Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1802

Search results for: conduct disorder

1802 Improving the Social Interactions of Students with Conduct Disorder in Dil Betigil Primary School

Authors: Dawit Thomas Lambamo

Abstract:

Conduct disorder has become a major health and social problem; it is the most common psychiatric problem diagnosed among students which affect the academic and social interaction of students. This intervention was conducted in Dil Betigil primary school. After identifying six students with conduct disorder in Dil Betigil primary school, the intervention was conducted using a true experimental research design specifically pretest and posttest control group design. Data from teachers and parents of the students with conduct disorder were collected using adapted conduct disorder scale and semi-structured interview. The independent sample t-test of Pretest results of both experimental and control group indicated that there is no statistically significant difference between experimental and control groups. Intervention is carried out to enhance their social interaction and to decrees aggressive, a serious violation of rules and theft behavior of students in collaboration with teachers and parents. After six intervention weeks the post-test result showed that there was statistically significant difference in aggression and serious violation between the experimental and control groups, but there was no statistically significant mean difference regarding deceitful or theft between the experimental and control group.

Keywords: conduct, disorder, social interaction, interaction

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1801 Psychosocial Experience of Parents of Children with Conduct Disorder in Thulamela, South Africa

Authors: Constance Singo, Choja Oduaran

Abstract:

Child mental disorders are strongly associated with different forms of challenges, including behavioural problems. The burden of care for children with a mental disorder is high and put primary caregivers, parents in particular, at risk of poor mental wellbeing. Understanding the experience of parents of children with mental disorders is crucial to developing a relevant intervention to assist them to attain optimal mental wellbeing. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of parents of children with conduct disorder by focussing on the psychological and social stress experience of the parents in raising and caring for their children with conduct disorder. A qualitative research approach, using in-depth interview was utilized in this study. Purposive and snowballing sampling techniques were used to select 9 parents of children with conduct disorder in Thulamela Municipality, Limpopo Province of South Africa. Participants comprising of 2 males and 7 females aged between 30 years and 49 years were interviewed individually at scheduled appointment in-home setting. Interviews were conducted in both English and Setswana language. Data collected in Setswana language were translated to English by 'expert in language translation'. Ethical approval was obtained from appropriate authority before data collection. Thematic analysis was conducted to analyse the collected data. The findings identified anger, fear, depressive symptoms, denial, and suicidal ideation as predominant psychological experiences of the parents. Furthermore, deteriorated interpersonal relationships with family and community members, financial stress, and stigma emerged as social problems being the experience of the parents. It was concluded that parents of children with conduct disorder are highly traumatized by the challenges of caring for their children. We recommend professional engagement in terms of counselling service to support the parents. There is also a need for massive enlightenment programmes for members of the community in order to support the parents of children with child mental disorders.

Keywords: conduct disorder, parents, psychosocial experiences, South Africa

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1800 Characterising the Processes Underlying Emotion Recognition Deficits in Adolescents with Conduct Disorder

Authors: Nayra Martin-Key, Erich Graf, Wendy Adams, Graeme Fairchild

Abstract:

Children and adolescents with Conduct Disorder (CD) have been shown to demonstrate impairments in emotion recognition, but it is currently unclear whether this deficit is related to specific emotions or whether it represents a global deficit in emotion recognition. An emotion recognition task with concurrent eye-tracking was employed to further explore this relationship in a sample of male and female adolescents with CD. Participants made emotion categorization judgements for presented dynamic and morphed static facial expressions. The results demonstrated that males with CD, and to a lesser extent, females with CD, displayed impaired facial expression recognition in general, whereas callous-unemotional (CU) traits were linked to specific problems in sadness recognition in females with CD. A region-of-interest analysis of the eye-tracking data indicated that males with CD exhibited reduced fixation times for the eye-region of the face compared to typically-developing (TD) females, but not TD males. Females with CD did not show reduced fixation to the eye-region of the face relative to TD females. In addition, CU traits did not influence CD subjects’ attention to the eye-region of the face. These findings suggest that the emotion recognition deficits found in CD males, the worst performing group in the behavioural tasks, are partly driven by reduced attention to the eyes.

Keywords: attention, callous-unemotional traits, conduct disorder, emotion recognition, eye-region, eye-tracking, sex differences

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1799 Utility of Executive Function Training in Typically Developing Adolescents and Special Populations: A Systematic Review of the Literature

Authors: Emily C. Shepard, Caroline Sweeney, Jessica Grimm, Sophie Jacobs, Lauren Thompson, Lisa L. Weyandt

Abstract:

Adolescence is a critical phase of development in which individuals are prone to more risky behavior while also facing potentially life-changing decisions. The balance of increased behavioral risk and responsibility indicates the importance of executive functioning ability. In recent years, executive function training has emerged as a technique to enhance this cognitive ability. The aim of the present systematic review was to discuss the reported efficacy of executive functioning training techniques among adolescents. After reviewing 3110 articles, a total of 24 articles were identified which examined the role of executive functioning training techniques among adolescents (age 10-19). Articles retrieved demonstrated points of comparison across psychiatric and medical diagnosis, location of training, and stage of adolescence. Typically developing samples, as well as those with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), conduct disorder, and physical health concerns were found, allowing for the comparison of the efficacy of techniques considering physical and psychological heterogeneity. Among typically developing adolescents, executive functioning training yielded nonsignificant or low effect size improvements in executive functioning, and in some cases executive functioning ability was decreased following the training. In special populations, including those with ADHD, (ASD), conduct disorder, and physical health concerns significant differences and larger effect sizes in executive functioning were seen following treatment, particularly among individuals with ADHD. Future research is needed to identify the long-term efficacy of these treatments, as well as their generalizability to real-world conditions.

Keywords: adolescence, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, executive function, executive function training, traumatic brain injury

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1798 A Comparison of Transdiagnostic Components in Generalized Anxiety Disorder, Unipolar Mood Disorder and Nonclinical Population

Authors: Imaneh Abbasi, Ladan Fata, Majid Sadeghi, Sara Banihashemi, Abolfazl Mohammadee

Abstract:

Background: Dimensional and transdiagnostic approaches as a result of high comorbidity among mental disorders have captured researchers and clinicians interests for exploring the latent factors of development and maintenance of some psychological disorders. The goal of present study is to compare some of these common factors between generalized anxiety disorder and unipolar mood disorder. Methods: 27 patients with generalized anxiety disorder, 29 patients with depression disorder were recruited using SCID-I and 69 non-clinical population were selected using GHQ cut off point. MANCOVA was used for analyzing data. Results: The results show that worry, rumination, intolerance of uncertainty, maladaptive metacognitive beliefs, and experiential avoidance were all significantly different between GAD and unipolar mood disorder groups. However, there were not any significant differences in difficulties in emotion regulation and neuroticism between GAD and unipolar mood disorder groups. Discussion: Results indicate that although there are some transdiagnostic and common factors in GAD and unipolar mood disorder, there may be some specific vulnerability factors for each disorder. Further study is needed for answering these questions.

Keywords: transdiagnostic, depression, generalized anxiety disorder, emotion regulation

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1797 The Effect of Dissociation in Bipolar Disorder: An EEG Power Analysis

Authors: Merve Cebi, Turker Tekin Erguzel, Gokben Hizli Sayar

Abstract:

Understanding the biological mechanisms of dissociation in patients with bipolar disorder is important for developing new treatment approaches for the disorder as well as using the appropriate treatment strategies. In this study, we compared EEG power and coherence values for alpha, theta and beta frequency bands between patients having bipolar disorder with dissociation as compared to the bipolar patients without dissociation. Accordingly, we did not find any statistically significant difference in either the absolute or the relative power between the groups. Coherence values were not found to be statistically different, as well. Therefore, our results demonstrated that the existence of dissociation did not influence electrophysiological correlates in bipolar disorder.

Keywords: bipolar disorder, dissociation, absolute power, coherence

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1796 The Role of ALDH2 Genotypes in Bipolar II Disorder Comorbid with Anxiety Disorder

Authors: Yun-Hsuan Chang, Chih-Chun Huang, Ru-Band Lu

Abstract:

Dopamine, metabolized to 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) by aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2), ALDH2*1/*1, and ALDH2*1/*2+ALDH*2/*2 equally carried in Han Chinese. The relationship between dopamine metabolic enzyme and cognitive performance in bipolar II disorder comorbid with anxiety disorder (AD) remains unclear. This study proposed to explore the association between ALDH2 polymorphisms, anxiety comorbidity in bipolar II disorder. One hundred and ninety-seven BPII with or without AD comorbidity were recruited and compared with 130 Health controls (HC). A polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis was used to determine genotypes for ALDH2, and neuropsychological battery was performed. Two factor analyses with AD comorbidity and ALDH2 showed a significant main effect of ALDH2 on attention and marginally significant interaction between AD and ALDH2 memory performance. The ALDH2 polymorphisms may play a different role in the neuropsychological performance on varied neuropsychological performance in BPII comorbid with and without AD.

Keywords: anxiety disorder, bipolar II disorder, comorbidity, genetic

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1795 Public Administrators, Code of Conduct and the Nigerian Society

Authors: Mahmud Adam, Inuwa Abdu Ibrahim

Abstract:

The issue of ethics and values of public office holders in Nigerian has been and still is a matter of great mystery. Their behaviours in the discharge of their official responsibility remain unsatisfactory. The paper looks at the code of conduct and the societal values with which the Nigerian Administrators function today. Secondary sources of data were used. In conclusion, a change in attitude, reorientation, harsh and enforceable laws is required to reverse the trend.

Keywords: society, administrators, code of conduct, Nigeria

Procedia PDF Downloads 250
1794 Localization Problem in Optical Fiber Sensors

Authors: M. Zyczkowski, P. Markowski, M. Karol

Abstract:

The security industry is making many efforts to lower the costs of system installation. However, the dominant technique is the application of fiber optic sensors. It is necessary to determine the location of the disorder of long optical fiber cables. For a number of years, many research centers developed their own solutions. The article presents the construction of the sensor systems with the possibility of disorder location. We present a methodology for determining location of the disorder. The aim of investigations is to answer the question of which of optical sensor configuration offer the best performance for location of the disorder.

Keywords: fiber optic sensor, security sensor, fiber cables, system instillation

Procedia PDF Downloads 557
1793 Clinical Utility of Salivary Cytokines for Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

Authors: Masaki Yamaguchi, Daimei Sasayama, Shinsuke Washizuka

Abstract:

The goal of this study was to examine the possibility of salivary cytokines for the screening of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children. We carried out a case-control study, including 19 children with ADHD and 17 healthy children (controls). A multiplex bead array immunoassay was used to conduct a multi-analysis of 27 different salivary cytokines. Six salivary cytokines (interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-8, IL12p70, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), interferon gamma (IFN-γ), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)) were significantly associated with the presence of ADHD (p < 0.05). An informative salivary cytokine panel was developed using VEGF by logistic regression analysis (odds ratio: 0.251). Receiver operating characteristic analysis revealed that assessment of a panel using VEGF showed “good” capability for discriminating between ADHD patients and controls (area under the curve: 0.778). ADHD has been hypothesized to be associated with reduced cerebral blood flow in the frontal cortex, due to reduced VEGF levels. Our study highlights the possibility of utilizing differential salivary cytokine levels for point-of-care testing (POCT) of biomarkers in children with ADHD.

Keywords: cytokine, saliva, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, child

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1792 The Role of College Teachers’ in Identifying Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Students

Authors: Hargunjeet Shergill, Palwinder Singh

Abstract:

The present paper analyzes the lack of teachers' awareness and knowledge regarding the Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in the college students. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder causes individuals to consistently display extreme inattention, impulsivity and in many cases hyperactivity as a result of the physiological differences of the brain. Teachers have a formative influence on their students and can play a key role in identifying and supporting students with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Despite the pervasiveness and salience of this disorder, educators at college continue to labor under a number of misconceptions about the nature of ADHD. In order to fulfill this important role, it is imperative for teachers to have explicit knowledge about this disorder. ADHD in college students remains the most under-recognized and undertreated mental health condition. The overall aim of this study is to investigate teachers’ knowledge and misconceptions of ADHD with a particular focus on recognition, assessment and management of ADHD in adult college students. It designed to assess the college teachers' knowledge, opinions, and experience related to the diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and by maintaining open lines of communication with the students and understanding some key elements that can affect students’ overall growth and ability. The discussion focuses on the value of the role of teachers and their relationship with each college student dealing with ADHD.

Keywords: attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, development of ADHD, diagnostic criteria, role of teachers

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1791 Stress and Marital Satisfaction of Parents to Children Diagnosed with Autism

Authors: Oren Shtayermman

Abstract:

The current investigation expended on research among parents caring for a child who is diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). An online web survey was used to collect data from 253 parents caring for a child with a diagnosis of ASD. Both parents reported on elevated levels of parental stress associated with caring for the child on the spectrum. In addition, lower levels of marital satisfaction were found in both parents. About 13% of the parents in the sample met the diagnostic criteria for Major Depressive Disorder and About 15% of the parents met the diagnostic criteria for Generalized Anxiety Disorder. Although the majority of the sample was females (94%) significant differences were found between males and females in relation to meeting the diagnostic criteria for Major Depressive Disorder and for Generalized Anxiety Disorder. Higher levels of stress were associated with higher number of Generalized Anxiety Disorder symptoms and higher number of Major Depressive Disorder symptoms. Findings from this study indicate how vulnerable parents and especially females are in relation to caring to a child diagnosed with ASD. Educational Objectives: At the conclusion of the paper, the readers should be able to: -Identify levels of stress and marital satisfaction among parents caring for a child diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder, -Recognize the impact of stress on the development of mental health issues, -Name the two most common mood and anxiety related disorders associated with caring for a child diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder.

Keywords: autism, stress, parents, children

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1790 Current Judicial Discourse Regarding the Impact of Alcohol Use Disorders on Crime in Canada

Authors: Ellen McClure

Abstract:

It is generally well-known that a number of inmates suffer from some form of substance or alcohol use disorder. This study identifies, analyses, classifies and codifies the most recent Canadian criminal judgments involving an accused diagnosed with an alcohol use disorder specifically. From this research, patterns in judicial discourse and sentencing norms can be established, and these findings can be juxtaposed with existing relevant academic literature, particular attention will be given to this discussion at the sentencing stage, and the subsequent incarceration of those with alcohol use disorders. This topic will be explored with an overarching emphasis on the effects that a lack of conversation regarding a possible correlation between alcohol consumption and crime may have. Although comparisons may be made in order to clarify or highlight certain issues, particular attention will be paid to jurisdictions within Canada. This paper explores the existing judicial discourse in sentencing regarding the relationship between alcohol and crime, and how this might explain the higher incarceration rates of those suffering from alcohol use disorders in Canada. The research questions are as follows: (1) What are the existing judicial discourses in sentencing around the relationship between alcohol and crime? (2) To what extent has the current discourse on alcohol addiction among judges and legal academics contributed to the incarceration of alcoholics?The major findings of this research indicate a strong correlation between a lack of judicial discussion regarding the accused’s alcohol use disorder and an increased tendency to consider an alcohol use disorder as an aggravating factor. Furthermore, it was found that an 82% of judges who discussed the alcohol use disorder meaningfully referred to the disorder as a mitigating factor. This can be compared with 6.7% of judges who referred to the alcohol use disorder as a mitigating factor in cases where the disorder was not meaningfully discussed.

Keywords: alcohol use disorder, addiction, criminal justice, judicial discourse

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1789 Responsibility Attitude and Interpretation in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

Authors: Ryotaro Ishikawa

Abstract:

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is a common, chronic and long-lasting disorder in which a person has uncontrollable, reoccurring thoughts (obsessions) and behaviors (compulsions) that he or she feels the urge to repeat over and over. Inflated responsibility attitude and interpretation are central beliefs in a cognitive model of OCD. This study aimed to develop a Japanese version of the Responsibility Attitude Scale (RAS-J) and Responsibility Interpretation Questionnaire (RIQ-J). 98 participants (OCD group = 37; anxiety control group = 24; healthy control group = 37) completed the RAS-J, RIQ-J and other measures to assess the validity of the RAS-J and RIQ-J. As a result of analysis, both scales had adequate concurrent validity, demonstrated by significant correlations with other measures of OCD, anxiety, and depression. Group comparison data using ANOVA with Bonferroni method indicated that RAS-J and RIQ-J scores for the OCD group not only differed from the nonclinical group, but also from the clinically anxious comparison group. In conclusion, this study indicated that the developed RAS-J and RIQ-J effectively measure responsibility attitude and responsibility interpretation in the Japanese population.

Keywords: obsessive-compulsive disorder, responsibility, cognitive theory, anxiety disorder

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1788 Cardiopulmonary Disease in Bipolar Disorder Patient with History of SJS: Evidence Based Case Report

Authors: Zuhrotun Ulya, Muchammad Syamsulhadi, Debree Septiawan

Abstract:

Patients with bipolar disorder are three times more likely to suffer cardiovascular disorders than the general population, which will influence their level of morbidity and rate of mortality. Bipolar disorder also affects the pulmonary system. The choice of long term-monotherapy and other combinative therapies have clinical impacts on patients. This study investigates the case of a woman who has been suffering from bipolar disorder for 16 years, and who has a history of Steven Johnson Syndrome. At present she is suffering also from cardiovascular and pulmonary disorder. An analysis of the results of this study suggests that there is a relationship between cardiovascular disorder, drug therapies, Steven Johnson Syndrome and mood stabilizer obtained from the PubMed, Cochrane, Medline, and ProQuest (publications between 2005 and 2015). Combination therapy with mood stabilizer is recommended for patients who do not have side effect histories from these drugs. The replacement drugs and combinations may be applied, especially for those with bipolar disorders, and the combination between atypical antipsychotic groups and mood stabilizers is often made. Clinicians, however, should be careful with the patients’ physical and metabolic changes, especially those who have experienced long-term therapy and who showed a history of Steven Johnson Syndrome (for which clinicians probably prescribed one type of medicine).

Keywords: cardiopulmonary disease, bipolar disorder, SJS, therapy

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1787 EEG Analysis of Brain Dynamics in Children with Language Disorders

Authors: Hamed Alizadeh Dashagholi, Hossein Yousefi-Banaem, Mina Naeimi

Abstract:

Current study established for EEG signal analysis in patients with language disorder. Language disorder can be defined as meaningful delay in the use or understanding of spoken or written language. The disorder can include the content or meaning of language, its form, or its use. Here we applied Z-score, power spectrum, and coherence methods to discriminate the language disorder data from healthy ones. Power spectrum of each channel in alpha, beta, gamma, delta, and theta frequency bands was measured. In addition, intra hemispheric Z-score obtained by scoring algorithm. Obtained results showed high Z-score and power spectrum in posterior regions. Therefore, we can conclude that peoples with language disorder have high brain activity in frontal region of brain in comparison with healthy peoples. Results showed that high coherence correlates with irregularities in the ERP and is often found during complex task, whereas low coherence is often found in pathological conditions. The results of the Z-score analysis of the brain dynamics showed higher Z-score peak frequency in delta, theta and beta sub bands of Language Disorder patients. In this analysis there were activity signs in both hemispheres and the left-dominant hemisphere was more active than the right.

Keywords: EEG, electroencephalography, coherence methods, language disorder, power spectrum, z-score

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1786 Increasing Number of NGOs and Their Conduct: A Case Study of Far Western Region of Nepal

Authors: Raju Thapa

Abstract:

Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) are conducting activities in Nepal with the overall objective to strengthen peace, progress and prosperity in the society. Based on the research objectives, this study has tried to trace out the reasons behind massive growth of NGOs and the trends that have shaped the handling and functioning of NGOs in the Kailali district. The outcomes of this research are quite embarrassing for NGOs officials. Based on the findings of this research, NGOs are expected to review their guiding principal, integrity and conduct for the betterment of the society.

Keywords: NGO, trends, increasing, conduct, integrity, guiding principle, legal, governance, human resources, public trust, financial, collaboration, networking

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1785 A Case of Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD)

Authors: Muhammad Zeeshan

Abstract:

This case study is about a 54 years man named Mr. U, referred to Capital Hospital, Islamabad, with the presenting complaints of Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD). Contrary to his complaints, the client reported psychological symptoms such as restlessness, low mood and fear of darkness and fear from closed places from the last 30 days. He also had a fear of death and his existence in the grave. His sleep was also disturbed due to excessive urination due to diabetes. He was also suffering from semantic symptoms such as headache, numbness of feet and pain in the chest and blockage of the nose. A complete history was taken and informal assessment (clinical interview and MSE) and formal testing (BAI) was applied that showed the clear diagnosis of Generalized Anxiety Disorder. CBT, relaxation techniques, prayer chart and behavioural techniques were applied for the treatment purposes.

Keywords: generalized anxiety disorder, presenting complaints, formal and informal assessment, diagnosis

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1784 A Strategy for Reducing Dynamic Disorder in Small Molecule Organic Semiconductors by Suppressing Large Amplitude Thermal Motions

Authors: Steffen Illig, Alexander S. Eggeman, Alessandro Troisi, Stephen G. Yeates, John E. Anthony, Henning Sirringhaus

Abstract:

Large-amplitude intermolecular vibrations in combination with complex shaped transfer integrals generate a thermally fluctuating energetic landscape. The resulting dynamic disorder and its intrinsic presence in organic semiconductors is one of the most fundamental differences to their inorganic counterparts. Dynamic disorder is believed to govern many of the unique electrical and optical properties of organic systems. However, the low energy nature of these vibrations makes it difficult to access them experimentally and because of this we still lack clear molecular design rules to control and reduce dynamic disorder. Applying a novel technique based on electron diffraction we encountered strong intermolecular, thermal vibrations in every single organic material we studied (14 up to date), indicating that a large degree of dynamic disorder is a universal phenomenon in organic crystals. In this paper a new molecular design strategy will be presented to avoid dynamic disorder. We found that small molecules that have their side chains attached to the long axis of their conjugated core have been found to be less likely to suffer from dynamic disorder effects. In particular, we demonstrate that 2,7-dioctyl[1]benzothieno[3,2-b][1]benzothio-phene (C8-BTBT) and 2,9-di-decyl-dinaphtho-[2,3-b:20,30-f]-thieno-[3,2-b]-thiophene (C10DNTT) exhibit strongly reduced thermal vibrations in comparison to other molecules and relate their outstanding performance to their lower dynamic disorder. We rationalize the low degree of dynamic disorder in C8-BTBT and C10-DNTT with a better encapsulation of the conjugated cores in the crystal structure which helps reduce large amplitude thermal motions. The work presented in this paper provides a general strategy for the design of new classes of very high mobility organic semiconductors with low dynamic disorder.

Keywords: charge transport, C8-BTBT, C10-DNTT, dynamic disorder, organic semiconductors, thermal vibrations

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1783 Thyroid Hormones and Thyrotropin Status in Nepalese Postmenopausal Women

Authors: S. A. Khan, B. Mishra, O. Sherchan

Abstract:

Background and Aims: Thyroid disorder is the most common endocrine disorder after diabetes mellitus. Females are more vulnerable to this disease, and old age is an important risk factor. This study was undertaken to investigate the burden of thyroid disorder in Nepalese postmenopausal women. Methods: In the present cross-sectional study, we included 271 post-menopausal women. Three ml of blood was collected following standard protocol after taking the written consent. Serum was separated and analyzed for free T3, free T4, and Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) by Chemiluminescence Immunoassay (CLIA) method in Snibe Maglumi 1000 analyzer. Data obtained was analyzed in SPSS Version 21. P < 0.05 was set for statistical significant at 95% Confidence Interval (CI). Results: Majority of the participants belong to Janjati (46.5%) ethnicity, followed by Brahmin/Chhetri (41.7%), residing either in urban or suburban locality. Most of them were non-vegetarian, non-smoker, and non-alcoholic. Subjects were divided into hyperthyroid (TSH < 0.3 uIU/ml), hypothyroid (TSH > 4.5 uIU/ml), and euthyroid (TSH=0.3-4.5 uIU/ml) based on TSH value. We reported 10.3% hyperthyroid and 29.2% hypothyroid cases. TSH was significantly correlated with T3 (r=-0.244; p < 0.001) T4 (r=-0.398; p < 0.001); age (r=-0.138; p=0.023) and BMI (r=0.123; p=0.043). Multiple linear regression model for TSH reveals only T3 and T4 were significantly associated with TSH (p < 0.001; p=0.001). Conclusion: To conclude, nearly 39.5% of the postmenopausal women had thyroid disorder. Postmenopausal women are vulnerable to thyroid disorder; therefore, requires regular thyroid monitoring.

Keywords: thyroid stimulating hormone, TSH, T3, T4, thyroid disorder

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1782 Role of Environmental Risk Factors in Autism Spectrum Disorder

Authors: Dost Muhammad Halepoto, Laila AL-Ayadhi

Abstract:

Neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism can cause lifelong disability. Genetic and environmental factors are believed to contribute to the development of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but relatively few studies have considered potential environmental risks. Several industrial chemicals and other environmental exposures are recognized causes of neurodevelopmental disorders and subclinical brain dysfunction. The toxic effects of such chemicals in the developing human brain are not known. This review highlights the role of environmental risk factors including drugs, toxic chemicals, heavy metals, pesticides, vaccines, and other suspected neurotoxicants including persistent organic pollutants for ASD. It also provides information about the environmental toxins to yield new insights into factors that affect autism risk as well as an opportunity to investigate the relation between autism and environmental exposure.

Keywords: Autism Spectrum Disorder, ASD, environmental factors, neurodevelopmental disorder

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1781 Challenges in Teaching Code of Ethics and Professional Conduct

Authors: Rasika Dayarathna

Abstract:

Computing has reached every corner of our lives in many forms. The Internet, particularly Social Media, Artificial Intelligence, are prominent among them. As a result, computing has changed our lives and it is expected that severe changes will take place in the coming years. It has introduced a new set of ethical challenges and amplified the existing ethical challenges. It is the duty of everyone involved from conceptualizing, designing, implementing, deploying, and using to follow generally accepted practices in order to avoid or minimize harm and improve the quality of life. Since computing in various forms mentioned above has a significant impact on our lives, various codes of conduct and standards have been introduced. Among many, the ACM (Association of Computing Machinery) Code of Ethics and Professional Conduct is a leading one. This was drafted for everyone, including aspiring computing professionals. However, teaching a code of conduct for aspiring computing professionals is very challenging since this universal code needs to be taught for young computing professionals in a local setting where there are value mismatches and exposure to information systems. This paper discusses the importance of teaching the code, how to overcome the challenges, and suggestions to improve the code to make it more appealing and buying in. It is expected that the improved approach would contribute to improving the quality of life.

Keywords: code of conduct, professionalism, ethics, code of ethics, ethics education, moral development

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1780 The Knowledge and Beliefs Concerning Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Held by Parents of Children With Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Saudi Arabia

Authors: Mohaned G. Abed

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Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is considered one of the most frequently diagnosed psychiatric childhood disorders. It has an effect on 3–5% of school-aged children, and brings about difficulties in academic and social interaction. This study explored the knowledge and beliefs of parents in Saudi Arabia about children with ADHD. The Knowledge about Attention Deficit Disorder Questionnaire (KADD-Q) was administered to a sample of parents, followed by interviews with a subset of the total respondents. The results indicated that the parents knew more about the characteristics of ADHD than they knew about its related causes and treatment. Overall, the findings indicated that these parents had some knowledge about general characteristics of ADHD, but they had little understanding of causes and possible interventions. These results suggest an important need for more formal parents training regarding all aspects of ADHD in school age children.

Keywords: attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, childhood disorders, school-aged children, difficulties in academic, social interaction

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1779 The Effect of Group Interpersonal Psychotherapy on Eating Disorder Symptom and Fear of Negative Evaluation of Lorestan University Female Students

Authors: S. Gholamrezaei, M. Mehrabizade Honarmand, Y. Zargar

Abstract:

Introduction: This research was designed to assess the effect of group Interpersonal Psychotherapy on eating disorder symptom and fear of negative evaluation of Lorestan University female students. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 641 female students were randomly selected from various faculties of Lorestan University. Eating disorders symptoms and fear of negative evaluation were assessed by the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26), and Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale, Leary (FNES-B). Data were analyzed by SPSS software (multivariate analyze tests were used). Results: Interpersonal Psychotherapy can improve the eating disorder symptoms and reduce the fear of negative evaluation in girl students of group control in compare with control group. Conclusion: Interpersonal psychotherapy can be effective for eating disorder symptoms, and fear of negative evaluation among female students. Thus, it is suggested that this kind of psychotherapy was used for other psychological disease.

Keywords: interpersonal psychotherapy, eating disorder, fear of negative evaluation, students

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1778 Functional Impairment in South African Children with ADHD: Design, Implementation and Evaluation of a Targeted Intervention

Authors: Mareli Fischer, Kevin G. F. Thomas

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Although Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is one of the most prevalent childhood neurobehavioural disorders, little empirical research has been published on its clinical presentation in Africa, and, globally, few studies evaluate ADHD intervention programs that emphasize parent training. Hence, Stage 1 of this research programme aimed to describe the functional impairment of South African children with ADHD, and also sought to investigate the influence of sociodemographic variables (e.g., sex, age, socioeconomic status, family environment) and clinical variables (e.g., ADHD subtype and comorbidity) on the degree of that impairment. We used the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview for Children and Adolescents as a diagnostic tool, and the Child Behavior Checklist, the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, and the Impairment Rating Scale as measures of functional impairment. Results from this stage of the research indicated that South African children and adolescents who meet diagnostic criteria for ADHD experience most functional impairment in the school domain, as well as in the area of social functioning. None of the measured sociodemographic variables had a significant detrimental or protective effect on how ADHD symptoms impacted on functioning. In terms of comorbidity, the presence of Major Depressive Disorder, Conduct Disorder, and Oppositional Defiant Disorder were all associated with significantly impaired overall functioning. Stage 2 of the research programme aimed to design, implement, and evaluate a child-specific intervention that targeted the primary areas of impairment identified in Stage 1. Existing literature suggests that a positive parent-training programme, in the group format, is one of the best options for cost-effective and successful ADHD intervention. Hence, the intervention took that form. Parents were taught basic behaviour analysis concepts within a supportive group context. Evaluation of the intervention’s efficacy used many of the same measures as in Stage 1, but also featured semi-structured interviews with participants and naturalistic observation of parent-child interaction. We will discuss preliminary results of that evaluation. Studying functional impairment and designing intervention plans in this way will pave the way for evidence-based treatment plans for children and adolescents diagnosed with ADHD.

Keywords: attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, children, intervention, parenting groups

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1777 Prevalence and Associated Factors of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder among Children Age 6 to 17 Years Old Living in Girja District, Oromia Regional State, Rural Ethiopia: Community Based Cross-Sectional Study

Authors: Hirbaye Mokona, Abebaw Gebeyehu, Aemro Zerihun

Abstract:

Introduction: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is serious public health problem affecting millions of children throughout the world. Method: A cross-sectional study conducted from May to June 2015 among children age 6 to 17 years living in rural area of Girja district. Multi-stage cluster sampling technique was used to select 1302 study participants. Disruptive Behavior Disorder rating scale was used to collect the data. Data were coded, entered and cleaned by Epi-Data version 3.1 and analyzed by SPSS version 20. Logistic regression analysis was used and Variables that have P-values less than 0.05 on multivariable logistic regression was considered as statistically significant. Results: Prevalence of Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) among children age 6 to 17 years was 7.3%. Being male [AOR=1.81, 95%CI: (1.13, 2.91)]; living with single parent [AOR=5.0, 95%CI: (2.35, 10.65)]; child birth order/rank [AOR=2.35, 95%CI: (1.30, 4.25)]; low family socio-economic status [AOR= 2.43, 95%CI: (1.29, 4.59)]; maternal alcohol/khat use during pregnancy [AOR=3.14, 95%CI: (1.37, 7.37)] and complication at delivery [AOR=3.56, 95%CI: (1.19, 10.64)] were more likely to develop Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Conclusion: In this study, the prevalence of Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder was similar with worldwide prevalence. Prevention and early management of its modifiable risk factors should be carryout alongside increasing community awareness.

Keywords: attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, ADHD, associated factors, children, prevalence

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1776 Naltrexone and Borderline Personality Disorder: A Brief Review

Authors: Azadeh Moghaddas, Mehrnoush Dianatkhah, Padideh Ghaeli

Abstract:

The main characteristics of borderline personality disorder (BPD) are instable regulation of affect and self-image, impulsive behavior, and lack of interpersonal relationships. Clinically, emotional dysregulation, impulsive aggression, repeated self-injury, and suicidal thought are noted with this disorder. Proper management of patients with BPD is a difficult challenge due to the complex features of this disorder. Pharmacotherapy of BPD in order to control impulsive behavior and to stabilize affect in patients with BPD has been receiving a lot of attention. Anticonvulsant agents such as topiramate, valproate, or lamotrigine, atypical antipsychotics such as aripiprazole and olanzapine and antidepressants such as monoamine oxidase inhibitors and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors like fluvoxamine have been implicated in the treatment of BPD. Unfortunately, none of these medications can be used alone or even in combination as sole treatment of BPD. Medications may be used mostly to resolve or reduce impulsivity and aggression in these patients. Naltrexone (NTX), a nonspecific competitive opiate antagonist has been suggested, in the literature, to control self-injurious behavior (SIB) and dissociative symptoms in patients with BPD. This brief review has been intended to look at all documented evidence on the use of NTX in the management of BPD and to reach a comprehensive conclusion.

Keywords: borderline personality disorder, naltrexone, self-injurious behavior, dissociative symptoms

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1775 Intrusiveness, Appraisal and Thought Control Strategies in Patients with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

Authors: T. Arshad

Abstract:

A correlation study was done to explore the relationship of intrusiveness, appraisal and thought control strategies in patients with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder. Theoretical frame work for the present study was Salkovskis (1985) cognitive model of obsessive compulsive disorder. Sample of 100 patients (men=48, women=52) of age 14-62 years (M=32.13, SD=10.37) was recruited from hospitals of Lahore, Pakistan. Revised Obsessional Intrusion Inventory, Stress Appraisal Measure, Thought Control Questionnaire and Symptoms Checklist-R were self-administered. Findings revealed that intrusiveness is correlated with appraisals (controllable by self, controllable by others, uncontrollable, stressfulness) and thought control strategy (punishment). Furthermore, appraisals (uncontrollable, stressfulness, controllable by others) were emerged as strong predictors for different through control strategies (distraction, punishment and social control). Moreover, men have higher frequency of intrusion, whereas women were frequently using social control as thought control strategy. Results implied that intrusiveness, appraisals (controllable by others, uncontrollable, stressfulness) and thought control strategy (punishment) are related which maintains the disorder.

Keywords: appraisal, intrusiveness, obsessive compulsive disorder, thought control strategies

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1774 A Study on the Development of Self-Help Therapy for Bipolar Disorder

Authors: Bae Yu been, Choi Sung won, Lee Ju yeon, Yang Dan Bi

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to develop a self-help therapy program for bipolar disorder (BD). Psychosocial treatment is adjunct to pharmacotherapy for BD, however, it is limited and they demand high costs. Therefore, the objective of the study is to overcome these limitations by developing the self-treatment for BD. The study was examined the efficacy of the self-treatment program for BD. A randomized controlled trial compared the self-help therapy (ST) intervention with a treatment as usual (TAU) group. ST group has conducted the program for 8 weeks (16 sessions). Mood chart, Quality of Life in Bipolar Disorder Questionnaire, Attitudes toward seeking professional help Scale, BIS, CERQ, YMRS, MADRS were used by pre, post, and follow up. The efficacy of the self-help therapy was analyzed by using mixed ANOVAs. There were significant differences in the rate of occurrence of mania or depression between the two groups. ST group reported stable moods on mood chart, and reductions in mood symptoms and improvements in quality of life and treatment adherence. This study was confirmed applicable to BD to the self-help therapy for patients with BD conducted first in Korea.

Keywords: self help therapy, bipolar disorder, self help, self therapy

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1773 Analysis and Detection of Facial Expressions in Autism Spectrum Disorder People Using Machine Learning

Authors: Muhammad Maisam Abbas, Salman Tariq, Usama Riaz, Muhammad Tanveer, Humaira Abdul Ghafoor

Abstract:

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) refers to a developmental disorder that impairs an individual's communication and interaction ability. Individuals feel difficult to read facial expressions while communicating or interacting. Facial Expression Recognition (FER) is a unique method of classifying basic human expressions, i.e., happiness, fear, surprise, sadness, disgust, neutral, and anger through static and dynamic sources. This paper conducts a comprehensive comparison and proposed optimal method for a continued research project—a system that can assist people who have Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in recognizing facial expressions. Comparison has been conducted on three supervised learning algorithms EigenFace, FisherFace, and LBPH. The JAFFE, CK+, and TFEID (I&II) datasets have been used to train and test the algorithms. The results were then evaluated based on variance, standard deviation, and accuracy. The experiments showed that FisherFace has the highest accuracy for all datasets and is considered the best algorithm to be implemented in our system.

Keywords: autism spectrum disorder, ASD, EigenFace, facial expression recognition, FisherFace, local binary pattern histogram, LBPH

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