Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 87

Search results for: refractory

87 Undercooling of Refractory High-Entropy Alloy

Authors: Liang Hu


The innovation of refractory high-entropy alloy (RHEA) formed from refractory metals W, Ta, Mo, Nb, Hf, V, and Zr was firstly implemented in 2010 to obtain better strength at high temperature than conventional HEAs based on Al, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe and Ni. Due to the refractory characteristic and high chemical activity at elevated temperature, electrostatic levitation technique has been utilized to fulfill the rapid solidification of RHEA. Several RHEAs consisting W, Ta, Mo, Nb, Zr have been selected to perform the undercooling and rapid solidification by ESL. They are substantially undercooled by up to 0.2TL. The evolution of as-solidified microstructure and component redistribution with undercooling have been investigated by SEM, EBSD, and EPMA analysis. According to the EPMA results of composing elements at different undercooling levels, the chemical distribution relevant to undercooling was also analyzed.

Keywords: chemical distribution, high-entropy alloy, rapid solidification, undercooling

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86 Reuse of Refractory Brick Wastes (RBW) as a Supplementary Cementitious Materials in a High Performance Fiber-Reinforced Concrete

Authors: B. Safi, B. Amrane, M. Saidi


The main purpose of this study is to evaluate the reuse of refractory brick wastes (RBW) as a supplementary cementitious materials (by a total replacement of silica fume) to produce a high performance fiber-reinforced concrete (HPFRC). This work presents an experimental study on the formulation and physico-mechanical characterization of ultra high performance fiber reinforced concretes based on three types of refractory brick wastes. These have been retrieved from the manufacturing unit of float glass MFG (Mediterranean Float Glass) after their use in the oven basin (ie d. they are considered waste unit). Three compositions of concrete (HPFRC) were established based on three types of refractory brick wastes (finely crushed), with the dosage of each type of bricks is kept constant, similar the dosage of silica fume used for the control concrete. While all the other components and the water/binder ratio are maintained constant with the same quantity of the superplasticizer. The performance of HPFRC, were evaluated by determining the essential characteristics of fresh and hardened concrete.

Keywords: refractory bricks, concrete, fiber, fluidity, compressive strength, tensile strength

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85 Formation of in-situ Ceramic Phase in N220 Nano Carbon Containing Low Carbon Mgo-C Refractory

Authors: Satyananda Behera, Ritwik Sarkar


In iron and steel industries, MgO–C refractories are widely used in basic oxygen furnaces, electric arc furnaces and steel ladles due to their excellent corrosion resistance, thermal shock resistance, and other excellent hot properties. Conventionally magnesia carbon refractories contain about 8-20 wt% of carbon but the use of carbon is also associate with disadvantages like oxidation, low fracture strength, high heat loss and higher carbon pick up in steel. So, MgO-C refractory having low carbon content without compromising the beneficial properties is the challenge. Nano carbon, having finer particles, can mix and distribute within the entire matrix uniformly and can result in improved mechanical, thermo-mechanical, corrosion and other refractory properties. Previous experiences with the use of nano carbon in low carbon MgO-C refractory have indicated an optimum range of use of nano carbon around 1 wt%. This optimum nano carbon content was used in MgO-C compositions with flaky graphite followed by aluminum and silicon metal powder as an anti-oxidant. These low carbon MgO-C refractory compositions were prepared by conventional manufacturing techniques. At the same time 16 wt. % flaky graphite containing conventional MgO-C refractory was also prepared parallel under similar conditions. The developed products were characterized for various refractory related properties. Nano carbon containing compositions showed better mechanical, thermo-mechanical properties, and oxidation resistance compared to that of conventional composition. Improvement in the properties is associated with the formation of in-situ ceramic phase-like aluminum carbide, silicon carbide, and magnesium aluminum spinel. Higher surface area and higher reactivity of N220 nano carbon black resulted in greater formation in-situ ceramic phases, even at a much lower amount. Nano carbon containing compositions were found to have improved properties in MgO-C refractories compared to that of the conventional ones at much lower total carbon content.

Keywords: N220nano carbon black, refractory properties, conventionally manufacturing techniques, conventional magnesia carbon refractories

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84 Microstructure and Texture Evolution of Cryo Rolled and Annealed Ductile TaNbHfZrTi Refractory High Entropy Alloy

Authors: Mokali Veeresham


The microstructure and texture evolution of cryo rolled and annealed ductile TaHfNbZrTi refractory high entropy alloy was investigated. To obtain that, the alloy is severely cryo rolled and subsequently annealed for the recrystallization process. The cryo rolled – 90% shows the presence of very fine grains and microstructural heterogeneity. The cryo rolled samples are annealed at a temperature ranging from 800°C to 1400°C, the partial recrystallization is observed at 800°C annealed condition, and at higher annealing temperatures the complete recrystallization process is noticed. The development of ND fiber texture is observed after the annealing.

Keywords: refractory high entropy alloy, cryo-rolling, annealing, microstructure, texture

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83 Recrystallization Microstructure Studies of Cold-Rolled Ta0.5Nb0.5Hf0.5ZrTi1.5 Non-Equiatomic Refractory High Entropy Alloy

Authors: Veeresham Mokali


Recrystallization microstructure and grain growth studies of Ta₀.₅Nb₀.₅Hf₀.₅ZrTi₁.₅ refractory high entropy alloy have been explored in the present work. The as-cast Ta₀.₅Nb₀.₅Hf₀.₅ZrTi₁.₅ alloy was cold-rolled to 90% in several passes at room temperature and further subjected to annealing treatment for recrystallization at 800°C, 1000°C, 1250°C, and 1400°C temperatures for one hour. However, the characterization of heavily cold-rolled and annealed condition specimens was done using scanning electron microscopy (SEM-EBSD). The cold-rolled specimens showed the development of an inhomogeneous microstructure. Upon annealing, recrystallized microstructures were achieved; in addition to that, the coarsening of microstructure with raising annealing temperature noticed in the range of 800°C – 1400°C annealed temperatures.

Keywords: refractory high entropy alloys, cold-rolling, recrystallization, microstructure

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82 Development of High Quality Refractory Bricks from Fireclays for Industrial Applications

Authors: David E. Esezobor, Friday I. Apeh, Harrison O. Onovo, Ademola A. Agbeleye


Available indigenous refractory bricks in Nigeria can only be used in the lining of furnaces for melting of cast iron operating at less than 1,400°C or in preheating furnaces due to their low refractoriness less than 1,500°C. The bricks crack and shatter on heating at 1350 to 1450°C. In this paper, a simple and adaptable technology of manufacturing high-quality refractory bricks from selected Nigerian clays for furnace linings was developed. Fireclays from Onibode, Owode-Ketu in Ogun State and Kwoi in Kaduna State were crushed, ground, and sieved into various grain sizes using standard techniques. The pulverized clays were blended with alumina in various mix ratios and indurated in the furnace at 900 – 16000C. Their chemical, microstructure and mineralogical properties were characterized using atomic absorption spectrophotometry, scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction spectrometry respectively. The mineralogical and spectrochemical analyses suggested that the clays are of siliceous alumino-silicate and acidic in nature. The appropriate blending of fireclays with alumina provided the tremendous improvement in the refractoriness of the bricks and other acceptable service properties comparable with imported refractory bricks. The change in microstructure from pseudo-hexagonal grains to equiaxed grains of well – ordered sequence of structural layers could be responsible for the improved properties.

Keywords: alumina, furnace, industry, manufacturing, refractoriness

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81 Development of Light-Weight Refractory Bricks

Authors: Liaqat Ali, Furqan Ahmad


The heat losses should be controlled during the high temperature processes from energy conservation point of view. For this purpose, refractories with low thermal conductivity, high porosity and good mechanical strength along with low price are desirable. In this work, various combinations of naturally occurring, locally available, cheap raw materials, namely, clay, rice husk and saw dust were used. Locally produced insulating firebricks (IFBs) cannot be used at higher than a few hundred °C and possess low strength as well. Various process parameters were studied and the refractories with desirable properties were produced, which can be used up to 1200 °C.

Keywords: firebricks, mechanical strength, thermal conductivity, refractory bricks

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80 Development of Al Foam by a Low-Cost Salt Replication Method for Industrial Applications

Authors: B. Soni, S. Biswas


Metal foams of Al find diverse applications in several industrial sectors such as in automotive and sports equipment industry as impact, acoustic and vibration absorbers, the aerospace industry as structural components in turbines and spatial cones, in the naval industry as low frequency vibration absorbers, and in construction industry as sound barriers inside tunnels, as fire proof materials and structure protection systems against explosions and even in heat exchangers, orthopedic components, and decorative items. Here, we report on the development of Al foams by a low cost and convenient technique of salt replication method with efficient control over size, geometry and distribution of the pores. Sodium bicarbonate was used as the foaming agent to form the porous refractory salt pattern. The mixed refractory salt slurry was microwave dried followed by sintering for selected time periods. Molten Al was infiltrated into the salt pattern in an inert atmosphere at a pressure of 2 bars. The final products were obtained by leaching out the refractory salt pattern. Mechanical properties of the derived samples were studied with a universal testing machine. The results were analyzed in correlation with their microstructural features evaluated with a scanning electron microscope (SEM).

Keywords: metal foam, Al, salt replication method, mechanical properties, SEM

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79 Beneficiation of Low Grade Chromite Ore and Its Characterization for the Formation of Magnesia-Chromite Refractory by Economically Viable Process

Authors: Amit Kumar Bhandary, Prithviraj Gupta, Siddhartha Mukherjee, Mahua Ghosh Chaudhuri, Rajib Dey


Chromite ores are primarily used for extraction of chromium, which is an expensive metal. For low grade chromite ores (containing less than 40% Cr2O3), the chromium extraction is not usually economically viable. India possesses huge quantities of low grade chromite reserves. This deposit can be utilized after proper physical beneficiation. Magnetic separation techniques may be useful after reduction for the beneficiation of low grade chromite ore. The sample collected from the sukinda mines is characterized by XRD which shows predominant phases like maghemite, chromite, silica, magnesia and alumina. The raw ore is crushed and ground to below 75 micrometer size. The microstructure of the ore shows that the chromite grains surrounded by a silicate matrix and porosity observed the exposed side of the chromite ore. However, this ore may be utilized in refractory applications. Chromite ores contain Cr2O3, FeO, Al2O3 and other oxides like Fe-Cr, Mg-Cr have a high tendency to form spinel compounds, which usually show high refractoriness. Initially, the low grade chromite ore (containing 34.8% Cr2O3) was reduced at 1200 0C for 80 minutes with 30% coke fines by weight, before being subjected to magnetic separation. The reduction by coke leads to conversion of higher state of iron oxides converted to lower state of iron oxides. The pre-reduced samples are then characterized by XRD. The magnetically inert mass was then reacted with 20% MgO by weight at 1450 0C for 2 hours. The resultant product was then tested for various refractoriness parameters like apparent porosity, slag resistance etc. The results were satisfactory, indicating that the resultant spinel compounds are suitable for refractory applications for elevated temperature processes.

Keywords: apparent porosity, beneficiation, low-grade chromite, refractory, spinel compounds, slag resistance

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78 Evaluation of the Dry Compressive Strength of Refractory Bricks Developed from Local Kaolin

Authors: Olanrewaju Rotimi Bodede, Akinlabi Oyetunji


Modeling the dry compressive strength of sodium silicate bonded kaolin refractory bricks was studied. The materials used for this research work included refractory clay obtained from Ijero-Ekiti kaolin deposit on coordinates 7º 49´N and 5º 5´E, sodium silicate obtained from the open market in Lagos on coordinates 6°27′11″N 3°23′45″E all in the South Western part of Nigeria. The mineralogical composition of the kaolin clay was determined using the Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometer (ED-XRF). The clay samples were crushed and sieved using the laboratory pulveriser, ball mill and sieve shaker respectively to obtain 100 μm diameter particles. Manual pipe extruder of dimension 30 mm diameter by 43.30 mm height was used to prepare the samples with varying percentage volume of sodium silicate 5 %, 7.5 % 10 %, 12.5 %, 15 %, 17.5 %, 20% and 22.5 % while kaolin and water were kept at 50 % and 5 % respectively for the comprehensive test. The samples were left to dry in the open laboratory atmosphere for 24 hours to remove moisture. The samples were then were fired in an electrically powered muffle furnace. Firing was done at the following temperatures; 700ºC, 750ºC, 800ºC, 850ºC, 900ºC, 950ºC, 1000ºC and 1100ºC. Compressive strength test was carried out on the dried samples using a Testometric Universal Testing Machine (TUTM) equipped with a computer and printer, optimum compression of 4.41 kN/mm2 was obtained at 12.5 % sodium silicate; the experimental results were modeled with MATLAB and Origin packages using polynomial regression equations that predicted the estimated values for dry compressive strength and later validated with Pearson’s rank correlation coefficient, thereby obtaining a very high positive correlation value of 0.97.

Keywords: dry compressive strength, kaolin, modeling, sodium silicate

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77 The Many Faces of Cancer and Knowing When to Say Stop

Authors: Diwei Lin, Amanda Jh. Tan


We present a very rare case of de novo large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the prostate (LCNEC) in an 84-year-old male on a background of high-grade, muscle-invasive transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. While NE tumours account for 1% to 5% of all cases of prostate cancer and scattered NE cells can be found in 10% to 100% of prostate adenocarcinomas, pure LCNEC of the prostate is extremely rare. Most LCNEC of the prostate is thought to originate by clonal progression under the selection pressure of therapy and refractory to long-term hormonal treatment for adenocarcinoma of the prostate. De novo LCNEC is only described in case reports and is thought to develop via direct malignant transformation. Limited data in the English literature makes it difficult to accurately predict the prognosis of LCNEC of the prostate. However, current evidence suggesting that increasing NE differentiation in prostate adenocarcinoma is associated with a higher stage, high-grade disease, and a worse prognosis.

Keywords: large cell neuroendocrine cancer, prostate cancer, refractory cancer, medical and health sciences

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76 Excellent Combination of Tensile Strength and Elongation of Novel Reverse Rolled TaNbHfZrTi Refractory High Entropy Alloy

Authors: Mokali Veeresham


In this work, the high-entropy alloy TaNbHfZrTi was processed at room temperature by each step novel reverse rolling up to a 90% reduction in thickness. The reverse rolled 90% samples subsequently used for annealing at 800°C and 1000°C temperatures for 1h to understand phase stability, microstructure, texture, and mechanical properties. The reverse rolled 90% condition contains BCC single-phase; upon annealing at 800°C temperature, the formation of secondary phase BCC-2 prevailed. The partial recrystallization and complete recrystallization microstructures were developed for annealed at 800°C and 1000°C temperatures, respectively. The reverse rolled condition, and 1000°C annealed temperature exhibit extraordinary room temperature tensile properties with high tensile strength (UTS) 1430MPa and 1556 MPa without compromising loss of ductility consists of an appreciable amount of 21% and 20% elongation, respectively.

Keywords: refractory high entropy alloys, reverse rolling, recrystallization, microstructure, tensile properties

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75 Preparation and Performance Evaluation of Green Chlorine-free Coagulants

Authors: Huihui Zhang, Zhongzhi Zhang


Coagulation/flocculation is regarded as a simple and effective wastewater treatment technology. Chlorine-containing coagulants may release chloride ions into the water, causing corrosion. A green chlorine-free coagulant of polyaluminum ferric silicate (PSAF) was prepared by the copolymerization method to treat oily refractory wastewaters. Results showed that the highest removal efficiency of turbidity and chemical oxygen demand (COD) achieved 97.4% and 93.0% at a dosage of 700 mg/L, respectively. No chlorine atoms were found in Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer (FT-ICR MS) spectra results of raw wastewater, which meant there was almost no organic chlorine. After PSAF coagulation, chlorinated organics were still not detected in the effluent, indicating that the use of PSAF coagulants did not lead to an increase in the content of organic chlorine. Meanwhile, the chloride ion concentration was also almost the same as that in the raw wastewater. Thus, the chlorine-free coagulant is highly efficient and does not introduce additional chloride ions into the wastewater, avoiding corrosion.

Keywords: coagulation, chloride-free coagulant, oily refractory wastewater, coagulation performance

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74 Influence of the Refractory Period on Neural Networks Based on the Recognition of Neural Signatures

Authors: José Luis Carrillo-Medina, Roberto Latorre


Experimental evidence has revealed that different living neural systems can sign their output signals with some specific neural signature. Although experimental and modeling results suggest that neural signatures can have an important role in the activity of neural networks in order to identify the source of the information or to contextualize a message, the functional meaning of these neural fingerprints is still unclear. The existence of cellular mechanisms to identify the origin of individual neural signals can be a powerful information processing strategy for the nervous system. We have recently built different models to study the ability of a neural network to process information based on the emission and recognition of specific neural fingerprints. In this paper we further analyze the features that can influence on the information processing ability of this kind of networks. In particular, we focus on the role that the duration of a refractory period in each neuron after emitting a signed message can play in the network collective dynamics.

Keywords: neural signature, neural fingerprint, processing based on signal identification, self-organizing neural network

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73 High Temperature Oxidation of Cr-Steel Interconnects in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

Authors: Saeed Ghali, Azza Ahmed, Taha Mattar


Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) is a promising solution for the energy resources leakage. Ferritic stainless steel becomes a suitable candidate for the SOFCs interconnects due to the recent advancements. Different steel alloys were designed to satisfy the needed characteristics in SOFCs interconnect as conductivity, thermal expansion and corrosion resistance. Refractory elements were used as alloying elements to satisfy the needed properties. The oxidation behaviour of the developed alloys was studied where the samples were heated for long time period at the maximum operating temperature to simulate the real working conditions. The formed scale and oxidized surface were investigated by SEM. Microstructure examination was carried out for some selected steel grades. The effect of alloying elements on the behaviour of the proposed interconnects material and the performance during the working conditions of the cells are explored and discussed. Refractory metals alloying of chromium steel seems to satisfy the needed characteristics in metallic interconnects.

Keywords: SOFCs, Cr-steel, interconnects, oxidation

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72 Development of Impressive Tensile Properties of Hybrid Rolled Ta0.5Nb0.5Hf0.5ZrTi1.5 Refractory High Entropy Alloy

Authors: M. Veeresham


The microstructure, texture, phase stability, and tensile properties of annealed Ta0.5Nb0.5Hf0.5ZrTi1.5 alloy have been investigated in the present research. The alloy was severely hybrid-rolled up to 93.5% thickness reduction, subsequently rolled samples subjected to an annealing treatment at 800 °C and 1000 °C temperatures for 1 h. Consequently, the rolled condition and both annealed temperatures have a body-centered cubic (BCC) structure. Furthermore, quantitative texture measurements (orientation distribution function (ODF) analysis) and microstructural examinations (analytical electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) maps) permitted to establish a good relationship between annealing texture and microstructure and universal testing machine (UTM) utilized for obtaining the mechanical properties. Impressive room temperature tensile properties combination with the tensile strength (1380 MPa) and (24.7%) elongation is achieved for the 800 °C heat-treated condition. The evolution of the coarse microstructure featured in the case of 1000 °C annealed temperature ascribed to the influence of high thermal energy.

Keywords: refractory high entropy alloys, hybrid-rolling, recrystallization, microstructure, tensile properties

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71 Antiproliferative and Apoptotic Effects of an Enantiomerically Pure β-Dipeptide Derivative through PI3K/Akt-Dependent and -Independent Pathways in Human Hormone-Refractory Prostate Cancer Cells

Authors: Mei-Ling Chan, Jin-Ming Wu, Konstantin V. Kudryavtsev, Jih-Hwa Guh


Prostate cancer is one of the most common malignant disease in men. KUD983 is an enantiomerically pure β-dipeptide derivative, which may have anti-cancer effects. In the present study, KUD983 exhibits powerful activity against hormone-refractory prostate cancer (HRPC) PC-3 and DU145 cells. The IC50 values of KUD983 in PC-3 and DU145 cells are 0.56±0.07M and 0.50±0.04 M respectively. KUD983 induced G1 arrest of the cell cycle and subsequent apoptosis associated with the down-regulation of several related proteins including cyclin D1, cyclin E and Cdk4, and the de-phosphorylation of RB. The protein expressions of nuclear and total c-Myc protein, which was able to regulate the expression of both cyclin D1 and cyclin E, were significantly suppressed by KUD983. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is an important signaling pathway that influences the energy metabolism, cell cycle, proliferation, survival and apoptosis of cells, and is associated with numerous other signaling pathways. The Western Blot data revealed that KUD983 inhibited PI3K/Akt and mTOR/p70S6K/4E-BP1 pathways. The transient transfection of constitutively active myristylated Akt (myr-Akt) cDNA significantly reversed KUD983-induced caspase activation but did not abolish the suppression of mTOR/p70S6K/4E-BP1 signaling cascade indicating the presence of both Akt-dependent and -independent pathways. Moreover, KUD983-induced effect was collaborated with the down-regulation of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 members (e.g., Bcl-2, and Mcl-1) and IAP family members (e.g., survivin). Furthermore, KUD983 induced autophagic cell death using confocal microscopic examination, investigating the level of conversion of LC3-I to LC3-II and flow cytometric detection of AVO-positive cells. Taken together, the data suggest that KUD983 is an anticancer β-dipeptide against HRPCs through the inhibition of cell proliferation and induction of apoptotic and autophagic cell death. The suppression of signaling pathways mediated by c-Myc, PI3K/Akt and mTOR/p70S6K/4E-BP1 and the collaboration with down-regulation of Mcl-1 and survivin may indicate the mechanism of KUD983 against HRPC.

Keywords: β-dipeptide, hormone-refractory prostate cancer, mTOR, PI3K/Akt

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70 Reducing the Chemical Activity of Ceramic Casting Molds for Producing Decorated Glass Moulds

Authors: Nilgun Kuskonmaz


Ceramic molding can produce castings with fine detail, smooth surface and high degree of dimensional accuracy. All these features are the key factors for producing decorated glass moulds. In the ceramic mold casting process, the fundamental parameters affecting the mold-metal reactions are the composition and the properties of the refractory materials used in the production of ceramic mold. As a result of the reactions taking place between the liquid metal and mold surface, it is not possible to achieve a perfect surface quality, a fine surface detail and maintain a high standard dimensional tolerances. The present research examines the effects of the binder composition on the structural and physical properties of the zircon ceramic mold. In the experiment, the ceramic slurry was prepared by mixing the refractory powders (zircon(ZrSiO4), mullit(3Al2O32SiO2) and alumina (Al2O3)) with the low alkaline silica (ethyl silicate (C8H20O4Si)) and acidic type gelling material suitable binder and gelling agent. This was followed by pouring that ceramic slurry on to a silicon pattern. After being gelled, the mold was removed from the silicon pattern and dried. Then, the ceramic mold was subjected to the reaction sintering at 1600°C for 2 hours in the furnace. The stainless steel (SS) was cast into the sintered ceramic mold. At the end of this process it was observed that the surface quality of decorated glass mold.

Keywords: ceramic mold, stainless steel casting, decorated glass mold

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69 Experimental Study and Numerical Simulation of the Reaction and Flow on the Membrane Wall of Entrained Flow Gasifier

Authors: Jianliang Xu, Zhenghua Dai, Zhongjie Shen, Haifeng Liu, Fuchen Wang


In an entrained flow gasifier, the combustible components are converted into the gas phase, and the mineral content is converted into ash. Most of the ash particles or droplets are deposited on the refractory or membrane wall and form a slag layer that flows down to the quenching system. The captured particle reaction process and slag flow and phase transformation play an important role in gasifier performance and safe and stable operation. The reaction characteristic of captured char particles on the molten slag had been studied by applied a high-temperature stage microscope. The gasification process of captured chars with CO2 on the slag surface was observed and recorded, compared to the original char gasification. The particle size evolution, heat transfer process are discussed, and the gasification reaction index of the capture char particle are modeled. Molten slag layer promoted the char reactivity from the analysis of reaction index, Coupled with heat transfer analysis, shrinking particle model (SPM) was applied and modified to predict the gasification time at carbon conversion of 0.9, and results showed an agreement with the experimental data. A comprehensive model with gas-particle-slag flow and reaction models was used to model the different industry gasifier. The carbon conversion information in the spatial space and slag layer surface are investigated. The slag flow characteristic, such as slag velocity, molten slag thickness, slag temperature distribution on the membrane wall and refractory brick are discussed.

Keywords: char, slag, numerical simulation, gasification, wall reaction, membrane wall

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68 Myocardial Reperfusion Injury during Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in Patient with Triple-Vessel Disease in Limited Resources Hospital: A Case Report

Authors: Fanniyah Anis, Bram Kilapong


Myocardial reperfusion injury is defined as the cellular damage that results from a period of ischemia, followed by the reestablishment of the blood supply to the infarcted tissue. Ventricular tachycardia is one of the most commonly encountered reperfusion arrhythmia as one of the types of myocardial perfusion injury. Prompt and early treatment can reduce mortality, despite limited resources of the hospital in high risk patients with history of triple vessel disease. Case report, Male 53 years old has been diagnosed with NSTEMI with 3VD and comorbid disease of Hypertension and has undergone revascularization management with Percutaneous coronary intervention. Ventricular tachycardia leading to cardiac arrest occurred right after the stent was inserted. Resuscitation was performed for almost 2 hours until spontaneous circulation returned. Patient admitted in ICU with refractory cardiac shock despite using combination of ionotropic and vasopressor agents under standard non-invasive monitoring due to the limitation of the hospital. Angiography was performed again 5 hours later to exclude other possibilities of blockage of coronary arteries and conclude diagnosis of myocardial reperfusion injury. Patient continually managed with combination of antiplatelet agents and maintenance dose of anti-arrhythmia agents. The handling of the patient was to focus more on supportive and preventive from further deteriorating of the condition. Patient showed clinically improvement and regained consciousness within 24 hours. Patient was successfully discharged from ICU within 3 days without any neurological sequela and was discharge from hospital after 3 days observation in general ward. Limited Resource of hospital did not refrain the physician from attaining a good outcome for this myocardial reperfusion injury case and angiography alone can be used to confirm the diagnosis of myocardial reperfusion injury.

Keywords: limited resources hospital, myocardial reperfusion injury, prolonged resuscitation, refractory cardiogenic shock, reperfusion arrhythmia, revascularization, triple-vessel disease

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67 Investigation of the GFR2400 Reactivity Control System

Authors: Ján Haščík, Štefan Čerba, Jakub Lüley, Branislav Vrban


The presented paper is related to the design methods and neutronic characterization of the reactivity control system in the large power unit of Generation IV Gas cooled Fast Reactor – GFR2400. The reactor core is based on carbide pin fuel type with the application of refractory metallic liners used to enhance the fission product retention of the SiC cladding. The heterogeneous design optimization of control rod is presented and the results of rods worth and their interferences in a core are evaluated. In addition, the idea of reflector removal as an additive reactivity management option is investigated and briefly described.

Keywords: control rods design, GFR2400, hot spot, movable reflector, reactivity

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66 Time Lag Analysis for Readiness Potential by a Firing Pattern Controller Model of a Motor Nerve System Considered Innervation and Jitter

Authors: Yuko Ishiwaka, Tomohiro Yoshida, Tadateru Itoh


Human makes preparation called readiness potential unconsciously (RP) before awareness of their own decision. For example, when recognizing a button and pressing the button, the RP peaks are observed 200 ms before the initiation of the movement. It has been known that the preparatory movements are acquired before actual movements, but it has not been still well understood how humans can obtain the RP during their growth. On the proposition of why the brain must respond earlier, we assume that humans have to adopt the dangerous environment to survive and then obtain the behavior to cover the various time lags distributed in the body. Without RP, humans cannot take action quickly to avoid dangerous situations. In taking action, the brain makes decisions, and signals are transmitted through the Spinal Cord to the muscles to the body moves according to the laws of physics. Our research focuses on the time lag of the neuron signal transmitting from a brain to muscle via a spinal cord. This time lag is one of the essential factors for readiness potential. We propose a firing pattern controller model of a motor nerve system considered innervation and jitter, which produces time lag. In our simulation, we adopt innervation and jitter in our proposed muscle-skeleton model, because these two factors can create infinitesimal time lag. Q10 Hodgkin Huxley model to calculate action potentials is also adopted because the refractory period produces a more significant time lag for continuous firing. Keeping constant power of muscle requires cooperation firing of motor neurons because a refractory period stifles the continuous firing of a neuron. One more factor in producing time lag is slow or fast-twitch. The Expanded Hill Type model is adopted to calculate power and time lag. We will simulate our model of muscle skeleton model by controlling the firing pattern and discuss the relationship between the time lag of physics and neurons. For our discussion, we analyze the time lag with our simulation for knee bending. The law of inertia caused the most influential time lag. The next most crucial time lag was the time to generate the action potential induced by innervation and jitter. In our simulation, the time lag at the beginning of the knee movement is 202ms to 203.5ms. It means that readiness potential should be prepared more than 200ms before decision making.

Keywords: firing patterns, innervation, jitter, motor nerve system, readiness potential

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65 Refractory T-Cell Prolymphocytic Leukemia with JAK3 Mutation: In Vitro and Clinical Synergy of Tofacitinib and Ruxolitinib

Authors: Mike Wei, Nebu Koshy, Koen van Besien, Giorgio Inghirami, Steven M. Horwitz


T-cell prolymphocytic leukemia (T-PLL) is a rare hematologic disease characterized by a T-cell phenotype, rapid progression, and poor prognosis with median survival of less than a year. Alemtuzumab-based chemotherapy has increased the rate of complete remissions but these are often short-lived, and allogeneic transplant is considered the only curative therapy. In recent studies, JAK3 activating mutations have been identified in T-cell cancers, with T-PLL having the highest rate of JAK3 mutations (30 – 42%). As such, T-PLL is a model disease for evaluating the utility of JAK3 inhibitors. We present a case of a 64-year-old man with relapsed-refractory T-PLL. He was initially treated with alemtuzumab and obtained complete response and was consolidated with matched unrelated donor stem cell transplant. His disease stayed in remission for approximately 1.5 years before relapse, which was then treated with a clinical trial of romidepsin-lenalidomide (partial responses then progression at 6 months) and later alemtuzumab. Due to complications of myelosuppression and CMV reactivation, his treatment was interrupted leading to disease progression. The doubling time of lymphocyte count was approximately 20 days and over a span of 60 days the lymphocyte count rose from 8 x 109/L to 68 x 109/L. Exon sequencing showed a JAK3 mutation. The patient consented to and was treated with FDA-approved tofacitinib (initially 5 mg BID, increased to 10 mg BID after 15 days of treatment). An initial decrease in lymphocyte count was followed by progression. In vitro treatment of the patient’s cells showed modest effects of tofacitinib and ruxolitinib as single agents, in the range of doxorubicin, but synergy between the agents. After 40 days of treatment with tofacitinib and with a lymphocyte count of 150 x 109/L, ruxolitinib (5mg BID) was added. Over the 60 days since dual inhibition was started, the lymphocyte count has stabilized. The patient has remained completely asymptomatic during treatment with tofacitinib and ruxolitinib. Neutrophil count has remained normal. Platelet count and hemoglobin have however declined from ~50 x109/L to ~30 x109/L and from 11 g/dL to 8.1 g/dL respectively, since the introduction of ruxolitinib. The stabilization in lymphocyte count confirms the clinical activity of JAK inhibitors in T-PLL as suggested by the presence of JAK3 mutations and by in-vitro assays. It also suggests clinical synergy between ruxolitinib and tofacitinib in this setting. Prospective studies of JAK inhibitors in PLL patients with formal dose-finding studies are needed.

Keywords: tofacitinib, ruxolitinib, T-cell prolymphocytic leukemia, JAK3

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64 Refractory Cardiac Arrest: Do We Go beyond, Do We Increase the Organ Donation Pool or Both?

Authors: Ortega Ivan, De La Plaza Edurne


Background: Spain and other European countries have implemented Uncontrolled Donation after Cardiac Death (uDCD) programs. After 15 years of experience in Spain, many things have changed. Recent evidence and technical breakthroughs achieved in resuscitation are relevant for uDCD programs and raise some ethical concerns related to these protocols. Aim: To rethink current uDCD programs in the light of recent evidence on available therapeutic procedures applicable to victims of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). To address the following question: What is the current standard of treatment owed to victims of OHCA before including them in an uDCD protocol? Materials and Methods: Review of the scientific and ethical literature related to both uDCD programs and innovative resuscitation techniques. Results: 1) The standard of treatment received and the chances of survival of victims of OHCA depend on whether they are classified as Non-Heart Beating Patients (NHBP) or Non-Heart-Beating-Donors (NHBD). 2) Recent studies suggest that NHBPs are likely to survive, with good quality of life, if one or more of the following interventions are performed while ongoing CPR -guided by suspected or known cause of OHCA- is maintained: a) direct access to a Cath Lab-H24 or/and to extra-corporeal life support (ECLS); b) transfer in induced hypothermia from the Emergency Medical Service (EMS) to the ICU; c) thrombolysis treatment; d) mobile extra-corporeal membrane oxygenation (mini ECMO) instituted as a bridge to ICU ECLS devices. 3) Victims of OHCA who cannot benefit from any of these therapies should be considered as NHBDs. Conclusion: Current uDCD protocols do not take into account recent improvements in resuscitation and need to be adapted. Operational criteria to distinguish NHBDs from NHBP should seek a balance between the technical imperative (to do whatever is possible), considerations about expected survival with quality of life, and distributive justice (costs/benefits). Uncontrolled DCD protocols can be performed in a way that does not hamper the legitimate interests of patients, potential organ donors, their families, the organ recipients, and the health professionals involved in these processes. Families of NHBDs’ should receive information which conforms to the ethical principles of respect of autonomy and transparency.

Keywords: uncontrolled donation after cardiac death resuscitation, refractory cardiac arrest, out of hospital cardiac, arrest ethics

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63 Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Gene Polymorphism Studies: A Case-Control Study

Authors: Salina Y. Saddick


Mild gestational hyperglycemia (MGH) is a very common complication of pregnancy that is characterized by intolerance to glucose. The association of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism to MGH has been previously reported. In this study, we evaluated the association between ACE polymorphism and the risk of MGH in a Saudi population. We conducted a case-control study in a population of 100 MGH patients and 100 control subjects. ACE gene polymorphism was analyzed by the novel approach of tetraprimer amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS)-polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The frequency of ACE polymorphism was not associated with either alleles or genotypes in MGH patients. Glucose concentration was found to be significantly associated with the MGH group. Our study suggests that ACE genotypes were not associated with ACE polymorphism in a Saudi population.

Keywords: MGH, ACE, insertion polymorphism, deletion polymorphism

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62 Refractory Visceral Leishmaniasis Responding to Second-Line Therapy

Authors: Preet Shah, Om Shrivastav


Introduction : In India, Leishmania donovani is the only parasite causing Leishmaniasis. The parasite infects the reticuloendothelial system and is found in the bone marrow, spleen and liver. Treatment of choice is amphotericin-B with sodium stibogluconate being an alternative. Miltefosine is useful in refractory cases. In our case, Leishmaniasis occurred in a person residing in western India (which is quite rare) and it failed to respond to two different drugs (again an uncommon feature) before it finally responded to a third one. Description: A 50 year old lady, a resident of western India, with no history of recent travel, presented with an ulcer on the left side of the nose since 8 months. She was apparently alright 8 months back, when she noticed a small ulcerated lesion on the left ala of the nose which was immediately biopsied. The biopsy revealed amastigotes of Leishmania for which she was administered intra-lesional sodium stibogluconate for 1 month (4 doses every 8 days).Despite this, there was no regression of the ulcer and hence she presented to us for further management. On examination, her vital parameters were normal. Barring an ulcer on the left side of the nose, rest of the examination findings were unremarkable. Complete blood count was normal. Ultrasound abdomen showed hepatomegaly. PET-CT scan showed increased metabolic activity in left ala of nose, hepatosplenomegaly and increased metabolic activity in spleen and bone marrow. Bone marrow biopsy was done which showed hypercellular marrow with erythroid preponderance. Considering a diagnosis of leishmaniasis which had so far been unresponsive to sodium stibogluconate, she was started on liposomal amphotericin-B. At the time of admission, her creatinine level was normal, but it started rising with the administration of liposomal amphotericin-B, hence the dose was reduced. Despite this, creatinine levels did not improve, and she started developing hypokalemia and hypomagnesemia as side effects of the drug, hence further reductions in the dosage were made. Despite a total of 3 weeks of liposomal amphotericin-B, there was no improvement in the ulcer. As had so far failed to respond to sodium stibogluconate and liposomal amphotericin-B, it was decided to start her on miltefosine. She received the miltefosine for a total of 12 weeks. At the end of this duration, there was a marked regression of the cutaneous lesion. Conclusion: Refractoriness to amphotericin-B in leishmaniasis may be seen in up to 5 % cases. Here, an alternative drug such as miltefosine is useful and hence we decided to use it, to which she responded adequately. Furthermore, although leishmaniasis is common in the eastern part of India, it is a relatively unknown entity in the western part of the country with the occurrence being very rare. Because of these 2 reasons, we consider our case to be a unique one.

Keywords: amphotericin-b, leishmaniasis, miltefosine, tropical diseases

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61 Fire Resistance Capacity of Reinforced Concrete Member Strengthened by Fiber Reinforced Polymer

Authors: Soo-Yeon Seo, Jong-Wook Lim, Se-Ki Song


Currently, FRP (Fiber Reinforced Polymer) materials have been widely used for reinforcement of building structural members. However, since the FRP and the epoxy material for attaching it have very low resistance to heat, there is a problem in application where high temperature is an issue. In this paper, the resistance performance of FRP member made of carbon fiber at high temperature was investigated through experiment under temperature change. As a result, epoxy encapsulating FRP is damaged at not high temperatures, and the fibers are degraded. Therefore, when reinforcing a structure using FRP, a separate refractory heat treatment is necessary. The use of a 30 mm thick calcium silicate board as a fireproofing method can protect FRP up to 600ᵒC outside temperature.

Keywords: FRP (Fiber Reinforced Polymer), high temperature, experiment under temperature change, calcium silicate board

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60 Inverse Heat Transfer Analysis of a Melting Furnace Using Levenberg-Marquardt Method

Authors: Mohamed Hafid, Marcel Lacroix


This study presents a simple inverse heat transfer procedure for predicting the wall erosion and the time-varying thickness of the protective bank that covers the inside surface of the refractory brick wall of a melting furnace. The direct problem is solved by using the Finite-Volume model. The melting/solidification process is modeled using the enthalpy method. The inverse procedure rests on the Levenberg-Marquardt method combined with the Broyden method. The effect of the location of the temperature sensors and of the measurement noise on the inverse predictions is investigated. Recommendations are made concerning the location of the temperature sensor.

Keywords: melting furnace, inverse heat transfer, enthalpy method, levenberg–marquardt method

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59 An Investigation on MgAl₂O₄ Based Mould System in Investment Casting Titanium Alloy

Authors: Chen Yuan, Nick Green, Stuart Blackburn


The investment casting process offers a great freedom of design combined with the economic advantage of near net shape manufacturing. It is widely used for the production of high value precision cast parts in particularly in the aerospace sector. Various combinations of materials have been used to produce the ceramic moulds, but most investment foundries use a silica based binder system in conjunction with fused silica, zircon, and alumino-silicate refractories as both filler and coarse stucco materials. However, in the context of advancing alloy technologies, silica based systems are struggling to keep pace, especially when net-shape casting titanium alloys. Study has shown that the casting of titanium based alloys presents considerable problems, including the extensive interactions between the metal and refractory, and the majority of metal-mould interaction is due to reduction of silica, present as binder and filler phases, by titanium in the molten state. Cleaner, more refractory systems are being devised to accommodate these changes. Although yttria has excellent chemical inertness to titanium alloy, it is not very practical in a production environment combining high material cost, short slurry life, and poor sintering properties. There needs to be a cost effective solution to these issues. With limited options for using pure oxides, in this work, a silica-free magnesia spinel MgAl₂O₄ was used as a primary coat filler and alumina as a binder material to produce facecoat in the investment casting mould. A comparison system was also studied with a fraction of the rare earth oxide Y₂O₃ adding into the filler to increase the inertness. The stability of the MgAl₂O₄/Al₂O₃ and MgAl₂O₄/Y₂O₃/Al₂O₃ slurries was assessed by tests, including pH, viscosity, zeta-potential and plate weight measurement, and mould properties such as friability were also measured. The interaction between the face coat and titanium alloy was studied by both a flash re-melting technique and a centrifugal investment casting method. The interaction products between metal and mould were characterized using x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDS). The depth of the oxygen hardened layer was evaluated by micro hardness measurement. Results reveal that introducing a fraction of Y₂O₃ into magnesia spinel can significantly increase the slurry life and reduce the thickness of hardened layer during centrifugal casting.

Keywords: titanium alloy, mould, MgAl₂O₄, Y₂O₃, interaction, investment casting

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58 A Case of Prosthetic Vascular-Graft Infection Due to Mycobacterium fortuitum

Authors: Takaaki Nemoto


Case presentation: A 69-year-old Japanese man presented with a low-grade fever and fatigue that had persisted for one month. The patient had an aortic dissection on the aortic arch 13 years prior, an abdominal aortic aneurysm seven years prior, and an aortic dissection on the distal aortic arch one year prior, which were all treated with artificial blood-vessel replacement surgery. Laboratory tests revealed an inflammatory response (CRP 7.61 mg/dl), high serum creatinine (Cr 1.4 mg/dL), and elevated transaminase (AST 47 IU/L, ALT 45 IU/L). The patient was admitted to our hospital on suspicion of prosthetic vascular graft infection. Following further workups on the inflammatory response, an enhanced chest computed tomography (CT) and a non-enhanced chest DWI (MRI) were performed. The patient was diagnosed with a pulmonary fistula and a prosthetic vascular graft infection on the distal aortic arch. After admission, the patient was administered Ceftriaxion and Vancomycine for 10 days, but his fever and inflammatory response did not improve. On day 13 of hospitalization, a lung fistula repair surgery and an omental filling operation were performed, and Meropenem and Vancomycine were administered. The fever and inflammatory response continued, and therefore we took repeated blood cultures. M. fortuitum was detected in a blood culture on day 16 of hospitalization. As a result, we changed the treatment regimen to Amikacin (400 mg/day), Meropenem (2 g/day), and Cefmetazole (4 g/day), and the fever and inflammatory response began to decrease gradually. We performed a test of sensitivity for Mycobacterium fortuitum, and found that the MIC was low for fluoroquinolone antibacterial agent. The clinical course was good, and the patient was discharged after a total of 8 weeks of intravenous drug administration. At discharge, we changed the treatment regimen to Levofloxacin (500 mg/day) and Clarithromycin (800 mg/day), and prescribed these two drugs as a long life suppressive therapy. Discussion: There are few cases of prosthetic vascular graft infection caused by mycobacteria, and a standard therapy remains to be established. For prosthetic vascular graft infections, it is ideal to provide surgical and medical treatment in parallel, but in this case, surgical treatment was difficult and, therefore, a conservative treatment was chosen. We attempted to increase the treatment success rate of this refractory disease by conducting a susceptibility test for mycobacteria and treating with different combinations of antimicrobial agents, which was ultimately effective. With our treatment approach, a good clinical course was obtained and continues at the present stage. Conclusion: Although prosthetic vascular graft infection resulting from mycobacteria is a refractory infectious disease, it may be curative to administer appropriate antibiotics based on the susceptibility test in addition to surgical treatment.

Keywords: prosthetic vascular graft infection, lung fistula, Mycobacterium fortuitum, conservative treatment

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