Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 1923

Search results for: spinel compounds

1923 Structural and Magnetic Properties of CoFe2-xNdxO4 Spinel Ferrite Nanoparticles

Authors: R. S. Yadav, J. Havlica, I. Kuřitka, Z. Kozakova, J. Masilko, M. Hajdúchová, V. Enev, J. Wasserbauer

Abstract:

In this present work, CoFe2-xNdxO4 (0.0 ≤ x ≥0.1) spinel ferrite nanoparticles were synthesized by starch-assisted sol-gel auto-combustion method. Powder X-ray diffraction patterns were revealed the formation of cubic spinel ferrite with the signature of NdFeO3 phase at higher Nd3+ concentration. The field emission scanning electron microscopy study demonstrated the spherical nanoparticle in the size range between 5-15 nm. Raman and Fourier Transform Infrared spectra supported the formation of the spinel ferrite structure in the nanocrystalline form. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis confirmed the presence of Co2+ and Fe3+ at octahedral as well as a tetrahedral site in CoFe2-xNdxO4 nanoparticles. The change in magnetic properties with a variation of concentration of Nd3+ ions in cobalt ferrite nanoparticles was observed.

Keywords: nanoparticles, spinel ferrites, sol-gel auto-combustion method, CoFe2-xNdxO4

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1922 Beneficiation of Low Grade Chromite Ore and Its Characterization for the Formation of Magnesia-Chromite Refractory by Economically Viable Process

Authors: Amit Kumar Bhandary, Prithviraj Gupta, Siddhartha Mukherjee, Mahua Ghosh Chaudhuri, Rajib Dey

Abstract:

Chromite ores are primarily used for extraction of chromium, which is an expensive metal. For low grade chromite ores (containing less than 40% Cr2O3), the chromium extraction is not usually economically viable. India possesses huge quantities of low grade chromite reserves. This deposit can be utilized after proper physical beneficiation. Magnetic separation techniques may be useful after reduction for the beneficiation of low grade chromite ore. The sample collected from the sukinda mines is characterized by XRD which shows predominant phases like maghemite, chromite, silica, magnesia and alumina. The raw ore is crushed and ground to below 75 micrometer size. The microstructure of the ore shows that the chromite grains surrounded by a silicate matrix and porosity observed the exposed side of the chromite ore. However, this ore may be utilized in refractory applications. Chromite ores contain Cr2O3, FeO, Al2O3 and other oxides like Fe-Cr, Mg-Cr have a high tendency to form spinel compounds, which usually show high refractoriness. Initially, the low grade chromite ore (containing 34.8% Cr2O3) was reduced at 1200 0C for 80 minutes with 30% coke fines by weight, before being subjected to magnetic separation. The reduction by coke leads to conversion of higher state of iron oxides converted to lower state of iron oxides. The pre-reduced samples are then characterized by XRD. The magnetically inert mass was then reacted with 20% MgO by weight at 1450 0C for 2 hours. The resultant product was then tested for various refractoriness parameters like apparent porosity, slag resistance etc. The results were satisfactory, indicating that the resultant spinel compounds are suitable for refractory applications for elevated temperature processes.

Keywords: apparent porosity, beneficiation, low-grade chromite, refractory, spinel compounds, slag resistance

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1921 Synthesis, Structural and Magnetic Properties of CdFe2O4 Ferrite

Authors: Justice Zakhele Msomi

Abstract:

Nanoparticles of CdFe2O4 with particle size of about 10 nm have been synthesized by high energy ball milling and co-precipitation processes. The synthesis route appears to have some effects on the properties. The compounds have been characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Mössbauer and magnetization measurements. The XRD pattern of CdFe2O4 provides information about single-phase formation of spinel structure with cubic symmetry. The FTIR measurements between 400 and 4000 cm-1 indicate intrinsic cation vibration of the spinel structure. The Mössbauer spectra were recorded at 4 K and 300 K. The hyperfine fields appear to be highly sensitive on particle size. The evolution of the properties as a function of particle size is also presented.

Keywords: ferrite, nanoparticles, magnetization, Mössbauer

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1920 Size Dependent Magnetic Properties of CoFe2-xGdxO4 (x = 0.1) Spinel Ferrite Nanoparticles Synthesized by Starch-Assisted Sol-Gel Auto-Combustion Method

Authors: R. S. Yadav, J. Havlica, I. Kuřitka, Z. Kozakova, J. Masilko, M. Hajdúchová, V. Enev, J. Wasserbauer

Abstract:

In this work, the effect of particle size on the structural and magnetic properties of CoFe2-xGdxO4 (x =0.1) spinel ferrite nanoparticles synthesized by starch-assisted sol-gel auto combustion method was investigated. The different sized CoFe2-xGdxO4 (x =0.1) spinel ferrite nanoparticles were achieved after annealing at different temperature 500, 700 and 900 oC. The structural phases, crystallite size and lattice parameter of synthesized ferrite nanoparticles were estimated from X-ray diffraction studies. The field emission scanning electron microscopy study demonstrated increase in particle size with increase of annealing temperature. Raman spectroscopy study indicated the change in octahedral and tetrahedral site related Raman modes in Gd3+ ions doped cobalt ferrite nanoparticles. An infrared spectroscopy study showed the presence of two absorption bands in the frequency range around 580 cm-1 (ν1) and around 340 cm-1 (ν2); which indicated the presence of tetrahedral and octahedral group complexes, respectively, within the spinel ferrite nanoparticles. Vibrating Sample magnetometer study showed that the saturation magnetization and coercivity changes with particle size of CoFe2-xGdxO4 (x =0.1) spinel ferrite.

Keywords: magnetic properties, spinel ferrite, nanoparticles, sol-gel synthesis

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1919 Structural, Magnetic, Dielectric, and Electrical Properties of ZnFe2O4 Nanoparticles

Authors: Raghvendra Singh Yadav, Ivo Kuřitka, Jarmila Vilcakova, Pavel Urbanek, Michal Machovsky, Milan Masař, Martin Holek

Abstract:

ZnFe2O4 spinel ferrite nanoparticles were synthesized by sol-gel auto-combustion method. The synthesized spinel ferrite nanoparticles were annealed at different higher temperature to achieve different size nanoparticles. The as synthesized and annealed samples were characterized by powder X-ray Diffraction Spectroscopy, Raman Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, UV-Vis absorption Spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy. The magnetic properties were studied by vibrating sample magnetometer. The variation in magnetic parameters was noticed with variation in grain size. The dielectric constant and dielectric loss with variation of frequency shows normal behaviour of spinel ferrite. The variation in conductivity with variation in grain size is noticed. Modulus and Impedance Spectroscopy shows the role of grain and grain boundary on the electrical resistance and capacitance of different grain sized spinel ferrite nanoparticles. Acknowledgment: This work was supported by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic – Program NPU I (LO1504).

Keywords: spinel ferrite, nanoparticles, magnetic properties, dielectric properties

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1918 Inter-Filling of CaO and MgO Mixed Layer in Surface Behavior of Al-Mg Alloys Containing Al2Ca

Authors: Seong-Ho Ha, Young-Ok Yoon, Shae K. Kim

Abstract:

Oxide layer of normal Al-Mg alloy can be characterized by upper MgO and lower MgAl2O4 spinel. The formation of the MgO outmost layer occurs by the surface segregation of Mg in the initial oxidation. After then, the oxidation is proceeded with the formation of MgA12O4 spinel beneath the MgO. Growth of the oxide layer is accelerated by constant formation of MgA12O4 spinel. On the other hand, the oxidation resistance of Al-Mg alloys can be significantly improved simply by Mg+Al2Ca master alloy use as the Mg alloying element and such an improvement is attributed to the CaO/MgO mixed layer. Al-Mg alloy containing Al2Ca shows CaO as the upper layer and MgO as the lower one without MgA12O4 spinel. Such a dense oxide film acts as a protective layer. However, the CaO/MgO scale has the outmost MgO, partly, after a long time exposure to a harsh oxidation condition. The aim of this study is to investigate the inter-filling behaviour of CaO and MgO mixed layer in oxidation resistance mechanism of Al-Mg alloys containing Al2Ca. The process of outmost MgO layer formation will be clarified.

Keywords: Al-Mg alloy, Al2Ca, oxidation, MgO

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1917 Synthesizing CuFe2O4 Spinel Powders by a Combustion-Like Process for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Interconnects Coating

Authors: Seyedeh Narjes Hosseini, Mohammad Hossein Enayati, Fathallah Karimzadeh, Nigel Mark Sammes

Abstract:

The synthesis of CuFe2O4 spinel powders by an optimized combustion-like process followed by calcinations is described herein. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential thermal analysis (TG/DTA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), dilatometry and 4-probe DC methods. Different glycine to nitrate (G/N) ratios of 1 (fuel-deficient), 1.48 (stoichiometric) and 2 (fuel-rich) were employed. Calcining the as-prepared powders at 800 and 1000°C for 5 hours showed that the 2 ratio results in the formation of desired copper spinel single phase at both calcinations temperatures. For G/N=1, formation of CuFe2O4 takes place in three steps. First, iron and copper nitrates decomposes to iron oxide and pure copper. Then, copper transforms to copper oxide and finally, copper and iron oxides react to each other to form copper ferrite spinel phase. The electrical conductivity and the coefficient of thermal expansion of the sintered pelletized samples were obtained 2 S.cm-1 (800°C) and 11×10-6 °C-1 (25-800°C), respectively.

Keywords: SOFC interconnect coatings, Copper ferrite, Spinels, electrical conductivity, Glycine–nitrate process

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1916 Impact of Gd³⁺ Substitution on Structural, Optical and Magnetic Properties of ZnFe₂O₄ Nanoparticles

Authors: Raghvendra Singh Yadav, Ivo Kuřitka, Jarmila Vilcakova, Pavel Urbanek, Michal Machovsky, David Skoda

Abstract:

In this report, the impact of Gd³⁺ substitution in ZnFe₂O₄ spinel ferrite nanoparticles on structural, optical and magnetic properties was investigated. ZnFe₂₋ₓGdₓO₄ (x=0.00, 0.05, 0.10, 0.15, 0.20) nanoparticles were synthesized by honey-mediated sol-gel combustion method. X-ray diffraction, Raman Spectroscopy and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy confirmed the formation of cubic spinel ferrite crystal structure. The morphology and elemental analysis were studied using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, respectively. UV-Visible reflectance spectroscopy revealed band gap variation with concentration of Gd³⁺ substitution in ZnFe₂O₄ nanoparticles. Magnetic property was studied using vibrating sample magnetometer at room temperature. The synthesized spinel ferrite nanoparticles showed ferromagnetic behaviour. The evaluated magnetic parameters such as saturation magnetization, coercivity and remanence showed variation with Gd³⁺ substitution in spinel ferrite nanoparticles. This work was supported by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic – Program NPU I (LO1504).

Keywords: sol-gel combustion method, nanoparticles, magnetic property, optical property

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1915 Structural and Magnetic Properties of NiFe2O4 Spinel Ferrite Nanoparticles Synthesized by Starch-Assisted Sol-Gel Auto-Combustion Method

Authors: R. S. Yadav, J. Havlica, I. Kuřitka, Z. Kozakova, J. Masilko, L. Kalina, M. Hajdúchová, V. Enev, J. Wasserbauer

Abstract:

Nickel spinel ferrite NiFe2O4 nanoparticles with different particle size at different annealing temperature were synthesized using the starch-assisted sol-gel auto-combustion method. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by conventional powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectroscopy, Raman Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, Field-Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy and Vibrating Sample Magnetometer. The XRD patterns confirmed the formation of NiFe2O4 spinel ferrite nanoparticles. Field-Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy revealed that particles are of spherical morphology with particle size 5-20 nm at lower annealing temperature. An infrared spectroscopy study showed the presence of two principal absorption bands in the frequency range around 525 cm-1 (ν1) and around 340 cm-1 (ν2); which indicate the presence of tetrahedral and octahedral group complexes, respectively, within the spinel ferrite nanoparticles. Raman spectroscopy study also indicated the change in octahedral and tetrahedral site related Raman modes in nickel ferrite nanoparticles with change of particle size. This change in magnetic behavior with change of particle size of NiFe2O4 nanoparticles was observed.

Keywords: nickel ferrite, nanoparticles, magnetic property, NiFe2O4

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1914 Structural and Vibrational Studies of Ni Alx Fe2-x O4 Ferrites

Authors: Kamel Taıbı, Abdelmadjid Rais

Abstract:

Nickel–Aluminium ferrites with the general formula Ni Alx Fe2-x O4 (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) were studied using X-ray diffraction, Infra Red and Raman spectroscopy. XRD diffraction patterns and their Reitveld refinements show that all samples have a pure single-phase cubic spinel structure. From these patterns, the lattice parameters of these samples have been calculated and compared with those predicted theoretically. Most of the values were found to decrease with increasing Al content. Infra Red spectra showed two significant absorption bands. The high band corresponds to tetrahedral (A) sites and the lower band to octahedral [B] sites, thus confirming the single phase spinel structure. For all compositions, Raman spectra show the five active modes A1g + E1g + 3 T2g of the motion of O2- ions and both the A-site and B-site ions. The Raman frequencies trend with aluminium concentration show a blue shift for all modes consistent with the replacement of Fe3+ by lower mass Al3+. Composition dependence of the Raman frequency modes is discussed in relationship with the cations distribution among the A-sites and B-sites.

Keywords: Ni-Al ferrites, spinel structure, XRD, Raman spectroscopy

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1913 Structural, Magnetic and Electrical Properties of Gd3+ Doped CoFe2O4 Nanoparticles Synthesized by Sonochemical Method

Authors: Raghvendra Singh Yadav, Ivo Kuřitka

Abstract:

In this report, we studied the impact of Gd3+ substitution on structural, magnetic and electrical properties of CoFe2O4 nanoparticles synthesized by sonochemical method. X-ray diffraction pattern confirmed the formation of cubic spinel structure at low concentration of Gd3+ ions, however, GdFeO3 additional phase was observed at higher concentration of Gd3+ ions. Raman and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy study also confirmed cubic spinel structure of Gd3+ substituted CoFe2O4 nanoparticles. The field emission scanning electron microscopy study revealed that Gd3+ substituted CoFe2O4 nanoparticles were in the range of 5-20 nm. The magnetic properties of Gd3+ substituted CoFe2O4 nanoparticles were investigated by using vibrating sample magnetometer. The variation in saturation magnetization, coercivity and remanent magnetization with Gd3+ concentration in CoFe2O4 nanoparticles was observed. The variation of real and imaginary part of dielectric constant, tan δ, and AC conductivity were studied at room temperature.

Keywords: spinel ferrites, nanoparticles, sonochemical method, magnetic properties

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1912 Computer Simulation Studies of Spinel LiMn₂O₄ Nanotubes

Authors: D. M. Tshwane, R. R. Maphanga, P. E. Ngoepe

Abstract:

Nanostructured materials are attractive candidates for efficient electrochemical energy storage devices because of their unique physicochemical properties. Nanotubes have drawn a continuous attention because of their unique electrical, optical and magnetic properties contrast to that of bulk system. They have potential application in the field of optical, electronics and energy storage device. Introducing nanotubes structures as electrode materials; represents one of the most attractive strategies that could dramatically enhance the battery performance. Spinel LiMn2O4 is the most promising cathode material for Li-ion batteries. In this work, computer simulation methods are used to generate and investigate properties of spinel LiMn2O4 nanotubes. Molecular dynamic simulation is used to probe the local structure of LiMn2O4 nanotubes and the effect of temperature on these systems. It is found that diameter, Miller indices and size have a direct control on nanotubes morphology. Furthermore, it is noted that stability depends on surface and wrapping of the nanotube. The nanotube structures are described using the radial distribution function and XRD patterns. There is a correlation between calculated XRD and experimentally reported results.

Keywords: LiMn2O4, li-ion batteries, nanotubes, nanostructures

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1911 Structural and Magnetic Properties of CoFe2O4:Nd3+/Dy3+/Pr3+/Gd3+ Nanoparticles Synthesized by Starch-Assisted Sol-Gel Auto-Combustion Method and Annealing Effect

Authors: Raghvendra Singh Yadav, Ivo Kuřitka, Jaromir Havlica, Zuzana Kozakova, Jiri Masilko, Lukas Kalina, Miroslava Hajdúchová, Vojtěch Enev, Jaromir Wasserbauer

Abstract:

In this work, we investigated the structural and magnetic properties of CoFe2O4:Nd3+/Dy3+/Pr3+/Gd3+ nanoparticles synthesized by starch-assisted sol-gel combustion method. X-ray diffraction pattern confirmed the formation of cubic spinel structure of rare-earth ions (Nd3+, Dy3+, Pr3+, Gd3+) doped CoFe2O4 spinel ferrite nanoparticles. Raman and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy study also confirmed cubic spinel structure of rare-earth ions (Nd3+, Dy3+, Pr3+, Gd3+) substituted CoFe2O4 nanoparticles. The field emission scanning electron microscopy study revealed the effect of annealing temperature on size of rare-earth ions (Nd3+, Dy3+, Pr3+, Gd3+) substituted CoFe2O4 nanoparticles and particles were in the range of 10-100 nm. The magnetic properties of rare-earth ions (Nd3+, Dy3+, Pr3+, Gd3+) substituted CoFe2O4 nanoparticles were investigated by using vibrating sample magnetometer. The variation in saturation magnetization, coercivity and remanent magnetization with annealing temperature/ particle size of rare-earth ions (Nd3+, Dy3+, Pr3+, Gd3+) substituted CoFe2O4 nanoparticles was observed. Acknowledgment: This work was supported by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic – Program NPU I (LO1504).

Keywords: starch, sol-gel combustion method, rare-earth ions, spinel ferrite nanoparticles, magnetic properties

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1910 Particle Size Dependent Magnetic Properties of CuFe2O4 Spinel Ferrite Nanoparticles Synthesized by Starch-Assisted Sol-Gel Auto-Combustion Method

Authors: R. S. Yadav, J. Havlica, I. Kuřitka, Z. Kozakova, J. Masilko, L. Kalina, M. Hajdúchová, V. Enev, J. Wasserbauer

Abstract:

In this work, copper ferrite CuFe2O4 spinel ferrite nanoparticles with different particle size at different annealing temperature were synthesized using the starch-assisted sol-gel auto-combustion method. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by conventional powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectroscopy, Raman Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, Field-Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy, and Vibrating Sample Magnetometer. The XRD patterns confirmed the formation of CuFe2O4 spinel ferrite nanoparticles. Field-Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy revealed that particles are of spherical morphology with particle size 5-20 nm at lower annealing temperature. An infrared spectroscopy study showed the presence of two principal absorption bands in the frequency range around 530 cm-1 (ν1) and around 360 cm-1 (ν2); which indicate the presence of tetrahedral and octahedral group complexes, respectively, within the spinel ferrite nanoparticles. Raman spectroscopy study also indicated the change in octahedral and tetrahedral site related Raman modes in copper ferrite nanoparticles with change of particle size. This change in magnetic behavior with change of particle size of CuFe2O4 nanoparticles was also observed. The change in magnetic properties with change of particle size is due to cation redistribution, which was confirmed by X-Ray photoelectron study.

Keywords: copper ferrite, nanoparticles, magnetic property, CuFe2O4

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1909 Stabilization of Transition Metal Chromite Nanoparticles in Silica Matrix

Authors: J. Plocek, P. Holec, S. Kubickova, B. Pacakova, I. Matulkova, A. Mantlikova, I. Němec, D. Niznansky, J. Vejpravova

Abstract:

This article presents summary on preparation and characterization of zinc, copper, cadmium and cobalt chromite nano crystals, embedded in an amorphous silica matrix. The ZnCr2O4/SiO2, CuCr2O4/SiO2, CdCr2O4/SiO2 and CoCr2O4/SiO2 nano composites were prepared by a conventional sol-gel method under acid catalysis. Final heat treatment of the samples was carried out at temperatures in the range of 900–1200 °C to adjust the phase composition and the crystallite size, respectively. The resulting samples were characterized by Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM), Raman/FTIR spectroscopy and magnetic measurements. Formation of the spinel phase was confirmed in all samples. The average size of the nano crystals was determined from the PXRD data and by direct particle size observation on HRTEM; both results were correlated. The mean particle size (reviewed by HRTEM) was in the range from ~ 4 to 46 nm. The results showed that the sol-gel method can be effectively used for preparation of the spinel chromite nano particles embedded in the silica matrix and the particle size is driven by the type of the cation A2+ in the spinel structure and the temperature of the final heat treatment. Magnetic properties of the nano crystals were found to be just moderately modified in comparison to the bulk phases.

Keywords: sol-gel method, nanocomposites, Rietveld refinement, Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, magnetic properties, spinel, chromite

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1908 Mineralogy and Thermobarometry of Xenoliths in Basalt from the Chanthaburi-Trat Gem Fields, Thailand

Authors: Apichet Boonsoong

Abstract:

In the Chanthaburi-Trat basalts, xenoliths are composed of essentially ultramafic xenoliths (particularly spinel lherzolite) with a few of an aggregate of feldspar. Some 19 ultramafic xenoliths were collected from 13 different locations. They range in size from 3.5 to 60mm across. Most are weathered and oxidized on the surface but fresh samples are obtained from cut surfaces. Chemical analyses were performed on carbon-coated polished thin sections using a fully automated CAMECA SX-50 electron microprobe (EMPA) in wavelength-dispersive mode. In thin section, they are seen to consist of variable amounts of olivine, clinopyroxene, orthopyroxene with minor spinel and plagioclase, and are classed as lherzolite. Modal compositions of the ultramafic nodules vary with olivine (60-75%), clinopyroxene (20-30%), orthopyroxene (0-15%), minor spinel (1-3%) and plagioclase (<1%). The essential minerals form an equigranular, medium- to coarse-grained, granoblastic texture, and all are in mutual contact indicating attainment of equilibrium. Reaction rims are common along the nodule margins and in some are also present along grain boundaries. Zoning occurs in clinopyroxene, and to a lesser extent in orthopyroxene. The homogeneity of mineral compositions in lherzolite xenoliths suggests the attainment of equilibrium. The equilibration temperatures of these xenoliths are estimated to be in the range of 973 to 1063°C. Pressure estimates are not so easily obtained because no suitable barometer exists for garnet-free lherzolites and so an indirect method was used. The general mineral assemblage of the lherzolite xenoliths and the absence of garnet indicate a pressure range of approximately 12–19kbar, which is equivalent to depths approximately of 38 to 60km.

Keywords: chanthaburi-trat basalts, spinel lherzolite, xenoliths, 973 to 1063°C, 38 to 60km

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1907 Effect of the Nature of the Precursor on the Performance of Cu-Mn Catalysts for CO and VOCs Oxidation

Authors: Elitsa Kolentsova, Dimitar Dimitrov, Krasimir Ivanov

Abstract:

The catalytic oxidation of methanol to formaldehyde is an important industrial process in which the waste gas in addition to CO contains methanol and dimethyl ether (DME). Evaluation of the possibility of removing the harmful components from the exhaust gasses needs a more complex investigation. Our previous work indicates that supported Cu-Mn oxide catalysts are promising for effective deep oxidation of these compounds. This work relates to the catalyst, comprising copper-manganese spinel, coated on carrier γ-Al₂O₃. The effect of preparation conditions on the active component composition and activity behavior of the catalysts is discussed. Different organometallic compounds on the base of four natural amino acids (Glycine, Alanine, Valine, Leucine) as precursors were used for the preparation of catalysts with Cu/Mn molar ratio 1:5. X-Ray and TEM analysis were performed on the catalyst’s bulk, and surface composition and the specific surface area was determined by BET method. The results obtained show that the activity of the catalysts increase up to 40% although there are some specific features, depending on the nature of the amino acid and the oxidized compound.

Keywords: Cu-Mn/γ-Al₂O₃, CO and VOCs oxidation, heterogeneous catalysis, amino acids

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1906 An Effective Synthesis Method of Microwave Solution Combustion with the Application of Visible Light-Responsive Photocatalyst of Rb21 Dye

Authors: Rahul Jarariya

Abstract:

The textile industry uses various types of dyes and discharges a lot of highly coloured wastewater. It impacts the environment like allergic reaction, respiratory, skin problems, irritation to a mucous membrane, the upper respiratory tract has to the fore, Intoxicated dye discharges 40 to 50,000 tons with great concern. Spinel ferrites gained a lot of attention due to their wide application area from biomedical to wastewater treatment. Generally, spinel ferrite is known as M-Fe2O4. Spinel type nanoparticles possess high suspension stability. The synthesis method of Microwave solution combustion (MC) method is effective for nanoscale materials, including oxides, metals, alloys, and sulfides, works as fast and energy-efficient during the process. The review focuses on controlling, nanostructure and doping. The influence of the fuel concentration and the post-treatment temperature on the structural and magnetic properties. The effects of amounts of fuel and phase changes, particle size and shape, and magnetic properties can be characterized by various techniques. Urea is the most commonly used fuel. Ethanol or n-butanol is apt for removing impurities. As a result of the materials gives fine purity. Photocatalysis phenomena act with catalyst dosage to degrade dye from wastewater. Visible light responsive produces a large amount of hydroxyl (•OH) radical made the degradation efficiency of Rh21 type dye. It develops a narrow bandgap to make it suitable for enhanced photocatalytic activity.

Keywords: microwave solution combustion method, normal spinel, doped spinels, magnetic property, Rb21

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1905 Investigation of Mutagenicity and DNA Binding Properties of Metal-Free and Metallophthalocyanines Containing α-Napththolbenzein Groups on the Peripheral Positions

Authors: Meltem Betül Sağlam, Halil İbrahim Güler, Aykut Sağlam

Abstract:

In this work, phthalocyanine compounds containing α-naphtholbenzeinunits have been synthesized. Mutagenicity and DNA binding properties of the compounds were investigated by Salmonella/Microsome Assay and spectrophotometer. According to the results of the preliminary range finding tests, the compounds gave no toxic effect to all tester strain S. typhimurium TA98 and TA100 at doses of 500, 1100, 350, 500 and 750 µg/plate in the presence and absence of S9, respectively. This study showed that all compounds exhibited efficient DNA-binding activity. In conclusion, these non-toxic compounds may be used as effective DNA dyes for molecular biology studies.

Keywords: dye, mutagenicity, phthalocyanine, toxicity

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1904 Future Trends in Sources of Natural Antioxidants from Indigenous Foods

Authors: Ahmed El-Ghorab

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Indigenous foods are promising sources of various chemical bioactive compounds such as vitamins, phenolic compounds and carotenoids. Therefore, the presence o different bioactive compounds in fruits could be used to retard or prevent various diseases such as cardiovascular and cancer. This is an update report on nutritional compositions and health promoting phytochemicals of different indigenous food . This different type of fruits and/ or other sources such as spices, aromatic plants, grains by-products, which containing bioactive compounds might be used as functional foods or for nutraceutical purposes. most common bioactive compounds are vitamin C, polyphenol, β- carotene and lycopene contents. In recent years, there has been a global trend toward the use of natural phytochemical as antioxidants and functional ingredients, which are present in natural resources such as vegetables, fruits, oilseeds and herbs.. Our future trend the Use of Natural antioxidants as a promising alternative to use of synthetic antioxidants and the Production of natural antioxidant on commercial scale to maximize the value addition of indigenous food waste as a good source of bioactive compounds such as antioxidants.

Keywords: bioactive compounds, antioxidants, by-product, indigenous foods, phenolic compounds

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1903 Transition Metal Carbodiimide vs. Spinel Matrices for Photocatalytic Water Oxidation

Authors: Karla Lienau, Rafael Müller, René Moré, Debora Ressnig, Dan Cook, Richard Walton, Greta R. Patzke

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The increasing demand for renewable energy sources and storable fuels underscores the high potential of artificial photosynthesis. The four electron transfer process of water oxidation remains the bottleneck of water splitting, so that special emphasis is placed on the development of economic, stable and efficient water oxidation catalysts (WOCs). Our investigations introduced cobalt carbodiimide CoNCN and its transition metal analogues as WOC types, and further studies are focused on the interaction of different transition metals in the convenient all-nitrogen/carbon matrix. This provides further insights into the nature of the ‘true catalyst’ for cobalt centers in this non-oxide environment. Water oxidation activity is evaluated with complementary methods, namely photocatalytically using a Ru-dye sensitized standard setup as well as electrocatalytically, via immobilization of the WOCs on glassy carbon electrodes. To further explore the tuning potential of transition metal combinations, complementary investigations were carried out in oxidic spinel WOC matrices with more versatile host options than the carbodiimide framework. The influence of the preparative history on the WOC performance was evaluated with different synthetic methods (e.g. hydrothermally or microwave assisted). Moreover, the growth mechanism of nanoscale Co3O4-spinel as a benchmark WOC was investigated with in-situ PXRD techniques.

Keywords: carbodiimide, photocatalysis, spinels, water oxidation

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1902 Ni Mixed Oxides Type-Spinel for Energy: Application in Dry Reforming of Methane for Syngas (H2 and CO) Production

Authors: Bedarnia Ishak

Abstract:

In the recent years, the dry reforming of methane has received considerable attention from an environmental view point because it consumes and eliminates two gases (CH4 and CO2) responsible for global warming by greenhouse effect. Many catalysts containing noble metal (Rh, Ru, Pd, Pt and Ir) or transition metal (Ni, Co and Fe) have been reported to be active in this reaction. Compared to noble metals, Ni-materials are cheap but very easily deactivated by coking. Ni-based mixed oxides structurally well-defined like perovskites and spinels are being studied because they possibly make solid solutions and allow to vary the composition and thus the performances properties. In this work, nano-sized nickel ferrite oxides are synthesized using three different methods: Co-precipitation (CP), hydrothermal (HT) and sol gel (SG) methods and characterized by XRD, Raman, XPS, BET, TPR, SEM-EDX and TEM-EDX. XRD patterns of all synthesized oxides showed the presence of NiFe2O4 spinel, confirmed by Raman spectroscopy. Hematite was present only in CP sample. Depending on the synthesis method, the surface area, particle size, as well as the surface Ni/Fe atomic ratio (XPS) and the behavior upon reduction varied. The materials were tested in methane dry reforming with CO2 at 1 atm and 650-800 °C. The catalytic activity of the spinel samples was not very high (XCH4 = 5-20 mol% and XCO2 = 25-40 mol %) when no pre-reduction step was carried out. A significant contribution of RWGS explained the low values of H2/CO ratio obtained. The reoxidation step of the catalyst carried out after reaction showed little amounts of coke deposition. The reducing pretreatment was particularly efficient in the case of SG (XCH4 = 80 mol% and XCO2 = 92 mol%, at 800 °C), with H2/CO > 1. In conclusion, the influence of preparation was strong for most samples and the catalytic behavior could be interpreted by considering the distribution of cations among octahedral (Oh) and tetrahedral (Td) sites as in (Ni2+1-xFe3+x) Td (Ni2+xFe3+2-x) OhO2-4 influenced the reducibility of materials and thus their catalytic performance.

Keywords: NiFe2O4, dry reforming of methane, spinel oxide, oxide zenc

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1901 Ni Mixed Oxides Type-Spinel for Energy: Application in Dry Reforming of Methane for Syngas (H2 & Co) Production

Authors: Bouhenni Mohamed Saif El Islam

Abstract:

In the recent years, the dry reforming of methane has received considerable attention from an environmental view point because it consumes and eliminates two gases (CH4 and CO2) responsible for global warming by greenhouse effect. Many catalysts containing noble metal (Rh, Ru, Pd, Pt and Ir) or transition metal (Ni, Co and Fe) have been reported to be active in this reaction. Compared to noble metals, Ni-materials are cheap but very easily deactivated by coking. Ni-based mixed oxides structurally well-defined like perovskites and spinels are being studied because they possibly make solid solutions and allow to vary the composition and thus the performances properties. In this work, nano-sized nickel ferrite oxides are synthesized using three different methods: Co-precipitation (CP), hydrothermal (HT) and sol gel (SG) methods and characterized by XRD, Raman, XPS, BET, TPR, SEM-EDX and TEM-EDX. XRD patterns of all synthesized oxides showed the presence of NiFe2O4 spinel, confirmed by Raman spectroscopy. Hematite was present only in CP sample. Depending on the synthesis method, the surface area, particle size, as well as the surface Ni/Fe atomic ratio (XPS) and the behavior upon reduction varied. The materials were tested in methane dry reforming with CO2 at 1 atm and 650-800 °C. The catalytic activity of the spinel samples was not very high (XCH4 = 5-20 mol% and XCO2 = 25-40 mol %) when no pre-reduction step was carried out. A significant contribution of RWGS explained the low values of H2/CO ratio obtained. The reoxidation step of the catalyst carried out after reaction showed little amounts of coke deposition. The reducing pretreatment was particularly efficient in the case of SG (XCH4 = 80 mol% and XCO2 = 92 mol%, at 800 °C), with H2/CO > 1. In conclusion, the influence of preparation was strong for most samples and the catalytic behavior could be interpreted by considering the distribution of cations among octahedral (Oh) and tetrahedral (Td) sites as in (Ni2+1-xFe3+x)Td (Ni2+xFe3+2-x)OhO2-4 influenced the reducibility of materials and thus their catalytic performance.

Keywords: NiFe2O4, dry reforming of methane, spinel oxide, XCO2

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1900 Morphostructural Characterization of Zinc and Manganese Nano-Oxides

Authors: Adriana-Gabriela Plaiasu, Catalin Marian Ducu

Abstract:

The interest in the unique properties associated with materials having structures on a nanometer scale has been increasing at an exponential rate in last decade. Among the functional mineral compounds such as perovskite (CaTiO3), rutile (TiO2), CaF2, spinel (MgAl2O4), wurtzite (ZnS), zincite (ZnO) and the cupric oxide (CuO) has been used in numerous applications such as catalysis, semiconductors, batteries, gas sensors, biosensors, field transistors and medicine. The Solar Physical Vapor Deposition (SPVD) presented in the paper as elaboration method is an original process to prepare nanopowders working under concentrated sunlight in 2kW solar furnaces. The influence of the synthesis parameters on the chemical and microstructural characteristics of zinc and manganese oxides synthesized nanophases has been systematically studied using XRD, TEM and SEM.

Keywords: characterization, morphological, nano-oxides, structural

Procedia PDF Downloads 167
1899 Evolution of Microstructure through Phase Separation via Spinodal Decomposition in Spinel Ferrite Thin Films

Authors: Nipa Debnath, Harinarayan Das, Takahiko Kawaguchi, Naonori Sakamoto, Kazuo Shinozaki, Hisao Suzuki, Naoki Wakiya

Abstract:

Nowadays spinel ferrite magnetic thin films have drawn considerable attention due to their interesting magnetic and electrical properties with enhanced chemical and thermal stability. Spinel ferrite magnetic films can be implemented in magnetic data storage, sensors, and spin filters or microwave devices. It is well established that the structural, magnetic and transport properties of the magnetic thin films are dependent on microstructure. Spinodal decomposition (SD) is a phase separation process, whereby a material system is spontaneously separated into two phases with distinct compositions. The periodic microstructure is the characteristic feature of SD. Thus, SD can be exploited to control the microstructure at the nanoscale level. In bulk spinel ferrites having general formula, MₓFe₃₋ₓ O₄ (M= Co, Mn, Ni, Zn), phase separation via SD has been reported only for cobalt ferrite (CFO); however, long time post-annealing is required to occur the spinodal decomposition. We have found that SD occurs in CoF thin film without using any post-deposition annealing process if we apply magnetic field during thin film growth. Dynamic Aurora pulsed laser deposition (PLD) is a specially designed PLD system through which in-situ magnetic field (up to 2000 G) can be applied during thin film growth. The in-situ magnetic field suppresses the recombination of ions in the plume. In addition, the peak’s intensity of the ions in the spectra of the plume also increases when magnetic field is applied to the plume. As a result, ions with high kinetic energy strike into the substrate. Thus, ion-impingement occurred under magnetic field during thin film growth. The driving force of SD is the ion-impingement towards the substrates that is induced by in-situ magnetic field. In this study, we report about the occurrence of phase separation through SD and evolution of microstructure after phase separation in spinel ferrite thin films. The surface morphology of the phase separated films show checkerboard like domain structure. The cross-sectional microstructure of the phase separated films reveal columnar type phase separation. Herein, the decomposition wave propagates in lateral direction which has been confirmed from the lateral composition modulations in spinodally decomposed films. Large magnetic anisotropy has been found in spinodally decomposed nickel ferrite (NFO) thin films. This approach approves that magnetic field is also an important thermodynamic parameter to induce phase separation by the enhancement of up-hill diffusion in thin films. This thin film deposition technique could be a more efficient alternative for the fabrication of self-organized phase separated thin films and employed in controlling of the microstructure at nanoscale level.

Keywords: Dynamic Aurora PLD, magnetic anisotropy, spinodal decomposition, spinel ferrite thin film

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1898 Synthesis of [1-(Substituted-Sulfonyl)-Piperidin-4-yl]-(2,4-Difluoro-Phenyl)-Methanone Oximes and Their Biological Activity

Authors: L. Mallesha, C. S. Karthik, P. Mallu

Abstract:

A series of new [1-(substituted-benzoyl)-piperidin-4-yl]-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-methanone oxime derivatives, 3(a-f) were synthesized and characterized by different spectral studies. All compounds were evaluated for their in vitro antibacterial activity against bacterial strains. These compounds were screened for their antioxidant activity by DPPH• and Fe2+ chelating assay. Antiproliferative effects were evaluated using the MTT assay method against two human cancer cell lines and one astrocytoma brain tumor cell line. Compound 3b exhibited moderate antibacterial activity when compared with other compounds. All the compounds showed antioxidant activity, where compound 3f was the best radical scavenger and Fe2+ ion scavenger. Compounds, 3b, and 3d showed good activity on all cell lines, whereas the other compounds in the series exhibited moderate activity.

Keywords: Piperidine, antibacterial, antioxidant, antiproliferative

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1897 The Relations of Volatile Compounds, Some Parameters and Consumer Preference of Commercial Fermented Milks in Thailand

Authors: Suttipong Phosuksirikul, Rawichar Chaipojjana, Arunsri Leejeerajumnean

Abstract:

The aim of research was to define the relations between volatile compounds, some parameters (pH, titratable acidity (TA), total soluble solid (TSS), lactic acid bacteria count) and consumer preference of commercial fermented milks. These relations tend to be used for controlling and developing new fermented milk product. Three leading commercial brands of fermented milks in Thailand were evaluated by consumers (n=71) using hedonic scale for four attributes (sweetness, sourness, flavour, and overall liking), volatile compounds using headspace-solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) GC-MS, pH, TA, TSS and LAB count. Then the relations were analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA). The PCA data showed that all of four attributes liking scores were related to each other. They were also related to TA, TSS and volatile compounds. The related volatile compounds were mainly on fermented produced compounds including acetic acid, furanmethanol, furfural, octanoic acid and the volatiles known as artificial fruit flavour (beta pinene, limonene, vanillin, and ethyl vanillin). These compounds were provided the information about flavour addition in commercial fermented milk in Thailand.

Keywords: fermented milk, volatile compounds, preference, PCA

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1896 An Ab Initio Molecular Orbital Theory and Density Functional Theory Study of Fluorous 1,3-Dion Compounds

Authors: S. Ghammamy, M. Mirzaabdollahiha

Abstract:

Quantum mechanical calculations of energies, geometries, and vibrational wavenumbers of fluorous 1,3-dion compounds are carried out using density functional theory (DFT/B3LYP) method with LANL2DZ basis sets. The calculated HOMO and LUMO energies show that charge transfer occurs in the molecules. The thermodynamic functions of fluorous 1,3-dion compounds have been performed at B3LYP/LANL2DZ basis sets. The theoretical spectrograms for F NMR spectra of fluorous 1,3-dion compounds have also been constructed. The F NMR nuclear shieldings of fluoride ligands in fluorous 1,3-dion compounds have been studied quantum chemical.

Keywords: density function theory, natural bond orbital, HOMO, LOMO, fluorous

Procedia PDF Downloads 277
1895 Characterization of Kopff Crater Using Remote Sensing Data

Authors: Shreekumari Patel, Prabhjot Kaur, Paras Solanki

Abstract:

Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3), Miniature Radio Frequency (Mini-RF), Kaguya Terrain Camera images, Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) digital elevation model (DEM) and Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC)- Narrow angle camera (NAC) and Wide angle camera (WAC) images were used to study mineralogy, surface physical properties, and age of the 42 km diameter Kopff crater. M3 indicates the low albedo crater floor to be high-Ca pyroxene dominated associated with floor fracture suggesting the igneous activity of the gabbroic material. Signature of anorthositic material is sampled on the eastern edge as target material is excavated from ~3 km diameter impact crater providing access to the crustal composition. Several occurrences of spinel were detected in northwestern rugged terrain. Our observation can be explained by exposure of spinel by this crater that impacted onto the inner rings of Orientale basin. Spinel was part of the pre-impact target, an intrinsic unit of basin ring. Crater floor was dated by crater counts performed on Kaguya TC images. Nature of surface was studied in detail with LROC NAC and Mini-RF. Freshly exposed surface and boulder or debris seen in LROC NAC images have enhanced radar signal in comparison to mature terrain of Kopff crater. This multidisciplinary analysis of remote sensing data helps to assess lunar surface in detail.

Keywords: crater, mineralogy, moon, radar observations

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1894 Dielectric, Electrical and Magnetic Properties of Elastomer Filled with in situ Thermally Reduced Graphene Oxide and Spinel Ferrite NiFe₂O₄ Nanoparticles

Authors: Raghvendra Singh Yadav, Ivo Kuritka, Jarmila Vilcakova, Pavel Urbanek, Michal Machovsky, David Skoda, Milan Masar

Abstract:

The elastomer nanocomposites were synthesized by solution mixing method with an elastomer as a matrix and in situ thermally reduced graphene oxide (RGO) and spinel ferrite NiFe₂O₄ nanoparticles as filler. Spinel ferrite NiFe₂O₄ nanoparticles were prepared by the starch-assisted sol-gel auto-combustion method. The influence of filler on the microstructure, morphology, dielectric, electrical and magnetic properties of Reduced Graphene Oxide-Nickel Ferrite-Elastomer nanocomposite was characterized by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, the Dielectric Impedance analyzer, and vibrating sample magnetometer. Scanning electron microscopy study revealed that the fillers were incorporated in elastomer matrix homogeneously. The dielectric constant and dielectric tangent loss of nanocomposites was decreased with the increase of frequency, whereas, the dielectric constant increases with the addition of filler. Further, AC conductivity was increased with the increase of frequency and addition of fillers. Furthermore, the prepared nanocomposites exhibited ferromagnetic behavior. This work was supported by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic – Program NPU I (LO1504).

Keywords: polymer-matrix composites, nanoparticles as filler, dielectric property, magnetic property

Procedia PDF Downloads 66