Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 72

Search results for: Siddhartha Mukherjee

72 Reliability and Probability Weighted Moment Estimation for Three Parameter Mukherjee-Islam Failure Model

Authors: Ariful Islam, Showkat Ahmad Lone

Abstract:

The Mukherjee-Islam Model is commonly used as a simple life time distribution to assess system reliability. The model exhibits a better fit for failure information and provides more appropriate information about hazard rate and other reliability measures as shown by various authors. It is possible to introduce a location parameter at a time (i.e., a time before which failure cannot occur) which makes it a more useful failure distribution than the existing ones. Even after shifting the location of the distribution, it represents a decreasing, constant and increasing failure rate. It has been shown to represent the appropriate lower tail of the distribution of random variables having fixed lower bound. This study presents the reliability computations and probability weighted moment estimation of three parameter model. A comparative analysis is carried out between three parameters finite range model and some existing bathtub shaped curve fitting models. Since probability weighted moment method is used, the results obtained can also be applied on small sample cases. Maximum likelihood estimation method is also applied in this study.

Keywords: comparative analysis, maximum likelihood estimation, Mukherjee-Islam failure model, probability weighted moment estimation, reliability

Procedia PDF Downloads 170
71 Collision Theory Based Sentiment Detection Using Discourse Analysis in Hadoop

Authors: Anuta Mukherjee, Saswati Mukherjee

Abstract:

Data is growing everyday. Social networking sites such as Twitter are becoming an integral part of our daily lives, contributing a large increase in the growth of data. It is a rich source especially for sentiment detection or mining since people often express honest opinion through tweets. However, although sentiment analysis is a well-researched topic in text, this analysis using Twitter data poses additional challenges since these are unstructured data with abbreviations and without a strict grammatical correctness. We have employed collision theory to achieve sentiment analysis in Twitter data. We have also incorporated discourse analysis in the collision theory based model to detect accurate sentiment from tweets. We have also used the retweet field to assign weights to certain tweets and obtained the overall weightage of a topic provided in the form of a query. Hadoop has been exploited for speed. Our experiments show effective results.

Keywords: sentiment analysis, twitter, collision theory, discourse analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 370
70 Beneficiation of Low Grade Chromite Ore and Its Characterization for the Formation of Magnesia-Chromite Refractory by Economically Viable Process

Authors: Amit Kumar Bhandary, Prithviraj Gupta, Siddhartha Mukherjee, Mahua Ghosh Chaudhuri, Rajib Dey

Abstract:

Chromite ores are primarily used for extraction of chromium, which is an expensive metal. For low grade chromite ores (containing less than 40% Cr2O3), the chromium extraction is not usually economically viable. India possesses huge quantities of low grade chromite reserves. This deposit can be utilized after proper physical beneficiation. Magnetic separation techniques may be useful after reduction for the beneficiation of low grade chromite ore. The sample collected from the sukinda mines is characterized by XRD which shows predominant phases like maghemite, chromite, silica, magnesia and alumina. The raw ore is crushed and ground to below 75 micrometer size. The microstructure of the ore shows that the chromite grains surrounded by a silicate matrix and porosity observed the exposed side of the chromite ore. However, this ore may be utilized in refractory applications. Chromite ores contain Cr2O3, FeO, Al2O3 and other oxides like Fe-Cr, Mg-Cr have a high tendency to form spinel compounds, which usually show high refractoriness. Initially, the low grade chromite ore (containing 34.8% Cr2O3) was reduced at 1200 0C for 80 minutes with 30% coke fines by weight, before being subjected to magnetic separation. The reduction by coke leads to conversion of higher state of iron oxides converted to lower state of iron oxides. The pre-reduced samples are then characterized by XRD. The magnetically inert mass was then reacted with 20% MgO by weight at 1450 0C for 2 hours. The resultant product was then tested for various refractoriness parameters like apparent porosity, slag resistance etc. The results were satisfactory, indicating that the resultant spinel compounds are suitable for refractory applications for elevated temperature processes.

Keywords: apparent porosity, beneficiation, low-grade chromite, refractory, spinel compounds, slag resistance

Procedia PDF Downloads 253
69 Sustainable Development through Cleaner Production in India: Barriers and Possible Directions for Implementation Based on Case Study

Authors: Aparajita Mukherjee, D. P. Mukherjee

Abstract:

This paper critically assessed pollution problems in small and medium enterprises with unique references to foundries and sponge iron industries to survey the adverse impact on human societies and the environment. The objective of this paper was to show how cleaner production concept was implemented in one foundry through improvisation of existing technology in India. Incremental advancement of existing technology minimized environmental issues and resource utilization. This study depicted that poor fiscal help, poor enforcement of government regulations, owners’ attitude and lacking specialized technical workers were the significant hindrances towards cleaner production. The paper explored the possible ways to overcome these hindrances for cleaner production. On a more general level, findings raise important questions regarding the need for a new paradigm for the implementation of cleaner production. Improvisation of existing technology in these enterprises would be cost effective towards sustainable development.

Keywords: SME pollution, ecological crisis, sustainable development, cleaner production, training

Procedia PDF Downloads 280
68 Design and Analysis of Adaptive Type-I Progressive Hybrid Censoring Plan under Step Stress Partially Accelerated Life Testing Using Competing Risk

Authors: Ariful Islam, Showkat Ahmad Lone

Abstract:

Statistical distributions have long been employed in the assessment of semiconductor devices and product reliability. The power function-distribution is one of the most important distributions in the modern reliability practice and can be frequently preferred over mathematically more complex distributions, such as the Weibull and the lognormal, because of its simplicity. Moreover, it may exhibit a better fit for failure data and provide more appropriate information about reliability and hazard rates in some circumstances. This study deals with estimating information about failure times of items under step-stress partially accelerated life tests for competing risk based on adoptive type-I progressive hybrid censoring criteria. The life data of the units under test is assumed to follow Mukherjee-Islam distribution. The point and interval maximum-likelihood estimations are obtained for distribution parameters and tampering coefficient. The performances of the resulting estimators of the developed model parameters are evaluated and investigated by using a simulation algorithm.

Keywords: adoptive progressive hybrid censoring, competing risk, mukherjee-islam distribution, partially accelerated life testing, simulation study

Procedia PDF Downloads 243
67 Corporate Water Footprint Assessment: The Case of Tata Steel

Authors: Sujata Mukherjee, Arunavo Mukherjee

Abstract:

Water covers 70 per cent of our planet; however, freshwater is incredibly rare, and scarce has been listed as the highest impact global risk. The problems related to freshwater scarcity multiplies with the human population having more than doubled coupled with climate change, changing water cycles leading to droughts and floods and a rise in water pollution. Businesses, governments, and local communities are constrained by water scarcity and are facing growing challenges to their growth and sustainability. Water foot printing as an indicator for water use was introduced in 2002. Business water footprint measures the total water consumed to produce the goods and services it provides. It is a combination of the water that goes into the production and manufacturing of a product or service and the water used throughout the supply chain, as well as during the use of the product. A case study approach was applied describing the efforts of Tata Steel. It is based on a series of semi-structured in-depth interviews with top executives of the company as well as observation and content analysis of internal and external documents about the company’s efforts in sustainable water management. Tata Steel draws water required for industrial use from surface water sources, primarily perennial rivers and streams, internal reservoirs and water from municipal sources. The focus of the present study was to explore Tata Steel’s engagement in sustainable water management focusing on water foot printing accounting as a tool to account for water use in the steel supply chain at its Jamshedpur plant. The findings enabled the researchers to conclude that no sources of water are adversely affected by the company’s production of steel at Jamshedpur.

Keywords: sustainability, corporate responsibility water management, risk management, business engagement

Procedia PDF Downloads 163
66 Availability and Utilization of Health Care Facilities in Jalpaiguri Town

Authors: Sharmistha Mukherjee

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Health care is the basic requirement for all. The prime question is who gets what, where and how? The unequal distribution of basic facilities do have a adverse effect on the users. The paper tries to examine health care in terms of available facilities, the health care need and how people perceive to it in a small town of Jalpaiguri in the midst of tea gardens in North Bengal. The morbidity pattern is also minutely observed with a section describing the organizational structure of health care keeping in mind the utilization.

Keywords: availability, distribution, health care, utilization

Procedia PDF Downloads 381
65 Area-Efficient FPGA Implementation of an FFT Processor by Reusing Butterfly Units

Authors: Atin Mukherjee, Amitabha Sinha, Debesh Choudhury

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Fast Fourier transform (FFT) of large-number of samples requires larger hardware resources of field programmable gate arrays and it asks for more area as well as power. In this paper, an area efficient architecture of FFT processor is proposed, that reuses the butterfly units more than once. The FFT processor is emulated and the results are validated on Virtex-6 FPGA. The proposed architecture outperforms the conventional architecture of a N-point FFT processor in terms of area which is reduced by a factor of log_N(2) with the negligible increase of processing time.

Keywords: FFT, FPGA, resource optimization, butterfly units

Procedia PDF Downloads 405
64 Construction of Finite Woven Frames through Bounded Linear Operators

Authors: A. Bhandari, S. Mukherjee

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Two frames in a Hilbert space are called woven or weaving if all possible merge combinations between them generate frames of the Hilbert space with uniform frame bounds. Weaving frames are powerful tools in wireless sensor networks which require distributed data processing. Considering the practical applications, this article deals with finite woven frames. We provide methods of constructing finite woven frames, in particular, bounded linear operators are used to construct woven frames from a given frame. Several examples are discussed. We also introduce the notion of woven frame sequences and characterize them through the concepts of gaps and angles between spaces.

Keywords: frames, woven frames, gap, angle

Procedia PDF Downloads 73
63 Improvement of Bearing Capacity of Soft Clay Using Geo-Cells

Authors: Siddhartha Paul, Aman Harlalka, Ashim K. Dey

Abstract:

Soft clayey soil possesses poor bearing capacity and high compressibility because of which foundations cannot be directly placed over soft clay. Normally pile foundations are constructed to carry the load through the soft soil up to the hard stratum below. Pile construction is costly and time consuming. In order to increase the properties of soft clay, many ground improvement techniques like stone column, preloading with and without sand drains/band drains, etc. are in vogue. Time is a constraint for successful application of these improvement techniques. Another way to improve the bearing capacity of soft clay and to reduce the settlement possibility is to apply geocells below the foundation. The geocells impart rigidity to the foundation soil, reduce the net load intensity on soil and thus reduce the compressibility. A well designed geocell reinforced soil may replace the pile foundation. The present paper deals with the applicability of geocells on improvement of the bearing capacity. It is observed that a properly designed geocell may increase the bearing capacity of soft clay up to two and a half times.

Keywords: bearing capacity, geo-cell, ground improvement, soft clay

Procedia PDF Downloads 213
62 Design and Study of a Low Power High Speed Full Adder Using GDI Multiplexer

Authors: Biswarup Mukherjee, Aniruddha Ghosal

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In this paper, we propose a new technique for implementing a low power full adder using a set of GDI multiplexers. Full adder circuits are used comprehensively in Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs). Thus it is desirable to have low power operation for the sub components. The explored method of implementation achieves a low power design for the full adder. Simulated results using state-of-art Tanner tool indicates the superior performance of the proposed technique over conventional CMOS full adder. Detailed comparison of simulated results for the conventional and present method of implementation is presented.

Keywords: low power full adder, 2-T GDI MUX, ASIC (application specific integrated circuit), 12-T FA, CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor)

Procedia PDF Downloads 247
61 Evaluation of Cognitive Benefits among Differently Abled Subjects with Video Game as Intervention

Authors: H. Nagendra, Vinod Kumar, S. Mukherjee

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In this study, the potential benefits of playing action video game among congenitally deaf and dumb subjects is reported in terms of EEG ratio indices. The frontal and occipital lobes are associated with development of motor skills, cognition, and visual information processing and color recognition. The sixteen hours of First-Person shooter action video game play resulted in the increase of the ratios β/(α+θ) and β/θ in frontal and occipital lobes. This can be attributed to the enhancement of certain aspect of cognition among deaf and dumb subjects.

Keywords: cognitive enhancement, video games, EEG band powers, deaf and dumb subjects

Procedia PDF Downloads 312
60 A Virtual Grid Based Energy Efficient Data Gathering Scheme for Heterogeneous Sensor Networks

Authors: Siddhartha Chauhan, Nitin Kumar Kotania

Abstract:

Traditional Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) generally use static sinks to collect data from the sensor nodes via multiple forwarding. Therefore, network suffers with some problems like long message relay time, bottle neck problem which reduces the performance of the network. Many approaches have been proposed to prevent this problem with the help of mobile sink to collect the data from the sensor nodes, but these approaches still suffer from the buffer overflow problem due to limited memory size of sensor nodes. This paper proposes an energy efficient scheme for data gathering which overcomes the buffer overflow problem. The proposed scheme creates virtual grid structure of heterogeneous nodes. Scheme has been designed for sensor nodes having variable sensing rate. Every node finds out its buffer overflow time and on the basis of this cluster heads are elected. A controlled traversing approach is used by the proposed scheme in order to transmit data to sink. The effectiveness of the proposed scheme is verified by simulation.

Keywords: buffer overflow problem, mobile sink, virtual grid, wireless sensor networks

Procedia PDF Downloads 267
59 Design and Study of a Low Power High Speed 8 Transistor Based Full Adder Using Multiplexer and XOR Gates

Authors: Biswarup Mukherjee, Aniruddha Ghoshal

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose a new technique for implementing a low power high speed full adder using 8 transistors. Full adder circuits are used comprehensively in Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs). Thus it is desirable to have high speed operation for the sub components. The explored method of implementation achieves a high speed low power design for the full adder. Simulated results indicate the superior performance of the proposed technique over conventional 28 transistor CMOS full adder. Detailed comparison of simulated results for the conventional and present method of implementation is presented.

Keywords: high speed low power full adder, 2-T MUX, 3-T XOR, 8-T FA, pass transistor logic, CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor)

Procedia PDF Downloads 242
58 2D Monte Carlo Simulation of Grain Growth under Transient Conditions

Authors: K. R. Phaneesh, Anirudh Bhat, G. Mukherjee, K. T. Kashyap

Abstract:

Extensive Monte Carlo Potts model simulations were performed on 2D square lattice to investigate the effects of simulated higher temperatures effects on grain growth kinetics. A range of simulation temperatures (KTs) were applied on a matrix of size 10002 with Q-state 64, dispersed with a wide range of second phase particles, ranging from 0.001 to 0.1, and then run to 100,000 Monte Carlo steps. The average grain size, the largest grain size and the grain growth exponent were evaluated for all particle fractions and simulated temperatures. After evaluating several growth parameters, the critical temperature for a square lattice, with eight nearest neighbors, was found to be KTs = 0.4.

Keywords: average grain size, critical temperature, grain growth exponent, Monte Carlo steps

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57 Energy Harvesting with Zinc Oxide Based Nanogenerator: Design and Simulation Using Comsol-4.3 Software

Authors: Akanksha Rohit, Ujjwala Godavarthi, Anshua Mukherjee

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Nanotechnology is one of the promising sustainable solutions in the era of miniaturization due to its multidisciplinary nature. The most interesting aspect about nanotechnology is its wide ranging applications from electronics to military and biomedical. It tries to connect individuals more closely to the environment. In this paper, concept of parasitic energy harvesting is used in designing nanogenerators using COMSOL 4.3 software. The output of the nanogenerator is optimized using following constraints: ease of availability of the material, fabrication process and cost of the material. The nanogenerator is optimized using ZnO based nanowires, PMMA as insulator and aluminum and silicon as metal electrodes. The energy harvested from the model can be used to power nanobots, several other biomedical sensors and eventually to replace batteries. Thus, advancements in this field can be very challenging but it is the future of the nano era.

Keywords: zinc oxide, piezoelectric, PMMA, parasitic energy harvesting, renewable energy engineering

Procedia PDF Downloads 230
56 Variability of L-Band GPS Scintillation over Auroral Region, Maitri, Antarctica

Authors: Prakash Khatarkar, P. A. Khan, Shweta Mukherjee, Roshni Atulkar, P. K. Purohit, A. K. Gwal

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We have investigated the occurrence characteristics of ionospheric scintillations, using dual frequency GPS, installed and operated at Indian scientific base station Maitri (71.45S and 11.45E), Antarctica, during December 2009 to December 2010. The scintillation morphology is described in terms of S4 Index. The scintillations are classified into four main categories as Weak (0.21.0). From the analysis we found that the percentage of weak, moderate, strong and saturated scintillations were 96%, 80%, 58% and 7%, respectively. The maximum percentage of all types of scintillation was observed in the summer season, followed by equinox and the least in winter season. As the year 2010 was a low solar activity period, consequently the maximum occurrences of scintillations were those of weak and moderate and only four cases of saturated scintillation were observed.

Keywords: L-band scintillation, GPS, auroral region, low solar activity

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55 Compositional Influence in the Photovoltaic Properties of Dual Ion Beam Sputtered Cu₂ZnSn(S,Se)₄ Thin Films

Authors: Brajendra S. Sengar, Vivek Garg, Gaurav Siddharth, Nisheka Anadkat, Amitesh Kumar, Shaibal Mukherjee

Abstract:

The optimal band gap (~ 1 to 1.5 eV) and high absorption coefficient ~104 cm⁻¹ has made Cu₂ZnSn(S,Se)₄ (CZTSSe) films as one of the most promising absorber materials in thin-film photovoltaics. Additionally, CZTSSe consists of elements that are abundant and non-toxic, makes it even more favourable. The CZTSSe thin films are grown at 100 to 500ᵒC substrate temperature (Tsub) on Soda lime glass (SLG) substrate by Elettrorava dual ion beam sputtering (DIBS) system by utilizing a target at 2.43x10⁻⁴ mbar working pressure with RF power of 45 W in argon ambient. The chemical composition, depth profiling, structural properties and optical properties of these CZTSSe thin films prepared on SLG were examined by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX, Oxford Instruments), Hiden secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) workstation with oxygen ion gun of energy up to 5 keV, X-ray diffraction (XRD) (Rigaku Cu Kα radiation, λ=.154nm) and Spectroscopic Ellipsometry (SE, M-2000D from J. A. Woollam Co., Inc). It is observed that from that, the thin films deposited at Tsub=200 and 300°C show Cu-poor and Zn-rich states (i.e., Cu/(Zn + Sn) < 1 and Zn/Sn > 1), which is not the case for films grown at other Tsub. It has been reported that the CZTSSe thin films with the highest efficiency are typically at Cu-poor and Zn-rich states. The values of band gap in the fundamental absorption region of CZTSSe are found to be in the range of 1.23-1.70 eV depending upon the Cu/(Zn+Sn) ratio. It is also observed that there is a decline in optical band gap with the increase in Cu/(Zn+Sn) ratio (evaluated from EDX measurement). Cu-poor films are found to have higher optical band gap than Cu-rich films. The decrease in the band gap with the increase in Cu content in case of CZTSSe films may be attributed to changes in the extent of p-d hybridization between Cu d-levels and (S, Se) p-levels. CZTSSe thin films with Cu/(Zn+Sn) ratio in the range 0.86–1.5 have been successfully deposited using DIBS. Optical band gap of the films is found to vary from 1.23 to 1.70 eV based on Cu/(Zn+Sn) ratio. CZTSe films with Cu/ (Zn+Sn) ratio of .86 are found to have optical band gap close to the ideal band gap (1.49 eV) for highest theoretical conversion efficiency. Thus by tailoring the value of Cu/(Zn+Sn), CZTSSe thin films with the desired band gap could be obtained. Acknowledgment: We are thankful to DIBS, EDX, and XRD facility equipped at Sophisticated Instrument Centre (SIC) at IIT Indore. The authors B. S. S and A. K. acknowledge CSIR, and V. G. acknowledges UGC, India for their fellowships. B. S. S is thankful to DST and IUSSTF for BASE Internship Award. Prof. Shaibal Mukherjee is thankful to DST and IUSSTF for BASE Fellowship and MEITY YFRF award. This work is partially supported by DAE BRNS, DST CERI, and DST-RFBR Project under India-Russia Programme of Cooperation in Science and Technology. We are thankful to Mukul Gupta for SIMS facility equipped at UGC-DAE Indore.

Keywords: CZTSSe, DIBS, EDX, solar cell

Procedia PDF Downloads 134
54 An Eastern Philosophical Dimension of an English Language Teacher's Professionalism: A Narrative Analysis

Authors: Siddhartha Dhungana

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This article primarily explores dimensions in English language teacher's professionalism so that a teacher could reflect and make a strategic professional devotion to implement effective educational programs for the present and the future. The paper substantially incorporates the eastern Hindu practices, especially life values from the Bhagavad Gita, as a basis of teacher’s professional enrichment. Basically, it applies three categorical practices, i.e., Karma Yoga, Jnana Yoga, and Bhakti Yoga, in teachers’ professionality to illustrate, ignite further ahead and sharpen academic journey, professional journey, and professional devotion reflecting common practices. In this journey, a teacher comes to a stage of professional essence as s/he surpasses Karma Yoga, Jnana Yoga, and Bhakti Yoga with their basic quality formation. To illustrate their essence-making process, the three narrative stories for each category mentioned above are analyzed. The data collected from a research participant who has a high level of professional success and who inspires all English Language teachers in Nepal to develop stories for narrative analysis. The narrative analysis is based on eastern themes that are supported by Vygotsky's concept of developmental psychology. Moreover, the structural analysis is based on Gary Barkhuizen's narrative analysis.

Keywords: Karma Yoga, Jnana Yoga, Bhakti Yoga, Vygotsky's concepts, narrative analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 21
53 Projection of Health Issues in Contemporary Indian Cinema: A Study on Selected Bollywood Movies

Authors: Sananda Mukherjee, Nandini Lakshmikantha

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Films are considered as the most influential form of mass media. To attract audience films are made on various themes and issues which are assumed to have an impact on the behavioural pattern of the society. Among the various issues that have been bothering Indian society, health is primary. Thus it is important and interesting to study how health is being projected in Bollywood which is largely considered by the world as Indian cinema. This study tries to focus its attention on some select popular movies made in the recent decade and will try to analyse its content and significance of the same with the contemporary Indian society. It is evident that some of the movies made projecting health issues have earned good box office revenues, but have they been successful in making the public understand the significance of health issues they have been trying to project, is an interesting area to understand.

Keywords: box office, health issues, Indian cinema, social awareness

Procedia PDF Downloads 87
52 Algae Biomass as Alternatives to Wood Pulp in Handmade Paper Technology

Authors: Piyali Mukherjee, Jai Prakash Keshri

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Anticipated shortages of raw materials for paper industry have forged the entry of algae as alternatives to wood pulp. Five algal species: Pithophora sp., Lyngbya sp., Hydrodictyon sp., Cladophora sp. and Rhizoclonium sp. were collected from different parts of Burdwan town, West Bengal, India. Their biomass compositional values were determined with respect to eucalyptus wood pulp. Paper characteristics were studied in terms of breaking length, tensile strength, CI index, pH, brightness, recyclability, and durability. Hydrodictyon sp., besides Rhizoclonium sp. and Cladophora sp. were established as the most suitable candidates for paper pulp formulation in terms of high cellulose, hemicelluloses contents and low lignin and silica contents. Paper from pure Hydrodictyon sp. pulp was found to have statistically significant (p < 0.05) improved breaking-length and tensile strength properties compared to that obtained from Lyngbya sp.

Keywords: algae, biomass, paper, pulp, wood

Procedia PDF Downloads 72
51 Closed-Loop Supply Chain: A Study of Bullwhip Effect Using Simulation

Authors: Siddhartha Paul, Debabrata Das

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Closed-loop supply chain (CLSC) management focuses on integrating forward and reverse flow of material as well as information to maximize value creation over the entire life-cycle of a product. Bullwhip effect in supply chain management refers to the phenomenon where a small variation in customers’ demand results in larger variation of orders at the upstream levels of supply chain. Since the quality and quantity of products returned to the collection centers (as a part of reverse logistics process) are uncertain, bullwhip effect is inevitable in CLSC. Therefore, in the present study, first, through an extensive literature survey, we identify all the important factors related to forward as well as reverse supply chain which causes bullwhip effect in CLSC. Second, we develop a system dynamics model to study the interrelationship among the factors and their effect on the performance of overall CLSC. Finally, the results of the simulation study suggest that demand forecasting, lead times, information sharing, inventory and work in progress adjustment rate, supply shortages, batch ordering, price variations, erratic human behavior, parameter correcting, delivery time delays, return rate of used products, manufacturing and remanufacturing capacity constraints are the important factors which have a significant influence on system’s performance, specifically on bullwhip effect in a CLSC.

Keywords: bullwhip effect, closed-loop supply chain, system dynamics, variance ratio

Procedia PDF Downloads 65
50 A Stepwise Approach to Automate the Search for Optimal Parameters in Seasonal ARIMA Models

Authors: Manisha Mukherjee, Diptarka Saha

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Reliable forecasts of univariate time series data are often necessary for several contexts. ARIMA models are quite popular among practitioners in this regard. Hence, choosing correct parameter values for ARIMA is a challenging yet imperative task. Thus, a stepwise algorithm is introduced to provide automatic and robust estimates for parameters (p; d; q)(P; D; Q) used in seasonal ARIMA models. This process is focused on improvising the overall quality of the estimates, and it alleviates the problems induced due to the unidimensional nature of the methods that are currently used such as auto.arima. The fast and automated search of parameter space also ensures reliable estimates of the parameters that possess several desirable qualities, consequently, resulting in higher test accuracy especially in the cases of noisy data. After vigorous testing on real as well as simulated data, the algorithm doesn’t only perform better than current state-of-the-art methods, it also completely obviates the need for human intervention due to its automated nature.

Keywords: time series, ARIMA, auto.arima, ARIMA parameters, forecast, R function

Procedia PDF Downloads 43
49 Status Check: Journey of India’s Energy Sustainability through Renewable Sources

Authors: Santosh Ghosh, Vinod Kumar Yadav, Vivekananda Mukherjee, Ishta Garg

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India, akin to the rest of the world today, is grappling with balancing act between ever increasing demand for energy and alarmingly high level of green house gas emission, which is inevitable corollary of energy production in the conventional way. Researchers and energy policy makers around the world are now focusing on renewable energy (RE) technologies to find solution to this crisis. In India various agencies at both national and state level has been set up and bestowed with responsibility of development of renewable energy technologies, viz. Ministry of New Renewable Energy (MNRE), National Vidyut Vyapar Nigam Ltd. (NVVNL), Indian Renewable Energy Development Agency Limited (IREDA) and RE Development Agencies in respective states. In the present work, the preparedness of India in terms of forming institutional and policy frame work briefly discussed. Status of implementation of RE technologies state wise and of India as a whole, critically reviewed.

Keywords: energy policy, energy sustainability, renewable energy, IREDA

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48 Unsteady 3D Post-Stall Aerodynamics Accounting for Effective Loss in Camber Due to Flow Separation

Authors: Aritras Roy, Rinku Mukherjee

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The current study couples a quasi-steady Vortex Lattice Method and a camber correcting technique, ‘Decambering’ for unsteady post-stall flow prediction. The wake is force-free and discrete such that the wake lattices move with the free-stream once shed from the wing. It is observed that the time-averaged unsteady coefficient of lift sees a relative drop at post-stall angles of attack in comparison to its steady counterpart for some angles of attack. Multiple solutions occur at post-stall and three different algorithms to choose solutions in these regimes show both unsteadiness and non-convergence of the iterations. The distribution of coefficient of lift on the wing span also shows sawtooth. Distribution of vorticity changes both along span and in the direction of the free-stream as the wake develops over time with distinct roll-up, which increases with time.

Keywords: post-stall, unsteady, wing, aerodynamics

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47 Aiming at Optimization of Tracking Technology through Seasonally Tilted Sun Trackers: An Indian Perspective

Authors: Sanjoy Mukherjee

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Discussions on concepts of Single Axis Tracker (SAT) are becoming more and more apt for developing countries like India not just as an advancement in racking technology but due to the utmost necessity of reaching at the lowest Levelized Cost of Energy (LCOE) targets. With this increasing competition and significant fall in feed-in tariffs of solar PV projects, developers are under constant pressure to secure investment for their projects and eventually earn profits from them. Moreover, being the second largest populated country, India suffers from scarcity of land because of higher average population density. So, to mitigate the risk of this dual edged sword with reducing trend of unit (kWh) cost at one side and utilization of land on the other, tracking evolved as the call of the hour. Therefore, the prime objectives of this paper are not only to showcase how STT proves to be an effective mechanism to get more gain in Global Incidence in collector plane (Ginc) with respect to traditional mounting systems but also to introduce Seasonally Tilted Tracker (STT) technology as a possible option for high latitude locations.

Keywords: tracking system, grid connected solar PV plant, CAPEX reduction, levelized cost of energy

Procedia PDF Downloads 175
46 Reinforced Concrete Foundation for Turbine Generators

Authors: Siddhartha Bhattacharya

Abstract:

Steam Turbine-Generators (STG) and Combustion Turbine-Generator (CTG) are used in almost all modern petrochemical, LNG plants and power plant facilities. The reinforced concrete table top foundations are required to support these high speed rotating heavy machineries and is one of the most critical and challenging structures on any industrial project. The paper illustrates through a practical example, the step by step procedure adopted in designing a table top foundation supported on piles for a steam turbine generator with operating speed of 60 Hz. Finite element model of a table top foundation is generated in ANSYS. Piles are modeled as springs-damper elements (COMBIN14). Basic loads are adopted in analysis and design of the foundation based on the vendor requirements, industry standards, and relevant ASCE & ACI codal provisions. Static serviceability checks are performed with the help of Misalignment Tolerance Matrix (MTM) method in which the percentage of misalignment at a given bearing due to displacement at another bearing is calculated and kept within the stipulated criteria by the vendor so that the machine rotor can sustain the stresses developed due to this misalignment. Dynamic serviceability checks are performed through modal and forced vibration analysis where the foundation is checked for resonance and allowable amplitudes, as stipulated by the machine manufacturer. Reinforced concrete design of the foundation is performed by calculating the axial force, bending moment and shear at each of the critical sections. These values are calculated through area integral of the element stresses at these critical locations. Design is done as per ACI 318-05.

Keywords: steam turbine generator foundation, finite element, static analysis, dynamic analysis

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45 An Investigation on the Suitability of Dual Ion Beam Sputtered GMZO Thin Films: For All Sputtered Buffer-Less Solar Cells

Authors: Vivek Garg, Brajendra S. Sengar, Gaurav Siddharth, Nisheka Anadkat, Amitesh Kumar, Shailendra Kumar, Shaibal Mukherjee

Abstract:

CuInGaSe (CIGSe) is the dominant thin film solar cell technology. The band alignment of Buffer/CIGSe interface is one of the most crucial parameters for solar cell performance. In this article, the valence band offset (VBOff) and conduction band offset (CBOff) values of Cu(In0.70Ga0.30)Se/ 1 at.% Ga: Mg0.25Zn0.75O (GMZO) heterojunction, grown by dual ion beam sputtering system (DIBS), are calculated to understand the carrier transport mechanism at the heterojunction for the realization of all sputtered buffer-less solar cells. To determine the valence band offset (VBOff), ∆E_V at GMZO/CIGSe heterojunction interface, the standard method based on core-level photoemission is utilized. The value of ∆E_V can be evaluated by considering common core-level peaks. In our study, the values of (Valence band onset)VBOn, obtained by linear extrapolation method for GMZO and CIGSe films are calculated to be 2.86 and 0.76 eV. In the UPS spectra peak positions of Se 3d is observed in UPS spectra at 54.82 and 54.7 eV for CIGSe film and GMZO/CIGSe interface respectively, while the peak position of Mg 2p is observed at 50.09 and 50.12 eV for GMZO and GMZO/CIGSe interface respectively. The optical band gap of CIGSe and GMZO are obtained from absorption spectra procured from spectroscopic ellipsometry are 1.26 and 3.84 eV respectively. The calculated average values of ∆E_v and ∆E_C are estimated to be 2.37 and 0.21 eV, respectively, at room temperature. The calculated positive conduction band offset termed as a spike at the absorber junction is the required criterion for the high-efficiency solar cells for the efficient charge extraction from the junction. So we can conclude that the above study confirms GMZO thin films grown by the dual ion beam sputtering system are the suitable candidate for the CIGSe thin films based ultra-thin buffer-less solar cells. We investigated the band-offset properties at the GMZO/CIGSe heterojunction to verify the suitability of the GMZO for the realization of the buffer-less solar cells. The calculated average values of ∆E_V and ∆E_C are estimated to be 2.37 and 0.21 eV, respectively, at room temperature. The calculated positive conduction band offset termed as a spike at the absorber junction is the required criterion for the high-efficiency solar cells for the efficient charge extraction from the junction. So we can conclude that the above study confirms GMZO thin films grown by the dual ion beam sputtering system are the suitable candidate for the CIGSe thin films based ultra-thin buffer-less solar cells. Acknowledgment: We are thankful to DIBS, EDX, and XRD facility equipped at Sophisticated Instrument Centre (SIC) at IIT Indore. The authors B.S.S and A.K acknowledge CSIR and V.G acknowledge UGC, India for their fellowships. B.S.S is thankful to DST and IUSSTF for BASE Internship Award. Prof. Shaibal Mukherjee is thankful to DST and IUSSTF for BASE Fellowship and MEITY YFRF award. This work is partially supported by DAE BRNS, DST CERI, and DST-RFBR Project under India-Russia Programme of Cooperation in Science and Technology. We are thankful to Mukul Gupta for SIMS facility equipped at UGC-DAE Indore.

Keywords: CIGSe, DIBS, GMZO, solar cells, UPS

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44 Polymer-Nanographite Nanocomposites for Biosensor Applications

Authors: Payal Mazumdar, Sunita Rattan, Monalisa Mukherjee

Abstract:

Polymer nanocomposites are a special class of materials having unique properties and wide application in diverse areas such as EMI shielding, sensors, photovoltaic cells, membrane separation properties, drug delivery etc. Recently the nanocomposites are being investigated for their use in biomedical fields as biosensors. Though nanocomposites with carbon nanoparticles have received worldwide attention in the past few years, comparatively less work has been done on nanographite although it has in-plane electrical, thermal and mechanical properties comparable to that of carbon nanotubes. The main challenge in the fabrication of these nanocomposites lies in the establishment of homogeneous dispersion of nanographite in polymer matrix. In the present work, attempts have been made to synthesize the nanocomposites of polystyrene and nanographite using click chemistry. The polymer and the nanographite are functionalized prior to the formation of nanocomposites. The polymer, polystyrene, was functionalized with alkyne moeity and nanographite with azide moiety. The fabricating of the nanocomposites was accomplished through click chemistry using Cu (I)-catalyzed Huisgen dipolar cycloaddition. The functionalization of filler and polymer was confirmed by NMR and FTIR. The nanocomposites formed by the click chemistry exhibit better electrical properties and the sensors are evaluated for their application as biosensors.

Keywords: nanocomposites, click chemistry, nanographite, biosensor

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43 A Comparative Analysis on QRS Peak Detection Using BIOPAC and MATLAB Software

Authors: Chandra Mukherjee

Abstract:

The present paper is a representation of the work done in the field of ECG signal analysis using MATLAB 7.1 Platform. An accurate and simple ECG feature extraction algorithm is presented in this paper and developed algorithm is validated using BIOPAC software. To detect the QRS peak, ECG signal is processed by following mentioned stages- First Derivative, Second Derivative and then squaring of that second derivative. Efficiency of developed algorithm is tested on ECG samples from different database and real time ECG signals acquired using BIOPAC system. Firstly we have lead wise specified threshold value the samples above that value is marked and in the original signal, where these marked samples face change of slope are spotted as R-peak. On the left and right side of the R-peak, faces change of slope identified as Q and S peak, respectively. Now the inbuilt Detection algorithm of BIOPAC software is performed on same output sample and both outputs are compared. ECG baseline modulation correction is done after detecting characteristics points. The efficiency of the algorithm is tested using some validation parameters like Sensitivity, Positive Predictivity and we got satisfied value of these parameters.

Keywords: first derivative, variable threshold, slope reversal, baseline modulation correction

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