Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2

Search results for: Tomotaka Yanagida

2 The Effect of the 2015 Revision to the Corporate Governance Code on Japanese Listed Firms

Authors: Tomotaka Yanagida

Abstract:

The Corporate Governance Code, revised in 2015, requires firms listed within the first and second sections of Japan’s Tokyo stock exchange to select two or more independent outside directors (the Corporate Governance Code4-8). Therefore, Japanese listed firms must do this or explain the reason why they are not able to do so. This study investigates how the Corporate Governance Code affects Japanese listed firms. We find that the Corporate Governance Code increases the ratio of outside directors by nearly 8.8% for a sample of Japanese firms comprising nearly 4,200 firm-year observations from 2014 to 2015 using a difference-in-differences approach. This implies that they felt it would have been difficult to explain why it was not appropriate to have an outside director at the annual shareholders' meeting. Moreover, this suggests that they appoint outside directors as defined by the Corporate Governance Code, but maintain board size. This situation shows that compliance in Japan may simply be 'window dressing,' that is, more form than substance.

Keywords: board structure, comply or explain, corporate governance code, soft law

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1 Signal On-Off Ratio and Output Frequency Analysis of Semiconductor Electron-Interference Device

Authors: Tomotaka Aoki, Isao Tomita

Abstract:

We examined the on-off ratio and frequency components of output signals from an electron-interference device made of GaAs/AlₓGa₁₋ₓAs by solving the time-dependent Schrödinger's equation on conducting electrons in the channel waveguide of the device. For electron-wave modulation, a periodic voltage of frequency f was applied to the channel. Furthermore, we examined the voltage-amplitude dependence of the signals in time and frequency domains and found that large applied voltage deformed the output-signal waveform and created additional side modes (frequencies) near the modulation frequency f and that there was a trade-off between on-off ratio and side-mode creation.

Keywords: electrical conduction, electron interference, frequency spectrum, on-off ratio

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