Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 23

Search results for: Tuba Okutucu-Özyurt

23 The School Governing Council as the Impetus for Collaborative Education Governance: A Case Study of Two Benguet Municipalities in the Highlands of Northern Philippines

Authors: Maria Consuelo Doble

Abstract:

For decades, basic public education in the Philippines has been beleaguered by a governance scenario of multi-layered decision-making and the lack of collaboration between sectors in addressing issues on poor access to schools, high dropout rates, low survival rates, and poor student performance. These chronic problems persisted despite multiple efforts making it appear that the education system is incapable of reforming itself. In the mountainous rural towns of La Trinidad and Tuba, in the province of Benguet in Northern Philippines, collaborative education governance was catalyzed by the intervention of Synergeia Foundation, a coalition made up of individuals, institutions and organizations that aim to improve the quality of education in the Philippines. Its major thrust is to empower the major stakeholders at the community level to make education work by building the capacities of School Governing Councils (SGCs). Although mandated by the Department of Education in 2006, the SGCs in Philippine public elementary schools remained dysfunctional. After one year of capacity-building by Synergeia Foundation, some SGCs are already exhibiting active community-based multi-sectoral collaboration, while there are many that are not. With the myriad of factors hindering collaboration, Synergeia Foundation is now confronted with the pressing question: What are the factors that promote collaborative governance in the SGCs so that they can address the education-related issues that they are facing? Using Emerson’s (2011) framework on collaborative governance, this study analyzes the application of collaborative governance by highly-functioning SGCs in the public elementary schools of Tuba and La Trinidad. Findings of this action research indicate how the dynamics of collaboration composed of three interactive and iterative components – principled engagement, shared motivation and capacity for joint action – have resulted in meaningful short-term impact such as stakeholder engagement and decreased a number of dropouts. The change in the behavior of stakeholders is indicative of adaptation to a more collaborative approach in governing education in Benguet highland settings such as Tuba and La Trinidad.

Keywords: basic public education, Benguet highlands, collaborative governance, School Governing Council

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22 CFD Modeling of Boiling in a Microchannel Based On Phase-Field Method

Authors: Rahim Jafari, Tuba Okutucu-Özyurt

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The hydrodynamics and heat transfer characteristics of a vaporized elongated bubble in a rectangular microchannel have been simulated based on Cahn-Hilliard phase-field method. In the simulations, the initially nucleated bubble starts growing as it comes in contact with superheated water. The growing shape of the bubble compared with the available experimental data in the literature.

Keywords: microchannel, boiling, Cahn-Hilliard method, simulation

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21 Stability or Instabilty? Triplet Deficit Analysis In Turkey

Authors: Zeynep Karaçor, Volkan Alptekin, Gökhan Akar, Tuba Akar

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This paper aims to review the phenomenon of triplet deficit which is called interaction of budget balance that make up the overall balance of the economy, investment savings balance and current accounts balance in terms of Turkey. In this paper, triplet deficit state in Turkish economy has been analyzed with vector autoregressive model and Granger causality test using data covering the period of 1980-2010. According to VAR results, increase in current accounts is perceived on public sector borrowing requirement. These two variables influence each other bilaterally. Therefore, current accounts increase public deficit, whereas public deficit increases current accounts. It is not possible to mention the existence of a short-term Granger causality between variables at issue.

Keywords: internal and external deficit, stability, triplet deficit, Turkey economy

Procedia PDF Downloads 235
20 Optimization the Freeze Drying Conditions of Olive Seeds

Authors: Alev Yüksel Aydar, Tuncay Yılmaz, Melisa Özçeli̇k, Tuba Aydın, Elif Karabaş

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In this study, response surface methodology (RSM) was used to obtain the optimum conditions for the freeze-drying of Gemlik variety olive seeds of to achieve the desired quality characteristics. The Box Behnken Design (BBD) was applied with three-variable and three replications in the center point. The effects of the different drying parameters including initial temperature of olive seed, pressure and time for freezing on the DPPH activity, total phenolic contents, and oleuropein absorbance value of the samples were investigated. Temperature (50 – 82 °C), pressure (0.2-0.5 mbar), time (6-10 hours) were chosen as independent variables. The analysis revealed that, while the temperature of the product prior to lyophilization and the drying time had no statistically significant effect on DPPH activity (p>0.05), the pressure was more important than the other two variables , and the quadratic effect of pressure had a significant effect on DPPH activity (p<0.05). The R2 and Adj-R2 values of the DPPH activity model were calculated to be 0.8962 and 0.7045, respectively.

Keywords: olive seed, gemlik variety, DPPH, phenolics, optimization

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19 Peace Based Diplomacy, Peace Communication and Peace Lobbying in the Example of Turkey-France Relations

Authors: Bilgehan Gültekin, Tuba Gültekin

Abstract:

The first stage to procure peace communication is to construct a mutual accordance, which can be defined as: To constitute reconciliation ground in order to open and constitute the right peace and dialogue areas. For example: In Turkey’s EU entry process, in order to procure French public opinion, to constitute a communication frame is a must. For the constitution of this frame, the titles of discussion in which it will be moved and for which French public opinion will show its support must be determined. The most important title of this ground is Turkey’s peace potential for Europe with its strategic position. For this reason, it’s is so strategic for peace communication that Turkey’s contributions for Europe and World should be opened up for discussion in public opinion in France and be introduced as a strong accordance ground.Peace based diplomacy, peace communication strategies and peace lobbying in the example of Turkey-France relations presents a strong peace titles.

Keywords: intercultural communication, mediation education, common sense leaders, artistic sensitivity

Procedia PDF Downloads 336
18 Diplomatic Public Relations Techniques for Official Recognition of Palestine State in Europe

Authors: Bilgehan Gultekin, Tuba Gultekin

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Diplomatic public relations gives an ideal concept for recognition of palestine state in all over the europe. The first step of official recognition is approval of palestine state in international political organisations such as United Nations and Nato. So, diplomatic public relations provides a recognition process in communication scale. One of the aims of the study titled “Diplomatic Public Relations Techniques for Recognition of Palestine State in Europe” is to present some communication projects on diplomatic way. The study also aims at showing communication process at diplomatic level. The most important level of such kind of diplomacy is society based diplomacy. Moreover,The study provides a wider perspective that gives some creative diplomatic communication strategies for attracting society. To persuade the public for official recognition also is key element of this process. The study also finds new communication routes including persuasion techniques for society. All creative projects are supporting parts in original persuasive process of official recognition of Palestine.

Keywords: diplomatic public relations, diplomatic communication strategies, diplomatic communication, public relations

Procedia PDF Downloads 324
17 Determination of Thermophysical Properties of Water Based Magnetic Nanofluids

Authors: Eyüphan Manay, Bayram Sahin, Emre Mandev, Ibrahim Ates, Tuba Yetim

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In this study, it was aimed to determine the thermophysical properties of two different magnetic nanofluids (NiFe2O4-water and CoFe2O4-water). Magnetic nanoparticles were dispersed into the pure water at different volume fractions from 0 vol.% to 4 vol.%. The measurements were performed in the temperature range of 15 oC-55 oC. In order to get better idea on the temperature dependent thermophysical properties of magnetic nanofluids (MNFs), viscosity and thermal conductivity measurements were made. SEM images of both NiFe2O4 and CoFe2O4 nanoparticles were used in order to confirm the average dimensions. The measurements showed that the thermal conductivity of MNFs increased with an increase in the volume fraction as well as viscosity. Increase in the temperature of both MNFs resulted in an increase in the thermal conductivity and a decrease in the viscosity. Based on the measured data, the correlations for both the viscosity and the thermal conductivity were presented with respect to solid volume ratio and temperature. Effective thermal conductivity of the prepared MNFs was also calculated. The results indicated that water based NiFe2O4 nanofluid had higher thermal conductivity than that of the CoFe2O4. Once the viscosity values of both MNFs were compared, almost no difference was observed.

Keywords: magnetic nanofluids, thermal conductivity, viscosity, nife2o4-water, cofe2o4-water

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16 Biological Activities of Gentiana brachyphylla Vill. Herba from Turkey

Authors: Hulya Tuba Kiyan, Nilgun Ozturk

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Gentiana, a member of Gentianaceae, is represented by approximately 400 species in the world and 12 species in Turkey. Flavonoids, iridoids, triterpenoids and also xanthones are the major compounds of this genus, have been previously reported to have antiinflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, hypotensive, hypoglycaemic, DNA repair and immunomodulatory properties. The methanolic extract of the aerial parts of Gentiana brachyphylla Vill. from Turkey was evaluated for its biological activities and its total phenolic content in the present study. According to the antioxidant activity results, G. brachyphylla methanolic extract showed very strong anti-DNA damage antioxidant activity with an inhibition of 81.82%. It showed weak ferric-reducing power with a EC50 value of 0.65 when compared to BHT (EC50 = 0.2). Also, at 0.5 mg/ml concentration, the methanolic extract inhibited ABTS radical cation activity with an inhibition of 20.13% when compared to Trolox (79.01%). Chelating ability of G. brachyphylla was 44.71% whereas EDTA showed 78.87% chelating activity at 0.2 mg/ml. Also G. brachyphylla showed weak 27.21% AChE, 20.23% BChE, strong 67.86% MAO-A and moderate 50.06% MAO-B, weak 19.14% COX-1, 29.11% COX-2 inhibitory activities at 0.25 mg/ml. The total phenolic content of G. brachyphylla was 156.23 ± 2.73 mg gallic acid equivalent/100 g extract.

Keywords: antioxidant activity, cholinesterase inhibitory activity, Gentiana brachyphylla Vill., total phenolic content

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15 Creative Peace Diplomacy Model by the Perspective of Dialogue Management for International Relations

Authors: Bilgehan Gültekin, Tuba Gültekin

Abstract:

Peace diplomacy is the most important international tool to keep peace all over the world. The study titled “peace diplomacy for international relations” is consist of three part. In the first part, peace diplomacy is going to be introduced as a tool of peace communication and peace management. And, in this part, peace communication will be explained by international communication perspective. In the second part of the study,public relations events and communication campaigns will be developed originally for peace diplomacy. In this part, it is aimed original public communication dialogue management tools for peace diplomacy. the aim of the final part of the study, is to produce original public communication model for international relations. The model includes peace modules, peace management projects, original dialogue procedures and protocols, dialogue education, dialogue management strategies, peace actors, communication models, peace team management and public diplomacy steps. The creative part of the study aims to develop a model used for international relations for all countries. Creative Peace Diplomacy Model will be developed in the case of Turkey-Turkey-France and Turkey-Greece relations. So, communication and public relations events and campaigns are going to be developed as original for only this study.

Keywords: peace diplomacy, public communication model, dialogue management, international relations

Procedia PDF Downloads 398
14 Additive Manufacturing of Titanium Metamaterials for Tissue Engineering

Authors: Tuba Kizilirmak

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Distinct properties of porous metamaterials have been largely processed for biomedicine requiring a three-dimensional (3D) porous structure engaged with fine mechanical features, biodegradation ability, and biocompatibility. Applications of metamaterials are (i) porous orthopedic and dental implants; (ii) in vitro cell culture of metamaterials and bone regeneration of metamaterials in vivo; (iii) macro-, micro, and nano-level porous metamaterials for sensors, diagnosis, and drug delivery. There are some specific properties to design metamaterials for tissue engineering. These are surface to volume ratio, pore size, and interconnection degrees are selected to control cell behavior and bone ingrowth. In this study, additive manufacturing technique selective laser melting will be used to print the scaffolds. Selective Laser Melting prints the 3D components according to designed 3D CAD models and manufactured materials, adding layers progressively by layer. This study aims to design metamaterials with Ti6Al4V material, which gives benefit in respect of mechanical and biological properties. Ti6Al4V scaffolds will support cell attachment by conferring a suitable area for cell adhesion. This study will control the osteoblast cell attachment on Ti6Al4V scaffolds after the determination of optimum stiffness and other mechanical properties which are close to mechanical properties of bone. Before we produce the samples, we will use a modeling technique to simulate the mechanical behavior of samples. These samples include different lattice models with varying amounts of porosity and density.

Keywords: additive manufacturing, titanium lattices, metamaterials, porous metals

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13 The Effect of Fetal Movement Counting on Maternal Antenatal Attachment

Authors: Esra Güney, Tuba Uçar

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Aim: This study has been conducted for the purpose of determining the effects of fetal movement counting on antenatal maternal attachment. Material and Method: This research was conducted on the basis of the real test model with the pre-test /post-test control groups. The study population consists of pregnant women registered in the six different Family Health Centers located in the central Malatya districts of Yeşilyurt and Battalgazi. When power analysis is done, the sample size was calculated for each group of at least 55 pregnant women (55 tests, 55 controls). The data were collected by using Personal Information Form and MAAS (Maternal Antenatal Attachment Scale) between July 2015-June 2016. Fetal movement counting training was given to pregnant women by researchers in the experimental group after the pre-test data collection. No intervention was applied to the control group. Post-test data for both groups were collected after four weeks. Data were evaluated with percentage, chi-square arithmetic average, chi-square test and as for the dependent and independent group’s t test. Result: In the MAAS, the pre-test average of total scores in the experimental group is 70.78±6.78, control group is also 71.58±7.54 and so there was no significant difference in mean scores between the two groups (p>0.05). MAAS post-test average of total scores in the experimental group is 78.41±6.65, control group is also is 72.25±7.16 and so the mean scores between groups were found to have statistically significant difference (p<0.05). Conclusion: It was determined that fetal movement counting increases the maternal antenatal attachments.

Keywords: antenatal maternal attachment, fetal movement counting, pregnancy, midwifery

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12 Spatial Variation of Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium Contents of Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) Plants Grown in Greenhouses (Springs) in Elmali-Antalya Region

Authors: Namik Kemal Sonmez, Sahriye Sonmez, Hasan Rasit Turkkan, Hatice Tuba Selcuk

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In this study, the spatial variation of plant and soil nutrition contents of tomato plants grown in greenhouses was investigated in Elmalı region of Antalya. For this purpose, total of 19 sampling points were determined. Coordinates of each sampling points were recorded by using a hand-held GPS device and were transferred to satellite data in GIS. Soil samples were collected from two different depths, 0-20 and 20-40 cm, and leaf were taken from different tomato greenhouses. The soil and plant samples were analyzed for N, P and K. Then, attribute tables were created with the analyses results by using GIS. Data were analyzed and semivariogram models and parameters (nugget, sill and range) of variables were determined by using GIS software. Kriged maps of variables were created by using nugget, sill and range values with geostatistical extension of ArcGIS software. Kriged maps of the N, P and K contents of plant and soil samples showed patchy or a relatively smooth distribution in the study areas. As a result, the N content of plants were sufficient approximately 66% portion of the tomato productions. It was determined that the P and K contents were sufficient of 70% and 80% portion of the areas, respectively. On the other hand, soil total K contents were generally adequate and available N and P contents were found to be highly good enough in two depths (0-20 and 20-40 cm) 90% portion of the areas.

Keywords: Elmali, nutrients, springs greenhouses, spatial variation, tomato

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11 Reading the Interior Furnishings of the Houses through Turkish Films in the 1980's

Authors: Dicle Aydın, Tuba Bulbul Bahtiyar, Esra Yaldız

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Housing offers a confirmed space for individuals. In the sense of interior decoration design, housing is a kind of typology in which user’s profile and individual preferences are considered as primary determinants. In Turkish society, the transition from traditional residences to apartment buildings brings the change in interior fittings depending upon the location of houses in its wake. The social status of the users in the residence and the differences of their everyday life can be represented more evident in these interior fittings. Hence, space becomes a tool to carry the information of users and the act. From this aspect, space as a concrete tool also enables a multidirectional communication with the cinema which reflects the social, cultural and economic changes of the society. While space takes a virtual or real part of the cinema, architecture discipline has also been influenced by cinematic phenomenas in its own practice. The subject of the movie and its content commune with the space, therefore, the design of the space is formed to support the subject. The purpose of this study is to analyze the space through motion pictures that convey the information of social life with an objective perspective. In addition, this study aims to determine the space, fittings and the use of fittings with respect to the social status of users. Morever, three films in 1980s in which Kemal Sunal, protagonist of the scripts that reflect society in many ways, performed are examined in this study. Movie sets are considered in many ways. For instance, in one of these movies, different houses from an apartment are analyzed vis a vis the perspective of the study.

Keywords: housing, interior, furniture, furnishing, user

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10 The Importance of Erythrocyte Parameters in Obese Children

Authors: Orkide Donma, M. Metin Donma, Burcin Nalbantoglu, Birol Topcu, Feti Tulubas, Murat Aydin, Tuba Gokkus, Ahmet Gurel

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Increasing prevalence of childhood obesity has increased the interest in early and late indicators of gaining weight. Cell blood counts may be indicators of proinflammatory states. The aim was to evaluate associations of hematological parameters, including Hematocrit (HTC), hemoglobin, blood cell counts, and their indices with the degree of obesity in pediatric population. A total of 249; -139 morbidly obese (MO), 82 healthy Normal Weight (NW) and 28 Overweight (OW) children were included into the scope of the study. WHO BMI-for age percentiles were used to form age- and sex-matched groups. Informed consent forms and the Ethics Committee approval were obtained. Anthropometric measurements were performed. Hematological parameters were determined. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS. The degree for statistical significance was p≤0.05. Significant differences (p=0.000) between waist-to-hip ratios and head-to-neck ratios (hnrs) of MO and NW children were detected. A significant difference between hnrs of OW and MO children (p=0.000) was observed. Red cell Distribution Width (RDW) was higher in OW children than NW group (p=0.030). Such finding couldn’t be detected between MO and NW groups. Increased RDW was prominent in OW children. The decrease in Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration (MCHC) values in MO children was sharper than the values in OW children (p=0.006 vs p=0.042) compared to those in NW group. Statistically higher HTC levels were observed between MO-NW (p=0.014), but none between OW-NW. Though the cause-effect relationship between obesity and erythrocyte indices still needs further investigation, alterations in RDW, HTC, MCHC during obesity may be of significance in the early life.

Keywords: anthropometry, children, erythrocytes, obesity

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9 Reading High Rise Residential Development in Istanbul on the Theory of Globalization

Authors: Tuba Sari

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One of the major transformations caused by the industrial revolution, technological developments and globalization is undoubtedly acceleration of urbanization process. Globalization, in particular, is one of the major factors that trigger this transformation. In this context, as a result of the global metropolitan city system, multifunctional rising structure forms are becoming undeniable fact of the world’s leading metropolises as the manifestation of prestige and power with different life choices, easy accessibility to services related to the era of technology. The scope of research deals with five different urban centers in İstanbul where high-rise housing is increasing dramatically after 2000’s. Therefore, the research regards multi-centered urban residential pattern being created by high-rise housing structures in the city. The methodology of the research is based on two main issue, one of them is related to sampling method of high-rise housing projects in İstanbul, while the other method of the research is based on the model of Semantics. In the framework of research hypothesis, it is aimed to prove that the character of vertical intensive structuring in Istanbul is based on seeking of different forms and images in the expressive quality, considering the production of existing high-rise buildings in residential areas in recent years. In respect to rising discourse of 'World City' in the globalizing world, it is very important to state the place of Istanbul in other developing world metropolises. In the perspective of 'World City' discourse, Istanbul has different projects concerning with globalization, international finance companies, cultural activities, mega projects, etc. In brief, the aim of this research is examining transformation forms of high-rise housing development in Istanbul within the frame of developing world cities, searching and analyzing discourse and image related to these projects.

Keywords: globalization, high-rise, housing, image

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8 The Effect of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Education on Preservice Science Teachers' Awareness of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology

Authors: Tuba Senel Zor, Oktay Aslan

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With current trends in nanoscience and nanotechnology (NST), scientists have paid much attention to education and nanoliteracy in parallel with the developments on these fields. To understand the advances in NST research requires a population with a high degree of science literacy. All citizens should soon need nanoliteracy in order to navigate some of the important science-based issues faced to their everyday lives. While the fields of NST are advancing rapidly and raising their societal significance, general public’s awareness of these fields has remained at a low level. Moreover, students enrolled different education levels and teachers don’t have awareness at expected level. This problem may be stemmed from inadequate education and training. To remove the inadequacy, teachers have greatest duties and responsibilities. Especially science teachers at all levels need to be made aware of these developments and adequately prepared so that they are able to teach about these advances in a developmentally appropriate manner. If the teachers develop understanding and awareness of NST, they can also discuss the topic with their students. Therefore, the awareness and conceptual understandings of both the teachers who will teach science to students and the students who will be introduced about NST should be increased, and the necessary training should be provided. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of NST education on preservice science teachers’ awareness of NST. The study was designed in one group pre-test post-test quasi-experimental pattern. The study was conducted with 32 preservice science teachers attending the Elementary Science Education Program at a large Turkish university in central Anatolia. NST education was given during five weeks as two hours per week. Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Awareness Questionnaire was used as data collected tool and was implemented for pre-test and post-test. The collected data were analyzed using Statistical package for the Social Science (SPSS). The results of data analysis showed that there was a significant difference (z=6.25, p< .05) on NST awareness of preservice science teachers after implemented NST education. The results of the study indicate that NST education has an important effect for improving awareness of preservice science teachers on NST.

Keywords: awareness level, nanoliteracy, nanoscience and nanotechnology education, preservice science teachers

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7 The Effects of Parent Psycho-Education Program on Problem-Solving Skills of Parents

Authors: Tuba Bagatarhan, Digdem Muge Siyez

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The aim of this research is to examine the effects of the psycho-education program on problem-solving skills of parents of high school students in the risk group for Internet addiction. A quasi-experimental design based on the pre-test, post-test and follow up test including experimental and control groups was used in the research. The independent variable of the study was the parent psycho-education program on problem-solving skills; the dependent variable was the problem-solving skills of parents. The research was conducted with the parents of 52 tenth-grade students in the risk group for Internet addiction from two high schools and volunteer to participate research on evaluation of the effectiveness of internet addiction prevention psycho-education program within the scope of another study. In this study, as 26 students were in the experimental groups in the first-high school, the parents of these 26 students were asked if they would like to participate in the parent psycho-education program on parental problem-solving skills. The parents were volunteer to participate in parent psycho-education program assigned experimental group (n=13), the other parents assigned control group 1 (n=13) in the first high school. The parents of the 26 students were randomly assigned to the control group 2 (n=13) and control group 3 (n=13) in the second high school. The data of the research was obtained via the problem behavior scale - coping - parents form and demographic questionnaire. Four-session parent psycho-education program to cope with Internet addiction and other problem behaviors in their children was applied to the experimental group. No program was applied to the control group 1, control group 2 and control group 3. In addition, an internet addiction prevention psycho-education program was applied to the children of the parents in experimental group and control group 1 within the scope of another study. In the analysis of the obtained data, two-factor variance analysis for repeated measures on one factor was used. Bonferroni post-hoc test was used to find the source of intergroup difference. According to the findings, the psycho-education program significantly increases parents’ problem-solving abilities, and the increase has continued throughout the follow-up test.

Keywords: internet addiction, parents, prevention, psyho-education

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6 Rare Diagnosis in Emergency Room: Moyamoya Disease

Authors: Ecem Deniz Kırkpantur, Ozge Ecmel Onur, Tuba Cimilli Ozturk, Ebru Unal Akoglu

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Moyamoya disease is a unique chronic progressive cerebrovascular disease characterized by bilateral stenosis or occlusion of the arteries around the circle of Willis with prominent arterial collateral circulation. The occurrence of Moyamoya disease is related to immune, genetic and other factors. There is no curative treatment for Moyamoya disease. Secondary prevention for patients with symptomatic Moyamoya disease is largely centered on surgical revascularization techniques. We present here a 62-year old male presented with headache and vision loss for 2 days. He was previously diagnosed with hypertension and glaucoma. On physical examination, left eye movements were restricted medially, both eyes were hyperemic and their movements were painful. Other neurological and physical examination were normal. His vital signs and laboratory results were within normal limits. Computed tomography (CT) showed dilated vascular structures around both lateral ventricles and atherosclerotic changes inside the walls of internal carotid artery (ICA). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and angiography (MRA) revealed dilated venous vascular structures around lateral ventricles and hyper-intense gliosis in periventricular white matter. Ischemic gliosis around the lateral ventricles were present in the Digital Subtracted Angiography (DSA). After the neurology, ophthalmology and neurosurgery consultation, the patient was diagnosed with Moyamoya disease, pulse steroid therapy was started for vision loss, and super-selective DSA was planned for further investigation. Moyamoya disease is a rare condition, but it can be an important cause of stroke in both children and adults. It generally affects anterior circulation, but posterior cerebral circulation may also be affected, as well. In the differential diagnosis of acute vision loss, occipital stroke related to Moyamoya disease should be considered. Direct and indirect surgical revascularization surgeries may be used to effectively revascularize affected brain areas, and have been shown to reduce risk of stroke.

Keywords: headache, Moyamoya disease, stroke, visual loss

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5 Lipid Emulsion versus DigiFab in a Rat Model of Acute Digoxin Toxicity

Authors: Cansu Arslan Turan, Tuba Cimilli Ozturk, Ebru Unal Akoglu, Kemal Aygun, Ecem Deniz Kırkpantur, Ozge Ecmel Onur

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Although the mechanism of action is not well known, Intravenous Lipid Emulsion (ILE) has been shown to be effective in the treatment of lipophilic drug intoxications. It is thought that ILE probably separate the lipophilic drugs from target tissue by creating a lipid-rich compartment in the plasma. The second theory is that ILE provides energy to myocardium with high dose free fatty acids activating the voltage gated calcium channels in the myocytes. In this study, the effects of ILE treatment on digoxin overdose which are frequently observed in emergency departments was searched in an animal model in terms of cardiac side effects and survival. The study was carried out at Yeditepe University, Faculty of Medicine-Experimental Animals Research Center Labs in December 2015. 40 Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 300-400 g were divided into 5 groups randomly. As the pre-treatment, the first group received saline, the second group received lipid, the third group received DigiFab, and the fourth group received DigiFab and lipid. Following that, digoxin was infused to all groups until death except the control group. First arrhythmia and cardiac arrest occurrence times were recorded. As no medication causing arrhythmia was infused, Group 5 was excluded from the statistical analysis performed for the comparisons of first arrhythmia and death time. According to the results although there was no significant difference in the statistical analysis comparing the four groups, as the rats, only exposed to digoxin intoxication were compared with the rats pre-treated with ILE in terms of first arrhythmia time and cardiac arrest occurrence times, significant difference was observed between the groups. According to our results, using DigiFab treatment, intralipid treatment, intralipid and DigiFab treatment for the rats exposed to digoxin intoxication makes no significant difference in terms of the first arrhythmia and death occurrence time. However, it is not possible to say that at the doses we use in the study, ILE treatment might be successful at least as a known antidote. The fact that the statistical significance between the two groups is not observed in the inter-comparisons of all the groups, the study should be repeated in the larger groups.

Keywords: arrhytmia, cardiac arrest, DigiFab, digoxin intoxication

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4 Determination of Phenolic Contents and Antioxidant Activities of Chenopodium quinoa Willd. Seed Extracts

Authors: Nilgün Öztürk, Hakan Sabahtin Ali, Hülya Tuba Kıyan

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The genus Chenopodium belongs to Amaranthaceae, is represented by approximately 250 species in the world and 15 species and three subspecies in Turkey. Chenopodium species are traditionally used to treat chest and abdominal pain, shortness of breath, cough and neurological disorders. Chenopodium quinoa Willd. (Quinoa) is native to Andes region of South America (especially Peru and Bolivia) and cultivated in many countries include also Turkey in the world nowadays. The seeds of quinoa are rich in protein, and the phytochemical composition consists of antioxidant substances such as polyphenolic compounds, flavonoids, vitamins, and minerals; anticancer and neuroprotective compounds such as tocotrienols; anti-inflammatory compounds such as carotenoids and anthocyanins and also saponins and starch. Food products of quinoa such as quinoa cereal bar, pasta and cornflakes are used in the diet made during many disorders like obesity, cardiovascular disorder, hypertension and Celiac disease. Also quinoa seems to have antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and cholesterol-lowering properties because of its bioactive compounds. In this present study, the aqueous ethanolic extracts of the seeds of three different coloured genotypes of quinoa were investigated for their antioxidant activities using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, ferrous ion-chelating effect, ferric-reducing antioxidant power, ABTS radical cation decolorization assays and total phenolic contents using Folin-Ciocalteu assay. Among the three genotypes of quinoa; the aqueous ethanolic extract of the red genotype had the highest total phenolic content (83.54 ± 2.12 mg gallic acid/100 g extract) whereas the extract of the white genotype had the lowest total phenolic content (70.66 ± 0.25 mg gallic acid/100 g). According to the antioxidant activity results; the extracts showed moderate reducing power effect whereas weak ABTS radical cation decolorization and ferrous ion-chelating effect and also too weak DPPH radical scavenging activity when compared to the positive standards.

Keywords: amaranthaceae, antioxidant activity, Chenopodium quinoa willd., total phenolic content

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3 The Effects of Periostin in a Rat Model of Isoproterenol-Mediated Cardiotoxicity

Authors: Mahmut Sozmen, Alparslan Kadir Devrim, Yonca Betil Kabak, Tuba Devrim

Abstract:

Acute myocardial infarction is the leading cause of deaths in the worldwide. Mature cardiomyocytes do not have the ability to regenerate instead fibrous tissue proliferate and granulation tissue to fill out. Periostin is an extracellular matrix protein from fasciclin family and it plays an important role in the cell adhesion, migration, and growth of the organism. Periostin prevents apoptosis while stimulating cardiomyocytes. The main objective of this project is to investigate the effects of the recombinant murine periostin peptide administration for the cardiomyocyte regeneration in a rat model of acute myocardial infarction. The experiment was performed on 84 male rats (6 months old) in 4 group each contains 21 rats. Saline applied subcutaneously (1 ml/kg) two times with 24 hours intervals to the rats in control group (Group 1). Recombinant periostin peptide (1 μg/kg) dissolved in saline applied intraperitoneally in group 2 on 1, 3, 7, 14 and 21. days on same dates in group 4. Isoproterenol dissolved in saline applied intraperitoneally (85mg/kg/day) two times with 24 hours intervals to the groups 3 and 4. Rats in group 4 further received recombinant periostin peptide (1 μg/kg) dissolved in saline intraperitoneally starting one day after the final isoproterenol administration on days 1, 3, 7, 14 and 21. Following the final application of periostin rats continued to feed routinely with pelleted chow and water ad libitum for further seven days. At the end of 7th day rats sacrificed, blood and heart tissue samples collected for the immunohistochemical and biochemical analysis. Angiogenesis in response to tissue damage, is a highly dynamic process regulated by signals from the surrounding extracellular matrix and blood serum. In this project, VEGF, ANGPT, bFGF, TGFβ are the key factors that contribute to cardiomyocyte regeneration were investigated. Additionally, the relationship between mitosis and apoptosis (Bcl-2, Bax, PCNA, Ki-67, Phopho-Histone H3), cell cycle activators and inhibitors (Cyclin D1, D2, A2, Cdc2), the origin of regenerating cells (cKit and CD45) were examined. Present results revealed that periostin stimulated cardiomyocye cell-cycle re-entry in both normal and MCA damaged cardiomyocytes and increased angiogenesis. Thus, periostin contributes to cardiomyocyte regeneration during the healing period following myocardial infarction which provides a better understanding of its role of this mechanism, improving recovery rates and it is expected to contribute the lack of literature on this subject. Acknowledgement: This project was financially supported by Turkish Scientific Research Council- Agriculture, Forestry and Veterinary Research Support Group (TUBİTAK-TOVAG; Project No: 114O734), Ankara, TURKEY.

Keywords: cardiotoxicity, immunohistochemistry, isoproterenol, periostin

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2 Developing Motorized Spectroscopy System for Tissue Scanning

Authors: Tuba Denkceken, Ayse Nur Sarı, Volkan Ihsan Tore, Mahmut Denkceken

Abstract:

The aim of the presented study was to develop a newly motorized spectroscopy system. Our system is composed of probe and motor parts. The probe part consists of bioimpedance and fiber optic components that include two platinum wires (each 25 micrometer in diameter) and two fiber cables (each 50 micrometers in diameter) respectively. Probe was examined on tissue phantom (polystyrene microspheres with different diameters). In the bioimpedance part of the probe current was transferred to the phantom and conductivity information was obtained. Adjacent two fiber cables were used in the fiber optic part of the system. Light was transferred to the phantom by fiber that was connected to the light source and backscattered light was collected with the other adjacent fiber for analysis. It is known that the nucleus expands and the nucleus-cytoplasm ratio increases during the cancer progression in the cell and this situation is one of the most important criteria for evaluating the tissue for pathologists. The sensitivity of the probe to particle (nucleus) size in phantom was tested during the study. Spectroscopic data obtained from our system on phantom was evaluated by multivariate statistical analysis. Thus the information about the particle size in the phantom was obtained. Bioimpedance and fiber optic experiments results which were obtained from polystyrene microspheres showed that the impedance value and the oscillation amplitude were increasing while the size of particle was enlarging. These results were compatible with the previous studies. In order to motorize the system within the motor part, three driver electronic circuits were designed primarily. In this part, supply capacitors were placed symmetrically near to the supply inputs which were used for balancing the oscillation. Female capacitors were connected to the control pin. Optic and mechanic switches were made. Drivers were structurally designed as they could command highly calibrated motors. It was considered important to keep the drivers’ dimension as small as we could (4.4x4.4x1.4 cm). Then three miniature step motors were connected to each other along with three drivers. Since spectroscopic techniques are quantitative methods, they yield more objective results than traditional ones. In the future part of this study, it is planning to get spectroscopic data that have optic and impedance information from the cell culture which is normal, low metastatic and high metastatic breast cancer. In case of getting high sensitivity in differentiated cells, it might be possible to scan large surface tissue areas in a short time with small steps. By means of motorize feature of the system, any region of the tissue will not be missed, in this manner we are going to be able to diagnose cancerous parts of the tissue meticulously. This work is supported by The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TÜBİTAK) through 3001 project (115E662).

Keywords: motorized spectroscopy, phantom, scanning system, tissue scanning

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1 Laboratory Indices in Late Childhood Obesity: The Importance of DONMA Indices

Authors: Orkide Donma, Mustafa M. Donma, Muhammet Demirkol, Murat Aydin, Tuba Gokkus, Burcin Nalbantoglu, Aysin Nalbantoglu, Birol Topcu

Abstract:

Obesity in childhood establishes a ground for adulthood obesity. Especially morbid obesity is an important problem for the children because of the associated diseases such as diabetes mellitus, cancer and cardiovascular diseases. In this study, body mass index (BMI), body fat ratios, anthropometric measurements and ratios were evaluated together with different laboratory indices upon evaluation of obesity in morbidly obese (MO) children. Children with nutritional problems participated in the study. Written informed consent was obtained from the parents. Study protocol was approved by the Ethics Committee. Sixty-two MO girls aged 129.5±35.8 months and 75 MO boys aged 120.1±26.6 months were included into the scope of the study. WHO-BMI percentiles for age-and-sex were used to assess the children with those higher than 99th as morbid obesity. Anthropometric measurements of the children were recorded after their physical examination. Bio-electrical impedance analysis was performed to measure fat distribution. Anthropometric ratios, body fat ratios, Index-I and Index-II as well as insulin sensitivity indices (ISIs) were calculated. Girls as well as boys were binary grouped according to homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index of <2.5 and >2.5, fasting glucose to insulin ratio (FGIR) of <6 and >6 and quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI) of <0.33 and >0.33 as the frequently used cut-off points. They were evaluated based upon their BMIs, arms, legs, trunk, whole body fat percentages, body fat ratios such as fat mass index (FMI), trunk-to-appendicular fat ratio (TAFR), whole body fat ratio (WBFR), anthropometric measures and ratios [waist-to-hip, head-to-neck, thigh-to-arm, thigh-to-ankle, height/2-to-waist, height/2-to-hip circumference (C)]. SPSS/PASW 18 program was used for statistical analyses. p≤0.05 was accepted as statistically significance level. All of the fat percentages showed differences between below and above the specified cut-off points in girls when evaluated with HOMA-IR and QUICKI. Differences were observed only in arms fat percent for HOMA-IR and legs fat percent for QUICKI in boys (p≤ 0.05). FGIR was unable to detect any differences for the fat percentages of boys. Head-to-neck C was the only anthropometric ratio recommended to be used for all ISIs (p≤0.001 for both girls and boys in HOMA-IR, p≤0.001 for girls and p≤0.05 for boys in FGIR and QUICKI). Indices which are recommended for use in both genders were Index-I, Index-II, HOMA/BMI and log HOMA (p≤0.001). FMI was also a valuable index when evaluated with HOMA-IR and QUICKI (p≤0.001). The important point was the detection of the severe significance for HOMA/BMI and log HOMA while they were evaluated also with the other indices, FGIR and QUICKI (p≤0.001). These parameters along with Index-I were unique at this level of significance for all children. In conclusion, well-accepted ratios or indices may not be valid for the evaluation of both genders. This study has emphasized the limiting properties for boys. This is particularly important for the selection process of some ratios and/or indices during the clinical studies. Gender difference should be taken into consideration for the evaluation of the ratios or indices, which will be recommended to be used particularly within the scope of obesity studies.

Keywords: anthropometry, childhood obesity, gender, insulin sensitivity index

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