Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 131

Search results for: springs greenhouses

131 Spatial Variation of Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium Contents of Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) Plants Grown in Greenhouses (Springs) in Elmali-Antalya Region

Authors: Namik Kemal Sonmez, Sahriye Sonmez, Hasan Rasit Turkkan, Hatice Tuba Selcuk


In this study, the spatial variation of plant and soil nutrition contents of tomato plants grown in greenhouses was investigated in Elmalı region of Antalya. For this purpose, total of 19 sampling points were determined. Coordinates of each sampling points were recorded by using a hand-held GPS device and were transferred to satellite data in GIS. Soil samples were collected from two different depths, 0-20 and 20-40 cm, and leaf were taken from different tomato greenhouses. The soil and plant samples were analyzed for N, P and K. Then, attribute tables were created with the analyses results by using GIS. Data were analyzed and semivariogram models and parameters (nugget, sill and range) of variables were determined by using GIS software. Kriged maps of variables were created by using nugget, sill and range values with geostatistical extension of ArcGIS software. Kriged maps of the N, P and K contents of plant and soil samples showed patchy or a relatively smooth distribution in the study areas. As a result, the N content of plants were sufficient approximately 66% portion of the tomato productions. It was determined that the P and K contents were sufficient of 70% and 80% portion of the areas, respectively. On the other hand, soil total K contents were generally adequate and available N and P contents were found to be highly good enough in two depths (0-20 and 20-40 cm) 90% portion of the areas.

Keywords: Elmali, nutrients, springs greenhouses, spatial variation, tomato

Procedia PDF Downloads 162
130 Composite 'C' Springs for Anti-Seismic Building Suspension: Positioning 'Virtual Center of Pendulation above Gravity Center'

Authors: Max Sardou, Patricia Sardou


Now that weight saving is mandatory, to author best knowledge composite springs, that we have invented, are best choice for automotive suspensions, against steel. So, we have created a Joint Ventures called S.ARA, in order to mass produce composite coils springs. Start of Production of composite coils springs was in 2014 for AUDI. As we have demonstrated, on the road, that composite springs are not a sweet dream. The present paper describes all the benefits of ‘C’ springs and ‘S’ springs for high performance vehicles suspension, for rocket stage separation, and for satellite injection into orbit. Developing rocket stage separation, we have developed for CNES (Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales) the following concept. If we call ‘line of action’ a line going from one end of a spring to the other. Our concept is to use for instance two springs inclined. In such a way that their line of action cross together and create at this crossing point a virtual center well above the springs. This virtual center, is pulling from above the top stage and is offering a guidance, perfectly stable and straight. About buildings, our solution is to transfer this rocket technology, creating a ‘virtual center’ of pendulation positioned above the building center of gravity. This is achieved by using tilted composite springs benches oriented in such a way that their line of action converges creating the ‘virtual center’. Thanks to the ‘virtual center’ position, the building behaves as a pendulum, hanged from above. When earthquake happen then the building will oscillate around its ‘virtual center’ and will go back safely to equilibrium after the tremor. ‘C’ springs, offering anti-rust, anti-settlement, fail-safe suspension, plus virtual center solution is the must for long-lasting, perfect protection of buildings against earthquakes.

Keywords: virtual center of tilt, composite springs, fail safe springs, antiseismic suspention

Procedia PDF Downloads 169
129 Distribution and Characterization of Thermal Springs in Northern Oman

Authors: Fahad Al Shidi, Reginald Victor


This study was conducted in Northern Oman to assess the physical and chemical characteristics of 40 thermal springs distributed in Al Hajar Mountains in northern Oman. Physical measurements of water samples were carried out in two main seasons in Oman (winter and summer 2019). Studied springs were classified into three groups based on water temperature, four groups based on water pH values and two groups based on conductivity. Ten thermal alkaline springs that originated in Ophiolite (Samail Napp) were dominated by high pH (> 11), elevated concentration of Cl- and Na+ ions, relatively low temperature and discharge ratio. Other springs in the Hajar Super Group massif recorded high concentrations of Ca2+ and SO2-4 ions controlled by rock dominance, geochemistry processes, and mineralization. There was only one spring which has brackish water with very high conductivity (5500 µs/cm) and Total Dissolved Solids and it is not suitable for irrigation purposes because of the high abundance of Na+, Cl−, and Ca2+ ions.

Keywords: alkaline springs, geothermal, HSG, ophiolite

Procedia PDF Downloads 49
128 A Passive Reaction Force Compensation for a Linear Motor Motion Stage Using Pre-Compressed Springs

Authors: Kim Duc Hoang, Hyeong Joon Ahn


Residual vibration of the system base due to a high-acceleration motion of a stage may reduce life and productivity of the manufacturing device. Although a passive RFC can reduce vibration of the system base, spring or dummy mass should be replaced to tune performance of the RFC. In this paper, we develop a novel concept of the passive RFC mechanism for a linear motor motion stage using pre-compressed springs. Dynamic characteristic of the passive RFC can be adjusted by pre-compression of the spring without exchanging the spring or dummy mass. First, we build a linear motor motion stage with pre-compressed springs. Then, the effect of the pre-compressed spring on the passive RFC is investigated by changing both pre-compressions and stiffness of springs. Finally, the effectiveness of the passive RFC using pre-compressed springs was verified with both simulations and experiments.

Keywords: linear motor motion stage, residual vibration, passive RFC, pre-compressed spring

Procedia PDF Downloads 249
127 Modeling of the Thermal Exchanges of an Intelligent Polymer Film for the Development of New Generations of Greenhouses

Authors: Ziani Zakarya, Mahdad Moustafa Yassine


Greenhouse farming has greatly contributed to the development of modern agriculture by optimizing crops, especially market gardening, ornamental horticulture, and recently, fruit species ... Greenhouse cultivation has enabled farmers to produce fruits and vegetables out of season while guaranteeing them a good production, and therefore a considerable gain throughout the year. However, this mode of production has shown its limits, especially in extreme conditions, such as the continental steppe climate and the Saharan climate, which are characterized by significant thermal amplitudes and strong winds, making it impossible to use conventional greenhouses for several months, of the year. In Algeria and precisely in the highlands, the use of greenhouses by farmers is very rare or occasional, especially in spring, because the limiting factors mentioned above are frequent there, causing significant damage to the plant product and to the environment. infrastructure. The same observation is observed in the Saharan regions but with less frequencies. Certainly, the use of controlled multi-chapel greenhouses would solve the problem, but at what cost? These hi-tech infrastructures are very expensive to purchase but also to maintain, so few farmers have the financial means to obtain them. In addition, the existence of intelligent and less expensive polymer films, whose properties could control greenhouse production parameters, in particular, the temperature parameter, maybe a judicious solution for the development of new generations of greenhouses that can be used in extreme conditions and normal.

Keywords: greenhouse, polymer film, modern agriculture, optimizing crops

Procedia PDF Downloads 80
126 Nonlinear Impact Responses for a Damped Frame Supported by Nonlinear Springs with Hysteresis Using Fast FEA

Authors: T. Yamaguchi, M. Watanabe, M. Sasajima, C. Yuan, S. Maruyama, T. B. Ibrahim, H. Tomita


This paper deals with nonlinear vibration analysis using finite element method for frame structures consisting of elastic and viscoelastic damping layers supported by multiple nonlinear concentrated springs with hysteresis damping. The frame is supported by four nonlinear concentrated springs near the four corners. The restoring forces of the springs have cubic non-linearity and linear component of the nonlinear springs has complex quantity to represent linear hysteresis damping. The damping layer of the frame structures has complex modulus of elasticity. Further, the discretized equations in physical coordinate are transformed into the nonlinear ordinary coupled differential equations using normal coordinate corresponding to linear natural modes. Comparing shares of strain energy of the elastic frame, the damping layer and the springs, we evaluate the influences of the damping couplings on the linear and nonlinear impact responses. We also investigate influences of damping changed by stiffness of the elastic frame on the nonlinear coupling in the damped impact responses.

Keywords: dynamic response, nonlinear impact response, finite element analysis, numerical analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 300
125 Elasto-Plastic Analysis of Structures Using Adaptive Gaussian Springs Based Applied Element Method

Authors: Mai Abdul Latif, Yuntian Feng


Applied Element Method (AEM) is a method that was developed to aid in the analysis of the collapse of structures. Current available methods cannot deal with structural collapse accurately; however, AEM can simulate the behavior of a structure from an initial state of no loading until collapse of the structure. The elements in AEM are connected with sets of normal and shear springs along the edges of the elements, that represent the stresses and strains of the element in that region. The elements are rigid, and the material properties are introduced through the spring stiffness. Nonlinear dynamic analysis has been widely modelled using the finite element method for analysis of progressive collapse of structures; however, difficulties in the analysis were found at the presence of excessively deformed elements with cracking or crushing, as well as having a high computational cost, and difficulties on choosing the appropriate material models for analysis. The Applied Element method is developed and coded to significantly improve the accuracy and also reduce the computational costs of the method. The scheme works for both linear elastic, and nonlinear cases, including elasto-plastic materials. This paper will focus on elastic and elasto-plastic material behaviour, where the number of springs required for an accurate analysis is tested. A steel cantilever beam is used as the structural element for the analysis. The first modification of the method is based on the Gaussian Quadrature to distribute the springs. Usually, the springs are equally distributed along the face of the element, but it was found that using Gaussian springs, only up to 2 springs were required for perfectly elastic cases, while with equal springs at least 5 springs were required. The method runs on a Newton-Raphson iteration scheme, and quadratic convergence was obtained. The second modification is based on adapting the number of springs required depending on the elasticity of the material. After the first Newton Raphson iteration, Von Mises stress conditions were used to calculate the stresses in the springs, and the springs are classified as elastic or plastic. Then transition springs, springs located exactly between the elastic and plastic region, are interpolated between regions to strictly identify the elastic and plastic regions in the cross section. Since a rectangular cross-section was analyzed, there were two plastic regions (top and bottom), and one elastic region (middle). The results of the present study show that elasto-plastic cases require only 2 springs for the elastic region, and 2 springs for the plastic region. This showed to improve the computational cost, reducing the minimum number of springs in elasto-plastic cases to only 6 springs. All the work is done using MATLAB and the results will be compared to models of structural elements using the finite element method in ANSYS.

Keywords: applied element method, elasto-plastic, Gaussian springs, nonlinear

Procedia PDF Downloads 158
124 Spectral Mapping of Hydrothermal Alteration Minerals for Geothermal Exploration Using Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer Short Wave Infrared Data

Authors: Aliyu J. Abubakar, Mazlan Hashim, Amin B. Pour


Exploiting geothermal resources for either power, home heating, Spa, greenhouses, industrial or tourism requires an initial identification of suitable areas. This can be done cost-effectively using remote sensing satellite imagery which has synoptic capabilities of covering large areas in real time and by identifying possible areas of hydrothermal alteration and minerals related to Geothermal systems. Earth features and minerals are known to have unique diagnostic spectral reflectance characteristics that can be used to discriminate them. The focus of this paper is to investigate the applicability of mapping hydrothermal alteration in relation to geothermal systems (thermal springs) at Yankari Park Northeastern Nigeria, using Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) satellite data for resource exploration. The ASTER Short Wave Infrared (SWIR) bands are used to highlight and discriminate alteration areas by employing sophisticated digital image processing techniques including image transformations and spectral mapping methods. Field verifications are conducted at the Yankari Park using hand held Global Positioning System (GPS) monterra to identify locations of hydrothermal alteration and rock samples obtained at the vicinity and surrounding areas of the ‘Mawulgo’ and ‘Wikki’ thermal springs. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) results of rock samples obtained from the field validated hydrothermal alteration by the presence of indicator minerals including; Dickite, Kaolinite, Hematite and Quart. The study indicated the applicability of mapping geothermal anomalies for resource exploration in unmapped sparsely vegetated savanna environment characterized by subtle surface manifestations such as thermal springs. The results could have implication for geothermal resource exploration especially at the prefeasibility stages by narrowing targets for comprehensive surveys and in unexplored savanna regions where expensive airborne surveys are unaffordable.

Keywords: geothermal exploration, image enhancement, minerals, spectral mapping

Procedia PDF Downloads 283
123 Zn, Sb, Pb (Au) Mineralization of Hammam N’bails, NE of Algeria

Authors: Brahim Merdas, Abdelhak Boutaleb


Polymetallic mineralizations with Zn, Sb, Pb boxed in miopliocene limestones of Hammam N’bails’s basin are regarded as the youngest mineralizations of North East of Algeria and are characterized by the presence of rather rare mineral phases throughout the world such as nadorite and flajolotite. Mineralization seems to have a bond with thermal springs emergent within the basin and with the faults which limit the basin. The comparison between mineralizations and similar ore deposits known in the world and which are characterized by the presence of the noble metals such as gold and the discovery of traces of this metal (1.4g/t) enables us to start again the problems of the noble metals of the type “low sulfidation” related to the thermal springs in the area in particular and in all Algerian North generally.

Keywords: Nadorite, galana, gold, dolomitisation, epigenétic, hot springs, , miopliocene, Hammam N’bails, algeria

Procedia PDF Downloads 245
122 Solar Calculations of Modified Arch (Semi-Spherical) Type Greenhouse System for Bayburt City

Authors: Uğur Çakir, Erol Şahin, Kemal Çomakli, Ayşegül Çokgez Kuş


Solar energy is thought as main source of all energy sources on the world and it can be used in many applications like agricultural areas, heating cooling or direct electricity production directly or indirectly. Greenhousing is the first one of the agricultural activities that solar energy can be used directly in. Greenhouses offer us suitable conditions which can be controlled easily for the growth of the plant and they are made by using a covering material that allows the sun light entering into the system. Covering material can be glass, fiber glass, plastic or another transparent element. This study investigates the solar energy usability rates and solar energy benefiting rates of a semi-spherical (modified arch) type greenhouse system according to different orientations and positions which exists under climatic conditions of Bayburt. In the concept of this study it is tried to determine the best direction and best sizes of a semi-spherical greenhouse to get best solar benefit from the sun. To achieve this aim a modeling study is made by using MATLAB. However this modeling study is running for some determined shapes and greenhouses it can be used for different shaped greenhouses or buildings. The basic parameters are determined as greenhouse azimuth angle, the rate of size of long edge to short and seasonal solar energy gaining of greenhouse.

Keywords: greenhousing, solar energy, direct radiation, renewable energy

Procedia PDF Downloads 402
121 Approximate Spring Balancing for Swimming Pool Lift Mechanism to Reduce Actuator Torque

Authors: Apurva Patil, Sujatha Srinivasan


Reducing actuator loads is important for applications in which human effort is required for actuation. The potential benefit of applying spring balancing to rehabilitation devices which work against gravity on a nonhorizontal plane is well recognized, but practical applications have been elusive. Although existing methods provide exact spring balance, they require additional masses or auxiliary links, or all the springs used originate from the ground, which makes the resulting device bulky and space-inefficient. This paper uses a method of static balancing of mechanisms with conservative loads such as gravity and spring loads using non-zero-free-length springs and no auxiliary links. Application of this method to a manually operated swimming pool lift mechanism which lowers and raises the physically challenged users into or out of the swimming pool is presented here. Various possible configurations using extension and compression springs as well as gas spring in the mechanism are compared. This work involves approximate spring balancing of the mechanism using minimization of potential energy variance. It uses the approach of flattening the potential energy distribution over the workspace and fuses it with numerical optimization. The results show the considerable reduction in actuator torque requirement with practical spring design and arrangement. Although the method provides only an approximate balancing, it is versatile, flexible in choosing appropriate control variables that are relevant to the design problem and easy to implement. The true potential of this technique lies in the fact that it uses a very simple optimization to find the spring constant, free length of the spring and the optimal attachment points subject to the optimization constraints. Also, it uses physically realizable non-zero-free-length springs directly, thereby reducing the complexity involved in simulating zero-free-length springs from non-zero-free-length springs. This method allows springs to be attached inside the mechanism, which makes the implementation of spring balancing practical. Because auxiliary linkages can be avoided, the resultant swimming pool lift mechanism is compact. The cost benefits and reduced complexity can be significant advantages in the development of this user-actuated swimming pool lift for developing countries.

Keywords: gas spring, rehabilitation device, spring balancing, swimming pool lift

Procedia PDF Downloads 177
120 Semi-Transparent Dye-Sensitized Solar Panels for Energy Autonomous Greenhouses

Authors: A. Mourtzikou, D. Sygkridou, T. Georgakopoulos, G. Katsagounos, E. Stathatos


Over 60% highly transparent quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) with dimension of 50x50 cm2 were fabricated via inkjet printing process using nanocomposite inks as raw materials and tested under outdoor illumination conditions. The cells were electrically characterized, and their possible application to the shell of greenhouses was also examined. The panel design was in Z-interconnection, where the working electrode was inkjet printed on one conductive glass and the counter electrode on a second glass in a sandwich configuration. Silver current collective fingers were printed on the glasses to make the internal electrical connections. In that case, the adjacent cells were connected in series via silver fingers and finally insulated using a UV curing resin to protect them from the corrosive (I-/I3-) redox couple of the electrolyte.

Keywords: Dye-sensitized solar panels, inkjet printing, quasi-solid state electrolyte, semi-transparency, scale up

Procedia PDF Downloads 55
119 Intensive Biological Control in Spanish Greenhouses: Problems of the Success

Authors: Carolina Sanchez, Juan R. Gallego, Manuel Gamez, Tomas Cabello


Currently, biological control programs in greenhouse crops involve the use, at the same time, several natural enemies during the crop cycle. Also, large number of plant species grown in greenhouses, among them, the used cultivars are also wide. However, the cultivar effects on entomophagous species efficacy (predators and parasitoids) have been scarcely studied. A new method had been developed, using the factitious prey or host Ephestia kuehniella. It allows us to evaluate, under greenhouse or controlled conditions (semi-field), the cultivar effects on the entomophagous species effectiveness. The work was carried out in greenhouse tomato crop. It has been found the biological and ecological activities of predatory species (Nesidiocoris tenuis) and egg-parasitoid (Trichogramma achaeae) can be well represented with the use of the factitious prey or host; being better in the former than the latter. The data found in the trial are shown and discussed. The developed method could be applied to evaluate new plant materials before making available to farmers as commercial varieties, at low costs and easy use.

Keywords: cultivar effects, efficiency, predators, parasitoids

Procedia PDF Downloads 178
118 Preserving the Cultural Values of the Mararoa River and Waipuna–Freshwater Springs, Southland New Zealand: An Integration of Traditional and Scientific Knowledge

Authors: Erine van Niekerk, Jason Holland


In Māori culture water is considered to be the foundation of all life and has its own mana (spiritual power) and mauri (life force). Water classification for cultural values therefore includes categories like waitapu (sacred water), waimanawa-whenua (water from under the land), waipuna (freshwater springs), the relationship between water quantity and quality and the relationship between surface and groundwater. Particular rivers and lakes have special significance to iwi and hapu for their rohe (tribal areas). The Mararoa River, including its freshwater springs and wetlands, is an example of such an area. There is currently little information available about the sources, characteristics and behavior of these important water resources and this study on the water quality of the Mararoa River and adjacent freshwater springs will provide valuable information to be used in informed decisions about water management. The regional council of Southland, Environment Southland, is required to make changes under their water quality policy in order to comply with the requirements for the New National Standards for Freshwater to consult with Maori to determine strategies for decision making. This requires an approach that includes traditional knowledge combined with scientific knowledge in the decision-making process. This study provided the scientific data that can be used in future for decision making on fresh water springs combined with traditional values for this particular area. Several parameters have been tested in situ as well as in a laboratory. Parameters such as temperature, salinity, electrical conductivity, Total Dissolved Solids, Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen, Total Phosphorus, Total Suspended Solids, and Escherichia coli among others show that recorded values of all test parameters fall within recommended ANZECC guidelines and Environment Southland standards and do not raise any concerns for the water quality of the springs and the river at the moment. However, the destruction of natural areas, particularly due to changes in farming practices, and the changes to water quality by the introduction of Didymosphenia geminate (Didymo) means Māori have already lost many of their traditional mahinga kai (food sources). There is a major change from land use such as sheep farming to dairying in Southland which puts freshwater resources under pressure. It is, therefore, important to draw on traditional knowledge and spirituality alongside scientific knowledge to protect the waters of the Mararoa River and waipuna. This study hopes to contribute to scientific knowledge to preserve the cultural values of these significant waters.

Keywords: cultural values, freshwater springs, Maori, water quality

Procedia PDF Downloads 204
117 Approximate Spring Balancing for the Arm of a Humanoid Robot to Reduce Actuator Torque

Authors: Apurva Patil, Ashay Aswale, Akshay Kulkarni, Shubham Bharadiya


The potential benefit of gravity compensation of linkages in mechanisms using springs to reduce actuator requirements is well recognized, but practical applications have been elusive. Although existing methods provide exact spring balance, they require additional masses or auxiliary links, or all the springs used originate from the ground, which makes the resulting device bulky and space-inefficient. This paper uses a method of static balancing of mechanisms with conservative loads such as gravity and spring loads using non-zero-free-length springs with child–parent connections and no auxiliary links. Application of this method to the developed arm of a humanoid robot is presented here. Spring balancing is particularly important in this case because the serial chain of linkages has to work against gravity.This work involves approximate spring balancing of the open-loop chain of linkages using minimization of potential energy variance. It uses the approach of flattening the potential energy distribution over the workspace and fuses it with numerical optimization. The results show the considerable reduction in actuator torque requirement with practical spring design and arrangement. Reduced actuator torque facilitates the use of lower end actuators which are generally smaller in weight and volume thereby lowering the space requirements and the total weight of the arm. This is particularly important for humanoid robots where the parent actuator has to handle the weight of the subsequent actuators as well. Actuators with lower actuation requirements are more energy efficient, thereby reduce the energy consumption of the mechanism. Lower end actuators are lower in cost and facilitate the development of low-cost devices. Although the method provides only an approximate balancing, it is versatile, flexible in choosing appropriate control variables that are relevant to the design problem and easy to implement. The true potential of this technique lies in the fact that it uses a very simple optimization to find the spring constant, free-length of the spring and the optimal attachment points subject to the optimization constraints. Also, it uses physically realizable non-zero-free-length springs directly, thereby reducing the complexity involved in simulating zero-free-length springs from non-zero-free-length springs. This method allows springs to be attached to the preceding parent link, which makes the implementation of spring balancing practical. Because auxiliary linkages can be avoided, the resultant arm of the humanoid robot is compact. The cost benefits and reduced complexity can be significant advantages in the development of this arm of the humanoid robot.

Keywords: actuator torque, child-parent connections, spring balancing, the arm of a humanoid robot

Procedia PDF Downloads 177
116 A Comparative Study of Standard, Casted, and Riveted Eye Design of a Mono Leaf Spring Using CAE Tools

Authors: Gian Bhushan, Vinkel Arora, M. L. Aggarwal


The objective of the present study is to determine better eye end design of a mono leaf spring used in light motor vehicle. A conventional 65Si7 spring steel leaf spring model with standard eye, casted and riveted eye end are considered. The CAD model of the leaf springs is prepared in CATIA and analyzed using ANSYS. The standard eye, casted, and riveted eye leaf springs are subjected to similar loading conditions. The CAE analysis of the leaf spring is performed for various parameters like deflection and Von-Mises stress. Mass reduction of 62.9% is achieved in case of riveted eye mono leaf spring as compared to standard eye mono leaf spring for the same loading conditions.

Keywords: CAE, leaf spring, standard, casted, riveted eye

Procedia PDF Downloads 229
115 Creation of Greenhouses by Students, Using the Own Installations of the University and Increasing the Growth of Plants

Authors: Espinosa-Garza G., Loera-Hernandez I., Antonyan N.


To innovate, it is necessary to perform projects directed towards the search of improvement. The agricultural technique and the design of greenhouses have been studied by undergraduate engineering students from the Tecnológico de Monterrey using the campus areas. The purpose of this project was to incite students to create innovations and help rural populations of the state to solve one of the problems that they are dealing with nowadays. The main objective of the project was to search for an alternative technique that will allow the planting of the “chile piquín” plant, also known as Capsicum annuum, to grow quicker as it germinates. The “chile piquín” is one of the original crops of Mexico and forms the basis of the Mesoamerican cultures’ diet since the pre-hispanic era. To fulfill with today’s demand, it is required to implement new alternative methods to increase the “chile piquín’s” growth. The project lasted one semester with the participation of engineering students from multiple majors. The most important results from this academic experience were that, from the proposed goal, the students could analyze the needs of their town and were capable of introducing new and innovative ideas with the aim of resolving them. In the present article the pedagogic methodologies that allowed to carry out this project will be discussed.

Keywords: academic experience, chile piquín, engineering education, greenhouse design, innovation

Procedia PDF Downloads 76
114 Determination of Friction and Damping Coefficients of Folded Cover Mechanism Deployed by Torsion Springs

Authors: I. Yilmaz, O. Taga, F. Kosar, O. Keles


In this study, friction and damping coefficients of folded cover mechanism were obtained in accordance with experimental studies and data. Friction and damping coefficients are the most important inputs to accomplish a mechanism analysis. Friction and damping are two objects that change the time of deployment of mechanisms and their dynamic behaviors. Though recommended friction coefficient values exist in literature, damping is differentiating feature according to mechanic systems. So the damping coefficient should be obtained from mechanism test outputs. In this study, the folded cover mechanism use torsion springs for deploying covers that are formerly close folded position. Torsion springs provide folded covers with desirable deploying time according to variable environmental conditions. To verify all design revisions with system tests will be so costly so that some decisions are taken in accordance with numerical methods. In this study, there are two folded covers required to deploy simultaneously. Scotch-yoke and crank-rod mechanisms were combined to deploy folded covers simultaneously. The mechanism was unlocked with a pyrotechnic bolt onto scotch-yoke disc. When pyrotechnic bolt was exploded, torsion springs provided rotational movement for mechanism. Quick motion camera was recording dynamic behaviors of system during deployment case. Dynamic model of mechanism was modeled as rigid body with Adams MBD (multi body dynamics) then torque values provided by torsion springs were used as an input. A well-advised range of friction and damping coefficients were defined in Adams DOE (design of experiment) then a large number of analyses were performed until deployment time of folded covers run in with test data observed in record of quick motion camera, thus the deployment time of mechanism and dynamic behaviors were obtained. Same mechanism was tested with different torsion springs and torque values then outputs were compared with numerical models. According to comparison, it was understood that friction and damping coefficients obtained in this study can be used safely when studying on folded objects required to deploy simultaneously. In addition to model generated with Adams as rigid body the finite element model of folded mechanism was generated with Abaqus then the outputs of rigid body model and finite element model was compared. Finally, the reasonable solutions were suggested about different outputs of these solution methods.

Keywords: damping, friction, pyro-technic, scotch-yoke

Procedia PDF Downloads 230
113 Structural-Geotechnical Effects of the Foundation of a Medium-Height Structure

Authors: Valentina Rodas, Luis Almache


The interaction effects between the existing soil and the substructure of a 5-story building with an underground one were evaluated in such a way that the structural-geotechnical concepts were validated through the method of impedance factors with a program based on the method of the finite elements. The continuous wall-type foundation had a constant thickness and followed inclined and orthogonal directions, while the ground had homogeneous and medium-type characteristics. The soil considered was type C according to the Ecuadorian Construction Standard (NEC) and the corresponding foundation comprised a depth of 4.00 meters and a basement wall thickness of 40 centimeters. This project is part of a mid-rise building in the city of Azogues (Ecuador). The hypotheses raised responded to the objectives in such a way that the model implemented with springs had a variation with respect to the embedded base, obtaining conservative results.

Keywords: interaction, soil, substructure, springs, effects, modeling , embedment

Procedia PDF Downloads 125
112 A Method for Modeling Flexible Manipulators: Transfer Matrix Method with Finite Segments

Authors: Haijie Li, Xuping Zhang


This paper presents a computationally efficient method for the modeling of robot manipulators with flexible links and joints. This approach combines the Discrete Time Transfer Matrix Method with the Finite Segment Method, in which the flexible links are discretized by a number of rigid segments connected by torsion springs; and the flexibility of joints are modeled by torsion springs. The proposed method avoids the global dynamics and has the advantage of modeling non-uniform manipulators. Experiments and simulations of a single-link flexible manipulator are conducted for verifying the proposed methodologies. The simulations of a three-link robot arm with links and joints flexibility are also performed.

Keywords: flexible manipulator, transfer matrix method, linearization, finite segment method

Procedia PDF Downloads 330
111 The Relationship between the Epithermal Mineralization, Thermalism, and Basement Faults in the Region of Guelma: NE of Algeria

Authors: B. Merdas


The Guelma region constitutes a vast geothermal field whose local geothermal gradient is very high. Indeed, various thermal and thermo sources emerging in the region, including some at relatively high temperatures. In the mio Pliocene Hammam N'bails, basin emerges a hot spring that leaves develop a thick series of thermal travertine linked to it. Near the thermal emergences has settled a very special mineralization antimony and zinc and lead. The results of analyses of the thermal waters of the source of Hammam N'bails and the associated travertine, show abnormal values in Pb, Sb, Zn, As, and other metals, demonstrating the genetic link between those waters and mineralization. Hammam N'bails mineralizations by their mineral assembling represented and their association with the hot springs, are very similar to epithermal deposits with precious metals (gold and silver) like Senator mine in Turkey or ‘Carlin-type’ in Nevada (USA).

Keywords: hot springs, mineralization; basement faults, Guelma, NE Algeria

Procedia PDF Downloads 358
110 Applications of Digital Tools, Satellite Images and Geographic Information Systems in Data Collection of Greenhouses in Guatemala

Authors: Maria A. Castillo H., Andres R. Leandro, Jose F. Bienvenido B.


During the last 20 years, the globalization of economies, population growth, and the increase in the consumption of fresh agricultural products have generated greater demand for ornamentals, flowers, fresh fruits, and vegetables, mainly from tropical areas. This market situation has demanded greater competitiveness and control over production, with more efficient protected agriculture technologies, which provide greater productivity and allow us to guarantee the quality and quantity that is required in a constant and sustainable way. Guatemala, located in the north of Central America, is one of the largest exporters of agricultural products in the region and exports fresh vegetables, flowers, fruits, ornamental plants, and foliage, most of which were grown in greenhouses. Although there are no official agricultural statistics on greenhouse production, several thesis works, and congress reports have presented consistent estimates. A wide range of protection structures and roofing materials are used, from the most basic and simple ones for rain control to highly technical and automated structures connected with remote sensors for monitoring and control of crops. With this breadth of technological models, it is necessary to analyze georeferenced data related to the cultivated area, to the different existing models, and to the covering materials, integrated with altitude, climate, and soil data. The georeferenced registration of the production units, the data collection with digital tools, the use of satellite images, and geographic information systems (GIS) provide reliable tools to elaborate more complete, agile, and dynamic information maps. This study details a methodology proposed for gathering georeferenced data of high protection structures (greenhouses) in Guatemala, structured in four phases: diagnosis of available information, the definition of the geographic frame, selection of satellite images, and integration with an information system geographic (GIS). It especially takes account of the actual lack of complete data in order to obtain a reliable decision-making system; this gap is solved through the proposed methodology. A summary of the results is presented in each phase, and finally, an evaluation with some improvements and tentative recommendations for further research is added. The main contribution of this study is to propose a methodology that allows to reduce the gap of georeferenced data in protected agriculture in this specific area where data is not generally available and to provide data of better quality, traceability, accuracy, and certainty for the strategic agricultural decision öaking, applicable to other crops, production models and similar/neighboring geographic areas.

Keywords: greenhouses, protected agriculture, GIS, Guatemala, satellite image, digital tools, precision agriculture

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109 Reconnaissance Investigation of Thermal Springs in the Middle Benue Trough, Nigeria by Remote Sensing

Authors: N. Tochukwu, M. Mukhopadhyay, A. Mohamed


It is no new that Nigeria faces a continual power shortage problem due to its vast population power demand and heavy reliance on nonrenewable forms of energy such as thermal power or fossil fuel. Many researchers have recommended using geothermal energy as an alternative; however, Past studies focus on the geophysical & geochemical investigation of this energy in the sedimentary and basement complex; only a few studies incorporated the remote sensing methods. Therefore, in this study, the preliminary examination of geothermal resources in the Middle Benue was carried out using satellite imagery in ArcMap. Landsat 8 scene (TIR, NIR, Red spectral bands) was used to estimate the Land Surface Temperature (LST). The Maximum Likelihood Classification (MLC) technique was used to classify sites with very low, low, moderate, and high LST. The intermediate and high classification happens to be possible geothermal zones, and they occupy 49% of the study area (38077km2). Riverline were superimposed on the LST layer, and the identification tool was used to locate high temperate sites. Streams that overlap on the selected sites were regarded as geothermal springs as. Surprisingly, the LST results show lower temperatures (<36°C) at the famous thermal springs (Awe & Wukari) than some unknown rivers/streams found in Kwande (38°C), Ussa, (38°C), Gwer East (37°C), Yola Cross & Ogoja (36°C). Studies have revealed that temperature increases with depth. However, this result shows excellent geothermal resources potential as it is expected to exceed the minimum geothermal gradient of 25.47 with an increase in depth. Therefore, further investigation is required to estimate the depth of the causative body, geothermal gradients, and the sustainability of the reservoirs by geophysical and field exploration. This method has proven to be cost-effective in locating geothermal resources in the study area. Consequently, the same procedure is recommended to be applied in other regions of the Precambrian basement complex and the sedimentary basins in Nigeria to save a preliminary field survey cost.

Keywords: ArcMap, geothermal resources, Landsat 8, LST, thermal springs, MLC

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108 Closed Greenhouse Production Systems for Smart Plant Production in Urban Areas

Authors: U. Schmidt, D. Dannehl, I. Schuch, J. Suhl, T. Rocksch, R. Salazar-Moreno, E. Fitz-Rodrigues, A. Rojano Aquilar, I. Lopez Cruz, G. Navas Gomez, R. A. Abraham, L. C. Irineo, N. G. Gilberto


The integration of agricultural production systems into urban areas is a challenge for the coming decades. Because of increasing greenhouse gas emission and rising resource consumption as well as costs in animal husbandry, the dietary habits of people in the 21st century have to focus on herbal foods. Intensive plant cultivation systems in large cities and megacities require a smart coupling of information, material and energy flow with the urban infrastructure in terms of Horticulture 4.0. In recent years, many puzzle pieces have been developed for these closed processes at the Humboldt University. To compile these for an urban plant production, it has to be optimized and networked with urban infrastructure systems. In the field of heat energy production, it was shown that with closed greenhouse technology and patented heat exchange and storage technology energy can be provided for heating and domestic hot water supply in the city. Closed water circuits can be drastically reducing the water requirements of plant production in urban areas. Ion sensitive sensors and new disinfection methods can help keep circulating nutrient solutions in the system for a longer time in urban plant production greenhouses.

Keywords: semi closed, greenhouses, urban farming, solar heat collector, closed water cycles, aquaponics

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107 A Constrained Model Predictive Control Scheme for Simultaneous Control of Temperature and Hygrometry in Greenhouses

Authors: Ayoub Moufid, Najib Bennis, Soumia El Hani


The objective of greenhouse climate control is to improve the culture development and to minimize the production costs. A greenhouse is an open system to external environment and the challenge is to regulate the internal climate despite the strong meteorological disturbances. The internal state of greenhouse considered in this work is defined by too relevant and coupled variables, namely inside temperature and hygrometry. These two variables are chosen to describe the internal state of greenhouses due to their importance in the development of plants and their sensitivity to external climatic conditions, sources of weather disturbances. A multivariable model is proposed and validated by considering a greenhouse as black-box system and the least square method is applied to parameters identification basing on collected experimental measures. To regulate the internal climate, we propose a Model Predictive Control (MPC) scheme. This one considers the measured meteorological disturbances and the physical and operational constraints on the control and state variables. A successful feasibility study of the proposed controller is presented, and simulation results show good performances despite the high interaction between internal and external variables and the strong external meteorological disturbances. The inside temperature and hygrometry are tracking nearly the desired trajectories. A comparison study with an On/Off control applied to the same greenhouse confirms the efficiency of the MPC approach to inside climate control.

Keywords: climate control, constraints, identification, greenhouse, model predictive control, optimization

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106 A Constructivist Grounded Theory Study on the Impact of Automation on People and Gardening

Authors: Hamilton V. Niculescu


Following a three year study conducted on eighteen Irish people that are involved in growing vegetables in various community gardens around Dublin, Republic of Ireland, it was revealed that addition of some automated features aimed at improving agricultural practices represented a process which was regarded as potentially beneficial, and as a great tool to closely monitor climate conditions inside the greenhouses. The participants were provided with a free custom-built mobile app through which they could remotely monitor and control features such as irrigation, air ventilation, and windows to ensure optimal growing conditions for vegetables growing inside purpose-built greenhouses. While the initial interest was generally high, within weeks, the participants' level of interaction with the enclosures slowly declined. By employing a constructivist grounded theory methodology, following focus group discussions, in-depth semi-structured interviews, and observations, it was revealed that participants' trust in newer technologies, and renewables, in particular, was low. There are various reasons for this, but because the participants in this study consist of mainly working-class people, it can be argued that lack of education and knowledge are the main barriers acting against the adoption of innovations. Consequently, it was revealed that most participants eventually decided to "set and forget" the systems in automatic working mode, indicating that the immediate effect of introducing people to assisting technologies also introduced some unintended consequences into their lifestyle. It is argued that this occurrence also indicates the fact that people initially "read" newer technologies and only adopt those features that they find useful and less intrusive in regards to their current lifestyle.

Keywords: automation, communication, greenhouse, sustainable

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105 Fuzzy Control of Thermally Isolated Greenhouse Building by Utilizing Underground Heat Exchanger and Outside Weather Conditions

Authors: Raghad Alhusari, Farag Omar, Moustafa Fadel


A traditional greenhouse is a metal frame agricultural building used for cultivation plants in a controlled environment isolated from external climatic changes. Using greenhouses in agriculture is an efficient way to reduce the water consumption, where agriculture field is considered the biggest water consumer world widely. Controlling greenhouse environment yields better productivity of plants but demands an increase of electric power. Although various control approaches have been used towards greenhouse automation, most of them are applied to traditional greenhouses with ventilation fans and/or evaporation cooling system. Such approaches are still demanding high energy and water consumption. The aim of this research is to develop a fuzzy control system that minimizes water and energy consumption by utilizing outside weather conditions and underground heat exchanger to maintain the optimum climate of the greenhouse. The proposed control system is implemented on an experimental model of thermally isolated greenhouse structure with dimensions of 6x5x2.8 meters. It uses fans for extracting heat from the ground heat exchanger system, motors for automatic open/close of the greenhouse windows and LED as lighting system. The controller is integrated also with environmental condition sensors. It was found that using the air-to-air horizontal ground heat exchanger with 90 mm diameter and 2 mm thickness placed 2.5 m below the ground surface results in decreasing the greenhouse temperature of 3.28 ˚C which saves around 3 kW of consumed energy. It also eliminated the water consumption needed in evaporation cooling systems which are traditionally used for cooling the greenhouse environment.

Keywords: automation, earth-to-air heat exchangers, fuzzy control, greenhouse, sustainable buildings

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104 Analysis Of Magnetic Anomaly Data For Identification Subsurface Structure Geothermal Manifestations Area Candi Umbul, Grabag, Magelang, Central Java Province, Indonesia

Authors: Ikawati Wulandari


Acquisition of geomagnetic field has been done at Geothermal manifestation Candi Umbul, Grabag, Magelang, Central Java Province on 10-12 May 2013. The purpose of this research to study sub-surface structure condition and the structure which control the hot springs manifestation. The research area have size of 1,5 km x 2 km and measurement spacing of 150 m. Total magnetic field data, the position, and the north pole direction have acquired by Proton Precession Magnetometer (PPM), Global Positioning System (GPS), and of geology compass, respectively. The raw data has been processed and performed using IGRF (International Geomagnetics Reference Field) correction to obtain total field magnetic anomaly. Upward continuation was performed at 100 meters height using software Magpick. Analysis conclude horizontal position of the body causing anomaly which is located at hot springs manifestation, and it stretch along Northeast - Southwest, which later interpreted as normal fault. This hotsprings manifestation was controlled by the downward fault which becomes a weak zone where hot water from underground the geothermal reservoir leakage

Keywords: PPM, Geothermal, Fault, Grabag

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103 Groundwater Monitoring Using a Community: Science Approach

Authors: Shobha Kumari Yadav, Yubaraj Satyal, Ajaya Dixit


In addressing groundwater depletion, it is important to develop evidence base so to be used in assessing the state of its degradation. Groundwater data is limited compared to meteorological data, which impedes the groundwater use and management plan. Monitoring of groundwater levels provides information base to assess the condition of aquifers, their responses to water extraction, land-use change, and climatic variability. It is important to maintain a network of spatially distributed, long-term monitoring wells to support groundwater management plan. Monitoring involving local community is a cost effective approach that generates real time data to effectively manage groundwater use. This paper presents the relationship between rainfall and spring flow, which are the main source of freshwater for drinking, household consumptions and agriculture in hills of Nepal. The supply and withdrawal of water from springs depends upon local hydrology and the meteorological characteristics- such as rainfall, evapotranspiration and interflow. The study offers evidence of the use of scientific method and community based initiative for managing groundwater and springshed. The approach presents a method to replicate similar initiative in other parts of the country for maintaining integrity of springs.

Keywords: citizen science, groundwater, water resource management, Nepal

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102 Development of Aboriginal Tribal Tourism: A Case Study of Hualien Truku Hongye Tribe in Taiwan

Authors: Yu-Chen Chien, Sheng-Jung Ou, Shang-Ling Hsu


Many aboriginal tribes in the early modern began to actively promote tribal tourism. The tribe uses rich ecological environment and unique folk culture successfully attract crowds. In addition to the tribe in the construction level to consider the cultural heritage and living needs, in order to improve tribal tourism for the tribe to bring the benefits of all levels, as well as to avoid the tourism industry is too prosperous brought negative tourism impact. How to successfully create the conditions of mutual benefit of residents and tourists is an important issue common to many tribes. Hualien Turuku Hongye Tribe in Taiwan around the tourist resources are very rich. It is famous for its Hongye hot springs and Ruisui hot springs. Hongye tribe to develop tribal tourism is bound to use its own has three advantages: Truku culture, in the agricultural products experience and marketing, and the surrounding hot springs industry tourism benefits. Tribal Development Association in the past to promote these three advantages for tribal tourism. But due to the impact of many levels led to the tribes in the promotion of tourism on the ineffective. At present, in addition to the Hongye Tribal Development Association in promoting tribal tourism, local residents to promote cultural heritage workshop also gradually rise. Its purpose is to link local cultural resources, agricultural specialty resources, spa tourism industry, the revitalization of the internal development of the tribes at all levels. Each tribe to promote tribal tourism due to geographical environment, resource types have a different set of practices and patterns. This study explores the tourist opportunities and resource points of Hongye tribes, and tribal tourism has been to promote the operation practices and benefits. To understand the difficulties encountered in the implementation of tribal tourism and the impact of all levels. Reference successful development of domestic and foreign tourism tribal tribe case. Develop a questionnaire and using the questionnaire survey to understand tribal residents for the tribal tribes to promote tribal tourism views. Finally, it puts forward some suggestions and strategies to promote the tribal tourism in Hongye tribe.

Keywords: cultural tourism, tourism impact, aboriginal tribe, Hongye Tribe

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