Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 897

Search results for: Wan-Ping Chen

57 Biomechanical Evaluation for Minimally Invasive Lumbar Decompression: Unilateral Versus Bilateral Approaches

Authors: Chih-Han Chang, Chih-Wei Wang, Yi-Hung Ho, Chih-Hsien Chen

Abstract:

Unilateral laminotomy and bilateral laminotomies were successful decompressions methods for managing spinal stenosis that numerous studies have reported. Thus, unilateral laminotomy was rated technically much more demanding than bilateral laminotomies, whereas the bilateral laminotomies were associated with a positive benefit to reduce more complications. There were including incidental durotomy, increased radicular deficit, and epidural hematoma. However, no relative biomechanical analysis for evaluating spinal instability treated with unilateral and bilateral laminotomies. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the outcomes of different decompressions methods by experimental and finite element analysis. Three porcine lumbar spines were biomechanically evaluated for their range of motion, and the results were compared following unilateral or bilateral laminotomies. The experimental protocol included flexion and extension in the following procedures: intact, unilateral, and bilateral laminotomies (L2–L5). The specimens in this study were tested in flexion (8 Nm) and extension (6 Nm) of pure moment. Spinal segment kinematic data was captured by using the motion tracking system. A 3D finite element lumbar spine model (L1-S1) containing vertebral body, discs, and ligaments were constructed. This model was used to simulate the situation of treating unilateral and bilateral laminotomies at L3-L4 and L4-L5. The bottom surface of S1 vertebral body was fully geometrically constrained in this study. A 10 Nm pure moment also applied on the top surface of L1 vertebral body to drive lumbar doing different motion, such as flexion and extension. The experimental results showed that in the flexion, the ROMs (±standard deviation) of L3–L4 were 1.35±0.23, 1.34±0.67, and 1.66±0.07 degrees of the intact, unilateral, and bilateral laminotomies, respectively. The ROMs of L4–L5 were 4.35±0.29, 4.06±0.87, and 4.2±0.32 degrees, respectively. No statistical significance was observed in these three groups (P>0.05). In the extension, the ROMs of L3–L4 were 0.89±0.16, 1.69±0.08, and 1.73±0.13 degrees, respectively. In the L4-L5, the ROMs were 1.4±0.12, 2.44±0.26, and 2.5±0.29 degrees, respectively. Significant differences were observed among all trials, except between the unilateral and bilateral laminotomy groups. At the simulation results portion, the similar results were discovered with the experiment. No significant differences were found at L4-L5 both flexion and extension in each group. Only 0.02 and 0.04 degrees variation were observed during flexion and extension between the unilateral and bilateral laminotomy groups. In conclusions, the present results by finite element analysis and experimental reveal that no significant differences were observed during flexion and extension between unilateral and bilateral laminotomies in short-term follow-up. From a biomechanical point of view, bilateral laminotomies seem to exhibit a similar stability as unilateral laminotomy. In clinical practice, the bilateral laminotomies are likely to reduce technical difficulties and prevent perioperative complications; this study proved this benefit through biomechanical analysis. The results may provide some recommendations for surgeons to make the final decision.

Keywords: Finite Element Analysis, unilateral laminotomy, bilateral laminotomies, spinal stenosis

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56 Reconstruction of Alveolar Bone Defects Using Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2 Mediated Rabbit Dental Pulp Stem Cells Seeded on Nano-Hydroxyapatite/Collagen/Poly(L-Lactide)

Authors: Ling-Ling E., Hong-Chen Liu, Dong-Sheng Wang, Fang Su, Xia Wu, Zhan-Ping Shi, Yan Lv, Jia-Zhu Wang

Abstract:

Objective: The objective of the present study is to evaluate the capacity of a tissue-engineered bone complex of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (rhBMP-2) mediated dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) and nano-hydroxyapatite/collagen/poly(L-lactide)(nHAC/PLA) to reconstruct critical-size alveolar bone defects in New Zealand rabbit. Methods: Autologous DPSCs were isolated from rabbit dental pulp tissue and expanded ex vivo to enrich DPSCs numbers, and then their attachment and differentiation capability were evaluated when cultured on the culture plate or nHAC/PLA. The alveolar bone defects were treated with nHAC/PLA, nHAC/PLA+rhBMP-2, nHAC/PLA+DPSCs, nHAC/PLA+DPSCs+rhBMP-2, and autogenous bone (AB) obtained from iliac bone or were left untreated as a control. X-ray and a polychrome sequential fluorescent labeling were performed post-operatively and the animals were sacrificed 12 weeks after operation for histological observation and histomorphometric analysis. Results: Our results showed that DPSCs expressed STRO-1 and vementin, and favoured osteogenesis and adipogenesis in conditioned media. DPSCs attached and spread well, and retained their osteogenic phenotypes on nHAC/PLA. The rhBMP-2 could significantly increase protein content, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity/protein, osteocalcin (OCN) content, and mineral formation of DPSCs cultured on nHAC/PLA. The X-ray graph, the fluorescent, histological observation and histomorphometric analysis showed that the nHAC/PLA+DPSCs+rhBMP-2 tissue-engineered bone complex had an earlier mineralization and more bone formation inside the scaffold than nHAC/PLA, nHAC/PLA+rhBMP-2 and nHAC/PLA+DPSCs, or even autologous bone. Implanted DPSCs contribution to new bone were detected through transfected eGFP genes. Conclutions: Our findings indicated that stem cells existed in adult rabbit dental pulp tissue. The rhBMP-2 promoted osteogenic capability of DPSCs as a potential cell source for periodontal bone regeneration. The nHAC/PLA could serve as a good scaffold for autologous DPSCs seeding, proliferation and differentiation. The tissue-engineered bone complex with nHAC/PLA, rhBMP-2, and autologous DPSCs might be a better alternative to autologous bone for the clinical reconstruction of periodontal bone defects.

Keywords: Bone Tissue Engineering, nano-hydroxyapatite/collagen/poly (L-lactide), dental pulp stem cell, recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein, alveolar bone

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55 Stochastic Modelling for Mixed Mode Fatigue Delamination Growth of Wind Turbine Composite Blades

Authors: Chi Zhang, Hua-Peng Chen

Abstract:

With the increasingly demanding resources in the word, renewable and clean energy has been considered as an alternative way to replace traditional ones. Thus, one of practical examples for using wind energy is wind turbine, which has gained more attentions in recent research. Like most offshore structures, the blades, which is the most critical components of the wind turbine, will be subjected to millions of loading cycles during service life. To operate safely in marine environments, the blades are typically made from fibre reinforced composite materials to resist fatigue delamination and harsh environment. The fatigue crack development of blades is uncertain because of indeterminate mechanical properties for composite and uncertainties under offshore environment like wave loads, wind loads, and humid environments. There are three main delamination failure modes for composite blades, and the most common failure type in practices is subjected to mixed mode loading, typically a range of opening (mode 1) and shear (mode 2). However, the fatigue crack development for mixed mode cannot be predicted as deterministic values because of various uncertainties in realistic practical situation. Therefore, selecting an effective stochastic model to evaluate the mixed mode behaviour of wind turbine blades is a critical issue. In previous studies, gamma process has been considered as an appropriate stochastic approach, which simulates the stochastic deterioration process to proceed in one direction such as realistic situation for fatigue damage failure of wind turbine blades. On the basis of existing studies, various Paris Law equations are discussed to simulate the propagation of the fatigue crack growth. This paper develops a Paris model with the stochastic deterioration modelling according to gamma process for predicting fatigue crack performance in design service life. A numerical example of wind turbine composite materials is investigated to predict the mixed mode crack depth by Paris law and the probability of fatigue failure by gamma process. The probability of failure curves under different situations are obtained from the stochastic deterioration model for comparisons. Compared with the results from experiments, the gamma process can take the uncertain values into consideration for crack propagation of mixed mode, and the stochastic deterioration process shows a better agree well with realistic crack process for composite blades. Finally, according to the predicted results from gamma stochastic model, assessment strategies for composite blades are developed to reduce total lifecycle costs and increase resistance for fatigue crack growth.

Keywords: Stochastic Process, wind turbine blades, Reinforced fibre composite, Fatigue delamination, Mixed failure mode

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54 Dengue Prevention and Control in Kaohsiung City

Authors: Chiu-Wen Chang, I-Yun Chang, Wei-Ting Chen, Hui-Ping Ho, Ruei-Hun Chang, Joh-Jong Huang

Abstract:

Kaohsiung City is located in the tropical region where has Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus distributed; once the virus invades, it’s can easily trigger local epidemic. Besides, Kaohsiung City has a world-class airport and harbor, trade and tourism are close and frequently with every country, especially with the Southeast Asian countries which also suffer from dengue. Therefore, Kaohsiung City faces the difficult challenge of dengue every year. The objectives of this study was to enhance dengue clinical care, border management and vector surveillance in Kaohsiung City by establishing an larger scale, innovatively and more coordinated dengue prevention and control strategies in 2016, including (1) Integrated medical programs: facilitated 657 contract medical institutions, widely set up NS1 rapid test in clinics, enhanced triage and referrals system, dengue case daily-monitoring management (2) Border quarantine: comprehensive NS1 screening for foreign workers and fisheries when immigration, hospitalization and isolation for suspected cases, health education for high risk groups (foreign students, other tourists) (3) Mosquito control: Widely use Gravitrap to monitor mosquito density in environment, use NS1 rapid screening test to detect community dengue virus (4) Health education: create a dengue app for people to immediately inquire the risk map and nearby medical resources, routine health education to all districts to strengthen public’s dengue knowledge, neighborhood cleaning awards program. The results showed that after new integration of dengue prevention and control strategies fully implemented in Kaohsiung City, the number of confirmed cases in 2016 declined to 342 cases, the majority of these cases are the continuation epidemic in 2015; in fact, only two cases confirmed after the 2016 summer. Besides, the dengue mortality rate successfully decreased to 0% in 2016. Moreover, according to the reporting rate from medical institutions in 2014 and 2016, it dropped from 27.07% to 19.45% from medical center, and it decreased from 36.55% to 29.79% from regional hospital; however, the reporting rate of district hospital increased from 11.88% to 15.87% and also increased from 24.51% to 34.89% in general practice clinics. Obviously, it showed that under the action of strengthening medical management, it reduced the medical center’s notification ratio and improved the notification ratio of general clinics which achieved the great effect of dengue clinical management and dengue control.

Keywords: clinical management, dengue control, NS1, integrated control strategies

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53 Risk Assessment of Flood Defences by Utilising Condition Grade Based Probabilistic Approach

Authors: Hua-Peng Chen, M. Bahari Mehrabani

Abstract:

Management and maintenance of coastal defence structures during the expected life cycle have become a real challenge for decision makers and engineers. Accurate evaluation of the current condition and future performance of flood defence structures is essential for effective practical maintenance strategies on the basis of available field inspection data. Moreover, as coastal defence structures age, it becomes more challenging to implement maintenance and management plans to avoid structural failure. Therefore, condition inspection data are essential for assessing damage and forecasting deterioration of ageing flood defence structures in order to keep the structures in an acceptable condition. The inspection data for flood defence structures are often collected using discrete visual condition rating schemes. In order to evaluate future condition of the structure, a probabilistic deterioration model needs to be utilised. However, existing deterioration models may not provide a reliable prediction of performance deterioration for a long period due to uncertainties. To tackle the limitation, a time-dependent condition-based model associated with a transition probability needs to be developed on the basis of condition grade scheme for flood defences. This paper presents a probabilistic method for predicting future performance deterioration of coastal flood defence structures based on condition grading inspection data and deterioration curves estimated by expert judgement. In condition-based deterioration modelling, the main task is to estimate transition probability matrices. The deterioration process of the structure related to the transition states is modelled according to Markov chain process, and a reliability-based approach is used to estimate the probability of structural failure. Visual inspection data according to the United Kingdom Condition Assessment Manual are used to obtain the initial condition grade curve of the coastal flood defences. The initial curves then modified in order to develop transition probabilities through non-linear regression based optimisation algorithms. The Monte Carlo simulations are then used to evaluate the future performance of the structure on the basis of the estimated transition probabilities. Finally, a case study is given to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed method under no-maintenance and medium-maintenance scenarios. Results show that the proposed method can provide an effective predictive model for various situations in terms of available condition grading data. The proposed model also provides useful information on time-dependent probability of failure in coastal flood defences.

Keywords: Performance Assessment, condition grading, flood defense, stochastic deterioration modelling

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52 Need for Eye Care Services, Clinical Characteristics, Surgical Outcome and Prognostic Predictors of Cataract in Adult Participants with Intellectual Disability

Authors: Yun-Shan Tsai, Si-Ping Lin, En-Chieh Lin, Xin-Hong Chen, Shin-Yun Ho, Shin-Hong Huang, Ching-ju Hsieh

Abstract:

Background and significance: Uncorrected refractive errors and cataracts are the main visually debilitating ophthalmological abnormalities in adult participants with intellectual disability (ID). However, not all adult participants with ID may receive a regular and timely ophthalmological assessment. Consequently, some of the ocular diseases may not be diagnosed until late, thereby causing unnecessary ocular morbidity. In addition, recent clinical practice and researches have also suggested that eye-care services for this group are neglected. Purpose: To investigate the unmet need for eye care services, clinical characteristics of cataract, visual function, surgical outcome and prognostic predictors in adult participants with ID at Taipei City Hospital in Taiwan. Methods: This is a one-year prospective clinical study. We recruited about 120 eyes of 60 adult participants with ID who were received cataract surgery. Caregivers of all participants received a questionnaire on current eye care services. Clinical demographic data, such as age, gender, and associated systemic diseases or syndromes, were collected. All complete ophthalmologic examinations were performed 1 month preoperatively and 3 months postoperatively, including ocular biometry, visual function, refractive status, morphology of cataract, associated ocular features, anesthesia methods, surgical types, and complications. Morphology of cataract, visual and surgical outcome was analyzed. Results: A total of 60 participants with mean age 43.66 ± 13.94 years, including 59.02% male and 40.98% female, took part in comprehensive eye-care services. The prevalence of unmet need for eye care services was high (about 70%). About 50% of adult participants with ID have bilateral cataracts at the time of diagnosis. White cataracts were noted in about 30% of all adult participants with ID at the time of presentation. Associated ocular disorders were included myopic maculopathy (4.54%), corneal disorders (11.36%), nystagmus (20.45%), strabismus (38.64%) and glaucoma (2.27%). About 26.7% of adult participants with ID underwent extracapsular cataract extraction whereas a phacoemulsification was performed in 100% of eyes. Intraocular lens implantation was performed in all eyes. The most common postoperative complication was posterior capsular opacification (30%). The mean best-corrected visual acuity was significantly improved from preoperatively (mean log MAR 0.48 ± 0.22) to at 3 months postoperatively (mean log MAR 0.045 ± 0.22) (p < .05). Conclusions: Regular follow up will help address the need for eye-care services in participants with ID. A high incidence of bilateral cataracts, as well as white cataracts, was observed in adult participants with ID. Because of early diagnosis and early intervention of cataract, the visual and surgical outcomes of cataract are good, but the visual outcomes are suboptimal due to associated ocular comorbidities.

Keywords: Cataract, cataract surgery, adult participants with intellectual disability

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51 Cell Adhesion, Morphology and Cytokine Expression of Synoviocytes Can Be Altered on Different Nano-Topographic Oxidized Silicon Nanosponges

Authors: Hung-Chih Hsu, Pey-Jium Chang, Ching-Hsein Chen, Jer-Liang Andrew Yeh

Abstract:

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common disorder in rehabilitation clinic. The main characteristics include joint pain, localized tenderness and enlargement, joint effusion, cartilage destruction, loss of adhesion of perichondrium, synovium hyperplasia. Synoviocytes inflammation might be a cause of local tenderness and effusion. Inflammation cytokines might also play an important role in joint pain, cartilage destruction, decrease adhesion of perichondrium to the bone. Treatments of osteoarthritis include non-steroid anti-inflammation drugs (NSAID), glucosamine supplementation, hyaluronic acid, arthroscopic debridement, and total joint replacement. Total joint replacement is commonly used in patients with severe OA who failed respond to pharmacological treatment. However, some patients received surgery had serious adverse events, including instability of the implants due to insufficient adhesion to the adjacent bony tissue or synovial inflammation. We tried to develop ideal nano-topographic oxidized silicon nanosponges by using with various chemicals to produce thickness difference in nanometers in order to study more about the cell-environment interactions in vitro like the alterations of cell adhesion, morphology, extracellular matrix secretions in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis. Cytokines studies like growth factor, reactive oxygen species, reactive inflammatory materials (Like nitrous oxide and prostaglandin E2), extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation enzymes, and synthesis of collagen will also be observed and discussed. Extracellular and intracellular expression transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) will be studied by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The degradation of ECM will be observed by the bioactivity ratio of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase by ELISA (Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay). When rabbit synoviocytes were cultured on these nano-topographic structures, they demonstrate better cell adhesion rate, decreased expression of MMP-2,9 and PGE2, and increased expression of TGF-β when cultured in nano-topographic oxidized silicon nanosponges than in the planar oxidized silicon ones. These results show cell behavior, cytokine production can be influenced by physical characteristics from different nano-topographic structures. Our study demonstrates the possibility of manipulating cell behavior in these nano-topographic biomaterials.

Keywords: Osteoarthritis, reactive oxygen species, synoviocyte, oxidized silicon surfaces

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50 The Potential of Edaphic Algae for Bioremediation of the Diesel-Contaminated Soil

Authors: C. S. Chen, C. J. Tien, S. F. Huang, Z. X. Wang

Abstract:

Algae in soil ecosystems can produce organic matters and oxygen by photosynthesis. Heterocyst-forming cyanobacteria can fix nitrogen to increase soil nitrogen contents. Secretion of mucilage by some algae increases the soil water content and soil aggregation. These actions will improve soil quality and fertility, and further increase abundance and diversity of soil microorganisms. In addition, some mixotrophic and heterotrophic algae are able to degrade petroleum hydrocarbons. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to analyze the effects of algal addition on the degradation of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), diversity and activity of bacteria and algae in the diesel-contaminated soil under different nutrient contents and frequency of plowing and irrigation in order to assess the potential bioremediation technique using edaphic algae. The known amount of diesel was added into the farmland soil. This diesel-contaminated soil was subject to five settings, experiment-1 with algal addition by plowing and irrigation every two weeks, experiment-2 with algal addition by plowing and irrigation every four weeks, experiment-3 with algal and nutrient addition by plowing and irrigation every two weeks, experiment-4 with algal and nutrient addition by plowing and irrigation every four weeks, and the control without algal addition. Soil samples were taken every two weeks to analyze TPH concentrations, diversity of bacteria and algae, and catabolic genes encoding functional degrading enzymes. The results show that the TPH removal rates of five settings after the two-month experimental period were in the order: experiment-2 > expermient-4 > experiment-3 > experiment-1 > control. It indicated that algal addition enhanced the degradation of TPH in the diesel-contaminated soil, but not for nutrient addition. Plowing and irrigation every four weeks resulted in more TPH removal than that every two weeks. The banding patterns of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) revealed an increase in diversity of bacteria and algae after algal addition. Three petroleum hydrocarbon-degrading algae (Anabaena sp., Oscillatoria sp. and Nostoc sp.) and two added algal strains (Leptolyngbya sp. and Synechococcus sp.) were sequenced from DGGE prominent bands. The four hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria Gordonia sp., Mycobacterium sp., Rodococcus sp. and Alcanivorax sp. were abundant in the treated soils. These results suggested that growth of indigenous bacteria and algae were improved after adding edaphic algae. Real-time polymerase chain reaction results showed that relative amounts of four catabolic genes encoding catechol 2, 3-dioxygenase, toluene monooxygenase, xylene monooxygenase and phenol monooxygenase were appeared and expressed in the treated soil. The addition of algae increased the expression of these genes at the end of experiments to biodegrade petroleum hydrocarbons. This study demonstrated that edaphic algae were suitable biomaterials for bioremediating diesel-contaminated soils with plowing and irrigation every four weeks.

Keywords: Diversity, diesel, catabolic gene, edaphic algae

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49 A Hybrid LES-RANS Approach to Analyse Coupled Heat Transfer and Vortex Structures in Separated and Reattached Turbulent Flows

Authors: C. D. Ellis, H. Xia, X. Chen

Abstract:

Experimental and computational studies investigating heat transfer in separated flows have been of increasing importance over the last 60 years, as efforts are being made to understand and improve the efficiency of components such as combustors, turbines, heat exchangers, nuclear reactors and cooling channels. Understanding of not only the time-mean heat transfer properties but also the unsteady properties is vital for design of these components. As computational power increases, more sophisticated methods of modelling these flows become available for use. The hybrid LES-RANS approach has been applied to a blunt leading edge flat plate, utilising a structured grid at a moderate Reynolds number of 20300 based on the plate thickness. In the region close to the wall, the RANS method is implemented for two turbulence models; the one equation Spalart-Allmaras model and Menter’s two equation SST k-ω model. The LES region occupies the flow away from the wall and is formulated without any explicit subgrid scale LES modelling. Hybridisation is achieved between the two methods by the blending of the nearest wall distance. Validation of the flow was obtained by assessing the mean velocity profiles in comparison to similar studies. Identifying the vortex structures of the flow was obtained by utilising the λ2 criterion to identify vortex cores. The qualitative structure of the flow compared with experiments of similar Reynolds number. This identified the 2D roll up of the shear layer, breaking down via the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability. Through this instability the flow progressed into hairpin like structures, elongating as they advanced downstream. Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) analysis has been performed on the full flow field and upon the surface temperature of the plate. As expected, the breakdown of POD modes for the full field revealed a relatively slow decay compared to the surface temperature field. Both POD fields identified the most energetic fluctuations occurred in the separated and recirculation region of the flow. Latter modes of the surface temperature identified these levels of fluctuations to dominate the time-mean region of maximum heat transfer and flow reattachment. In addition to the current research, work will be conducted in tracking the movement of the vortex cores and the location and magnitude of temperature hot spots upon the plate. This information will support the POD and statistical analysis performed to further identify qualitative relationships between the vortex dynamics and the response of the surface heat transfer.

Keywords: Heat Transfer, Vortex Dynamics, hybrid LES-RANS, separated and reattached flow

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48 An Investigation on MgAl₂O₄ Based Mould System in Investment Casting Titanium Alloy

Authors: Chen Yuan, Nick Green, Stuart Blackburn

Abstract:

The investment casting process offers a great freedom of design combined with the economic advantage of near net shape manufacturing. It is widely used for the production of high value precision cast parts in particularly in the aerospace sector. Various combinations of materials have been used to produce the ceramic moulds, but most investment foundries use a silica based binder system in conjunction with fused silica, zircon, and alumino-silicate refractories as both filler and coarse stucco materials. However, in the context of advancing alloy technologies, silica based systems are struggling to keep pace, especially when net-shape casting titanium alloys. Study has shown that the casting of titanium based alloys presents considerable problems, including the extensive interactions between the metal and refractory, and the majority of metal-mould interaction is due to reduction of silica, present as binder and filler phases, by titanium in the molten state. Cleaner, more refractory systems are being devised to accommodate these changes. Although yttria has excellent chemical inertness to titanium alloy, it is not very practical in a production environment combining high material cost, short slurry life, and poor sintering properties. There needs to be a cost effective solution to these issues. With limited options for using pure oxides, in this work, a silica-free magnesia spinel MgAl₂O₄ was used as a primary coat filler and alumina as a binder material to produce facecoat in the investment casting mould. A comparison system was also studied with a fraction of the rare earth oxide Y₂O₃ adding into the filler to increase the inertness. The stability of the MgAl₂O₄/Al₂O₃ and MgAl₂O₄/Y₂O₃/Al₂O₃ slurries was assessed by tests, including pH, viscosity, zeta-potential and plate weight measurement, and mould properties such as friability were also measured. The interaction between the face coat and titanium alloy was studied by both a flash re-melting technique and a centrifugal investment casting method. The interaction products between metal and mould were characterized using x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDS). The depth of the oxygen hardened layer was evaluated by micro hardness measurement. Results reveal that introducing a fraction of Y₂O₃ into magnesia spinel can significantly increase the slurry life and reduce the thickness of hardened layer during centrifugal casting.

Keywords: Interaction, investment casting, titanium alloy, mould, MgAl₂O₄, Y₂O₃

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47 The Epidemiology of Dengue in Taiwan during 2014-15: A Descriptive Analysis of the Severe Outbreaks of Central Surveillance System Data

Authors: Yu-Min Chou, Chin-Hui Yang, Angela S. Huang, Chu-Tzu Chen

Abstract:

Dengue is a major public health concern throughout tropical and sub-tropical regions. Taiwan is located in the Pacific Ocean and overlying the tropical and subtropical zones. The island remains humid throughout the year and receives abundant rainfall, and the temperature is very hot in summer at southern Taiwan. It is ideal for the growth of dengue vectors and would be increasing the risk on dengue outbreaks. During the first half of the 20th century, there were three island-wide dengue outbreaks (1915, 1931, and 1942). After almost forty years of dormancy, a DEN-2 outbreak occurred in Liuchiu Township, Pingtung County in 1981. Thereafter, more dengue outbreaks occurred with different scales in southern Taiwan. However, there were more than ten thousands of dengue cases in 2014 and in 2015. It did not only affect human health, but also caused widespread social disruption and economic losses. The study would like to reveal the epidemiology of dengue on Taiwan, especially the severe outbreak in 2015, and try to find the effective interventions in dengue control including dengue vaccine development for the elderly. Methods: The study applied the Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System database of the Taiwan Centers for Disease Control as data source. All cases were reported with the uniform case definition and confirmed by NS1 rapid diagnosis/laboratory diagnosis. Results: In 2014, Taiwan experienced a serious DEN-1 outbreak with 15,492 locally-acquired cases, including 136 cases of dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) which caused 21 deaths. However, a more serious DEN-2 outbreak occurred with 43,419 locally-acquired cases in 2015. The epidemic occurred mainly at Tainan City (22,760 cases) and Kaohsiung City (19,723 cases) in southern Taiwan. The age distribution for the cases were mainly adults. There were 228 deaths due to dengue infection, and the case fatality rate was 5.25 ‰. The average age of them was 73.66 years (range 29-96) and 86.84% of them were older than 60 years. Most of them were comorbidities. To review the clinical manifestations of the 228 death cases, 38.16% (N=87) of them were reported with warning signs, while 51.75% (N=118) were reported without warning signs. Among the 87 death cases reported to dengue with warning signs, 89.53% were diagnosed sever dengue and 84% needed the intensive care. Conclusion: The year 2015 was characterized by large dengue outbreaks worldwide. The risk of serious dengue outbreak may increase significantly in the future, and the elderly is the vulnerable group in Taiwan. However, a dengue vaccine has been licensed for use in people 9-45 years of age living in endemic settings at the end of 2015. In addition to carry out the research to find out new interventions in dengue control, developing the dengue vaccine for the elderly is very important to prevent severe dengue and deaths.

Keywords: Dengue, Dengue Vaccine, case fatality rate, the elderly

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46 Environment Patterns and Mental Health of Older Adults in Long-Term Care Facilities: The Role of Activity Profiles

Authors: Shiau-Fang Chao, Yu-Chih Chen

Abstract:

Owing to physical limitations and restrained lifestyle, older long-term care (LTC) residents are more likely to be affected by their environment than their community-dwelling counterparts. They also participate fewer activities and experience worse mental health than healthy older adults. This study adopts the ICF model to determine the extent to which the clustered patterns of LTC environment and activity participation are associated with older residents’ mental health. Method: Data were collected from a stratified equal probability sample of 634 older residents in 155 LTC institutions in Taiwan. Latent profile analysis (LPA) and latent class analysis (LCA) were conducted to explore the profiles for environment and activity participation. Multilevel modeling was performed to elucidate the relationships among environment profiles, activity profiles, and mental health. Results: LPA identified three mutually exclusive environment profiles (Low-, Moderate-, and High-Support Environment) based on the physical, social, and attitudinal environmental domains, consolidated from 12 environmental measures. LCA constructed two distinct activity profiles (Low- and High-Activity Participation) across seven activity domains (outdoor, volunteer-led leisure, spiritual, household chores, interpersonal exchange, social, and sedentary activity) that were factored from 20 activities. Compared to the Low-Support Environment class, older adults in the Moderate- and High-Support Environment classes had better mental health. Older residents in the Moderate- and High-Support Environment classes were more likely to be in the “High Activity” class, which in turn, exhibited better mental health. Conclusion: This study advances the current knowledge through rigorous methods and study design. The study findings lead to several conclusions. First, this study supports the use of ICF framework to institutionalized older individuals with functional limitations and demonstrates that both measures of environment and activity participation can be refined from multiple indicators. Second, environmental measures that encompass the physical, social, and attitudinal domains would provide a more comprehensive assessment on the place where an older individual embeds. Third, simply counting activities in which an older individual participates or considering a certain type of activity may not capture his or her way of life. Practitioners should not only focus on group or leisure activities within the institutions; rather, more efforts should be made to consider residents’ preferences for everyday life and support their remaining ability by encouraging continuous participation in activities they still willing and capable to perform. Fourth, environment and activity participation are modifiable factors which have greater potential to strengthen older LTC residents’ mental health, and activity participation should be considered in the link between environment and mental health. A combination of enhanced physical, social, and attitudinal environments, and continual engagement in various activities may optimize older LTC residents’ mental health.

Keywords: Environment, Mental Health, Activity, older LTC residents

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45 Application of a Submerged Anaerobic Osmotic Membrane Bioreactor Hybrid System for High-Strength Wastewater Treatment and Phosphorus Recovery

Authors: Shiao-Shing Chen, Hung-Te Hsu, Saikat Sinha Ray, Ming-Yeh Lu

Abstract:

Recently, anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBRs) has been widely utilized, which combines anaerobic biological treatment process and membrane filtration, that can be present an attractive option for wastewater treatment and water reuse. Conventional AnMBR is having several advantages, such as improving effluent quality, compact space usage, lower sludge yield, without aeration and production of energy. However, the removal of nitrogen and phosphorus in the AnMBR permeate was negligible which become the biggest disadvantage. In recent years, forward osmosis (FO) is an emerging technology that utilizes osmotic pressure as driving force to extract clean water without additional external pressure. The pore size of FO membrane is kindly mentioned the pore size, so nitrogen or phosphorus could effectively improve removal of nitrogen or phosphorus. Anaerobic bioreactor with FO membrane (AnOMBR) can retain the concentrate organic matters and nutrients. However, phosphorus is a non-renewable resource. Due to the high rejection property of FO membrane, the high amount of phosphorus could be recovered from the combination of AnMBR and FO. In this study, development of novel submerged anaerobic osmotic membrane bioreactor integrated with periodic microfiltration (MF) extraction for simultaneous phosphorus and clean water recovery from wastewater was evaluated. A laboratory-scale AnOMBR utilizes cellulose triacetate (CTA) membranes with effective membrane area of 130 cm² was fully submerged into a 5.5 L bioreactor at 30-35℃. Active layer-facing feed stream orientation was utilized, for minimizing fouling and scaling. Additionally, a peristaltic pump was used to circulate draw solution (DS) at a cross flow velocity of 0.7 cm/s. Magnesium sulphate (MgSO₄) solution was used as DS. Microfiltration membrane periodically extracted about 1 L solution when the TDS reaches to 5 g/L to recover phosphorus and simultaneous control the salt accumulation in the bioreactor. During experiment progressed, the average water flux was achieved around 1.6 LMH. The AnOMBR process show greater than 95% removal of soluble chemical oxygen demand (sCOD), nearly 100% of total phosphorous whereas only partial removal of ammonia, and finally average methane production of 0.22 L/g sCOD was obtained. Therefore, AnOMBR system periodically utilizes MF membrane extracted for phosphorus recovery with simultaneous pH adjustment. The overall performance demonstrates that a novel submerged AnOMBR system is having potential for simultaneous wastewater treatment and resource recovery from wastewater, and hence, the new concept of this system can be used to replace for conventional AnMBR in the future.

Keywords: Forward osmosis, Anaerobic Treatment, membrane bioreactor, phosphorus recovery

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44 The Use of Stroke Journey Map in Improving Patients' Perceived Knowledge in Acute Stroke Unit

Authors: C. S. Chen, F. Y. Hui, B. S. Farhana, J. De Leon

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Introduction: Stroke can lead to long-term disability, affecting one’s quality of life. Providing stroke education to patient and family members is essential to optimize stroke recovery and prevent recurrent stroke. Currently, nurses conduct stroke education by handing out pamphlets and explaining their contents to patients. However, this is not always effective as nurses have varying levels of knowledge and depth of content discussed with the patient may not be consistent. With the advancement of information technology, health education is increasingly being disseminated via electronic software and studies have shown this to have benefitted patients. Hence, a multi-disciplinary team consisting of doctors, nurses and allied health professionals was formed to create the stroke journey map software to deliver consistent and concise stroke education. Research Objectives: To evaluate the effectiveness of using a stroke journey map software in improving patients’ perceived knowledge in the acute stroke unit during hospitalization. Methods: Patients admitted to the acute stroke unit were given stroke journey map software during patient education. The software consists of 31 interactive slides that are brightly coloured and 4 videos, based on input provided by the multi-disciplinary team. Participants were then assessed with pre-and-post survey questionnaires before and after viewing the software. The questionnaire consists of 10 questions with a 5-point Likert scale which sums up to a total score of 50. The inclusion criteria are patients diagnosed with ischemic stroke and are cognitively alert and oriented. This study was conducted between May 2017 to October 2017. Participation was voluntary. Results: A total of 33 participants participated in the study. The results demonstrated that the use of a stroke journey map as a stroke education medium was effective in improving patients’ perceived knowledge. A comparison of pre- and post-implementation data of stroke journey map revealed an overall mean increase in patients’ perceived knowledge from 24.06 to 40.06. The data is further broken down to evaluate patients’ perceived knowledge in 3 domains: (1) Understanding of disease process; (2) Management and treatment plans; (3) Post-discharge care. Each domain saw an increase in mean score from 10.7 to 16.2, 6.9 to 11.9 and 6.6 to 11.7 respectively. Project Impact: The implementation of stroke journey map has a positive impact in terms of (1) Increasing patient’s perceived knowledge which could contribute to greater empowerment of health; (2) Reducing need for stroke education material printouts making it environmentally friendly; (3) Decreasing time nurses spent on giving education resulting in more time to attend to patients’ needs. Conclusion: This study has demonstrated the benefit of using stroke journey map as a platform for stroke education. Overall, it has increased patients’ perceived knowledge in understanding their disease process, the management and treatment plans as well as the discharge process.

Keywords: Education, Knowledge, Stroke, ischemic stroke, acute stroke

Procedia PDF Downloads 35
43 Developing a Roadmap by Integrating of Environmental Indicators with the Nitrogen Footprint in an Agriculture Region, Hualien, Taiwan

Authors: Ming-Chien Su, Yi-Zih Chen, Nien-Hsin Kao, Hideaki Shibata

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The major component of the atmosphere is nitrogen, yet atmospheric nitrogen has limited availability for biological use. Human activities have produced different types of nitrogen related compounds such as nitrogen oxides from combustion, nitrogen fertilizers from farming, and the nitrogen compounds from waste and wastewater, all of which have impacted the environment. Many studies have indicated the N-footprint is dominated by food, followed by housing, transportation, and goods and services sectors. To solve the impact issues from agricultural land, nitrogen cycle research is one of the key solutions. The study site is located in Hualien County, Taiwan, a major rice and food production area of Taiwan. Importantly, environmentally friendly farming has been promoted for years, and an environmental indicator system has been established by previous authors based on the concept of resilience capacity index (RCI) and environmental performance index (EPI). Nitrogen management is required for food production, as excess N causes environmental pollution. Therefore it is very important to develop a roadmap of the nitrogen footprint, and to integrate it with environmental indicators. The key focus of the study thus addresses (1) understanding the environmental impact caused by the nitrogen cycle of food products and (2) uncovering the trend of the N-footprint of agricultural products in Hualien, Taiwan. The N-footprint model was applied, which included both crops and energy consumption in the area. All data were adapted from government statistics databases and crosschecked for consistency before modeling. The actions involved with agricultural production were evaluated and analyzed for nitrogen loss to the environment, as well as measuring the impacts to humans and the environment. The results showed that rice makes up the largest share of agricultural production by weight, at 80%. The dominant meat production is pork (52%) and poultry (40%); fish and seafood were at similar levels to pork production. The average per capita food consumption in Taiwan is 2643.38 kcal capita−1 d−1, primarily from rice (430.58 kcal), meats (184.93 kcal) and wheat (ca. 356.44 kcal). The average protein uptake is 87.34 g capita−1 d−1, and 51% is mainly from meat, milk, and eggs. The preliminary results showed that the nitrogen footprint of food production is 34 kg N per capita per year, congruent with the results of Shibata et al. (2014) for Japan. These results provide a better understanding of the nitrogen demand and loss in the environment, and the roadmap can furthermore support the establishment of nitrogen policy and strategy. Additionally, the results serve to develop a roadmap of the nitrogen cycle of an environmentally friendly farming area, thus illuminating the nitrogen demand and loss of such areas.

Keywords: Energy Consumption, agriculture productions, environmental indicator, nitrogen footprint

Procedia PDF Downloads 187
42 2017 Survey on Correlation between Connection and Emotions for Children and Adolescents

Authors: Ya-Hsing Yeh, I-Chun Tai, Ming-Chieh Lin, Li-Ting Lee, Ping-Ting Hsieh, Yi-Chen Ling, Jhia-Ying Du, Li-Ping Chang, Guan-Long Yu

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Objective: To understand the connection between children/adolescents and those who they miss, as well as the correlation between connection and their emotions. Method: Based on the objective, a close-ended questionnaire was made into a formal questionnaire after experts evaluated its validity. In February 2017, the paper-based questionnaire was adopted. Twenty-one elementary schools and junior high schools in Taiwan were sampled by purposive sampling approach and the fifth to ninth graders were our participants. A total of 2,502 valid questionnaires were retrieved. Results: Forty-four-point three percent of children/adolescents missed a person in mind, or they thought a person as a significant other in mind, but they had no connection with them. The highest proportion of those they wanted to contact with was ‘Friends and classmates’, and the others were ‘immediate family’, such as parents and grandparents, and ‘academic or vocational instructors, such as home-room teachers, coaches, cram school teachers and so on, respectively. Only 14% of children/adolescents would actively contact those they missed. The proportion of what children/adolescents ‘often’ actively keeping in touch with those they missed felt happy or cheerful was higher compared with those who ‘seldom’ actively keeping in touch with people they missed whenever they recalled who they missed, or the person actively contacted with them. Sixty-one-point seven percent of participants haven’t connected with those they missed for more than one year. The main reason was ‘environmental factors’, such as school/class transfer or moving, and then ‘academic or personal factors’, ‘communication tools’, and ‘personalities’, respectively. In addition to ‘greetings during festivals and holidays’, ‘hearing from those they missed’, and ‘knowing the latest information about those they missed on their Internet communities’, children/adolescents would like to actively contact with them when they felt ‘happy’ and ‘depressed or frustrated. The first three opinions of what children/adolescents regarded truly connection were ‘listening to people they missed attentively’, ‘sharing their secrets’, and ‘contacting with people they regularly missed with real actions’. In terms of gender, girls’ proportion on ‘showing with actions, including contacting with people they missed regularly or expressing their feelings openly’, and ‘sharing secrets’ was higher than boys’, while boy’s proportion on ‘the attitudes when contacting people they missed, including listening attentively or without being distracted’ was higher than girls’. Conclusions: I. The more ‘active’ connection they have, the more happiness they feel. II. Teachers can teach children how to manage their emotions and express their feelings appropriately. III. It is very important to turn connection into ‘action.’ Teachers can set a good example and share their moods with others whatever they are in the mood. This is a kind of connection.

Keywords: Children, Mental Health, emotion, connection

Procedia PDF Downloads 27
41 Bio-Oil Compounds Sorption Enhanced Steam Reforming

Authors: Esther Acha, Jose Cambra, De Chen

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Hydrogen is considered an important energy vector for the 21st century. Nowadays there are some difficulties for hydrogen economy implantation, and one of them is the high purity required for hydrogen. This energy vector is still being mainly produced from fuels, from wich hydrogen is produced as a component of a mixture containing other gases, such as CO, CO2 and H2O. A forthcoming sustainable pathway for hydrogen is steam-reforming of bio-oils derived from biomass, e.g. via fast pyrolysis. Bio-oils are a mixture of acids, alcohols, aldehydes, esters, ketones, sugars phenols, guaiacols, syringols, furans, multi-functional compounds and also up to a 30 wt% of water. The sorption enhanced steam reforming (SESR) process is attracting a great deal of attention due to the fact that it combines both hydrogen production and CO2 separation. In the SESR process, carbon dioxide is captured by an in situ sorbent, which shifts the reversible reforming and water gas shift reactions to the product side, beyond their conventional thermodynamic limits, giving rise to a higher hydrogen production and lower cost. The hydrogen containing mixture has been obtained from the SESR of bio-oil type compounds. Different types of catalysts have been tested. All of them contain Ni at around a 30 wt %. Two samples have been prepared with the wet impregnation technique over conventional (gamma alumina) and non-conventional (olivine) supports. And a third catalysts has been prepared over a hydrotalcite-like material (HT). The employed sorbent is a commercial dolomite. The activity tests were performed in a bench-scale plant (PID Eng&Tech), using a stainless steel fixed bed reactor. The catalysts were reduced in situ in the reactor, before the activity tests. The effluent stream was cooled down, thus condensed liquid was collected and weighed, and the gas phase was analysed online by a microGC. The hydrogen yield, and process behavior was analysed without the sorbent (the traditional SR where a second purification step will be needed but that operates in steady state) and the SESR (where the purification step could be avoided but that operates in batch state). The influence of the support type and preparation method will be observed in the produced hydrogen yield. Additionally, the stability of the catalysts is critical, due to the fact that in SESR process sorption-desorption steps are required. The produced hydrogen yield and hydrogen purity has to be high and also stable, even after several sorption-desorption cycles. The prepared catalysts were characterized employing different techniques to determine the physicochemical properties of the fresh-reduced and used (after the activity tests) materials. The characterization results, together with the activity results show the influence of the catalysts preparation method, calcination temperature, or can even explain the observed yield and conversion.

Keywords: Hydrogen, CO2 sorbent, enhanced steam reforming

Procedia PDF Downloads 455
40 Research on the Updating Strategy of Public Space in Small Towns in Zhejiang Province under the Background of New-Style Urbanization

Authors: Chen Yao, Wang Ke

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Small towns are the most basic administrative institutions in our country, which are connected with cities and rural areas. Small towns play an important role in promoting local urban and rural economic development, providing the main public services and maintaining social stability in social governance. With the vigorous development of small towns and the transformation of industrial structure, the changes of social structure, spatial structure, and lifestyle are lagging behind, causing that the spatial form and landscape style do not belong to both cities and rural areas, and seriously affecting the quality of people’s life space and environment. The rural economy in Zhejiang Province has started, the society and the population are also developing in relative stability. In September 2016, Zhejiang Province set out the 'Technical Guidelines for Comprehensive Environmental Remediation of Small Towns in Zhejiang Province,' so as to comprehensively implement the small town comprehensive environmental remediation with the main content of strengthening the plan and design leading, regulating environmental sanitation, urban order and town appearance. In November 2016, Huzhou City started the comprehensive environmental improvement of small towns, strived to use three years to significantly improve the 115 small towns, as well as to create a number of high quality, distinctive and beautiful towns with features of 'clean and livable, rational layout, industrial development, poetry and painting style'. This paper takes Meixi Town, Zhangwu Town and Sanchuan Village in Huzhou City as the empirical cases, analyzes the small town public space by applying the relative theory of actor-network and space syntax. This paper also analyzes the spatial composition in actor and social structure elements, as well as explores the relationship of actor’s spatial practice and public open space by combining with actor-network theory. This paper introduces the relevant theories and methods of spatial syntax, carries out research analysis and design planning analysis of small town spaces from the perspective of quantitative analysis. And then, this paper proposes the effective updating strategy for the existing problems in public space. Through the planning and design in the building level, the dissonant factors produced by various spatial combination of factors and between landscape design and urban texture during small town development will be solved, inhabitant quality of life will be promoted, and town development vitality will be increased.

Keywords: Urbanization, Public space, small towns, updating

Procedia PDF Downloads 111
39 Fast and Non-Invasive Patient-Specific Optimization of Left Ventricle Assist Device Implantation

Authors: Huidan Yu, Anurag Deb, Rou Chen, I-Wen Wang

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The use of left ventricle assist devices (LVADs) in patients with heart failure has been a proven and effective therapy for patients with severe end-stage heart failure. Due to the limited availability of suitable donor hearts, LVADs will probably become the alternative solution for patient with heart failure in the near future. While the LVAD is being continuously improved toward enhanced performance, increased device durability, reduced size, a better understanding of implantation management becomes critical in order to achieve better long-term blood supplies and less post-surgical complications such as thrombi generation. Important issues related to the LVAD implantation include the location of outflow grafting (OG), the angle of the OG, the combination between LVAD and native heart pumping, uniform or pulsatile flow at OG, etc. We have hypothesized that an optimal implantation of LVAD is patient specific. To test this hypothesis, we employ a novel in-house computational modeling technique, named InVascular, to conduct a systematic evaluation of cardiac output at aortic arch together with other pertinent hemodynamic quantities for each patient under various implantation scenarios aiming to get an optimal implantation strategy. InVacular is a powerful computational modeling technique that integrates unified mesoscale modeling for both image segmentation and fluid dynamics with the cutting-edge GPU parallel computing. It first segments the aortic artery from patient’s CT image, then seamlessly feeds extracted morphology, together with the velocity wave from Echo Ultrasound image of the same patient, to the computation model to quantify 4-D (time+space) velocity and pressure fields. Using one NVIDIA Tesla K40 GPU card, InVascular completes a computation from CT image to 4-D hemodynamics within 30 minutes. Thus it has the great potential to conduct massive numerical simulation and analysis. The systematic evaluation for one patient includes three OG anastomosis (ascending aorta, descending thoracic aorta, and subclavian artery), three combinations of LVAD and native heart pumping (1:1, 1:2, and 1:3), three angles of OG anastomosis (inclined upward, perpendicular, and inclined downward), and two LVAD inflow conditions (uniform and pulsatile). The optimal LVAD implantation is suggested through a comprehensive analysis of the cardiac output and related hemodynamics from the simulations over the fifty-four scenarios. To confirm the hypothesis, 5 random patient cases will be evaluated.

Keywords: graphic processing unit (GPU) parallel computing, left ventricle assist device (LVAD), lumped-parameter model, patient-specific computational hemodynamics

Procedia PDF Downloads 22
38 Study of the Impact of Quality Management System on Chinese Baby Dairy Product Industries

Authors: Qingxin Chen, Liben Jiang, Andrew Smith, Karim Hadjri

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Since 2007, the Chinese food industry has undergone serious food contamination in the baby dairy industry, especially milk powder contamination. One of the milk powder products was found to contain melamine and a significant number (294,000) of babies were affected by kidney stones. Due to growing concerns among consumers about food safety and protection, and high pressure from central government, companies must take radical action to ensure food quality protection through the use of an appropriate quality management system. Previously, though researchers have investigated the health and safety aspects of food industries and products, quality issues concerning food products in China have been largely over-looked. Issues associated with baby dairy products and their quality issues have not been discussed in depth. This paper investigates the impact of quality management systems on the Chinese baby dairy product industry. A literature review was carried out to analyse the use of quality management systems within the Chinese milk power market. Moreover, quality concepts, relevant standards, laws, regulations and special issues (such as Melamine, Flavacin M1 contamination) have been analysed in detail. A qualitative research approach is employed, whereby preliminary analysis was conducted by interview, and data analysis based on interview responses from four selected Chinese baby dairy product companies was carried out. Through the analysis of literature review and data findings, it has been revealed that for quality management system that has been designed by many practitioners, many theories, models, conceptualisation, and systems are present. These standards and procedures should be followed in order to provide quality products to consumers, but the implementation is lacking in the Chinese baby dairy industry. Quality management systems have been applied by the selected companies but the implementation still needs improvement. For instance, the companies have to take measures to improve their processes and procedures with relevant standards. The government need to make more interventions and take a greater supervisory role in the production process. In general, this research presents implications for the regulatory bodies, Chinese Government and dairy food companies. There are food safety laws prevalent in China but they have not been widely practiced by companies. Regulatory bodies must take a greater role in ensuring compliance with laws and regulations. The Chinese government must also play a special role in urging companies to implement relevant quality control processes. The baby dairy companies not only have to accept the interventions from the regulatory bodies and government, they also need to ensure that production, storage, distribution and other processes will follow the relevant rules and standards.

Keywords: Food Quality, quality management system, baby dairy product, milk powder contamination

Procedia PDF Downloads 336
37 Carboxyfullerene-Modified Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles in Singlet Oxygen and Hydroxyl Radicals Scavenging Activity

Authors: Kai-Cheng Yang, Yen-Ling Chen, Er-Chieh Cho, Kuen-Chan Lee

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Titanium dioxide nanomaterials offer superior protection for human skin against the full spectrum of ultraviolet light. However, some literature reviews indicated that it might be associated with adverse effects such as cytotoxicity or reactive oxygen species (ROS) due to their nanoscale. The surface of fullerene is covered with π electrons constituting aromatic structures, which can effectively scavenge large amount of radicals. Unfortunately, fullerenes are poor solubility in water, severe aggregation, and toxicity in biological applications when dispersed in solvent have imposed the limitations to the use of fullerenes. Carboxyfullerene acts as the scavenger of radicals for several years. Some reports indicate that carboxyfullerene not only decrease the concentration of free radicals in ambience but also prevent cells from reducing the number or apoptosis under UV irradiation. The aim of this study is to decorate fullerene –C70-carboxylic acid (C70-COOH) on the surface of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (P25) for the purpose of scavenging ROS during the irradiation. The modified material is prepared through the esterification of C70-COOH with P25 (P25/C70-COOH). The binding edge and structure are studied by using Transmission electron microscope (TEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR). The diameter of P25 is about 30 nm and C70-COOH is found to be conjugated on the edge of P25 in aggregation morphology with the size of ca. 100 nm. In the next step, the FTIR was used to confirm the binding structure between P25 and C70-COOH. There are two new peaks are shown at 1427 and 1720 cm-1 for P25/C70-COOH, resulting from the C–C stretch and C=O stretch formed during esterification with dilute sulfuric acid. The IR results further confirm the chemically bonded interaction between C70-COOH and P25. In order to provide the evidence of scavenging radical ability of P25/C70-COOH, we chose pyridoxine (Vit.B6) and terephthalic acid (TA) to react with singlet oxygen and hydroxyl radicals. We utilized these chemicals to observe the radicals scavenging statement via detecting the intensity of ultraviolet adsorption or fluorescence emission. The UV spectra are measured by using different concentration of C70-COOH modified P25 with 1mM pyridoxine under UV irradiation for various duration times. The results revealed that the concentration of pyridoxine was increased when cooperating with P25/C70-COOH after three hours as compared with control (only P25). It indicates fewer radicals could be reacted with pyridoxine because of the absorption via P25/C70-COOH. The fluorescence spectra are observed by measuring P25/C70-COOH with 1mM terephthalic acid under UV irradiation for various duration times. The fluorescence intensity of TAOH was decreased in ten minutes when cooperating with P25/C70-COOH. Here, it was found that the fluorescence intensity was increased after thirty minutes, which could be attributed to the saturation of C70-COOH in the absorption of radicals. However, the results showed that the modified P25/C70-COOH could reduce the radicals in the environment. Therefore, we expect that P25/C70-COOH is a potential materials in using for antioxidant.

Keywords: Fullerene, titanium dioxide, antioxidant, radical scavenging activity

Procedia PDF Downloads 283
36 Topology Optimization Design of Transmission Structure in Flapping-Wing Micro Aerial Vehicle via 3D Printing

Authors: Zuyong Chen, Jianghao Wu, Yanlai Zhang

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Flapping-wing micro aerial vehicle (FMAV) is a new type of aircraft by mimicking the flying behavior to that of small birds or insects. Comparing to the traditional fixed wing or rotor-type aircraft, FMAV only needs to control the motion of flapping wings, by changing the size and direction of lift to control the flight attitude. Therefore, its transmission system should be designed very compact. Lightweight design can effectively extend its endurance time, while engineering experience alone is difficult to simultaneously meet the requirements of FMAV for structural strength and quality. Current researches still lack the guidance of considering nonlinear factors of 3D printing material when carrying out topology optimization, especially for the tiny FMAV transmission system. The coupling of non-linear material properties and non-linear contact behaviors of FMAV transmission system is a great challenge to the reliability of the topology optimization result. In this paper, topology optimization design based on FEA solver package Altair Optistruct for the transmission system of FMAV manufactured by 3D Printing was carried out. Firstly, the isotropic constitutive behavior of the Ultraviolet (UV) Cureable Resin used to fabricate the structure of FMAV was evaluated and confirmed through tensile test. Secondly, a numerical computation model describing the mechanical behavior of FMAV transmission structure was established and verified by experiments. Then topology optimization modeling method considering non-linear factors were presented, and optimization results were verified by dynamic simulation and experiments. Finally, detail discussions of different load status and constraints were carried out to explore the leading factors affecting the optimization results. The contributions drawn from this article helpful for guiding the lightweight design of FMAV are summarizing as follow; first, a dynamic simulation modeling method used to obtain the load status is presented. Second, verification method of optimized results considering non-linear factors is introduced. Third, based on or can achieve a better weight reduction effect and improve the computational efficiency rather than taking multi-states into account. Fourth, basing on makes for improving the ability to resist bending deformation. Fifth, constraint of displacement helps to improve the structural stiffness of optimized result. Results and engineering guidance in this paper may shed lights on the structural optimization and light-weight design for future advanced FMAV.

Keywords: Finite Element Analysis, Experiment, topology optimization, flapping-wing micro aerial vehicle

Procedia PDF Downloads 39
35 Model Tests on Geogrid-Reinforced Sand-Filled Embankments with a Cover Layer under Cyclic Loading

Authors: Ma Yuan, Zhang Mengxi, Akbar Javadi, Chen Longqing

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The structure of sand-filled embankment with cover layer is treated with tipping clay modified with lime on the outside of the packing, and the geotextile is placed between the stuffing and the clay. The packing is usually river sand, and the improved clay protects the sand core against rainwater erosion. The sand-filled embankment with cover layer has practical problems such as high filling embankment, construction restriction, and steep slope. The reinforcement can be applied to the sand-filled embankment with cover layer to solve the complicated problems such as irregular settlement caused by poor stability of the embankment. At present, the research on the sand-filled embankment with cover layer mainly focuses on the sand properties, construction technology, and slope stability, and there are few studies in the experimental field, the deformation characteristics and stability of reinforced sand-filled embankment need further study. In addition, experimental research is relatively rare when the cyclic load is considered in tests. A subgrade structure of geogrid-reinforced sand-filled embankment with cover layer was proposed. The mechanical characteristics, the deformation properties, reinforced behavior and the ultimate bearing capacity of the embankment structure under cyclic loading were studied. For this structure, the geogrids in the sand and the tipping soil are through the geotextile which is arranged in sections continuously so that the geogrids can cross horizontally. Then, the Unsaturated/saturated Soil Triaxial Test System of Geotechnical Consulting and Testing Systems (GCTS), USA was modified to form the loading device of this test, and strain collector was used to measuring deformation and earth pressure of the embankment. A series of cyclic loading model tests were conducted on the geogrid-reinforced sand-filled embankment with a cover layer under a different number of reinforcement layers, the length of reinforcement and thickness of the cover layer. The settlement of the embankment, the normal cumulative deformation of the slope and the earth pressure were studied under different conditions. Besides cyclic loading model tests, model experiments of embankment subjected cyclic-static loading was carried out to analyze ultimate bearing capacity with different loading. The experiment results showed that the vertical cumulative settlement under long-term cyclic loading increases with the decrease of the number of reinforcement layers, length of the reinforcement arrangement and thickness of the tipping soil. Meanwhile, these three factors also have an influence on the decrease of the normal deformation of the embankment slope. The earth pressure around the loading point is significantly affected by putting geogrid in a model embankment. After cyclic loading, the decline of ultimate bearing capacity of the reinforced embankment can be effectively reduced, which is contrary to the unreinforced embankment.

Keywords: Earth Pressure, geogrid, cyclic load, reinforcement behavior, cumulative deformation

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34 Research on Land Use Pattern and Employment-Housing Space of Coastal Industrial Town Based on the Investigation of Liaoning Province, China

Authors: Fei Chen, Wei Lu, Jun Cai

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During the Twelve Five period, China promulgated industrial policies promoting the relocation of energy-intensive industries to coastal areas in order to utilize marine shipping resources. Consequently, some major state-owned steel and gas enterprises have relocated and resulted in a large-scale coastal area development. However, some land may have been over-exploited with seamless coastline projects. To balance between employment and housing, new industrial coastal towns were constructed to support the industrial-led development. In this paper, we adopt a case-study approach to closely examine the development of several new industrial coastal towns of Liaoning Province situated in the Bohai Bay area, which is currently under rapid economic growth. Our investigations reflect the common phenomenon of long distance commuting and a massive amount of vacant residences. More specifically, large plant relocation caused hundreds of kilometers of daily commute and enterprises had to provide housing subsidies and education incentives to motivate employees to relocate to coastal areas. Nonetheless, many employees still refuse to relocate due to job stability, diverse needs of family members and access to convenient services. These employees averaged 4 hours of commute daily and some who lived further had to reside in temporary industrial housing units and subject to long-term family separation. As a result, only a small portion of employees purchase new coastal residences but mostly for investment and retirement purposes, leading to massive vacancy and ghost-town phenomenon. In contrast to the low demand, coastal areas tend to develop large amount of residences prior to industrial relocation, which may be directly related to local government finances. Some local governments have sold residential land to developers to general revenue to support the subsequent industrial development. Subject to the strong preference of ocean-view, residential housing developers tend to select coast-line land to construct new residential towns, which further reduces the access of marine resources for major industrial enterprises. This violates the original intent of developing industrial coastal towns and drastically limits the availability of marine resources. Lastly, we analyze the co-existence of over-exploiting residential areas and massive vacancies in reference to the demand and supply of land, as well as the demand of residential housing units with the choice criteria of enterprise employees.

Keywords: coastal industry town, commuter traffic, employment-housing space, outer suburb industrial area

Procedia PDF Downloads 99
33 The Effect of Post-Acute Stroke Inpatient Rehabilitation under per Diem Payment: A Pilot Study

Authors: Chung-Yuan Wang, Kai-Chun Lee, Min-Hung Wang, Yu-Ren Chen, Hung-Sheng Lin, Sen-Shan Fan

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Taiwan National Health Insurance (NHI) was launched in 1995. It is an important social welfare policy in Taiwan. Regardless of the diversified social and economic status, universal coverage of NHI was assured. In order to regain better self-care performance, stroke people received in-patient and out-patient rehabilitation. Though NHI limited the rehabilitation frequency to one per day, the cost of rehabilitation still increased rapidly. Through the intensive rehabilitation during the post-stroke rehabilitation golden period, stroke patients might decrease their disability and shorten the rehabilitation period. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of intensive post-acute stroke rehabilitation in hospital under per diem payment. This study was started from 2014/03/01. The stroke patients who were admitted to our hospital or medical center were indicated to the study. The neurologists would check his modified Rankin Scale (mRS). Only patients with their mRS score between 2 and 4 were included to the study. Patients with unclear consciousness, unstable medical condition, unclear stroke onset date and no willing for 3 weeks in-patient intensive rehabilitation were excluded. After the physiatrist’s systemic evaluation, the subjects received intensive rehabilitation programs. The frequency of rehabilitation was thrice per day. Physical therapy, occupational therapy and speech/swallowing therapy were included in the programs for the needs of the stroke patients. Activity daily life performance (Barthel Index) and functional balance ability (Berg Balance Scale) were used to measure the training effect. During 3/1 to 5/31, thirteen subjects (five male and eight female) were included. Seven subjects were aged below 60. Three subjects were aged over 70. Most of the subjects (seven subjects) received intensive post-stroke rehabilitation for three weeks. Three subjects drop out from the programs and went back home respectively after receiving only 7, 10, and 13 days rehabilitation. Among these 13 subjects, nine of them got improvement in activity daily life performance (Barthel Index score). Ten of them got improvement in functional balance ability (Berg Balance Scale). The intensive post-acute stroke rehabilitation did help stroke patients promote their health in our study. Not only their functional performance improved, but also their self-confidence improved. Furthermore, their family also got better health status. Stroke rehabilitation under per diem payment was noted in long-term care institution in developed countries. Over 95% populations in Taiwan were supported under the Taiwan's National Health Insurance system, but there was no national long-term care insurance system. Most of the stroke patients in Taiwan live with his family and continue their rehabilitation programs from out-patient department. This pilot study revealed the effect of intensive post-acute stroke rehabilitation in hospital under per diem payment. The number of the subjects and the study period were limited. Thus, further study will be needed.

Keywords: Rehabilitation, post-acute stroke, per diem payment, NHI

Procedia PDF Downloads 156
32 A Correlations Study on Nursing Staff's Shifts Systems, Workplace Fatigue, and Quality of Working Life

Authors: Ming Yi Hsu, Jui Chen Wu

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Background and Purpose: Shift work of nursing staff is inevitable in hospital to provide continuing medical care. However, shift work is considered as a health hazard that may cause physical and psychological problems. Serious workplace fatigue of nursing shift work might impact on family, social and work life, moreover, causes serious reduction of quality of medical care, or even malpractice. This study aims to explore relationships among nursing staff’s shift, workplace fatigue and quality of working life. Method: Structured questionnaires were used in this study to explore relationships among shift work, workplace fatigue and quality of working life in nursing staffs. We recruited 590 nursing staffs in different Community Teaching hospitals in Taiwan. Data analysed by descriptive statistics, single sample t-test, single factor analysis, Pearson correlation coefficient and hierarchical regression, etc. Results: The overall workplace fatigue score is 50.59 points. In further analysis, the score of personal burnout, work-related burnout, over-commitment and client-related burnout are 57.86, 53.83, 45.95 and 44.71. The basic attributes of nursing staff are significantly different from those of workplace fatigue with different ages, licenses, sleeping quality, self-conscious health status, number of care patients of chronic diseases and number of care people in the obstetric ward. The shift variables revealed no significant influence on workplace fatigue during the hierarchical regression analysis. About the analysis on nursing staff’s basic attributes and shift on the quality of working life, descriptive results show that the overall quality of working life of nursing staff is 3.23 points. Comparing the average score of the six aspects, the ranked average score are 3.47 (SD= .43) in interrelationship, 3.40 (SD= .46) in self-actualisation, 3.30 (SD= .40) in self-efficacy, 3.15 (SD= .38) in vocational concept, 3.07 (SD= .37) in work aspects, and 3.02 (SD= .56) in organization aspects. The basic attributes of nursing staff are significantly different from quality of working life in different marriage situations, education level, years of nursing work, occupation area, sleep quality, self-conscious health status and number of care in medical ward. There are significant differences between shift mode and shift rate with the quality of working life. The results of the hierarchical regression analysis reveal that one of the shifts variables 'shift mode' which does affect staff’s quality of working life. The workplace fatigue is negatively correlated with the quality of working life, and the over-commitment in the workplace fatigue is positively related to the vocational concept of the quality of working life. According to the regression analysis of nursing staff’s basic attributes, shift mode, workplace fatigue and quality of working life related shift, the results show that the workplace fatigue has a significant impact on nursing staff’s quality of working life. Conclusion: According to our study, shift work is correlated with workplace fatigue in nursing staffs. This results work as important reference for human resources management in hospitals to establishing a more positive and healthy work arrangement policy.

Keywords: quality of working life, nursing staff, shift, workplace fatigue

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31 Corporate Governance and Disclosure Practices of Listed Companies in the ASEAN: A Conceptual Overview

Authors: Chen Shuwen, Nunthapin Chantachaimongkol

Abstract:

Since the world has moved into a transitional period, known as globalization; the business environment is now more complicated than ever before. Corporate information has become a matter of great importance for stakeholders, in order to understand the current situation. As a result of this, the concept of corporate governance has been broadly introduced to manage and control the affairs of corporations while businesses are required to disclose both financial and non-financial information to public via various communication channels such as the annual report, the financial report, the company’s website, etc. However, currently there are several other issues related to asymmetric information such as moral hazard or adverse selection that still occur intensively in workplaces. To prevent such problems in the business, it is required to have an understanding of what factors strengthen their transparency, accountability, fairness, and responsibility. Under aforementioned arguments, this paper aims to propose a conceptual framework that enables an investigation on how corporate governance mechanism influences disclosure efficiency of listed companies in the Association of Southeast Asia Nations (ASEAN) and the factors that should be considered for further development of good behaviors, particularly in regards to voluntary disclosure practices. To achieve its purpose, extensive reviews of literature are applied as a research methodology. It is divided into three main steps. Firstly, the theories involved with both corporate governance and disclosure practices such as agency theory, contract theory, signaling theory, moral hazard theory, and information asymmetry theory are examined to provide theoretical backgrounds. Secondly, the relevant literatures based on multi- perspectives of corporate governance, its attributions and their roles on business processes, the influences of corporate governance mechanisms on business performance, and the factors determining corporate governance characteristics as well as capability are reviewed to outline the parameters that should be included in the proposed model. Thirdly, the well-known regulatory document OECD principles and previous empirical studies on the corporate disclosure procedures are evaluated to identify the similarities and differentiations with the disclosure patterns in the ASEAN. Following the processes and consequences of the literature review, abundant factors and variables are found. Further to the methodology, additional critical factors that also have an impact on the disclosure behaviors are addressed in two groups. In the first group, the factors which are linked to the national characteristics - the quality of national code, legal origin, culture, the level of economic development, and so forth. Whereas in the second group, the discoveries which refer to the firm’s characteristics - ownership concentration, ownership’s rights, controlling group, and so on. However, because of research limitations, only some literature are chosen and summarized to form part of the conceptual framework that explores the relationship between corporate governance and the disclosure practices of listed companies in ASEAN.

Keywords: Corporate Governance, ASEAN, disclosure practice, listed company

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30 Constitutive Androstane Receptor (CAR) Inhibitor CINPA1 as a Tool to Understand CAR Structure and Function

Authors: Milu T. Cherian, Sergio C. Chai, Morgan A. Casal, Taosheng Chen

Abstract:

This study aims to use CINPA1, a recently discovered small-molecule inhibitor of the xenobiotic receptor CAR (constitutive androstane receptor) for understanding the binding modes of CAR and to guide CAR-mediated gene expression profiling studies in human primary hepatocytes. CAR and PXR are xenobiotic sensors that respond to drugs and endobiotics by modulating the expression of metabolic genes that enhance detoxification and elimination. Elevated levels of drug metabolizing enzymes and efflux transporters resulting from CAR activation promote the elimination of chemotherapeutic agents leading to reduced therapeutic effectiveness. Multidrug resistance in tumors after chemotherapy could be associated with errant CAR activity, as shown in the case of neuroblastoma. CAR inhibitors used in combination with existing chemotherapeutics could be utilized to attenuate multidrug resistance and resensitize chemo-resistant cancer cells. CAR and PXR have many overlapping modulating ligands as well as many overlapping target genes which confounded attempts to understand and regulate receptor-specific activity. Through a directed screening approach we previously identified a new CAR inhibitor, CINPA1, which is novel in its ability to inhibit CAR function without activating PXR. The cellular mechanisms by which CINPA1 inhibits CAR function were also extensively examined along with its pharmacokinetic properties. CINPA1 binding was shown to change CAR-coregulator interactions as well as modify CAR recruitment at DNA response elements of regulated genes. CINPA1 was shown to be broken down in the liver to form two, mostly inactive, metabolites. The structure-activity differences of CINPA1 and its metabolites were used to guide computational modeling using the CAR-LBD structure. To rationalize how ligand binding may lead to different CAR pharmacology, an analysis of the docked poses of human CAR bound to CITCO (a CAR activator) vs. CINPA1 or the metabolites was conducted. From our modeling, strong hydrogen bonding of CINPA1 with N165 and H203 in the CAR-LBD was predicted. These residues were validated to be important for CINPA1 binding using single amino-acid CAR mutants in a CAR-mediated functional reporter assay. Also predicted were residues making key hydrophobic interactions with CINPA1 but not the inactive metabolites. Some of these hydrophobic amino acids were also identified and additionally, the differential coregulator interactions of these mutants were determined in mammalian two-hybrid systems. CINPA1 represents an excellent starting point for future optimization into highly relevant probe molecules to study the function of the CAR receptor in normal- and pathophysiology, and possible development of therapeutics (for e.g. use for resensitizing chemoresistant neuroblastoma cells).

Keywords: Chemoresistance, Multi-Drug Resistance, antagonist, constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), structure activity relationship (SAR), xenobiotic resistance

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29 Monitoring the Effect of Doxorubicin Liposomal in VX2 Tumor Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Authors: Jo-Chi Jao, Po-Chou Chen, Ren-Jy Ben, Chiu-Ya Liao, Ya-Ru Tsai, Lain-Chyr Hwang

Abstract:

Cancer is still one of the serious diseases threatening the lives of human beings. How to have an early diagnosis and effective treatment for tumors is a very important issue. The animal carcinoma model can provide a simulation tool for the study of pathogenesis, biological characteristics and therapeutic effects. Recently, drug delivery systems have been rapidly developed to effectively improve the therapeutic effects. Liposome plays an increasingly important role in clinical diagnosis and therapy for delivering a pharmaceutic or contrast agent to the targeted sites. Liposome can be absorbed and excreted by the human body, and is well known that no harm to the human body. This study aimed to compare the therapeutic effects between encapsulated (doxorubicin liposomal, LipoDox) and un-encapsulated (doxorubicin, Dox) anti-tumor drugs using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). Twenty-four New Zealand rabbits implanted with VX2 carcinoma at left thigh were classified into three groups: control group (untreated), Dox-treated group and LipoDox-treated group, 8 rabbits for each group. MRI scans were performed three days after tumor implantation. A 1.5T GE Signa HDxt whole body MRI scanner with a high resolution knee coil was used in this study. After a 3-plane localizer scan was performed, Three-Dimensional (3D) Fast Spin Echo (FSE) T2-Weighted Images (T2WI) was used for tumor volumetric quantification. And Two-Dimensional (2D) spoiled gradient recalled echo (SPGR) dynamic Contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI was used for tumor perfusion evaluation. DCE-MRI was designed to acquire four baseline images, followed by contrast agent Gd-DOTA injection through the ear vein of rabbits. Afterwards, a series of 32 images were acquired to observe the signals change over time in the tumor and muscle. The MRI scanning was scheduled on a weekly basis for a period of four weeks to observe the tumor progression longitudinally. The Dox and LipoDox treatments were prescribed 3 times in the first week immediately after VX2 tumor implantation. ImageJ was used to quantitate tumor volume and time course signal enhancement on DCE images. The changes of tumor size showed that the growth of VX2 tumors was effectively inhibited for both LipoDox-treated and Dox-treated groups. Furthermore, the tumor volume of LipoDox-treated group was significantly lower than that of Dox-treated group, which implies that LipoDox has better therapeutic effect than Dox. The signal intensity of LipoDox-treated group is significantly lower than that of the other two groups, which implies that targeted therapeutic drug remained in the tumor tissue. This study provides a radiation-free and non-invasive MRI method for therapeutic monitoring of targeted liposome on an animal tumor model.

Keywords: Magnetic resonance imaging, doxorubicin, dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI, lipodox, VX2 tumor model

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28 The Effect of Calcium Phosphate Composite Scaffolds on the Osteogenic Differentiation of Rabbit Dental Pulp Stem Cells

Authors: Lin Feng, Hong-Chen Liu, Dong-Sheng Wang, Yan Lv, Ling-Ling E, Zhanping Shi, Juncheng Wang, Wei Luo

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to compare the effects of the two calcium phosphate composite scaffolds on the attachment, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of rabbit dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs). One nano-hydroxyapatite/collagen/poly (L-lactide) (nHAC/PLA), imitating the composition and the micro-structure characteristics of the natural bone, was made by Beijing Allgens Medical Science & Technology Co., Ltd. (China). The other beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP), being fully interoperability globular pore structure, was provided by Shanghai Bio-lu Biomaterials Co, Ltd. (China). We compared the absorption water rate and the protein adsorption rate of two scaffolds and the characterization of DPSCs cultured on the culture plate and both scaffolds under osteogenic differentiation media (ODM) treatment. The constructs were then implanted subcutaneously into the back of severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice for 8 and 12 weeks to compare their bone formation capacity. The results showed that the ODM-treated DPSCs expressed osteocalcin (OCN), bone sialoprotein (BSP), type I collagen (COLI) and osteopontin (OPN) by immunofluorescence staining. Positive alkaline phosphatase (ALP) staining, calcium deposition and calcium nodules were also observed on the ODM-treated DPSCs. The nHAC/PLA had significantly higher absorption water rate and protein adsorption rate than ß-TCP. The initial attachment of DPSCs seeded onto nHAC/PLA was significantly higher than that onto ß-TCP; and the proliferation rate of the cells was significantly higher than that of ß-TCP on 1, 3 and 7 days of cell culture. DPSCs+ß-TCP had significantly higher ALP activity, calcium/phosphorus content and mineral formation than DPSCs+nHAC/PLA. When implanted into the back of SCID mice, nHAC/PLA alone had no new bone formation, newly formed mature bone and osteoid were only observed in β-TCP alone, DPSCs+nHAC/PLA and DPSCs+β-TCP, and this three groups displayed increased bone formation over the 12-week period. The percentage of total bone formation area had no difference between DPSCs+β-TCP and DPSCs+nHAC/PLA at each time point,but the percentage of mature bone formation area of DPSCs+β-TCP was significantly higher than that of DPSCs+nHAC/PLA. Our results demonstrated that the DPSCs on nHAC/PLA had a better proliferation and that the DPSCs on β-TCP had a more mineralization in vitro, much more newly formed mature bones in vivo were presented in DPSCs+β-TCP group. These findings have provided a further knowledge that scaffold architecture has a different influence on the attachment, proliferation and differentiation of cells. This study may provide insight into the clinical periodontal bone tissue repair with DPSCs+β-TCP construct.

Keywords: Bone Regeneration, dental pulp stem cells, nano-hydroxyapatite/collagen/poly(L-lactide), beta-tricalcium phosphate, periodontal tissue engineering

Procedia PDF Downloads 203