Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 6

Search results for: low-grade chromite

6 Beneficiation of Low Grade Chromite Ore and Its Characterization for the Formation of Magnesia-Chromite Refractory by Economically Viable Process

Authors: Amit Kumar Bhandary, Prithviraj Gupta, Siddhartha Mukherjee, Mahua Ghosh Chaudhuri, Rajib Dey


Chromite ores are primarily used for extraction of chromium, which is an expensive metal. For low grade chromite ores (containing less than 40% Cr2O3), the chromium extraction is not usually economically viable. India possesses huge quantities of low grade chromite reserves. This deposit can be utilized after proper physical beneficiation. Magnetic separation techniques may be useful after reduction for the beneficiation of low grade chromite ore. The sample collected from the sukinda mines is characterized by XRD which shows predominant phases like maghemite, chromite, silica, magnesia and alumina. The raw ore is crushed and ground to below 75 micrometer size. The microstructure of the ore shows that the chromite grains surrounded by a silicate matrix and porosity observed the exposed side of the chromite ore. However, this ore may be utilized in refractory applications. Chromite ores contain Cr2O3, FeO, Al2O3 and other oxides like Fe-Cr, Mg-Cr have a high tendency to form spinel compounds, which usually show high refractoriness. Initially, the low grade chromite ore (containing 34.8% Cr2O3) was reduced at 1200 0C for 80 minutes with 30% coke fines by weight, before being subjected to magnetic separation. The reduction by coke leads to conversion of higher state of iron oxides converted to lower state of iron oxides. The pre-reduced samples are then characterized by XRD. The magnetically inert mass was then reacted with 20% MgO by weight at 1450 0C for 2 hours. The resultant product was then tested for various refractoriness parameters like apparent porosity, slag resistance etc. The results were satisfactory, indicating that the resultant spinel compounds are suitable for refractory applications for elevated temperature processes.

Keywords: apparent porosity, beneficiation, low-grade chromite, refractory, spinel compounds, slag resistance

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5 Chromite Exploration Using Electrical Resistivity Tomography in Ingessana Hill, Blue Nile State, Sudan

Authors: Mohamed A. Mohamed-Ali, Jannis Simos, Khalid M. Kheiralla


The Ingessana hills in the southern Blue Nile of Sudan are part of the southern sector of the NE-SW trending ophiolithic belt of the Arab-Nubian Shield with mid-neoproterozoic age. The rocks are mainly serpentinized and in parts highly silicified dunites especially towards the contact with the intruding Bau granite. A promising chromite mineralization zones in the area tend to be generally associated with NE-SW trending shear-zones. A detailed geophysical survey employing electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) at 34 lines were carried out over a zone of a known chromite mineralization to test feasibility of detecting and delineating the ore (if exist) and accordingly facilitate the positioning of exploratory drill holes. ERT sections were inverted with smooth constraints inversion code where the contacts between the granite and the ultramafics are showing up clearly. The continuity of mineralization along the contact is not well confirmed. However, the low-resistivity anomalies are probably recognized as potential chromite mineralization zones. These anomalies represent prime targets for further exploration by drilling, trenching or shallow pits. If the results of the drilling or excavations are positive, small open pit exploitations may produce important tonnages of chromite.

Keywords: chromite exploration, ERT, Ingessana Hills, inversion

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4 Stabilization of Transition Metal Chromite Nanoparticles in Silica Matrix

Authors: J. Plocek, P. Holec, S. Kubickova, B. Pacakova, I. Matulkova, A. Mantlikova, I. Němec, D. Niznansky, J. Vejpravova


This article presents summary on preparation and characterization of zinc, copper, cadmium and cobalt chromite nano crystals, embedded in an amorphous silica matrix. The ZnCr2O4/SiO2, CuCr2O4/SiO2, CdCr2O4/SiO2 and CoCr2O4/SiO2 nano composites were prepared by a conventional sol-gel method under acid catalysis. Final heat treatment of the samples was carried out at temperatures in the range of 900–1200 °C to adjust the phase composition and the crystallite size, respectively. The resulting samples were characterized by Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM), Raman/FTIR spectroscopy and magnetic measurements. Formation of the spinel phase was confirmed in all samples. The average size of the nano crystals was determined from the PXRD data and by direct particle size observation on HRTEM; both results were correlated. The mean particle size (reviewed by HRTEM) was in the range from ~ 4 to 46 nm. The results showed that the sol-gel method can be effectively used for preparation of the spinel chromite nano particles embedded in the silica matrix and the particle size is driven by the type of the cation A2+ in the spinel structure and the temperature of the final heat treatment. Magnetic properties of the nano crystals were found to be just moderately modified in comparison to the bulk phases.

Keywords: sol-gel method, nanocomposites, Rietveld refinement, Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, magnetic properties, spinel, chromite

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3 Making of Alloy Steel by Direct Alloying with Mineral Oxides during Electro-Slag Remelting

Authors: Vishwas Goel, Kapil Surve, Somnath Basu


In-situ alloying in steel during the electro-slag remelting (ESR) process has already been achieved by the addition of necessary ferroalloys into the electro-slag remelting mold. However, the use of commercially available ferroalloys during ESR processing is often found to be financially less favorable, in comparison with the conventional alloying techniques. However, a process of alloying steel with elements like chromium and manganese using the electro-slag remelting route is under development without any ferrochrome addition. The process utilizes in-situ reduction of refined mineral chromite (Cr₂O₃) and resultant enrichment of chromium in the steel ingot produced. It was established in course of this work that this process can become more advantageous over conventional alloying techniques, both economically and environmentally, for applications which inherently demand the use of the electro-slag remelting process, such as manufacturing of superalloys. A key advantage is the lower overall CO₂ footprint of this process relative to the conventional route of production, storage, and the addition of ferrochrome. In addition to experimentally validating the feasibility of the envisaged reactions, a mathematical model to simulate the reduction of chromium (III) oxide and transfer to chromium to the molten steel droplets was also developed as part of the current work. The developed model helps to correlate the amount of chromite input and the magnitude of chromium alloying that can be achieved through this process. Experiments are in progress to validate the predictions made by this model and to fine-tune its parameters.

Keywords: alloying element, chromite, electro-slag remelting, ferrochrome

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2 Fundamental Natural Frequency of Chromite Composite Floor System

Authors: Farhad Abbas Gandomkar, Mona Danesh


This paper aims to determine Fundamental Natural Frequency (FNF) of a structural composite floor system known as Chromite. To achieve this purpose, FNFs of studied panels are determined by development of Finite Element Models (FEMs) in ABAQUS program. American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC) code in Steel Design Guide Series 11, presents a fundamental formula to calculate FNF of a steel framed floor system. This formula has been used to verify results of the FEMs. The variability in the FNF of the studied system under various parameters such as dimensions of floor, boundary conditions, rigidity of main and secondary beams around the floor, thickness of concrete slab, height of composite joists, distance between composite joists, thickness of top and bottom flanges of the open web steel joists, and adding tie beam perpendicular on the composite joists, is determined. The results show that changing in dimensions of the system, its boundary conditions, rigidity of main beam, and also adding tie beam, significant changes the FNF of the system up to 452.9%, 50.8%, -52.2%, %52.6%, respectively. In addition, increasing thickness of concrete slab increases the FNF of the system up to 10.8%. Furthermore, the results demonstrate that variation in rigidity of secondary beam, height of composite joist, and distance between composite joists, and thickness of top and bottom flanges of open web steel joists insignificant changes the FNF of the studied system up to -0.02%, -3%, -6.1%, and 0.96%, respectively. Finally, the results of this study help designer predict occurrence of resonance, comfortableness, and design criteria of the studied system.

Keywords: Fundamental Natural Frequency, Chromite Composite Floor System, Finite Element Method, low and high frequency floors, Comfortableness, resonance.

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1 Biosorption of Nickel by Penicillium simplicissimum SAU203 Isolated from Indian Metalliferous Mining Overburden

Authors: Suchhanda Ghosh, A. K. Paul


Nickel, an industrially important metal is not mined in India, due to the lack of its primary mining resources. But, the chromite deposits occurring in the Sukinda and Baula-Nuasahi region of Odhisa, India, is reported to contain around 0.99% of nickel entrapped in the goethite matrix of the lateritic iron rich ore. Weathering of the dumped chromite mining overburden often leads to the contamination of the ground as well as the surface water with toxic nickel. Microbes inherent to this metal contaminated environment are reported to be capable of removal as well as detoxification of various metals including nickel. Nickel resistant fungal isolates obtained in pure form from the metal rich overburden were evaluated for their potential to biosorb nickel by using their dried biomass. Penicillium simplicissimum SAU203 was the best nickel biosorbant among the 20 fungi tested and was capable to sorbing 16.85 mg Ni/g biomass from a solution containing 50 mg/l of Ni. The identity of the isolate was confirmed using 18S rRNA gene analysis. The sorption capacity of the isolate was further standardized following Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherm models and the results reflected energy efficient sorption. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy studies of the nickel loaded and control biomass in a comparative basis revealed the involvement of hydroxyl, amine and carboxylic groups in Ni binding. The sorption process was also optimized for several standard parameters like initial metal ion concentration, initial sorbet concentration, incubation temperature and pH, presence of additional cations and pre-treatment of the biomass by different chemicals. Optimisation leads to significant improvements in the process of nickel biosorption on to the fungal biomass. P. simplicissimum SAU203 could sorb 54.73 mg Ni/g biomass with an initial Ni concentration of 200 mg/l in solution and 21.8 mg Ni/g biomass with an initial biomass concentration of 1g/l solution. Optimum temperature and pH for biosorption was recorded to be 30°C and pH 6.5 respectively. Presence of Zn and Fe ions improved the sorption of Ni(II), whereas, cobalt had a negative impact. Pre-treatment of biomass with various chemical and physical agents has affected the proficiency of Ni sorption by P. simplicissimum SAU203 biomass, autoclaving as well as treatment of biomass with 0.5 M sulfuric acid and acetic acid reduced the sorption as compared to the untreated biomass, whereas, NaOH and Na₂CO₃ and Twin 80 (0.5 M) treated biomass resulted in augmented metal sorption. Hence, on the basis of the present study, it can be concluded that P. simplicissimum SAU203 has the potential for the removal as well as detoxification of nickel from contaminated environments in general and particularly from the chromite mining areas of Odhisa, India.

Keywords: nickel, fungal biosorption, Penicillium simplicissimum SAU203, Indian chromite mines, mining overburden

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