via suppresses oxidative damages.

Keywords: As₂O₃, inflammation, puberty, vitamin B2

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634 Investigating Combined Effect of Aerobic Training and Crataegus elbursensis Extract on Plasma Angiogenic Mediators in Male Wistar Rats

Authors: Behnam Hasanzadeh, Asieh Abbassi Daloii, Ailin Ebrahimi


The present study aims to investigate the effect of six weeks of progressive aerobic training and aqueous extract of Crataegus monogyna on VEGF variations and plasma angiopoetin-1/2 (ANG- 1/2) in male Wistar rats. Materials and methods: A number of 30 male Wistar rats, 4-6 months old, were randomly divided into four groups: control Crataegus monogyna (N=8), training Crataegus monogyna (N=8), control saline (N=6), and training saline (N=8). The aerobic training program included running on the treadmill at the speed of 34 meters per minute for 60 minutes per day. The training was conducted for six weeks, five days a week. Following each training session, both experimental and control subjects of Crataegus monogyna groups were orally fed with 0.5 mg Crataegus monogyna extract per gram of body weight. The normal saline group was given the same amount of normal saline solution (NS). Eventually, 72 hours after the last training session, blood samples were taken from inferior verna cava. Results: the results showed that progressive endurance training caused insignificant reductions in plasma VEGF concentration in the training group, Crataegus monogyna group and training-Crataegus monogyna group comparing the control group. Plasma ANG-1 concentration reduced in the training, Crataegus monogyna and training-Crataegus monogyna groups while plasma ANG-2 concentration significantly increased in the Crataegus monogyna group (P=0.022) comparing with the control group. The results showed that the ratio of plasma ANG-2 to ANG-1 significantly increased in the Crataegus monogyna group (P=0.028) comparing with the control group. Conclusion: the findings suggest that combination of aerobic training and Crataegus monogyna extract has no synergistic effect on anti-angiogenesis indicators and Crataegus monogyna extract had a stronger effect on anti-angiogenesis indicators.

Keywords: angiopoetin-1/2, VEGF, Crataegus monogyna extract, aerobic training

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