Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

Search results for: Abudjana Babiker

3 Between the House and the City: An Investigation of the Structure of the Family/Society and the Role of the Public Housing in Tokyo and Berlin

Authors: Abudjana Babiker


The middle of twenty century witnessed an explosion in public housing. After the great depression, some of the capitalists and communist countries have launched policies and programs to produce public housing in the urban areas. Concurrently, modernity was the leading architecture style at the time excessively supported the production, and principally was the instrument for the success of the public housing program due to the modernism manifesto for manufactured architecture as an international style that serves the society and parallelly connect it to the other design industries which allowed for the production of the architecture elements. After the second world war, public housing flourished, especially in communist’s countries. The idea of public housing was conceived as living spaces at the time, while the Workplaces performed as the place for production and labor. Michel Foucault - At the end of the twenty century- the introduction of biopolitics has had highlighted the alteration in the production and labor inter-function. The house does not precisely perform as the sanctuary, from the production, for the family, it opens the house to be -part of the city as- a space for production, not only to produce objects but to reproduce the family as a total part of the production mechanism in the city. While the public housing kept altering from one country to another after the failure of the modernist’s public housing in the late 1970s, the society continued changing parallelly with the socio-economic condition in each political-economical system, and the public housing thus followed. The family structure in the major cities has been dramatically changing, single parenting and the long working hours, for instance, have been escalating the loneliness in the major cities such as London, Berlin, and Tokyo and the public housing for the families is no longer suits the single lifestyle for the individuals. This Paper investigates the performance of both the single/individual lifestyle and the family/society structure in Tokyo and Berlin in a relation to the utilization of public housing under economical policies and the socio-political environment that produced the individuals and the collective. The study is carried through the study of the undercurrent individual/society and case studies to examine the performance of the utilization of the housing. The major finding is that the individual/collective are revolving around the city; the city identified and acts as a system that magnetized and blurred the line between production and reproduction lifestyle. The mass public housing for families is shifting to be a combination between neo-liberalism and socialism housing.

Keywords: loneliness, production reproduction, work live, publichousing

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2 Performance Evaluation of Wideband Code Division Multiplication Network

Authors: Osama Abdallah Mohammed Enan, Amin Babiker A/Nabi Mustafa


The aim of this study is to evaluate and analyze different parameters of WCDMA (wideband code division multiplication). Moreover, this study also incorporates brief yet throughout analysis of WCDMA’s components as well as its internal architecture. This study also examines different power controls. These power controls may include open loop power control, closed or inner group loop power control and outer loop power control. Different handover techniques or methods of WCDMA are also illustrated in this study. These handovers may include hard handover, inter system handover and soft and softer handover. Different duplexing techniques are also described in the paper. This study has also presented an idea about different parameters of WCDMA that leads the system towards QoS issues. This may help the operator in designing and developing adequate network configuration. In addition to this, the study has also investigated various parameters including Bit Energy per Noise Spectral Density (Eb/No), Noise rise, and Bit Error Rate (BER). After simulating these parameters, using MATLAB environment, it was investigated that, for a given Eb/No value the system capacity increase by increasing the reuse factor. Besides that, it was also analyzed that, noise rise is decreasing for lower data rates and for lower interference levels. Finally, it was examined that, BER increase by using one type of modulation technique than using other type of modulation technique.

Keywords: duplexing, handover, loop power control, WCDMA

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1 Effect of Season on Semen Production of Nubian and Saanen Bucks in Sudan

Authors: E. A. Babiker, S. A. Makawi


The influence of the season (autumn, winter, and summer) on semen production in Nubian and Saanen bucks was studied. Seven mature bucks (4 Nubian and 3 Saanen) were used in this study to prepare semen samples which were collected with an artificial vagina. The samples were extended in Tris-egg yolk-glycerol-glucose extender, frozen, and stored in liquid nitrogen at –196 0C for 48 hours. Straws were thawed in water at –37 0C for 15 seconds before sperm evaluation (post-thaw sperm motility). There was a significant seasonal variation in both semen quantity (volume, concentration, and the total number of spermatozoa per ejaculate) and quality (percentage of sperm motility, percentage of post-thaw sperm motility, and dead spermatozoa). Greater ejaculate volumes were observed during summer and autumn in comparison to winter. Higher values of sperms concentration were observed during autumn, while the lowest sperm concentration values were observed during summer. Higher values of sperm motility were observed during autumn in comparison to summer. Lower values of dead spermatozoa were recorded during autumn, while the highest percentages of dead spermatozoa were observed during summer for the two breeds of bucks. The influence of season on post-thaw sperm motility was significant. Semen frozen during autumn and winter had the highest values, while during summer, lower mean values were observed. The best semen was produced during autumn and winter, while during summer, poor semen quality was recorded.

Keywords: season, Nubian, Saanen, semen production, Sudan

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