Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 40

Search results for: Tapan K. Chaudhuri

40 Folding Pathway and Thermodynamic Stability of Monomeric GroEL

Authors: Sarita Puri, Tapan K. Chaudhuri


Chaperonin GroEL is a tetradecameric Escherichia coli protein having identical subunits of 57 kDa. The elucidation of thermodynamic parameters related to stability for the native GroEL is not feasible as it undergoes irreversible unfolding because of its large size (800kDa) and multimeric nature. Nevertheless, it is important to determine the thermodynamic stability parameters for the highly stable GroEL protein as it helps in folding and holding of many substrate proteins during many cellular stresses. Properly folded monomers work as building-block for the formation of native tetradecameric GroEL. Spontaneous refolding behavior of monomeric GroEL makes it suitable for protein-denaturant interactions and thermodynamic stability based studies. The urea mediated unfolding is a three state process which means there is the formation of one intermediate state along with native and unfolded states. The heat mediated denaturation is a two-state process. The unfolding process is reversible as observed by the spontaneous refolding of denatured protein in both urea and head mediated refolding processes. Analysis of folding/unfolding data provides a measure of various thermodynamic stability parameters for the monomeric GroEL. The proposed mechanism of unfolding of monomeric GroEL is a three state process which involves formation of one stable intermediate having folded apical domain and unfolded equatorial, intermediate domains. Research in progress is to demonstrate the importance of specific residues in stability and oligomerization of GroEL protein. Several mutant versions of GroEL are under investigation to resolve the above mentioned issue.

Keywords: equilibrium unfolding, monomeric GroEl, spontaneous refolding, thermodynamic stability

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39 Production of Recombinant Human Serum Albumin in Escherichia coli: A Crucial Biomolecule for Biotechnological and Healthcare Applications

Authors: Ashima Sharma, Tapan K. Chaudhuri


Human Serum Albumin (HSA) is one of the most demanded therapeutic protein with immense biotechnological applications. The current source of HSA is human blood plasma. Blood is a limited and an unsafe source as it possesses the risk of contamination by various blood derived pathogens. This issue led to exploitation of various hosts with the aim to obtain an alternative source for the production of the rHSA. But, till now no host has been proven to be effective commercially for rHSA production because of their respective limitations. Thus, there exists an indispensable need to promote non-animal derived rHSA production. Of all the host systems, Escherichia coli is one of the most convenient hosts which has contributed in the production of more than 30% of the FDA approved recombinant pharmaceuticals. E. coli grows rapidly and its culture reaches high cell density using inexpensive and simple substrates. The fermentation batch turnaround number for E. coli culture is 300 per year, which is far greater than any of the host systems available. Therefore, E. coli derived recombinant products have more economical potential as fermentation processes are cheaper compared to the other expression hosts available. Despite of all the mentioned advantages, E. coli had not been successfully adopted as a host for rHSA production. The major bottleneck in exploiting E. coli as a host for rHSA production was aggregation i.e. majority of the expressed recombinant protein was forming inclusion bodies (more than 90% of the total expressed rHSA) in the E. coli cytosol. Recovery of functional rHSA form inclusion body is not preferred because it is tedious, time consuming, laborious and expensive. Because of this limitation, E. coli host system was neglected for rHSA production for last few decades. Considering the advantages of E. coli as a host, the present work has targeted E. coli as an alternate host for rHSA production through resolving the major issue of inclusion body formation associated with it. In the present study, we have developed a novel and innovative method for enhanced soluble and functional production of rHSA in E.coli (~60% of the total expressed rHSA in the soluble fraction) through modulation of the cellular growth, folding and environmental parameters, thereby leading to significantly improved and enhanced -expression levels as well as the functional and soluble proportion of the total expressed rHSA in the cytosolic fraction of the host. Therefore, in the present case we have filled in the gap in the literature, by exploiting the most well studied host system Escherichia coli which is of low cost, fast growing, scalable and ‘yet neglected’, for the enhancement of functional production of HSA- one of the most crucial biomolecule for clinical and biotechnological applications.

Keywords: enhanced functional production of rHSA in E. coli, recombinant human serum albumin, recombinant protein expression, recombinant protein processing

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38 Performance Analysis of Hierarchical Agglomerative Clustering in a Wireless Sensor Network Using Quantitative Data

Authors: Tapan Jain, Davender Singh Saini


Clustering is a useful mechanism in wireless sensor networks which helps to cope with scalability and data transmission problems. The basic aim of our research work is to provide efficient clustering using Hierarchical agglomerative clustering (HAC). If the distance between the sensing nodes is calculated using their location then it’s quantitative HAC. This paper compares the various agglomerative clustering techniques applied in a wireless sensor network using the quantitative data. The simulations are done in MATLAB and the comparisons are made between the different protocols using dendrograms.

Keywords: routing, hierarchical clustering, agglomerative, quantitative, wireless sensor network

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37 Construction of India’s Largest Blast Furnace (4554 cum) Foundation at JSPL, Angul, Odisha: A Qualitative Approach

Authors: N. S. S. Rao, Tapan Kumar Das, Latiful Pasha


Tata Projects Limited (TPL) located in Hyderabad, India has taken up the challenging venture of executing the entire civil works for India’s largest Blast Furnace with a capacity of 4554 cum at Jindal Steel and Power Limited (JSPL), Angul, Odisha, India. The following write-up briefly elaborates the various steps and methodologies involved in the construction of the foundation for this India’s largest blast furnace.

Keywords: blast furnace, construction, qualitative, approach

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36 Effect of Stirrup Corrosion on Concrete Confinement Strength

Authors: Mucip Tapan, Ali Ozvan, Ismail Akkaya


This study investigated how the concrete confinement strength and axial load carrying capacity of reinforced concrete columns are affected by corrosion damage to the stirrups. A total of small-scale 12 test specimens were cast for evaluating the effect of stirrup corrosion on confinement strength of concrete. The results of this study show that the stirrup corrosion alone dramatically decreases the axial load carrying capacity of corroded reinforced concrete columns. Recommendations were presented for improved inspection practices which will allow estimating concrete confinement strength of corrosion-damaged reinforced concrete bridge columns.

Keywords: bridge, column, concrete, corrosion, inspection, stirrup reinforcement

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35 A Dose Distribution Approach Using Monte Carlo Simulation in Dosimetric Accuracy Calculation for Treating the Lung Tumor

Authors: Md Abdullah Al Mashud, M. Tariquzzaman, M. Jahangir Alam, Tapan Kumar Godder, M. Mahbubur Rahman


This paper presents a Monte Carlo (MC) method-based dose distributions on lung tumor for 6 MV photon beam to improve the dosimetric accuracy for cancer treatment. The polystyrene which is tissue equivalent material to the lung tumor density is used in this research. In the empirical calculations, TRS-398 formalism of IAEA has been used, and the setup was made according to the ICRU recommendations. The research outcomes were compared with the state-of-the-art experimental results. From the experimental results, it is observed that the proposed based approach provides more accurate results and improves the accuracy than the existing approaches. The average %variation between measured and TPS simulated values was obtained 1.337±0.531, which shows a substantial improvement comparing with the state-of-the-art technology.

Keywords: lung tumour, Monte Carlo, polystyrene, Elekta synergy, Monaco planning system

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34 Ultrasensitive Hepatitis B Virus Detection in Blood Using Nano-Porous Silicon Oxide: Towards POC Diagnostics

Authors: N. Das, N. Samanta, L. Pandey, C. Roy Chaudhuri


Early diagnosis of infection like Hep-B virus in blood is important for low cost medical treatment. For this purpose, it is desirable to develop a point of care device which should be able to detect trace quantities of the target molecule in blood. In this paper, we report a nanoporous silicon oxide sensor which is capable of detecting down to 1fM concentration of Hep-B surface antigen in blood without the requirement of any centrifuge or pre-concentration. This has been made possible by the presence of resonant peak in the sensitivity characteristics. This peak is observed to be dependent only on the concentration of the specific antigen and not on the interfering species in blood serum. The occurrence of opposite impedance change within the pores and at the bottom of the pore is responsible for this effect. An electronic interface has also been designed to provide a display of the virus concentration.

Keywords: impedance spectroscopy, ultrasensitive detection in blood, peak frequency, electronic interface

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33 Butterfly Diversity along Urban-Rural Gradient in Kolkata, India

Authors: Sushmita Chaudhuri, Parthiba Basu


Urbanization leads to habitat degradation and is responsible for the fast disappearance of native butterfly species. Random sampling of rural, suburban and urban sites in an around Kolkata metropolis revealed the presence of 28 species of butterfly belonging to 5 different families in winter (February-March). Butterfly diversity, species richness and abundance decreased with increase in urbanization. Psyche (Leptosia nina of family Pieridae) was the most predominant butterfly species found everywhere in Kolkata during the winter period. The most dominant family was Nymphalidae (11species), followed by Pieridae (6 species), Lycaenidae (5 species), Papilionidae (4 species) and Hesperiidae (2 species). The rural and suburban sites had butterfly species that were unique to those sites. Vegetation cover and flowering shrub density were significantly related to butterfly diversity.

Keywords: butterfly, Kolkata metropolis, Shannon-Weiner diversity index, species diversity

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32 Fast and Accurate Model to Detect Ictal Waveforms in Electroencephalogram Signals

Authors: Piyush Swami, Bijaya Ketan Panigrahi, Sneh Anand, Manvir Bhatia, Tapan Gandhi


Visual inspection of electroencephalogram (EEG) signals to detect epileptic signals is very challenging and time-consuming task even for any expert neurophysiologist. This problem is most challenging in under-developed and developing countries due to shortage of skilled neurophysiologists. In the past, notable research efforts have gone in trying to automate the seizure detection process. However, due to high false alarm detections and complexity of the models developed so far, have vastly delimited their practical implementation. In this paper, we present a novel scheme for epileptic seizure detection using empirical mode decomposition technique. The intrinsic mode functions obtained were then used to calculate the standard deviations. This was followed by probability density based classifier to discriminate between non-ictal and ictal patterns in EEG signals. The model presented here demonstrated very high classification rates ( > 97%) without compromising the statistical performance. The computation timings for each testing phase were also very low ( < 0.029 s) which makes this model ideal for practical applications.

Keywords: electroencephalogram (EEG), epilepsy, ictal patterns, empirical mode decomposition

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31 The Damage Assessment of Industrial Buildings Located on Clayey Soils Using in-Situ Tests

Authors: Ismail Akkaya, Mucip Tapan, Ali Ozvan


Some of the industrially prefabricated buildings located on clayey soils were damaged due to soil conditions. The reasons of these damages are generally due to different settlement capacity, the different plasticity of soils and the level of ground water. The aim of this study is to determine the source of these building damages by conducting in situ tests. Therefore, pressuremeter test, which is one of the borehole loading test conducted to determine the properties of soils under the foundations and Standart Penetration Test (SPT). The results of these two field tests were then used to accurately obtain the consistency and firmness of soils. Pressuremeter Deformation Module (EM) and Net Limiting Pressure (PL) of soils were calculated after the pressuremeter tests. These values were then compared with the SPT (N30) and SPT (N60) results. An empirical equation was developed to obtain EM and PL values of such soils from SPT test results. These values were then used to calculate soil bearing capacity as well as the soil settlement. Finally, the relationship between the foundation settlement and the damage of these buildings were checked. It was found that calculated settlement values were almost the same as measured settlement values.

Keywords: damaged building, pressuremeter, standard penetration test, low and high plasticity clay

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30 An Epsilon Hierarchical Fuzzy Twin Support Vector Regression

Authors: Arindam Chaudhuri


The research presents epsilon- hierarchical fuzzy twin support vector regression (epsilon-HFTSVR) based on epsilon-fuzzy twin support vector regression (epsilon-FTSVR) and epsilon-twin support vector regression (epsilon-TSVR). Epsilon-FTSVR is achieved by incorporating trapezoidal fuzzy numbers to epsilon-TSVR which takes care of uncertainty existing in forecasting problems. Epsilon-FTSVR determines a pair of epsilon-insensitive proximal functions by solving two related quadratic programming problems. The structural risk minimization principle is implemented by introducing regularization term in primal problems of epsilon-FTSVR. This yields dual stable positive definite problems which improves regression performance. Epsilon-FTSVR is then reformulated as epsilon-HFTSVR consisting of a set of hierarchical layers each containing epsilon-FTSVR. Experimental results on both synthetic and real datasets reveal that epsilon-HFTSVR has remarkable generalization performance with minimum training time.

Keywords: regression, epsilon-TSVR, epsilon-FTSVR, epsilon-HFTSVR

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29 Coverage Probability Analysis of WiMAX Network under Additive White Gaussian Noise and Predicted Empirical Path Loss Model

Authors: Chaudhuri Manoj Kumar Swain, Susmita Das


This paper explores a detailed procedure of predicting a path loss (PL) model and its application in estimating the coverage probability in a WiMAX network. For this a hybrid approach is followed in predicting an empirical PL model of a 2.65 GHz WiMAX network deployed in a suburban environment. Data collection, statistical analysis, and regression analysis are the phases of operations incorporated in this approach and the importance of each of these phases has been discussed properly. The procedure of collecting data such as received signal strength indicator (RSSI) through experimental set up is demonstrated. From the collected data set, empirical PL and RSSI models are predicted with regression technique. Furthermore, with the aid of the predicted PL model, essential parameters such as PL exponent as well as the coverage probability of the network are evaluated. This research work may assist in the process of deployment and optimisation of any cellular network significantly.

Keywords: WiMAX, RSSI, path loss, coverage probability, regression analysis

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28 PLC Based Automatic Railway Crossing System for India

Authors: Tapan Upadhyay, Aqib Siddiqui, Sameer Khan


Railway crossing system in India is a manually operated level crossing system, either manned or unmanned. The main aim is to protect pedestrians and vehicles from colliding with trains, which pass at regular intervals, as India has the largest and busiest railway network. But because of human error and negligence, every year thousands of lives are lost due to accidents at railway crossings. To avoid this, we suggest a solution, by using Programmable Logical Controller (PLC) based automatic system, which will automatically control the barrier as well as roadblocks to stop people from crossing while security warning is given. Often people avoid security warning, and pass two-wheelers from beneath the barrier, while the train is at a distance away. This paper aims at reducing the fatality and accident rate by controlling barrier and roadblocks using sensors which sense the incoming train and vehicles and sends a signal to PLC. The PLC in return sends a signal to barrier and roadblocks. Once the train passes, the barrier and roadblocks retrieve back, and the passage is clear for vehicles and pedestrians to cross. PLC’s are used because they are very flexible, cost effective, space efficient, reduces complexity and minimises errors. Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA) is used to monitor the functioning.

Keywords: level crossing, PLC, sensors, SCADA

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27 A Combination of Filtration and Coagulation Processes for Tannery Effluent Treatment

Authors: M. G. Mostafa, Manjushree Chowdhury, Tapan Kumar Biswas, , Ananda Kumar Saha


This study focused on effluents characterization and treatment process to reduce of toxicity from tannery effluents. Tanning industry is one of the oldest industries in the world. It is typically characterized as pollutants generated industries which produce wide varieties of high strength toxic chemicals. The study was conducted during the year 2008 to 2009 and the tannery effluents were collected three times in a year from the outlet of some selected leather industries located in Hagaribagh industrial zone Dhaka, Bangladesh. The analysis results of the raw effluents reveal that the effluents were yellowish-brown color, having basic pH, very high value of BOD5¬¬, COD, TDS, TSS, TS, and high concentrations of Cr, Na, SO42-, Cl- and other organic and inorganic constituents. The tannery effluents were treated with various doses of FeCl3 after settling and a subsequent filtration through sand-stone. The study observed that coagulant (FeCl3) 150 mg/L dose around neutral pH showed the best removal efficiency for major physico-chemical parameters. The analysis results of illustrate that the most of the physical and chemical parameters were found well below the prescribed permissible limits for effluent discharged. The study suggests that tannery effluents could be treated by a combined process consisting of settling, filtering and coagulating with FeCl3.

Keywords: characterization, effluent, tannery, treatment

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26 An Application of Sinc Function to Approximate Quadrature Integrals in Generalized Linear Mixed Models

Authors: Altaf H. Khan, Frank Stenger, Mohammed A. Hussein, Reaz A. Chaudhuri, Sameera Asif


This paper discusses a novel approach to approximate quadrature integrals that arise in the estimation of likelihood parameters for the generalized linear mixed models (GLMM) as well as Bayesian methodology also requires computation of multidimensional integrals with respect to the posterior distributions in which computation are not only tedious and cumbersome rather in some situations impossible to find solutions because of singularities, irregular domains, etc. An attempt has been made in this work to apply Sinc function based quadrature rules to approximate intractable integrals, as there are several advantages of using Sinc based methods, for example: order of convergence is exponential, works very well in the neighborhood of singularities, in general quite stable and provide high accurate and double precisions estimates. The Sinc function based approach seems to be utilized first time in statistical domain to our knowledge, and it's viability and future scopes have been discussed to apply in the estimation of parameters for GLMM models as well as some other statistical areas.

Keywords: generalized linear mixed model, likelihood parameters, qudarature, Sinc function

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25 Open Minds but Closed Access: Why Are There so Few Gold Open Access LIS Journals And Why Are so Many Librarians Unwilling to Unlock Their Scholarship?

Authors: Sarah Baker, Jayati Chaudhuri


Librarians have embraced the open access movement in all disciplines but their own. They are strong advocates on college campuses and curate institutional repositories, yet there are surprisingly few open access LIS journals. Presenters evaluated the open access availability of library and information science literature. After analyzing the top 100 library science journals (the top 50 journals from Scimago and JCR) and finding very few gold open access journals, they then investigated the availability of open access articles from the top 10 closed access journals. Presenters would like to generate a conversation on what type of proactive approach librarians can take to increase open access to literature within our discipline. Librarians like their colleagues in other disciplines are not motivated to submit their articles to their institutional repositories. Presenters have found a similar reluctance from their fellow colleagues regarding open access initiatives on campus. Presenters will describe Open Access Week activities as part of a campus-wide initiative and share some faculty comments, concerns, and misconceptions that came up as a part of this dialog. Presenters will discuss their personal experiences providing access to faculty publications through the California State University Los Angeles institutional repository.

Keywords: faculty scholarship, institutional repositories, library and information science journals, open access

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24 Determination of Geotechnical Properties of Travertine Lithotypes in Van-Turkey

Authors: Ali Ozvan, Ismail Akkaya, Mucip Tapan


Travertine is generally a weak or medium strong rock, and physical, mechanical and structural properties of travertines are direct impacts on geotechnical studies. New settlement areas were determined on travertine units after two destructive earthquakes which occurred on October 23rd, 2011 (M=7.1) and November 9th, 2011 (M=5.6) in Tabanlı and Edremit districts of Van province in Turkey, respectively. In the study area, the travertines have different lithotype and engineering properties such as strong crystalline crust, medium strong shrub, and weak reed which can affect mechanical and engineering properties of travertine and each level have different handicaps. Travertine has a higher strength when compared to the soil ground; however, it can have different handicaps such as having poor rock mass, karst caves and weathering alteration. Physico-mechanical properties of travertine in the study area are determined by laboratory tests and field observations. Uniaxial compressive strength (UCS) values were detected by indirect methods, and the strength map of different lithotype of Edremit travertine was created in order to define suitable settlement areas. Also, rock mass properties and underground structure were determined by bore holes, field studies, and geophysical method. The reason of this study is to investigate the relationship between lithotype and physicomechanical properties of travertines. According to the results, lithotype has an effect on physical, mechanical and rock mass properties of travertine levels. It is detected by several research methods that various handicaps may occur on such areas when the active tectonic structure of the area is evaluated along with the karstic cavities within the travertine and different lithotype qualities.

Keywords: travertine, lithotype, geotechnical parameters, Van earthquake

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23 Distributed Coordination of Connected and Automated Vehicles at Multiple Interconnected Intersections

Authors: Zhiyuan Du, Baisravan Hom Chaudhuri, Pierluigi Pisu


In connected vehicle systems where wireless communication is available among the involved vehicles and intersection controllers, it is possible to design an intersection coordination strategy that leads the connected and automated vehicles (CAVs) travel through the road intersections without the conventional traffic light control. In this paper, we present a distributed coordination strategy for the CAVs at multiple interconnected intersections that aims at improving system fuel efficiency and system mobility. We present a distributed control solution where in the higher level, the intersection controllers calculate the road desired average velocity and optimally assign reference velocities of each vehicle. In the lower level, every vehicle is considered to use model predictive control (MPC) to track their reference velocity obtained from the higher level controller. The proposed method has been implemented on a simulation-based case with two-interconnected intersection network. Additionally, the effects of mixed vehicle types on the coordination strategy has been explored. Simulation results indicate the improvement on vehicle fuel efficiency and traffic mobility of the proposed method.

Keywords: connected vehicles, automated vehicles, intersection coordination systems, multiple interconnected intersections, model predictive control

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22 Rural Water Supply Services in India: Developing a Composite Summary Score

Authors: Mimi Roy, Sriroop Chaudhuri


Sustainable water supply is among the basic needs for human development, especially in the rural areas of the developing nations where safe water supply and basic sanitation infrastructure is direly needed. In light of the above, we propose a simple methodology to develop a composite water sustainability index (WSI) to assess the collective performance of the existing rural water supply services (RWSS) in India over time. The WSI will be computed by summarizing the details of all the different varieties of water supply schemes presently available in India comprising of 40 liters per capita per day (lpcd), 55 lpcd, and piped water supply (PWS) per household. The WSI will be computed annually, between 2010 and 2016, to elucidate changes in holistic RWSS performances. Results will be integrated within a robust geospatial framework to identify the ‘hotspots’ (states/districts) which have persistent issues over adequate RWSS coverage and warrant spatially-optimized policy reforms in future to address sustainable human development. Dataset will be obtained from the National Rural Drinking Water Program (NRDWP), operating under the aegis of the Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation (MoDWS), at state/district/block levels to offer the authorities a cross-sectional view of RWSS at different levels of administrative hierarchy. Due to simplistic design, complemented by spatio-temporal cartograms, similar approaches can also be adopted in other parts of the world where RWSS need a thorough appraisal.

Keywords: rural water supply services, piped water supply, sustainability, composite index, spatial, drinking water

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21 Person-Led Organizations Nurture Bullying Behavior: A Qualitative Study

Authors: Shreya Mishra, Manosi Chaudhuri, Ajoy K. Dey


Workplace bullying is a social phenomenon which has proved to be hazardous not only for employees’ well-being but also organizations. Despite being prevalent across geographical boundaries, Indian organizations have failed to acknowledge its vices. This paper aims to understand targets’ perception on what makes bullying nurture in organizations. The paper suggests that person-led Indian work settings give birth to bullying behavior as it lacks professional acumen and systems. An analysis of 13 in-depth interviews of employees from the organized sector suggests that organizations, where decision making lies with single individual, may be a hub of hostile behavior due to the culture which promotes ‘yesmanship’, ‘authoritarianism’ and/or blind belief of leaders on certain set of employees. The study used constructivist grounded theory approach, and the data was analyzed using R Based Qualitative Data Analysis (RQDA) software. Respondents reported that bullying behavior is taken lightly by the management with 'just ignore it' attitude. According to the respondents, the behavior prolong as the perpetrator have a direct approach to the top authority. The study concludes that person-led organizations may create a family-like environment which is favored by employees; however, authoritative leaders are unable to gain the trust of employees. Also, employees who are close to the leader may either be a perpetrator or a target of bullying. It is recommended that leaders in such organizations need to acknowledge the presence of bullying which affects an employees’ commitment towards their job and/or organization. They need to have an assertive check on individuals who hide behind ‘yesman’ attitude. This may help employees feel safe in such work settings.

Keywords: constructivist grounded theory, person-led organization, RQDA, workplace bullying

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20 Effect of Clerodendrum Species on Oxidative Stress with Possible Implication in Alleviating Carcinogenesis

Authors: Somit Dutta, Pallab Kar, Arnab Kumar Chakraborty, Arnab Sen, Tapas Kumar Chaudhuri


In the present study three species of Clerodendrum; Clerodendrum indicum, Volkameria inermis and Clerodendrum colebrookianum were used to investigate the possible activity against oxidative stress. A detailed in-vivo and in-vitro antioxidant profiling, directly associated with inflammation-related carcinogenesis, has been executed with a motive to evaluate the free radical scavenging activity of Clerodendrum extract. Measurement of cell viability and ROS generation in HEK-293 (Human Embryonic Kidney Cell Line) cells was also estimated. The immune cell proliferative properties (MTT) and in-vitro assay for evaluation of their antioxidant activities including hydroxyl radical, nitric oxide, singlet oxygen, peroxinitrate and hydrogen peroxide, etc. were investigated. GC-MS and FTIR analyses have been performed to identify the active biological compounds. These active biological compounds were further studied to assess their potential medicinal properties, aided by molecular docking and interaction analysis between the active compounds and different proteins related to oxidative stress leading to progression of carcinogenesis. The research article clearly demonstrates the role of ROS in various phases of carcinogenesis. Therefore, the antioxidant and free radical scavenging capacity of all the Clerodendrum species might prove beneficial for the immune system. It might be concluded that this plant species offers great promise for cancer prevention and therapy due to the presence of several bioactive compounds and potent antioxidant capacity of C. colebrookianum.

Keywords: antioxidant, cancer, oxidative stress, reactive oxygen species (ROS)

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19 Earthquake Resistant Sustainable Steel Green Building

Authors: Arup Saha Chaudhuri


Structural steel is a very ductile material with high strength carrying capacity, thus it is very useful to make earthquake resistant buildings. It is a homogeneous material also. The member section and the structural system can be made very efficient for economical design. As the steel is recyclable and reused, it is a green material. The embodied energy for the efficiently designed steel structure is less than the RC structure. For sustainable green building steel is the best material nowadays. Moreover, pre-engineered and pre-fabricated faster construction methodologies help the development work to complete within the stipulated time. In this paper, the usefulness of Eccentric Bracing Frame (EBF) in steel structure over Moment Resisting Frame (MRF) and Concentric Bracing Frame (CBF) is shown. Stability of the steel structures against horizontal forces especially in seismic condition is efficiently possible by Eccentric bracing systems with economic connection details. The EBF is pin–ended, but the beam-column joints are designed for pin ended or for full connectivity. The EBF has several desirable features for seismic resistance. In comparison with CBF system, EBF system can be designed for appropriate stiffness and drift control. The link beam is supposed to yield in shear or flexure before initiation of yielding or buckling of the bracing member in tension or compression. The behavior of a 2-D steel frame is observed under seismic loading condition in the present paper. Ductility and brittleness of the frames are compared with respect to time period of vibration and dynamic base shear. It is observed that the EBF system is better than MRF system comparing the time period of vibration and base shear participation.

Keywords: steel building, green and sustainable, earthquake resistant, EBF system

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18 Low Voltage and High Field-Effect Mobility Thin Film Transistor Using Crystalline Polymer Nanocomposite as Gate Dielectric

Authors: Debabrata Bhadra, B. K. Chaudhuri


The operation of organic thin film transistors (OFETs) with low voltage is currently a prevailing issue. We have fabricated anthracene thin-film transistor (TFT) with an ultrathin layer (~450nm) of Poly-vinylidene fluoride (PVDF)/CuO nanocomposites as a gate insulator. We obtained a device with excellent electrical characteristics at low operating voltages (<1V). Different layers of the film were also prepared to achieve the best optimization of ideal gate insulator with various static dielectric constant (εr ). Capacitance density, leakage current at 1V gate voltage and electrical characteristics of OFETs with a single and multi layer films were investigated. This device was found to have highest field effect mobility of 2.27 cm2/Vs, a threshold voltage of 0.34V, an exceptionally low sub threshold slope of 380 mV/decade and an on/off ratio of 106. Such favorable combination of properties means that these OFETs can be utilized successfully as voltages below 1V. A very simple fabrication process has been used along with step wise poling process for enhancing the pyroelectric effects on the device performance. The output characteristic of OFET after poling were changed and exhibited linear current-voltage relationship showing the evidence of large polarization. The temperature dependent response of the device was also investigated. The stable performance of the OFET after poling operation makes it reliable in temperature sensor applications. Such High-ε CuO/PVDF gate dielectric appears to be highly promising candidates for organic non-volatile memory and sensor field-effect transistors (FETs).

Keywords: organic field effect transistors, thin film transistor, gate dielectric, organic semiconductor

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17 Beneficiation of Low Grade Chromite Ore and Its Characterization for the Formation of Magnesia-Chromite Refractory by Economically Viable Process

Authors: Amit Kumar Bhandary, Prithviraj Gupta, Siddhartha Mukherjee, Mahua Ghosh Chaudhuri, Rajib Dey


Chromite ores are primarily used for extraction of chromium, which is an expensive metal. For low grade chromite ores (containing less than 40% Cr2O3), the chromium extraction is not usually economically viable. India possesses huge quantities of low grade chromite reserves. This deposit can be utilized after proper physical beneficiation. Magnetic separation techniques may be useful after reduction for the beneficiation of low grade chromite ore. The sample collected from the sukinda mines is characterized by XRD which shows predominant phases like maghemite, chromite, silica, magnesia and alumina. The raw ore is crushed and ground to below 75 micrometer size. The microstructure of the ore shows that the chromite grains surrounded by a silicate matrix and porosity observed the exposed side of the chromite ore. However, this ore may be utilized in refractory applications. Chromite ores contain Cr2O3, FeO, Al2O3 and other oxides like Fe-Cr, Mg-Cr have a high tendency to form spinel compounds, which usually show high refractoriness. Initially, the low grade chromite ore (containing 34.8% Cr2O3) was reduced at 1200 0C for 80 minutes with 30% coke fines by weight, before being subjected to magnetic separation. The reduction by coke leads to conversion of higher state of iron oxides converted to lower state of iron oxides. The pre-reduced samples are then characterized by XRD. The magnetically inert mass was then reacted with 20% MgO by weight at 1450 0C for 2 hours. The resultant product was then tested for various refractoriness parameters like apparent porosity, slag resistance etc. The results were satisfactory, indicating that the resultant spinel compounds are suitable for refractory applications for elevated temperature processes.

Keywords: apparent porosity, beneficiation, low-grade chromite, refractory, spinel compounds, slag resistance

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16 Rental Housing May Address Affordable Housing Deficiency in India

Authors: Meha Singla, Shankhadeep Chaudhuri, Yadunandan Batchu


Rental Housing is a more cost effective and flexible housing solution for the low income families than home-ownership. While India is undergoing a new industrial metamorphosis with multiple government initiatives that emphasise on the growth of manufacturing sector through policy frameworks and corridor development proposals, there is going to be a huge influx of low-income working population to the upcoming urban centres. As per stats, about 70 per cent of the housing demand at these centres fall into the affordable segment. And in the midst of this rapid urbanisation and huge immigration of young population, there is a lack of proper rental housing framework in the country. A large number of immigrants will be unable to support home-ownership thereby leading to proliferation of slums in urban centres. As a result, there is a dire need for immediate articulation of a comprehensive rental housing policy and affordable housing initiatives. In this paper, CommonFloor attempts to analyse successful rental housing case studies of the world followed by establishing a correlation between the gap in urban rental housing stock and the per capita income statistics to devise rental housing affordability specific to major Indian cities (Delhi, Mumbai, Bangalore, Chennai). Further, with the corroboration of market price trends, it will try to locate feasible micro-markets for immediate rental housing action. Final research findings will provide key data points thereby helping to design the approach for efficient utilisation of unsold residential inventory in the country in order to compensate the rental housing deficiency. This data set is believed to express viable model(s) of the rental housing approach for the government and private participants.

Keywords: housing prices, migration of population, real estate, rental housing, rental markets, residential property market, urbanisation

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15 Cold Formed Steel Sections: Analysis, Design and Applications

Authors: A. Saha Chaudhuri, D. Sarkar


In steel construction, there are two families of structural members. One is hot rolled steel and another is cold formed steel. Cold formed steel section includes steel sheet, strip, plate or flat bar. Cold formed steel section is manufactured in roll forming machine by press brake or bending operation. Cold formed steel (CFS), also known as Light Gauge Steel (LGS). As cold formed steel is a sustainable material, it is widely used in green building. Cold formed steel can be recycled and reused with no degradation in structural properties. Cold formed steel structures can earn credits for green building ratings such as LEED and similar programs. Cold formed steel construction satisfies international demand for better, more efficient and affordable buildings. Cold formed steel sections are used in building, car body, railway coach, various types of equipment, storage rack, grain bin, highway product, transmission tower, transmission pole, drainage facility, bridge construction etc. Various shapes of cold formed steel sections are available, such as C section, Z section, I section, T section, angle section, hat section, box section, square hollow section (SHS), rectangular hollow section (RHS), circular hollow section (CHS) etc. In building construction cold formed steel is used as eave strut, purlin, girt, stud, header, floor joist, brace, diaphragm and covering for roof, wall and floor. Cold formed steel has high strength to weight ratio and high stiffness. Cold formed steel is non shrinking and non creeping at ambient temperature, it is termite proof and rot proof. CFS is durable, dimensionally stable and non combustible material. CFS is economical in transportation and handling. At present days cold formed steel becomes a competitive building material. In this paper all these applications related present research work are described and how the CFS can be used as blast resistant structural system that is examined.

Keywords: cold form steel sections, applications, present research review, blast resistant design

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14 Numerical Investigation into Capture Efficiency of Fibrous Filters

Authors: Jayotpaul Chaudhuri, Lutz Goedeke, Torsten Hallenga, Peter Ehrhard


Purification of gases from aerosols or airborne particles via filters is widely applied in the industry and in our daily lives. This separation especially in the micron and submicron size range is a necessary step to protect the environment and human health. Fibrous filters are often employed due to their low cost and high efficiency. For designing any filter the two most important performance parameters are capture efficiency and pressure drop. Since the capture efficiency is directly proportional to the pressure drop which leads to higher operating costs, a detailed investigation of the separation mechanism is required to optimize the filter designing, i.e., to have a high capture efficiency with a lower pressure drop. Therefore a two-dimensional flow simulation around a single fiber using Ansys CFX and Matlab is used to get insight into the separation process. Instead of simulating a solid fiber, the present Ansys CFX model uses a fictitious domain approach for the fiber by implementing a momentum loss model. This approach has been chosen to avoid creating a new mesh for different fiber sizes, thereby saving time and effort for re-meshing. In a first step, only the flow of the continuous fluid around the fiber is simulated in Ansys CFX and the flow field data is extracted and imported into Matlab and the particle trajectory is calculated in a Matlab routine. This calculation is a Lagrangian, one way coupled approach for particles with all relevant forces acting on it. The key parameters for the simulation in both Ansys CFX and Matlab are the porosity ε, the diameter ratio of particle and fiber D, the fluid Reynolds number Re, the Reynolds particle number Rep, the Stokes number St, the Froude number Fr and the density ratio of fluid and particle ρf/ρp. The simulation results were then compared to the single fiber theory from the literature.

Keywords: BBO-equation, capture efficiency, CFX, Matlab, fibrous filter, particle trajectory

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13 Effect of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy in Cognitive Function among Breast Cancer Patients in Eastern Country

Authors: Arunima Datta, Prathama Guha Chaudhuri, Ashis Mukhopadhyay


Background: Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) is one of the newer forms (third wave) therapy. This therapy helps a cancer patient to increase acceptance level about their disease as well as their present situation. Breast cancer patients are known to suffer from depression and mild cognitive impairment; both affect their quality of life. Objectives:The present study had assessed effect of structured ACT intervention on cognitive function and acceptance level among breast cancer patients who were undergoing chemotherapy. Method: Data was collected from 123 breast cancer patients those who were undergoing chemotherapy were willing to undergo psychological treatment, with no history of past psychiatric illness. Their baseline of cognitive function and acceptance levels were assessed using validated tools. The effect of sociodemographic factors and clinical factors on cognitive function was determined at baseline.The participants were randomly divided into two groups: experimental (ACT, 4 sessions over 2 months) and control group. Cognitive function and acceptance level were measured during post intervention on 2months follow-up. Appropriate statistical analyses were performed to determine the effect on cognitive function and acceptance level in two groups. Result: At baseline, the factors that significantly influenced slower speed of task performance were ER PR HER2 status; number of chemo cycle, treatment type (Adjuvant and neo-adjuvant) was related with that. Sociodemographic characteristics did not show any significant difference between slow and fast performance. Per and post intervention analysis showed that ACT intervention resulted in significant difference both in terms of speed of cognitive performance and acceptance level. Conclusion: ACT is an effective therapeutic option for treating mild cognitive impairment and improve acceptance level among breast cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy.

Keywords: acceptance and commitment therapy, breast cancer, quality of life, cognitive function

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12 Visualization as a Psychotherapeutic Mind-Body Intervention through Reducing Stress and Depression among Breast Cancer Patients in Kolkata

Authors: Prathama Guha Chaudhuri, Arunima Datta, Ashis Mukhopadhyay


Background: Visualization (guided imagery) is a set of techniques which induce relaxation and help people create positive mental images in order to reduce stress.It is relatively inexpensive and can even be practised by bed bound people. Studies have shown visualization to be an effective tool to improve cancer patients’ anxiety, depression and quality of life. The common images used with cancer patients in the developed world are those involving the individual’s body and its strengths. Since breast cancer patients in India are more family oriented and often their main concerns are the stigma of having cancer and subsequent isolation of their families, including their children, we figured that positive images involving acceptance and integration within family and society would be more effective for them. Method: Data was collected from 119 breast cancer patients on chemotherapy willing to undergo psychotherapy, with no history of past psychiatric illness. Their baseline stress, anxiety, depression and quality of life were assessed using validated tools. The participants were then randomly divided into three groups: a) those who received visualization therapy with standard imageries involving the body and its strengths (sVT), b) those who received visualization therapy using indigenous family oriented imageries (mVT) and c) a control group who received supportive therapy. There were six sessions spread over two months for each group. The psychological outcome variables were measured post intervention. Appropriate statistical analyses were done. Results:Both forms of visualization therapy were more effective than supportive therapy alone in reducing patients’ depression, anxiety and quality of life.Modified VT proved to be significantly more effective in improving patients’ anxiety and quality of life. Conclusion: Visualization is a valuable therapeutic option for reduction of psychological distress and improving quality of life of breast cancer patients.In order to be more effective, the images used need to be modified according to the sociocultural background and individual needs of the patients.

Keywords: breast cancer, visualization therapy, quality of life, anxiety, depression

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11 Production of Pre-Reduction of Iron Ore Nuggets with Lesser Sulphur Intake by Devolatisation of Boiler Grade Coal

Authors: Chanchal Biswas, Anrin Bhattacharyya, Gopes Chandra Das, Mahua Ghosh Chaudhuri, Rajib Dey


Boiler coals with low fixed carbon and higher ash content have always challenged the metallurgists to develop a suitable method for their utilization. In the present study, an attempt is made to establish an energy effective method for the reduction of iron ore fines in the form of nuggets by using ‘Syngas’. By devolatisation (expulsion of volatile matter by applying heat) of boiler coal, gaseous product (enriched with reducing agents like CO, CO2, H2, and CH4 gases) is generated. Iron ore nuggets are reduced by this syngas. For that reason, there is no direct contact between iron ore nuggets and coal ash. It helps to control the minimization of the sulphur intake of the reduced nuggets. A laboratory scale devolatisation furnace designed with reduction facility is evaluated after in-depth studies and exhaustive experimentations including thermo-gravimetric (TG-DTA) analysis to find out the volatile fraction present in boiler grade coal, gas chromatography (GC) to find out syngas composition in different temperature and furnace temperature gradient measurements to minimize the furnace cost by applying one heating coil. The nuggets are reduced in the devolatisation furnace at three different temperatures and three different times. The pre-reduced nuggets are subjected to analytical weight loss calculations to evaluate the extent of reduction. The phase and surface morphology analysis of pre-reduced samples are characterized using X-ray diffractometry (XRD), energy dispersive x-ray spectrometry (EDX), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), carbon sulphur analyzer and chemical analysis method. Degree of metallization of the reduced nuggets is 78.9% by using boiler grade coal. The pre-reduced nuggets with lesser sulphur content could be used in the blast furnace as raw materials or coolant which would reduce the high quality of coke rate of the furnace due to its pre-reduced character. These can be used in Basic Oxygen Furnace (BOF) as coolant also.

Keywords: alternative ironmaking, coal gasification, extent of reduction, nugget making, syngas based DRI, solid state reduction

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