Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 31

Search results for: Abdelhamid Bouchebour

31 Evaluation of Activity of Anacyclus Pyrethrum Methanolic Extract on Acute Inflammation Induced in Rats

Authors: Dalila Bouamra, Chekib Arslane Baki, Abdelhamid Bouchebour, Fatiha Koussa, Amel Benamara, Seoussen Kada

Abstract:

The activity of methanolic extract from Anacyclus pyrethrum was evaluated using λ-carrageenan 1% induced paw edema in Wistar Albinos rats. The oral administration of 200 mg/kg, 400 mg/kg and 600 mg/kg, body weight of methanolic extract, one hour before induction of inflammation, exerted a significant inhibition effect of 47%, 57% and 62% respectively after 4h λ-carrageenan treatment and highly significant inhibition effect of 57%, 66% and 75% respectively after 8h λ-carrageenan treatment, compared to non treated group (100%) and that treated with aspirin, a standard anti-inflammatory drug. On the other hand, the effect of the plant extract on stomach was macroscopically and microscopically studied. The plant extract has an impact on the loss ratio of granulocytes that have invaded the stomach after a period of inflammation at a dose of 600 mg/kg body weight.

Keywords: inflammation, Anacyclus pyrethrum, gastritis, Wistar Albinos rats

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30 Introduction of Artificial Intelligence for Estimating Fractal Dimension and Its Applications in the Medical Field

Authors: Zerroug Abdelhamid, Danielle Chassoux

Abstract:

Various models are given to simulate homogeneous or heterogeneous cancerous tumors and extract in each case the boundary. The fractal dimension is then estimated by least squares method and compared to some previous methods.

Keywords: simulation, cancerous tumor, Markov fields, fractal dimension, extraction, recovering

Procedia PDF Downloads 295
29 Improved of Elliptic Curves Cryptography over a Ring

Authors: Abdelhakim Chillali, Abdelhamid Tadmori, Muhammed Ziane

Abstract:

In this article we will study the elliptic curve defined over the ring An and we define the mathematical operations of ECC, which provides a high security and advantage for wireless applications compared to other asymmetric key cryptosystem.

Keywords: elliptic curves, finite ring, cryptography, study

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28 Bi-Dimensional Spectral Basis

Authors: Abdelhamid Zerroug, Mlle Ismahene Sehili

Abstract:

Spectral methods are usually applied to solve uni-dimensional boundary value problems. With the advantage of the creation of multidimensional basis, we propose a new spectral method for bi-dimensional problems. In this article, we start by creating bi-spectral basis by different ways, we developed also a new relations to determine the expressions of spectral coefficients in different partial derivatives expansions. Finally, we propose the principle of a new bi-spectral method for the bi-dimensional problems.

Keywords: boundary value problems, bi-spectral methods, bi-dimensional Legendre basis, spectral method

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27 Video Summarization: Techniques and Applications

Authors: Zaynab El Khattabi, Youness Tabii, Abdelhamid Benkaddour

Abstract:

Nowadays, huge amount of multimedia repositories make the browsing, retrieval and delivery of video contents very slow and even difficult tasks. Video summarization has been proposed to improve faster browsing of large video collections and more efficient content indexing and access. In this paper, we focus on approaches to video summarization. The video summaries can be generated in many different forms. However, two fundamentals ways to generate summaries are static and dynamic. We present different techniques for each mode in the literature and describe some features used for generating video summaries. We conclude with perspective for further research.

Keywords: video summarization, static summarization, video skimming, semantic features

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26 New Result for Optical OFDM in Code Division Multiple Access Systems Using Direct Detection

Authors: Cherifi Abdelhamid

Abstract:

In optical communication systems, OFDM has received increased attention as a means to overcome various limitations of optical transmission systems such as modal dispersion, relative intensity noise, chromatic dispersion, polarization mode dispersion and self-phase modulation. The multipath dispersion limits the maximum transmission data rates. In this paper we investigate OFDM system where multipath induced intersymbol interference (ISI) is reduced and we increase the number of users by combining OFDM system with OCDMA system using direct detection Incorporate OOC (orthogonal optical code) for minimize a bit error rate.

Keywords: OFDM, OCDMA, OOC (orthogonal optical code), (ISI), prim codes (Pc)

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25 Finite Difference Method of the Seismic Analysis of Earth Dam

Authors: Alaoua Bouaicha, Fahim Kahlouche, Abdelhamid Benouali

Abstract:

Many embankment dams have suffered failures during earthquakes due to the increase of pore water pressure under seismic loading. After analyzing of the behavior of embankment dams under severe earthquakes, major advances have been attained in the understanding of the seismic action on dams. The present study concerns numerical analysis of the seismic response of earth dams. The procedure uses a nonlinear stress-strain relation incorporated into the code FLAC2D based on the finite difference method. This analysis provides the variation of the pore water pressure and horizontal displacement.

Keywords: Earthquake, Numerical Analysis, FLAC2D, Displacement, Embankment Dam, Pore Water Pressure

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24 Optimization Design of Single Phase Inverter Connected to the Grid

Authors: Linda Hassaine, Abdelhamid Mraoui, Mohamed Rida Bengourina

Abstract:

In grid-connected photovoltaic systems, significant improvements can be carried out in the design and implementation of inverters: reduction of harmonic distortion, elimination of the DC component injected into the grid and the proposed control. This paper proposes a control strategy based on PWM switching patterns for an inverter for the photovoltaic system connected to the grid in order to control the injected current. The current injected must be sinusoidal with reduced harmonic distortion. An additional filter is designed to reduce high-order harmonics on the output side. This strategy exhibits the advantages: Simplicity, reduction of harmonics, the size of the line filter, reduction of the memory requirements and power calculation for the control.

Keywords: control, inverters, LCL filter, grid-connected photovoltaic system

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23 Genetic Algorithm Optimization of a Small Scale Natural Gas Liquefaction Process

Authors: M. I. Abdelhamid, A. O. Ghallab, R. S. Ettouney, M. A. El-Rifai

Abstract:

An optimization scheme based on COM server is suggested for communication between Genetic Algorithm (GA) toolbox of MATLAB and Aspen HYSYS. The structure and details of the proposed framework are discussed. The power of the developed scheme is illustrated by its application to the optimization of a recently developed natural gas liquefaction process in which Aspen HYSYS was used for minimization of the power consumption by optimizing the values of five operating variables. In this work, optimization by coupling between the GA in MATLAB and Aspen HYSYS model of the same process using the same five decision variables enabled improvements in power consumption by 3.3%, when 77% of the natural gas feed is liquefied. Also on inclusion of the flow rates of both nitrogen and carbon dioxide refrigerants as two additional decision variables, the power consumption decreased by 6.5% for a 78% liquefaction of the natural gas feed.

Keywords: stranded gas liquefaction, genetic algorithm, COM server, single nitrogen expansion, carbon dioxide pre-cooling

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22 Active Power Flow Control Using a TCSC Based Backstepping Controller in Multimachine Power System

Authors: Naimi Abdelhamid, Othmane Abdelkhalek

Abstract:

With the current rise in the demand of electrical energy, present-day power systems which are large and complex, will continue to grow in both size and complexity. Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS) controllers provide new facilities, both in steady state power flow control and dynamic stability control. Thyristor Controlled Series Capacitor (TCSC) is one of FACTS equipment, which is used for power flow control of active power in electric power system and for increase of capacities of transmission lines. In this paper, a Backstepping Power Flow Controller (BPFC) for TCSC in multimachine power system is developed and tested. The simulation results show that the TCSC proposed controller is capable of controlling the transmitted active power and improving the transient stability when compared with conventional PI Power Flow Controller (PIPFC).

Keywords: FACTS, thyristor controlled series capacitor (TCSC), backstepping, BPFC, PIPFC

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21 Dynamic Soil-Structure Interaction Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Buildings

Authors: Abdelhacine Gouasmia, Abdelhamid Belkhiri, Allaeddine Athmani

Abstract:

The objective of this paper is to evaluate the effects of soil-structure interaction (SSI) on the modal characteristics and on the dynamic response of current structures. The objective is on the overall behaviour of a real structure of five storeys reinforced concrete (R/C) building typically encountered in Algeria. Sensitivity studies are undertaken in order to study the effects of frequency content of the input motion, frequency of the soil-structure system, rigidity and depth of the soil layer on the dynamic response of such structures. This investigation indicated that the rigidity of the soil layer is the predominant factor in soil-structure interaction and its increases would definitely reduce the deformation in the R/C structure. On the other hand, increasing the period of the underlying soil will cause an increase in the lateral displacements at story levels and create irregularity in the distribution of story shears. Possible resonance between the frequency content of the input motion and soil could also play an important role in increasing the structural response.

Keywords: direct method, finite element method, foundation, R/C Frame, soil-structure interaction

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20 Experimental and Numerical Study of Thermal Effects in Variable Density Turbulent Jets

Authors: DRIS Mohammed El-Amine, BOUNIF Abdelhamid

Abstract:

This paper considers an experimental and numerical investigation of variable density in axisymmetric turbulent free jets. Special attention is paid to the study of the scalar dissipation rate. In this case, dynamic field equations are coupled to scalar field equations by the density which can vary by the thermal effect (jet heating). The numerical investigation is based on the first and second order turbulence models. For the discretization of the equations system characterizing the flow, the finite volume method described by Patankar (1980) was used. The experimental study was conducted in order to evaluate dynamical characteristics of a heated axisymmetric air flow using the Laser Doppler Anemometer (LDA) which is a very accurate optical measurement method. Experimental and numerical results are compared and discussed. This comparison do not show large difference and the results obtained are in general satisfactory.

Keywords: Scalar dissipation rate, thermal effects, turbulent axisymmetric jets, second order modelling, Velocimetry Laser Doppler.

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19 An Engineering Application of the H-P Version of the Finite Element Method on Vibration Behavior of Rotors

Authors: Hadjoui Abdelhamid, Saimi Ahmed

Abstract:

The hybrid h-p finite element method for the dynamic behavior of nonlinear rotors is described in this paper. The standard h-version method of discretizing the problem is retained, but modified to allow the use of polynomially-enriched beam elements. A hierarchically enriching element will thus not affect the nodal displacement and rotation, but will influence the values of the nodal bending moment and shear force is used. The deterministic movements of rotation and translation of the support which are coupled to the excitations due to unbalance are also taken into account. We study also the geometric dissymmetry of the shaft and the disc, thus the equations of motion of the rotor contain variable parametric coefficients over time that can lead to a lateral dynamic instability. The effects of movements combined support for bearings are analyzed and discussed through Campbell diagrams and spectral analyses. A program is made in Matlab. After validation of the program, several examples are studied. The influence of physical and geometric parameters on the natural frequencies of the shaft is determined through the study of these examples. Among these parameters, we include the variation in the diameter and the thickness of the rotor, the position of the disc.

Keywords: Campbell diagram, critical speeds, nonlinear rotor, version h-p of FEM

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18 Control of Grid Connected PMSG-Based Wind Turbine System with Back-To-Back Converter Topology Using Resonant Controller

Authors: Fekkak Bouazza, Menaa Mohamed, Loukriz Abdelhamid, Krim Mohamed L.

Abstract:

This paper presents modeling and control strategy for the grid connected wind turbine system based on Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator (PMSG). The considered system is based on back-to-back converter topology. The Grid Side Converter (GSC) achieves the DC bus voltage control and unity power factor. The Machine Side Converter (MSC) assures the PMSG speed control. The PMSG is used as a variable speed generator and connected directly to the turbine without gearbox. The pitch angle control is not either considered in this study. Further, Optimal Tip Speed Ratio (OTSR) based MPPT control strategy is used to ensure the most energy efficiency whatever the wind speed variations. A filter (L) is put between the GSC and the grid to reduce current ripple and to improve the injected power quality. The proposed grid connected wind system is built under MATLAB/Simulink environment. The simulation results show the feasibility of the proposed topology and performance of its control strategies.

Keywords: wind, grid, PMSG, MPPT, OTSR

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17 Numerical Analysis and Influence of the Parameters on Slope Stability

Authors: Fahim Kahlouche, Alaoua Bouaicha, Sihem Chaîbeddra, Sid-Ali Rafa, Abdelhamid Benouali

Abstract:

A designing of a structure requires its realization on rough or sloping ground. Besides the problem of the stability of the landslide, the behavior of the foundations that are bearing the structure is influenced by the destabilizing effect of the ground’s slope. This article focuses on the analysis of the slope stability exposed to loading by introducing the different factors influencing the slope’s behavior on the one hand, and on the influence of this slope on the foundation’s behavior on the other hand. This study is about the elastoplastic modelization using FLAC 2D. This software is based on the finite difference method, which is one of the older methods of numeric resolution of differential equations system with initial and boundary conditions. It was developed for the geotechnical simulation calculation. The aim of this simulation is to demonstrate the notable effect of shear modulus « G », cohesion « C », inclination angle (edge) « β », and distance between the foundation and the head of the slope on the stability of the slope as well as the stability of the foundation. In our simulation, the slope is constituted by homogenous ground. The foundation is considered as rigid/hard; therefore, the loading is made by the application of the vertical strengths on the nodes which represent the contact between the foundation and the ground. 

Keywords: slope, shallow foundation, numeric method, FLAC 2D

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16 DFIG-Based Wind Turbine with Shunt Active Power Filter Controlled by Double Nonlinear Predictive Controller

Authors: Abderrahmane El Kachani, El Mahjoub Chakir, Anass Ait Laachir, Abdelhamid Niaaniaa, Jamal Zerouaoui, Tarik Jarou

Abstract:

This paper presents a wind turbine based on the doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) connected to the utility grid through a shunt active power filter (SAPF). The whole system is controlled by a double nonlinear predictive controller (DNPC). A Taylor series expansion is used to predict the outputs of the system. The control law is calculated by optimization of the cost function. The first nonlinear predictive controller (NPC) is designed to ensure the high performance tracking of the rotor speed and regulate the rotor current of the DFIG, while the second one is designed to control the SAPF in order to compensate the harmonic produces by the three-phase diode bridge supplied by a passive circuit (rd, Ld). As a result, we obtain sinusoidal waveforms of the stator voltage and stator current. The proposed nonlinear predictive controllers (NPCs) are validated via simulation on a 1.5 MW DFIG-based wind turbine connected to an SAPF. The results obtained appear to be satisfactory and promising.

Keywords: wind power, doubly fed induction generator, shunt active power filter, double nonlinear predictive controller

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15 A Stochastic Model to Predict Earthquake Ground Motion Duration Recorded in Soft Soils Based on Nonlinear Regression

Authors: Issam Aouari, Abdelmalek Abdelhamid

Abstract:

For seismologists, the characterization of seismic demand should include the amplitude and duration of strong shaking in the system. The duration of ground shaking is one of the key parameters in earthquake resistant design of structures. This paper proposes a nonlinear statistical model to estimate earthquake ground motion duration in soft soils using multiple seismicity indicators. Three definitions of ground motion duration proposed by literature have been applied. With a comparative study, we select the most significant definition to use for predict the duration. A stochastic model is presented for the McCann and Shah Method using nonlinear regression analysis based on a data set for moment magnitude, source to site distance and site conditions. The data set applied is taken from PEER strong motion databank and contains shallow earthquakes from different regions in the world; America, Turkey, London, China, Italy, Chili, Mexico...etc. Main emphasis is placed on soft site condition. The predictive relationship has been developed based on 600 records and three input indicators. Results have been compared with others published models. It has been found that the proposed model can predict earthquake ground motion duration in soft soils for different regions and sites conditions.

Keywords: duration, earthquake, prediction, regression, soft soil

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14 Compression Index Estimation by Water Content and Liquid Limit and Void Ratio Using Statistics Method

Authors: Lizhou Chen, Abdelhamid Belgaid, Assem Elsayed, Xiaoming Yang

Abstract:

Compression index is essential in foundation settlement calculation. The traditional method for determining compression index is consolidation test which is expensive and time consuming. Many researchers have used regression methods to develop empirical equations for predicting compression index from soil properties. Based on a large number of compression index data collected from consolidation tests, the accuracy of some popularly empirical equations were assessed. It was found that primary compression index is significantly overestimated in some equations while it is underestimated in others. The sensitivity analyses of soil parameters including water content, liquid limit and void ratio were performed. The results indicate that the compression index obtained from void ratio is most accurate. The ANOVA (analysis of variance) demonstrates that the equations with multiple soil parameters cannot provide better predictions than the equations with single soil parameter. In other words, it is not necessary to develop the relationships between compression index and multiple soil parameters. Meanwhile, it was noted that secondary compression index is approximately 0.7-5.0% of primary compression index with an average of 2.0%. In the end, the proposed prediction equations using power regression technique were provided that can provide more accurate predictions than those from existing equations.

Keywords: compression index, clay, settlement, consolidation, secondary compression index, soil parameter

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13 Graph Cuts Segmentation Approach Using a Patch-Based Similarity Measure Applied for Interactive CT Lung Image Segmentation

Authors: Aicha Majda, Abdelhamid El Hassani

Abstract:

Lung CT image segmentation is a prerequisite in lung CT image analysis. Most of the conventional methods need a post-processing to deal with the abnormal lung CT scans such as lung nodules or other lesions. The simplest similarity measure in the standard Graph Cuts Algorithm consists of directly comparing the pixel values of the two neighboring regions, which is not accurate because this kind of metrics is extremely sensitive to minor transformations such as noise or other artifacts problems. In this work, we propose an improved version of the standard graph cuts algorithm based on the Patch-Based similarity metric. The boundary penalty term in the graph cut algorithm is defined Based on Patch-Based similarity measurement instead of the simple intensity measurement in the standard method. The weights between each pixel and its neighboring pixels are Based on the obtained new term. The graph is then created using theses weights between its nodes. Finally, the segmentation is completed with the minimum cut/Max-Flow algorithm. Experimental results show that the proposed method is very accurate and efficient, and can directly provide explicit lung regions without any post-processing operations compared to the standard method.

Keywords: graph cuts, lung CT scan, lung parenchyma segmentation, patch-based similarity metric

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12 Fuzzy Time Series Forecasting Based on Fuzzy Logical Relationships, PSO Technique, and Automatic Clustering Algorithm

Authors: A. K. M. Kamrul Islam, Abdelhamid Bouchachia, Suang Cang, Hongnian Yu

Abstract:

Forecasting model has a great impact in terms of prediction and continues to do so into the future. Although many forecasting models have been studied in recent years, most researchers focus on different forecasting methods based on fuzzy time series to solve forecasting problems. The forecasted models accuracy fully depends on the two terms that are the length of the interval in the universe of discourse and the content of the forecast rules. Moreover, a hybrid forecasting method can be an effective and efficient way to improve forecasts rather than an individual forecasting model. There are different hybrids forecasting models which combined fuzzy time series with evolutionary algorithms, but the performances are not quite satisfactory. In this paper, we proposed a hybrid forecasting model which deals with the first order as well as high order fuzzy time series and particle swarm optimization to improve the forecasted accuracy. The proposed method used the historical enrollments of the University of Alabama as dataset in the forecasting process. Firstly, we considered an automatic clustering algorithm to calculate the appropriate interval for the historical enrollments. Then particle swarm optimization and fuzzy time series are combined that shows better forecasting accuracy than other existing forecasting models.

Keywords: fuzzy time series (fts), particle swarm optimization, clustering algorithm, hybrid forecasting model

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11 The Influence of Incorporating in the Concrete of Recycled Waste from Shredding Used Tires and Crushed Glass on Their Characteristics and Behavior

Authors: Samiha Ramdani, Abdelhamid Geuttala

Abstract:

There is no doubt that the batteries increasingly used tires create environmental concerns. Algeria generates large amounts of by industrial and household waste, such as used tires and colored glass bottles and dishes, whose valuation in cementitious materials could be an interesting ecological and economical alternative for broadening eliminating cumbersome landfills. This work is a contribution to the promotion of local materials with the use of waste tires and glass bottle in the development of a new cementitious composite having the acceptable compressive strength and a capacity of improved strains. For this purpose, rubber crumb (GC) from shredding used tires were used as partial replacement of quarry sand with 10%, 20%, 40, 60%. In addition, some mixtures also contain glass powder at15% cement replacement by volume. The compressive strength, tensile strength, deformability, the water permeability and penetration Inions chlorides are studied. As results; an acceptable compressive strength was obtained with the substitution rate of 10% and 20% by volume, the deformability of the composite increases with increased replacement rate. The addition of finely ground glass as a partial replacement of cement concrete increases the resistance to penetration of Inions chloride and reduce the water permeability thereof; then increases their durability.

Keywords: crumb rubber, deformability, compressive strength, finely ground glass, durability, behavior law

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10 Study on the Relationship between Obesity Indicators and Mineral Status in Qatari Adults

Authors: Alaa A. H. Shehada, Eman Abdelnasser Abouhassanein, Reem Mohsen Ali, Joyce J. Moawad, Hiba Bawadi, Abdelhamid Kerkadi

Abstract:

Background: The association between obesity and micronutrient deficiencies is well documented. Among minerals that have been widely studied: zinc, iron and magnesium. Objectives: This study aims to determine the association between obesity indices and mineral status among Qatari adults. Methods: Secondary data was obtained from Qatar Biobank. 414 healthy Qatari aged 20-50 years old were randomly selected from the database. Anthropometric measurements (WC, Weight, and height), body fat, and mineral status (Fe, Mg, Ca, K, Na) were obtained for all selected participants. Differences in anthropometric measurements and mineral status were analyzed by t-test or ANOVA. Spearman correlation coefficients were determined to assess the association between minerals and anthropometric variables. Statistical significance for the hypothesis tests was set at p <0.05. All statistical analysis was preformed using SPSS software version 23.0. Results: Iron, calcium, and sodium levels decreased with an increase in body mass index. Moreover, only iron showed a significant correlation with waist circumference, and waist to height ratio increased. Additionally, calcium, iron, magnesium, and sodium had a statistically significant negative correlation with total body fat percentage and trunk fat percentage. There were statistically significant negative correlations of anthropometrics with minerals. Conclusion: Body fat and trunk fat percentage had a significant inverse relationship with iron, calcium, sodium, and magnesium, while there was no correlation between body fat or trunk fat percentage with potassium.

Keywords: Qatar biobank, body fat distribution, mineral status, Qatari adults

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9 Assessment of Some Biological Activities of Methanolic Crude Extract from Polygonum maritimum L.

Authors: Imad Abdelhamid El-Haci, Wissame Mazari, Fayçal Hassani, Fawzia Atik Bekkara

Abstract:

Much attention has been paid to the antioxidants, which are expected to prevent food and living systems from peroxidative damage. Incorporation of synthetic antioxidants in food products is under strict regulation due to the potential health hazards caused by such compounds. The use of plants as traditional health remedies is very popular and important for 80% of the world’s population in African, Asian, Latin America and Middle Eastern Countries. Their use is reported to have minimal side effects. In recent years, pharmaceutical companies have spent considerable time and money in developing therapeutics based upon natural products extracted from plants. In other part, due to the continuous emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains there is continual demand for new antibiotics. Chemical compounds from medicinal plant especially are targeted by many researches. In this light, genus Polygonum (Polygonaceae), comprising about 45 genera (300 species), is distributed worldwide, mostly in north temperate regions. They have been reported to have uses in traditional medicine, such as anti-inflammation, promoting blood circulation, dysentery, diuretic, haemorrhage and many other uses. In our study, Polygonum maritimum (from Algerian coast) was extracted with 80% methanol to obtain a crude extract. P. maritimum extract (PME) had a very high content of total phenol, which was 352.49 ± 18.03 mg/g dry weight, expressed as gallic acid equivalent. PME exhibited excellent antioxidant activity, as measured using DPPH and H2O2 scavenging assays. It also showed a high antibacterial activity against gram positive bacterial strains: Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus with an MIC 0,12 mg/mL.

Keywords: Polygonum maritimum, crude extract, antioxidant activity, antibacterial activity

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8 Informal Self-Governance: The Formation of an Alternative Urban Framework in a Cairo Region

Authors: Noor Abdelhamid

Abstract:

Almost half of Cairo’s growing population is housed in self-built, self-governed informal settlements serving as an alternative in the absence of government-provided public housing. These settlements emerged as the spatial expression of informal practices or activities operating outside regulated, formal frameworks. A comprehensive narrative of political events, administrative decisions, and urban policies set the stage for the growth of informal expression in Egypt. The purpose of this qualitative inquiry is to portray informal self-governance practiced by residents in the Cairo region. This research argues that informal spatial practices offer an alternative urban framework for bottom-up development in the absence of government provisions. In the context of this study, informal self-governance is defined as the residents’ autonomous control and use of public urban space in informal settlements. The case study for this research is Ard al-Liwa, a semi-formal settlement representing the majority of informal settlement typologies in Egypt, which consist of the formal occupation of land through an uncontrolled land subdivision, zoning, and construction. An inductive methodological approach is adopted to first study informal practices as singular activities and then as components of a larger environment. The collected set of empirical data consists of audiovisual material and observations obtained during regular site visits and interviews with residents native to the settlement. Methods of analysis are synthesized to identify themes in the data: the static and dynamic use of sidewalks, the urban traces of informal building allocation and construction, the de facto right to urban space, and the resultant spatial patterns. The paper concludes by positioning the research in the context of the current architectural practice, questioning the role, and responsibility, of designers in these self-governed urban regions.

Keywords: Egypt, informal settlements, self-governance, urban framework

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7 Studying the Influence of Systematic Pre-Occupancy Data Collection through Post-Occupancy Evaluation: A Shift in the Architectural Design Process

Authors: Noor Abdelhamid, Donovan Nelson, Cara Prosser

Abstract:

The architectural design process could be mapped out as a dialogue between designer and user that is constructed across multiple phases with the overarching goal of aligning design outcomes with user needs. Traditionally, this dialogue is bounded within a preliminary phase of determining factors that will direct the design intent, and a completion phase, of handing off the project to the client. Pre- and post-occupancy evaluations (P/POE’s) could provide an alternative process by extending this dialogue on both ends of the design process. The purpose of this research is to study the influence of systematic pre-occupancy data collection in achieving design goals by conducting post-occupancy evaluations of two case studies. In the context of this study, systematic pre-occupancy data collection is defined as the preliminary documentation of the existing conditions that helps portray stakeholders’ needs. When implemented, pre-occupancy occurs during the early phases of the architectural design process, utilizing the information to shape the design intent. Investigative POE’s are performed on two case studies with distinct early design approaches to understand how the current space is impacting user needs, establish design outcomes, and inform future strategies. The first case study underwent systematic pre-occupancy data collection and synthesis, while the other represents the traditional, uncoordinated practice of informally collecting data during an early design phase. POE’s target the dynamics between the building and its occupants by studying how spaces are serving the needs of the users. Data collection for this study consists of user surveys, audiovisual materials, and observations during regular site visits. Mixed methods of qualitative and quantitative analyses are synthesized to identify patterns in the data. The paper concludes by positioning value on both sides of the architectural design process: the integration of systematic pre-occupancy methods in the early phases and the reinforcement of a continued dialogue between building and design team after building completion.

Keywords: architecture, design process, pre-occupancy data, post-occupancy evaluation

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6 Communicating Meaning through Translanguaging: The Case of Multilingual Interactions of Algerians on Facebook

Authors: F. Abdelhamid

Abstract:

Algeria is a multilingual speech community where individuals constantly mix between codes in spoken discourse. Code is used as a cover term to refer to the existing languages and language varieties which include, among others, the mother tongue of the majority Algerian Arabic, the official language Modern Standard Arabic and the foreign languages French and English. The present study explores whether Algerians mix between these codes in online communication as well. Facebook is the selected platform from which data is collected because it is the preferred social media site for most Algerians and it is the most used one. Adopting the notion of translanguaging, this study attempts explaining how users of Facebook use multilingual messages to communicate meaning. Accordingly, multilingual interactions are not approached from a pejorative perspective but rather as a creative linguistic behavior that multilingual utilize to achieve intended meanings. The study is intended as a contribution to the research on multilingualism online because although an extensive literature has investigated multilingualism in spoken discourse, limited research investigated it in the online one. Its aim is two-fold. First, it aims at ensuring that the selected platform for analysis, namely Facebook, could be a source for multilingual data to enable the qualitative analysis. This is done by measuring frequency rates of multilingual instances. Second, when enough multilingual instances are encountered, it aims at describing and interpreting some selected ones. 120 posts and 16335 comments were collected from two Facebook pages. Analysis revealed that third of the collected data are multilingual messages. Users of Facebook mixed between the four mentioned codes in writing their messages. The most frequent cases are mixing between Algerian Arabic and French and between Algerian Arabic and Modern Standard Arabic. A focused qualitative analysis followed where some examples are interpreted and explained. It seems that Algerians mix between codes when communicating online despite the fact that it is a conscious type of communication. This suggests that such behavior is not a random and corrupted way of communicating but rather an intentional and natural one.

Keywords: Algerian speech community, computer mediated communication, languages in contact, multilingualism, translanguaging

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5 Application Reliability Method for the Analysis of the Stability Limit States of Large Concrete Dams

Authors: Mustapha Kamel Mihoubi, Essadik Kerkar, Abdelhamid Hebbouche

Abstract:

According to the randomness of most of the factors affecting the stability of a gravity dam, probability theory is generally used to TESTING the risk of failure and there is a confusing logical transition from the state of stability failed state, so the stability failure process is considered as a probable event. The control of risk of product failures is of capital importance for the control from a cross analysis of the gravity of the consequences and effects of the probability of occurrence of identified major accidents and can incur a significant risk to the concrete dam structures. Probabilistic risk analysis models are used to provide a better understanding the reliability and structural failure of the works, including when calculating stability of large structures to a major risk in the event of an accident or breakdown. This work is interested in the study of the probability of failure of concrete dams through the application of the reliability analysis methods including the methods used in engineering. It is in our case of the use of level II methods via the study limit state. Hence, the probability of product failures is estimated by analytical methods of the type FORM (First Order Reliability Method), SORM (Second Order Reliability Method). By way of comparison, a second level III method was used which generates a full analysis of the problem and involving an integration of the probability density function of, random variables are extended to the field of security by using of the method of Mont-Carlo simulations. Taking into account the change in stress following load combinations: normal, exceptional and extreme the acting on the dam, calculation results obtained have provided acceptable failure probability values which largely corroborate the theory, in fact, the probability of failure tends to increase with increasing load intensities thus causing a significant decrease in strength, especially in the presence of combinations of unique and extreme loads. Shear forces then induce a shift threatens the reliability of the structure by intolerable values of the probability of product failures. Especially, in case THE increase of uplift in a hypothetical default of the drainage system.

Keywords: dam, failure, limit state, monte-carlo, reliability, probability, sliding, Taylor

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4 Self-Inflating Soft Tissue Expander Outcome for Alveolar Ridge Augmentation a Randomized Controlled Clinical and Histological Study

Authors: Alaa T. Ali, Nevine H. Kheir El Din, Ehab S. Abdelhamid, Ahmed E. Amr

Abstract:

Objective: Severe alveolar bone resorption is usually associated with a deficient amount of soft tissues. soft tissue expansion is introduced to provide an adequate amount of soft tissue over the grafted area. This study aimed to assess the efficacy of sub-periosteal self-inflating osmotic tissue expanders used as preparatory surgery before horizontal alveolar ridge augmentation using autogenous onlay block bone graft. Methods: A prospective randomized controlled clinical trial was performed. Sixteen partially edentulous patients demanding horizontal bone augmentation in the anterior maxilla were randomly assigned to horizontal ridge augmentation with autogenous bone block grafts harvested from the mandibular symphysis. For the test group, soft tissue expanders were placed sub-periosteally before horizontal ridge augmentation. Impressions were taken before and after STE, and the cast models were optically scanned and superimposed to be used for volumetric analysis. Horizontal ridge augmentation was carried out after STE completion. For the control group, a periosteal releasing incision was performed during bone augmentation procedures. Implants were placed in both groups at re-entry surgery after six months period. A core biopsy was taken. Histomorphometric assessment for newly formed bone surface area, mature collagen area fraction, the osteoblasts count, and blood vessel count were performed. The change in alveolar ridge width was evaluated through bone caliper and CBCT. Results: Soft tissue expander successfully provides a Surplus amount of soft tissues in 5 out of 8 patients in the test group. Complications during the expansion period were perforation through oral mucosa occurred in two patients. Infection occurred in one patient. The mean soft tissue volume gain was 393.9 ± 322mm. After 6 months. The mean horizontal bone gains for the test and control groups were 3.14 mm and 3.69 mm, respectively. Conclusion: STE with a sub-periosteal approach is an applicable method to achieve an additional soft tissue and to reduce bone block graft exposure and wound dehiscence.

Keywords: soft tissue expander, ridge augmentation, block graft, symphysis bone block

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3 Nitrogen Fixation of Soybean Approaches for Enhancing under Saline and Water Stress Conditions

Authors: Ayman El Sabagh, AbdElhamid Omar, Dekoum Assaha, Khair Mohammad Youldash, Akihiro Ueda, Celaleddin Barutçular, Hirofumi Saneoka

Abstract:

Drought and salinity stress are a worldwide problem, constraining global crop production seriously. Hence, soybean is susceptible to yield loss from water deficit and salinity stress. Therefore, different approaches have been suggested to solve these issues. Osmoprotectants play an important role in protection the plants from various environmental stresses. Moreover, organic fertilization has several beneficial effects on agricultural fields. Presently, efforts to maximize nitrogen fixation in soybean are critical because of widespread increase in soil degradation in Egypt. Therefore, a greenhouse research was conducted at plant nutritional physiology laboratory, Hiroshima University, Japan for assessing the impact of exogenous osmoregulators and compost application in alleviating the adverse effects of salinity and water stress on soybean. Treatments was included (i) water stress treatments (different soil moisture levels consisting of (100%, 75%, and 50% of field water holding capacity), (ii) salinity concentrations (0 and 15 mM) were applied in fully developed trifoliolate leaf node (V1), (iii) compost treatments (0 and 24 t ha-1) and (iv) the exogenous, proline and glycine betaine concentrations (0 mM and 25 mM) for each, was applied at two growth stages (V1 and R1). The seeds of soybean cultivar Giza 111, was sown into basin from wood (length10 meter, width 50cm, height 50cm and depth 350cm) containing a soil mixture of granite regosol soil and perlite (2:1 v/v). The nitrogen-fixing activity was estimated by using gas chromatography and all measurements were made in three replicates. The results showed that water deficit and salinity stress reduced biological nitrogen fixation and specific nodule activity than normal irrigation conditions. Exogenous osmoprotectants were improved biological nitrogen fixation and specific nodule activity as well as, applying of compost led to improving many of biological nitrogen fixation and specific nodule activity with superiority than stress conditions. The combined application compost fertilizer and exogenous osmoprotectants were more effective in alleviating the adverse effect of stress to improve biological nitrogen fixation and specific nodule activity of Soybean.

Keywords: a biotic stress, biological nitrogen fixation, compost, osmoprotectants, specific nodule activity, soybean

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2 Alleviation of Adverse Effects of Salt Stress on Soybean (Glycine max. L.) by Using Osmoprotectants and Compost Application

Authors: Ayman El Sabagh, SobhySorour, AbdElhamid Omar, Adel Ragab, Mohammad Sohidul Islam, Celaleddin Barutçular, Akihiro Ueda, Hirofumi Saneoka

Abstract:

Salinity is one of the major factors limiting crop production in an arid environment. What adds to the concern is that all the legume crops are sensitive to increasing soil salinity. So it is implacable to either search for salinity enhancement of legume plants. The exogenous of osmoprotectants has been found effective in reducing the adverse effects of salinity stress on plant growth. Despite its global importance soybean production suffer the problems of salinity stress causing damages at plant development. Therefore, in the current study we try to clarify the mechanism that might be involved in the ameliorating effects of osmo-protectants such as proline and glycine betaine and compost application on soybean plants grown under salinity stress. Experiments were carried out in the greenhouse of the experimental station, plant nutritional physiology, Hiroshima University, Japan in 2011- 2012. The experiment was arranged in a factorial design with 4 replications at NaCl concentrations (0 and 15 mM). The exogenous, proline and glycine betaine concentrations (0 mM and 25 mM) for each. Compost treatments (0 and 24 t ha-1). Results indicated that salinity stress induced reduction in all growth and physiological parameters (dry weights plant-1, chlorophyll content, N and K+ content) likewise, seed and quality traits of soybean plant compared with those of the unstressed plants. In contrast, salinity stress led to increases in the electrolyte leakage ratio, Na and proline contents. Thus tolerance against salt stress was observed, the improvement of salt tolerance resulted from proline, glycine betaine and compost were accompanied with improved membrane stability, K+, and proline accumulation on contrary, decreased Na+ content. These results clearly demonstrate that could be used to reduce the harmful effect of salinity on both physiological aspects and growth parameters of soybean. They are capable of restoring yield potential and quality of seed and may be useful in agronomic situations where saline conditions are diagnosed as a problem. Consequently, exogenous osmo-protectants combine with compost will effectively solve seasonal salinity stress problem and are a good strategy to increase salinity resistance in the drylands.

Keywords: compost, glycine betaine, proline, salinity tolerance, soybean

Procedia PDF Downloads 301