Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 144

Search results for: T. Mrna

24 D-Lysine Assisted 1-Ethyl-3-(3-Dimethylaminopropyl)Carbodiimide / N-Hydroxy Succinimide Initiated Crosslinked Collagen Scaffold with Controlled Structural and Surface Properties

Authors: G. Krishnamoorthy, S. Anandhakumar


The effect of D-Lysine (D-Lys) on collagen with 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide(EDC)/N-hydroxysuccinimide(NHS) initiated cross linking using experimental and modelling tools are evaluated. The results of the Coll-D-Lys-EDC/NHS scaffold also indicate an increase in the tensile strength (TS), percentage of elongation (% E), denaturation temperature (Td), and decrease the decomposition rate compared to L-Lys-EDC/NHS. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) and atomic force microscopic (AFM) analyses revealed a well ordered with properly oriented and well-aligned structure of scaffold. The D-Lys stabilizes the scaffold against degradation by collagenase than L-Lys. The cell assay showed more than 98% fibroblast viability (NIH3T3) and improved cell adhesions, protein adsorption after 72h of culture when compared with native scaffold. Cell attachment after 74h was robust, with cytoskeletal analysis showing that the attached cells were aligned along the fibers assuming a spindle-shape appearance, despite, gene expression analyses revealed no apparent alterations in mRNA levels, although cell proliferation was not adversely affected. D-Lysine (D-Lys) plays a pivotal role in the self-assembly and conformation of collagen fibrils. The D-Lys assisted EDC/NHS initiated cross-linking induces the formation of an carboxamide by the activation of the side chain -COOH group, followed by aminolysis of the O-iso acylurea intermediates by the -NH2 groups are directly joined via an isopeptides bond. This leads to the formation of intra- and inter-helical cross links. Modeling studies indicated that D-Lys bind with collagen-like peptide (CLP) through multiple H-bonding and hydrophobic interactions. Orientational changes in collagenase on CLP-D-Lys are observed which may decrease its accessibility to degradation and stabilize CLP against the action of the former. D-Lys has lowest binding energy and improved fibrillar-assembly and staggered alignment without the undesired structural stiffness and aggregations. The proteolytic machinery is not well equipped to deal with Coll-D-Lys than Coll-L-Lys scaffold. The information derived from the present study could help in designing collagenolytically stable heterochiral collagen based scaffold for biomedical applications.

Keywords: collagen, collagenase, collagen like peptide, D-lysine, heterochiral collagen scaffold

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23 Optical Coherence Tomography in Parkinson’s Disease: A Potential in-vivo Retinal α-Synuclein Biomarker in Parkinson’s Disease

Authors: Jessica Chorostecki, Aashka Shah, Fen Bao, Ginny Bao, Edwin George, Navid Seraji-Bozorgzad, Veronica Gorden, Christina Caon, Elliot Frohman


Background: Parkinson’s Disease (PD) is a neuro degenerative disorder associated with the loss of dopaminergic cells and the presence α-synuclein (AS) aggregation in of Lewy bodies. Both dopaminergic cells and AS are found in the retina. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) allows high-resolution in-vivo examination of retinal structure injury in neuro degenerative disorders including PD. Methods: We performed a cross-section OCT study in patients with definite PD and healthy controls (HC) using Spectral Domain SD-OCT platform to measure the peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (pRNFL) thickness and total macular volume (TMV). We performed intra-retinal segmentation with fully automated segmentation software to measure the volume of the RNFL, ganglion cell layer (GCL), inner plexiform layer (IPL), inner nuclear layer (INL), outer plexiform layer (OPL), and the outer nuclear layer (ONL). Segmentation was performed blinded to the clinical status of the study participants. Results: 101 eyes from 52 PD patients (mean age 65.8 years) and 46 eyes from 24 HC subjects (mean age 64.1 years) were included in the study. The mean pRNFL thickness was not significantly different (96.95 μm vs 94.42 μm, p=0.07) but the TMV was significantly lower in PD compared to HC (8.33 mm3 vs 8.58 mm3 p=0.0002). Intra-retinal segmentation showed no significant difference in the RNFL volume between the PD and HC groups (0.95 mm3 vs 0.92 mm3 p=0.454). However, GCL, IPL, INL, and ONL volumes were significantly reduced in PD compared to HC. In contrast, the volume of OPL was significantly increased in PD compared to HC. Conclusions: Our finding of the enlarged OPL corresponds with mRNA expression studies showing localization of AS in the OPL across vertebrate species and autopsy studies demonstrating AS aggregation in the deeper layers of retina in PD. We propose that the enlargement of the OPL may represent a potential biomarker of AS aggregation in PD. Longitudinal studies in larger cohorts are warranted to confirm our observations that may have significant implications in disease monitoring and therapeutic development.

Keywords: Biomarker, Retina, Optical Coherence Tomography, parkinson's disease, alpha-synuclein

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22 Septin 11, Cytoskeletal Protein Involved in the Regulation of Lipid Metabolism in Adipocytes

Authors: Natalia Moreno-Castellanos, Amaia Rodriguez, Gema Frühbeck


Introduction: In adipocytes, the cytoskeleton undergoes important expression and distribution in adipocytes rearrangements during adipogenesis and in obesity. Indeed, a role for these proteins in the regulation of adipocyte differentiation and response to insulin has been demonstrated. Recently, septins have been considered as new components of the cytoskeletal network that interact with other cytoskeletal elements (actin and tubulin) profoundly modifying their dynamics. However, these proteins have not been characterized as yet in adipose tissue. In this work, were examined the cellular, molecular and functional features of a member of this family, septin 11 (SEPT11), in adipocytes and evaluated the impact of obesity on the expression of this protein in human adipose tissue. Methods: Adipose gene and protein expression levels of SEPT11 were analysed in human samples. SEPT11 distribution was evaluated by immunocytochemistry, electronic microscopy, and subcellular fractionation techniques. GST-pull down, immunoprecipitation and a Yeast-Two Hybrid (Y2H) screening were used to identify the SEPT11 interactome. Gene silencing was employed to assess the role of SEPT11 in the regulation of insulin signaling and lipid metabolism in adipocytes. Results: SEPT11 is expressed in human adipocytes, and its levels increased in both omental and subcutaneous adipose tissue in obesity, with SEPT11 mRNA content positively correlating with parameters of insulin resistance in subcutaneous fat. In non-stimulated adipocytes, SEPT11 immunoreactivity showed a ring-like distribution at the cell surface and associated to caveolae. Biochemical analyses showed that SEPT11 interacted with the main component of caveolae, caveolin-1 (CAV1) as well as with the fatty acid-binding protein, FABP5. Notably, the three proteins redistributed and co-localized at the surface of lipid droplets upon exposure of adipocytes to oleate. In this line, SEPT11 silencing in 3T3-L1 adipocytes impaired insulin signaling and decreased insulin-induced lipogenesis. Conclusions: Those findings demonstrate that SEPT11 is a novel component of the adipocyte cytoskeleton that plays an important role in the regulation of lipid traffic, metabolism and can thus represent a potential biomarker of insulin resistance in obesity in adipocytes through its interaction with both CAV1 and FABP5.

Keywords: Obesity, Lipid Metabolism, caveolae, septins

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21 Effects of Caprine Arthritis-Encephalitis Virus (CAEV) Infection on the Expression of Cathelicidin Genes in Goat Blood Leukocytes

Authors: Daria Reczynska, Justyna Jarczak, Michal Czopowicz, Danuta Sloniewska, Karina Horbanczuk, Wieslaw Jarmuz, Jaroslaw Kaba, Emilia Bagnicka


Since people, animals and plants are constantly exposed to pathogens they have developed very complex systems of defense. Among ca. 1000 antimicrobial peptides from different families so far identified, approximately 30 belonging to cathelicidin family can be found in mammals. Cathelicidins probably constitute the first line of defense because they can act at a physiological salt concentration which is present in healthy tissues. Moreover, the low salt concentration which is present in infected tissues inhibits their activity. In goat bactenecin 7.5 (BAC7.5), bactenecin 5 (BAC5), myeloid antimicrobial peptide 28 (MAP28), myeloid antimicrobial peptide 34 (MAP34 A and B), goat bactenecin3.4 (ChBac3.4) were identified. Caprine arthritis-encephalitis (CAE) caused by small ruminant lentivirus (SRLV) is economic problem. The main CAE symptoms are weight loss, arthritis, pneumonia and mastitis (significant elevation of the somatic cell count and deterioration of some technological parameters). The study was conducted on 24 dairy goats. The animals were divided into two groups: experimental (SRLV-infected) and control (non-infected). The blood samples were collected five times: on the 1st, 7th, 30th, 90th and 150thday of lactation. The levels of transcripts of BAC7.5, BAC5, MAP28 and MAP34 genes in blood leucocytes were measured using qPCR method. There were no differences in mRNA levels of studied genes between stages of lactation. The differences were observed in expressions of BAC5, MAP28 and MAP34 genes with lower levels in the experimental group. There was no difference in BAC7.5 expression between groups. The decreased levels of transcripts of cathelicidin genes in blood leucocytes of SRLV-infected goats may indicate the disturbances of homeostasis in organisms. It can be concluded that SRLV infection seems to inhibit expression of cathelicidin genes. The study was financed by a grant from the National Scientific Center No. UMO-2013/09/B/NZ/03514.

Keywords: Gene expression, Goat, CAEV, cathelicidins, blood leukocytes

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20 RNA-Seq Analysis of the Wild Barley (H. spontaneum) Leaf Transcriptome under Salt Stress

Authors: Jamal S. M. Sabir, Ahmed Bahieldin, Ahmed Atef, Nour O. Gadalla, Sherif Edris, Ahmed M. Alzohairy, Nezar A. Radhwan, Mohammed N. Baeshen, Ahmed M. Ramadan, Hala F. Eissa, Sabah M. Hassan, Nabih A. Baeshen, Osama Abuzinadah, Magdy A. Al-Kordy, Fotouh M. El-Domyati, Robert K. Jansen


Wild salt-tolerant barley (Hordeum spontaneum) is the ancestor of cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare or H. vulgare). Although the cultivated barley genome is well studied, little is known about genome structure and function of its wild ancestor. In the present study, RNA-Seq analysis was performed on young leaves of wild barley treated with salt (500 mM NaCl) at four different time intervals. Transcriptome sequencing yielded 103 to 115 million reads for all replicates of each treatment, corresponding to over 10 billion nucleotides per sample. Of the total reads, between 74.8 and 80.3% could be mapped and 77.4 to 81.7% of the transcripts were found in the H. vulgare unigene database (unigene-mapped). The unmapped wild barley reads for all treatments and replicates were assembled de novo and the resulting contigs were used as a new reference genome. This resultedin94.3 to 95.3%oftheunmapped reads mapping to the new reference. The number of differentially expressed transcripts was 9277, 3861 of which were uni gene-mapped. The annotated unigene- and de novo-mapped transcripts (5100) were utilized to generate expression clusters across time of salt stress treatment. Two-dimensional hierarchical clustering classified differential expression profiles into nine expression clusters, four of which were selected for further analysis. Differentially expressed transcripts were assigned to the main functional categories. The most important groups were ‘response to external stimulus’ and ‘electron-carrier activity’. Highly expressed transcripts are involved in several biological processes, including electron transport and exchanger mechanisms, flavonoid biosynthesis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging, ethylene production, signaling network and protein refolding. The comparisons demonstrated that mRNA-Seq is an efficient method for the analysis of differentially expressed genes and biological processes under salt stress.

Keywords: Electron Transport, reactive oxygen species, RNAseq, flavonoid biosynthesis

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19 Body Fluids Identification by Raman Spectroscopy and Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry

Authors: Can Hu, Huixia Shi, Jun Zhu, Hongling Guo, Haiyan Li, Hongyan Du


The identification of human body fluids during forensic investigations is a critical step to determine key details, and present strong evidence to testify criminal in a case. With the popularity of DNA and improved detection technology, the potential question must be revolved that whether the suspect’s DNA derived from saliva or semen, menstrual or peripheral blood, how to identify the red substance or aged blood traces on the spot is blood; How to determine who contribute the right one in mixed stains. In recent years, molecular approaches have been developing increasingly on mRNA, miRNA, DNA methylation and microbial markers, but appear expensive, time-consuming, and destructive disadvantages. Physicochemical methods are utilized frequently such us scanning electron microscopy/energy spectroscopy and X-ray fluorescence and so on, but results only showing one or two characteristics of body fluid itself and that out of working in unknown or mixed body fluid stains. This paper focuses on using chemistry methods Raman spectroscopy and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry to discriminate species of peripheral blood, menstrual blood, semen, saliva, vaginal secretions, urine or sweat. Firstly, non-destructive, confirmatory, convenient and fast Raman spectroscopy method combined with more accurate matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry method can totally distinguish one from other body fluids. Secondly, 11 spectral signatures and specific metabolic molecules have been obtained by analysis results after 70 samples detected. Thirdly, Raman results showed peripheral and menstrual blood, saliva and vaginal have highly similar spectroscopic features. Advanced statistical analysis of the multiple Raman spectra must be requested to classify one to another. On the other hand, it seems that the lactic acid can differentiate peripheral and menstrual blood detected by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, but that is not a specific metabolic molecule, more sensitivity ones will be analyzed in a forward study. These results demonstrate the great potential of the developed chemistry methods for forensic applications, although more work is needed for method validation.

Keywords: Identification, Raman spectroscopy, body fluids, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry

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18 Towards Development of Superior Brassica juncea by Pyramiding of Genes of Diverse Pathways for Value Addition, Stress Alleviation and Human Health

Authors: Deepak Kumar, Ravi Rajwanshi, Mohd. Aslam Yusuf, Nisha Kant Pandey, Preeti Singh, Mukesh Saxena, Neera Bhalla Sarin


Global issues are leading to concerns over food security. These include climate change, urbanization, increase in population subsequently leading to greater energy and water demand. Futuristic approach for crop improvement involves gene pyramiding for agronomic traits that empower the plants to withstand multiple stresses. In an earlier study from the laboratory, the efficacy of overexpressing γ-tocopherol methyl transferase (γ-TMT) gene from the vitamin E biosynthetic pathway has been shown to result in six-fold increase of the most biologically active form, the α-tocopherol in Brassica juncea which resulted in alleviation of salt, heavy metal and osmoticum induced stress by the transgenic plants. The glyoxalase I (gly I) gene from the glyoxalase pathway has also been earlier shown by us to impart tolerance against multiple abioitc stresses by detoxification of the cytotoxic compound methylglyoxal in Brassica juncea. Recently, both the transgenes were pyramided in Brassica juncea lines through sexual crosses involving two stable Brassica juncea lines overexpressing γ-TMT and gly I genes respectively. The transgene integration was confirmed by PCR analysis and their mRNA expression was evident by RT-PCR analysis. Preliminary physiological investigations showed ~55% increased seed germination under 200 mM NaCl stress in the pyramided line and 81% higher seed germination under 200 mM mannitol stress as compared to the WT control plants. The pyramided lines also retained more chlorophyll content when the leaf discs were floated on NaCl (200, 400 and 600 mM) or mannitol (200, 400 and 600 mM) compared to the WT control plants. These plants had higher Relative Water Content and greater solute accumulation under stress compared to the parental plants having γ-TMT or the glyI gene respectively. The studies revealed the synergy of two components from different metabolic pathways in enhancing stress hardiness of the transgenic B. juncea plants. It was concluded that pyramiding of genes (γ-TMT and glyI) from diverse pathways can lead to enhanced tolerance to salt and mannitol stress (simulating drought conditions). This strategy can prove useful in enhancing the crop yields under various abiotic stresses.

Keywords: Abiotic Stress, brassica juncea, glyoxalase I, α-tocopherol

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17 Association of Nuclear – Mitochondrial Epistasis with BMI in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Patients

Authors: Agnieszka H. Ludwig-Slomczynska, Michal T. Seweryn, Przemyslaw Kapusta, Ewelina Pitera, Katarzyna Cyganek, Urszula Mantaj, Lucja Dobrucka, Ewa Wender-Ozegowska, Maciej T. Malecki, Pawel Wolkow


Obesity results from an imbalance between energy intake and its expenditure. Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) analyses have led to discovery of only about 100 variants influencing body mass index (BMI), which explain only a small portion of genetic variability. Analysis of gene epistasis gives a chance to discover another part. Since it was shown that interaction and communication between nuclear and mitochondrial genome are indispensable for normal cell function, we have looked for epistatic interactions between the two genomes to find their correlation with BMI. Methods: The analysis was performed on 366 T1DM patients using Illumina Infinium OmniExpressExome-8 chip and followed by imputation on Michigan Imputation Server. Only genes which influence mitochondrial functioning (listed in Human MitoCarta 2.0) were included in the analysis – variants of nuclear origin (MAF > 5%) in 1140 genes and 42 mitochondrial variants (MAF > 1%). Gene expression analysis was performed on GTex data. Association analysis between genetic variants and BMI was performed with the use of Linear Mixed Models as implemented in the package 'GENESIS' in R. Analysis of association between mRNA expression and BMI was performed with the use of linear models and standard significance tests in R. Results: Among variants involved in epistasis between mitochondria and nucleus we have identified one in mitochondrial transcription factor, TFB2M (rs6701836). It interacted with mitochondrial variants localized to MT-RNR1 (p=0.0004, MAF=15%), MT-ND2 (p=0.07, MAF=5%) and MT-ND4 (p=0.01, MAF=1.1%). Analysis of the interaction between nuclear variant rs6701836 (nuc) and rs3021088 localized to MT-ND2 mitochondrial gene (mito) has shown that the combination of the two led to BMI decrease (p=0.024). Each of the variants on its own does not correlate with higher BMI [p(nuc)=0.856, p(mito)=0.116)]. Although rs6701836 is intronic, it influences gene expression in the thyroid (p=0.000037). rs3021088 is a missense variant that leads to alanine to threonine substitution in the MT-ND2 gene which belongs to complex I of the electron transport chain. The analysis of the influence of genetic variants on gene expression has confirmed the trend explained above – the interaction of the two genes leads to BMI decrease (p=0.0308). Each of the mRNAs on its own is associated with higher BMI (p(mito)=0.0244 and p(nuc)=0.0269). Conclusıons: Our results show that nuclear-mitochondrial epistasis can influence BMI in T1DM patients. The correlation between transcription factor expression and mitochondrial genetic variants will be subject to further analysis.

Keywords: Mitochondria, body mass index, type 1 diabetes, epistasis

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16 Understanding the Role of Nitric Oxide Synthase 1 in Low-Density Lipoprotein Uptake by Macrophages and Implication in Atherosclerosis Progression

Authors: Anjali Roy, Mirza S. Baig


Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by the formation of lipid rich plaque enriched with necrotic core, modified lipid accumulation, smooth muscle cells, endothelial cells, leucocytes and macrophages. Macrophage foam cells play a critical role in the occurrence and development of inflammatory atherosclerotic plaque. Foam cells are the fat-laden macrophages in the initial stage atherosclerotic lesion formation. Foam cells are an indication of plaque build-up, or atherosclerosis, which is commonly associated with increased risk of heart attack and stroke as a result of arterial narrowing and hardening. The mechanisms that drive atherosclerotic plaque progression remain largely unknown. Dissecting the molecular mechanism involved in process of macrophage foam cell formation will help to develop therapeutic interventions for atherosclerosis. To investigate the mechanism, we studied the role of nitric oxide synthase 1(NOS1)-mediated nitric oxide (NO) on low-density lipoprotein (LDL) uptake by bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDM). Using confocal microscopy, we found that incubation of macrophages with NOS1 inhibitor, TRIM (1-(2-Trifluoromethylphenyl) imidazole) or L-NAME (N omega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester) prior to LDL treatment significantly reduces the LDL uptake by BMDM. Further, addition of NO donor (DEA NONOate) in NOS1 inhibitor treated macrophages recovers the LDL uptake. Our data strongly suggest that NOS1 derived NO regulates LDL uptake by macrophages and foam cell formation. Moreover, we also checked proinflammatory cytokine mRNA expression through real time PCR in BMDM treated with LDL and copper oxidized LDL (OxLDL) in presences and absences of inhibitor. Normal LDL does not evoke cytokine expression whereas OxLDL induced proinflammatory cytokine expression which significantly reduced in presences of NOS1 inhibitor. Rapid NOS-1-derived NO and its stable derivative formation act as signaling agents for inducible NOS-2 expression in endothelial cells, leading to endothelial vascular wall lining disruption and dysfunctioning. This study highlights the role of NOS1 as critical players of foam cell formation and would reveal much about the key molecular proteins involved in atherosclerosis. Thus, targeting NOS1 would be a useful strategy in reducing LDL uptake by macrophages at early stage of disease and hence dampening the atherosclerosis progression.

Keywords: Atherosclerosis, Inflammation, NOS1, oxidized LDL

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15 Biostimulant Activity of Chitooligomers: Effect of Different Degrees of Acetylation and Polymerization on Wheat Seedlings under Salt Stress

Authors: Pengcheng Li, Xiaoqian Zhang, Ping Zou


Salt stress is one of the most serious abiotic stresses, and it can lead to the reduction of agricultural productivity. High salt concentration makes it more difficult for roots to absorb water and disturbs the homeostasis of cellular ions resulting in osmotic stress, ion toxicity and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Compared with the normal physiological conditions, salt stress could inhibit the photosynthesis, break metabolic balance and damage cellular structures, and ultimately results in the reduction of crop yield. Therefore it is vital to develop practical methods for improving the salt tolerance of plants. Chitooligomers (COS) is partially depolymerized products of chitosan, which is consisted of D-glucosamine and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine. In agriculture, COS has the ability to promote plant growth and induce plant innate immunity. The bioactivity of COS closely related to its degree of polymerization (DP) and acetylation (DA). However, most of the previous reports fail to mention the function of COS with different DP and DAs in improving the capacity of plants against salt stress. Accordingly, in this study, chitooligomers (COS) with different degrees of DAs were used to test wheat seedlings response to salt stress. In addition, the determined degrees of polymerization (DPs) COS(DP 4-12) and a heterogeneous COS mixture were applied to explore the relationship between the DP of COSs and its effect on the growth of wheat seedlings in response to salt stress. It showed that COSs, the exogenous elicitor, could promote the growth of wheat seedling, reduce the malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration, and increase the activities of antioxidant enzymes. The results of mRNA expression level test for salt stress-responsive genes indicated that COS keep plants away from being hurt by the salt stress via the regulation of the concentration and the increased antioxidant enzymes activities. Moreover, it was found that the activities of COS was closely related to its Das and COS (DA: 50%) displayed the best salt resistance activity to wheat seedlings. The results also showed that COS with different DP could promote the growth of wheat seedlings under salt stress. COS with a DP (6-8) showed better activities than the other tested samples, implied its activity had a close relationship with its DP. After treatment with chitohexaose, chitoheptaose, and chitooctaose, the photosynthetic parameters were improved obviously. The soluble sugar and proline contents were improved by 26.7%-53.3% and 43.6.0%-70.2%, respectively, while the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) was reduced by 36.8% - 49.6%. In addition, the antioxidant enzymes activities were clearly activated. At the molecular level, the results revealed that they could obviously induce the expression of Na+/H+ antiporter genes. In general, these results were fundamental to the study of action mechanism of COS on promoting plant growth under salt stress and the preparation of plant growth regulator.

Keywords: Salt Stress, chitooligomers (COS), degree of polymerization (DP), degree of acetylation (DA)

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14 Effect of Hypoxia on AOX2 Expression in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

Authors: Maria Ostroukhova, Zhanneta Zalutskaya, Elena Ermilova


The alternative oxidase (AOX) mediates cyanide-resistant respiration, which bypasses proton-pumping complexes III and IV of the cytochrome pathway to directly transfer electrons from reduced ubiquinone to molecular oxygen. In Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, AOX is a monomeric protein that is encoded by two genes of discrete subfamilies, AOX1 and AOX2. Although AOX has been proposed to play essential roles in stress tolerance of organisms, the role of subfamily AOX2 is largely unknown. In C. reinhardtii, AOX2 was initially identified as one of constitutively low expressed genes. Like other photosynthetic organisms C. reinhardtii cells frequently experience periods of hypoxia. To examine AOX2 transcriptional regulation and role of AOX2 in hypoxia adaptation, real-time PCR analysis and artificial microRNA method were employed. Two experimental approaches have been used to induce the anoxic conditions: dark-anaerobic and light-anaerobic conditions. C. reinhardtii cells exposed to the oxygen deprivation have shown increased AOX2 mRNA levels. By contrast, AOX1 was not an anoxia-responsive gene. In C. reinhardtii, a subset of genes is regulated by transcription factor CRR1 in anaerobic conditions. Notable, the AOX2 promoter region contains the potential motif for CRR1 binding. Therefore, the role of CRR1 in the control of AOX2 transcription was tested. The CRR1-underexpressing strains, that were generated and characterized in this work, exhibited low levels of AOX2 transcripts under anoxic conditions. However, the transformants still slightly induced AOX2 gene expression in the darkness. These confirmed our suggestions that darkness is a regulatory stimulus for AOX genes in C. reinhardtii. Thus, other factors must contribute to AOX2 promoter activity under dark-anoxic conditions. Moreover, knock-down of CRR1 caused a complete reduction of AOX2 expression under light-anoxic conditions. These results indicate that (1) CRR1 is required for AOX2 expression during hypoxia, and (2) AOX2 gene is regulated by CRR1 together with yet-unknown regulatory factor(s). In addition, the AOX2-underexpressing strains were generated. The analysis of amiRNA-AOX2 strains suggested a role of this alternative oxidase in hypoxia adaptation of the alga. In conclusion, the results reported here show that C. reinhardtii AOX2 gene is stress inducible. CRR1 transcriptional factor is involved in the regulation of the AOX2 gene expression in the absence of oxygen. Moreover, AOX2 but not AOX1 functions under oxygen deprivation. This work was supported by Russian Science Foundation (research grant № 16-14-10004).

Keywords: Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, hypoxia, alternative oxidase 2, artificial microRNA approach

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13 Cytotoxicological Evaluation of a Folate Receptor Targeting Drug Delivery System Based on Cyclodextrins

Authors: Caroline Mendes, Mary McNamara, Orla Howe


For chemotherapy, a drug delivery system should be able to specifically target cancer cells and deliver the therapeutic dose without affecting normal cells. Folate receptors (FR) can be considered key targets since they are commonly over-expressed in cancer cells and they are the molecular marker used in this study. Here, cyclodextrin (CD) has being studied as a vehicle for delivering the chemotherapeutic drug, methotrexate (MTX). CDs have the ability to form inclusion complexes, in which molecules of suitable dimensions are included within the CD cavity. In this study, β-CD has been modified using folic acid so as to specifically target the FR molecular marker. Thus, the system studied here for drug delivery consists of β-CD, folic acid and MTX (CDEnFA:MTX). Cellular uptake of folic acid is mediated with high affinity by folate receptors while the cellular uptake of antifolates, such as MTX, is mediated with high affinity by the reduced folate carriers (RFCs). This study addresses the gene (mRNA) and protein expression levels of FRs and RFCs in the cancer cell lines CaCo-2, SKOV-3, HeLa, MCF-7, A549 and the normal cell line BEAS-2B, quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR) and flow cytometry, respectively. From that, four cell lines with different levels of FRs, were chosen for cytotoxicity assays of MTX and CDEnFA:MTX using the MTT assay. Real-time PCR and flow cytometry data demonstrated that all cell lines ubiquitously express moderate levels of RFC. These experiments have also shown that levels of FR protein in CaCo-2 cells are high, while levels in SKOV-3, HeLa and MCF-7 cells are moderate. A549 and BEAS-2B cells express low levels of FR protein. FRs are highly expressed in all the cancer cell lines analysed when compared to the normal cell line BEAS-2B. The cell lines CaCo-2, MCF-7, A549 and BEAS-2B were used in the cell viability assays. 48 hours treatment with the free drug and the complex resulted in IC50 values of 93.9 µM ± 9.2 and 56.0 µM ± 4.0 for CaCo-2 for free MTX and CDEnFA:MTX respectively, 118.2 µM ± 10.8 and 97.8 µM ± 12.3 for MCF-7, 36.4 µM ± 6.9 and 75.0 µM ± 8.5 for A549 and 132.6 µM ± 12.1 and 288.1 µM ± 16.3 for BEAS-2B. These results demonstrate that MTX is more toxic towards cell lines expressing low levels of FR, such as the BEAS-2B. More importantly, these results demonstrate that the inclusion complex CDEnFA:MTX showed greater cytotoxicity than the free drug towards the high FR expressing CaCo-2 cells, indicating that it has potential to target this receptor, enhancing the specificity and the efficiency of the drug.

Keywords: Cancer Treatment, drug delivery, Cyclodextrins, folate receptors, reduced folate carriers

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12 Anti-Apoptotic Effect of Pueraria tuberosa in Rats with Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Nephropathy

Authors: Rashmi Shukla, Yamini Bhusan Tripathi


Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is characterized as diabetic kidney disease which involves many pathways e.g. hyperactivated protein kinase c (PKC), polyol pathway, excess production of advanced glycation end product (AGEs) & free radical accumulation etc. All of them results to hypoxia followed by apoptosis of podocytes, glomerulosclerosis, extracellular matrix (ECM) accumulation and fibrosis resulting to irreversible changes in kidney. This is continuously rising worldwide and there are not enough specific drugs, to retard its progress. Due to increasing side effects of allopathic drugs, interest in herbal remedies is growing. Earlier, we have reported that PTY-2 (a phytomedicine, derived from Pueraria tuberosa Linn.) inhibits the accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) through activation of MMP-9. Present study exhibited the therapeutic potential of Pueraria tuberosa in the prevention of podocytes apoptosis and modulation of nephrin expression in streptozotocin (STZ) induced DN rats. DN rats were produced by maintaining persistent hyperglycemia for 8 weeks by intra-peritoneal injection of 55 mg/kg streptozotocin (STZ). These rats were randomly divided in 2 groups, i.e. DN control, and DN+ water extract of Pueraria tuberosa (PTW). One group of age-matched normal rats served as non-diabetic control (group-1), The STZ induced DN rats (group-2) and DN+PTW treated rats (group-3). The PTW was orally administered (0.3g/kg) daily to group-2 rats and drug vector (1 ml of 10% tween 20) in control rats. The treatments were continued for 20 days and blood and urine samples were collected. Rats were then sacrificed to investigate the expression Bcl2, Bax and nephroprotective protein i.e. nephrin in kidney glomerulus. The effect of PTW was evaluated, we have found that the PTW significantly(p < .001) reversed the raised serum urea, serum creatinine, urine protein and improved the creatinine clearance in STZ induce diabetic nephropathy in rats and also significantly(p < .001) prevented the rise in urine albumin excretion. The Western blot analysis of kidney tissue homogenate showed increased expression of Bcl2 in PTW treated rats. The RT-PCR showed the increased expression and accumulation of nephrin mRNA. The confocal photomicrographs also supported the reduction of Bax and a simultaneous increase in Bcl2 and nephrin in glomerular podocytes. Hence, our finding suggests that the nephroprotective role of PTW is mediated via restoration of nephrin thus prevents the podocytes apoptosis and ameliorates diabetic nephropathy. The clinical trial of PTW would prove to be a potential food supplement/ drug of alternative medicine for patients with diabetic nephropathy in early stage.

Keywords: Diabetic Nephropathy, Pueraria tuberosa, anti-apoptosis, nephrin

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11 Anti-Obesity Effects of Pteryxin in Peucedanum japonicum Thunb Leaves through Different Pathways of Adipogenesis In-Vitro

Authors: Ruwani N. Nugara, Masashi Inafuku, Kensaku Takara, Hironori Iwasaki, Hirosuke Oku


Pteryxin from the partially purified hexane phase (HP) of Peucedanum japonicum Thunb (PJT) was identified as the active compound related to anti-obesity. Thus, in this study we investigated the mechanisms related to anti-obesity activity in-vitro. The HP was fractionated, and effect on the triglyceride (TG) content was evaluated in 3T3-L1 and HepG2 cells. Comprehensive spectroscopic analyses were used to identify the structure of the active compound. The dose dependent effect of active constituent on the TG content, and the gene expressions related to adipogenesis, fatty acid catabolism, energy expenditure, lipolysis and lipogenesis (20 μg/mL) were examined in-vitro. Furthermore, higher dosage of pteryxin (50μg/mL) was tested against 20μg/mL in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The mRNA were subjected to SOLiD next generation sequencer and the obtained data were analyzed by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA). The active constituent was identified as pteryxin, a known compound in PJT. However, its biological activities against obesity have not been reported previously. Pteryxin dose dependently suppressed TG content in both 3T3-L1 adipocytes and HepG2 hepatocytes (P < 0.05). Sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 (SREBP1 c), Fatty acid synthase (FASN), and acetyl-CoA carboxylase-1 (ACC1) were downregulated in pteryxin-treated adipocytes (by 18.0, 36.1 and 38.2%; P < 0.05, respectively) and hepatocytes (by 72.3, 62.9 and 38.8%, respectively; P < 0.05) indicating its suppressive effects on fatty acid synthesis. The hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL), a lipid catabolising gene was upregulated (by 15.1%; P < 0.05) in pteryxin-treated adipocytes suggesting improved lipolysis. Concordantly, the adipocyte size marker gene, paternally expressed gene1/mesoderm specific transcript (MEST) was downregulated (by 42.8%; P < 0.05), further accelerating the lipolytic activity. The upregulated trend of uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2; by 77.5%; P < 0.05) reflected the improved energy expenditure due to pteryxin. The 50μg/mL dosage of pteryxin completely suppressed PPARγ, MEST, SREBP 1C, HSL, Adiponectin, Fatty Acid Binding Protein (FABP) 4, and UCP’s in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The IPA suggested that pteryxin at 20μg/mL and 50μg/mL suppress obesity in two different pathways, whereas the WNT signaling pathway play a key role in the higher dose of pteryxin in preadipocyte stage. Pteryxin in PJT play the key role in regulating lipid metabolism related gene network and improving energy production in vitro. Thus, the results suggests pteryxin as a new natural compound to be used as an anti-obesity drug in pharmaceutical industry.

Keywords: Food Science, Obesity, peucedanum japonicum thunb, pteryxin

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10 Hydroxyapatite Based Porous Scaffold for Tooth Tissue Engineering

Authors: Pakize Neslihan Taslı, Alev Cumbul, Gul Merve Yalcın, Fikrettin Sahin


A key experimental trial in the regeneration of large oral and craniofacial defects is the neogenesis of osseous and ligamentous interfacial structures. Currently, oral regenerative medicine strategies are unpredictable for repair of tooth supporting tissues destroyed as a consequence of trauma, chronic infection or surgical resection. A different approach combining the gel-casting method with Hydroxy Apatite HA-based scaffold and different cell lineages as a hybrid system leads to successively mimic the early stage of tooth development, in vitro. HA is widely accepted as a bioactive material for guided bone and tooth regeneration. In this study, it was reported that, HA porous scaffold preparation, characterization and evaluation of structural and chemical properties. HA is the main factor that exists in tooth and it is in harmony with structural, biological, and mechanical characteristics. Here, this study shows mimicking immature tooth at the late bell stage design and construction of HA scaffolds for cell transplantation of human Adipose Stem Cells (hASCs), human Bone Marrow Stem Cells (hBMSCs) and Gingival Epitelial cells for the formation of human tooth dentin-pulp-enamel complexes in vitro. Scaffold characterization was demonstrated by SEM, FTIR and pore size and density measurements. The biological contraction of dental tissues against each other was demonstrated by mRNA gene expressions, histopatologic observations and protein release profile by ELISA tecnique. The tooth shaped constructs with a pore size ranging from 150 to 300 µm arranged by gathering right amounts of materials provide interconnected macro-porous structure. The newly formed tissue like structures that grow and integrate within the HA designed constructs forming tooth cementum like tissue, pulp and bone structures. These findings are important as they emphasize the potential biological effect of the hybrid scaffold system. In conclusion, this in vitro study clearly demonstrates that designed 3D scaffolds shaped as a immature tooth at the late bell stage were essential to form enamel-dentin-pulp interfaces with an appropriate cell and biodegradable material combination. The biomimetic architecture achieved here is providing a promising platform for dental tissue engineering.

Keywords: Tissue Engineering, adipose stem cells, tooth regeneration, hydroxyapatite tooth engineering, porous scaffold

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9 A Kunitz-Type Serine Protease Inhibitor from Rock Bream, Oplegnathus fasciatus Involved in Immune Responses

Authors: S. D. N. K. Bathige, Jehee Lee, G. I. Godahewa, Navaneethaiyer Umasuthan


Kunitz-type serine protease inhibitors (KTIs) are identified in various organisms including animals, plants and microbes. These proteins shared single or multiple Kunitz inhibitory domains link together or associated with other types of domains. Characteristic Kunitz type domain composed of around 60 amino acid residues with six conserved cysteine residues to stabilize by three disulfide bridges. KTIs are involved in various physiological processes, such as ion channel blocking, blood coagulation, fibrinolysis and inflammation. In this study, two Kunitz-type domain containing protein was identified from rock bream database and designated as RbKunitz. The coding sequence of RbKunitz encoded for 507 amino acids with 56.2 kDa theoretical molecular mass and 5.7 isoelectric point (pI). There are several functional domains including MANEC superfamily domain, PKD superfamily domain, and LDLa domain were predicted in addition to the two characteristic Kunitz domain. Moreover, trypsin interaction sites were also identified in Kunitz domain. Homology analysis revealed that RbKunitz shared highest identity (77.6%) with Takifugu rubripes. Completely conserved 28 cysteine residues were recognized, when comparison of RbKunitz with other orthologs from different taxonomical groups. These structural evidences indicate the rigidity of RbKunitz folding structure to achieve the proper function. The phylogenetic tree was constructed using neighbor-joining method and exhibited that the KTIs from fish and non-fish has been evolved in separately. Rock bream was clustered with Takifugu rubripes. The SYBR Green qPCR was performed to quantify the RbKunitz transcripts in different tissues and challenged tissues. The mRNA transcripts of RbKunitz were detected in all tissues (muscle, spleen, head kidney, blood, heart, skin, liver, intestine, kidney and gills) analyzed and highest transcripts level was detected in gill tissues. Temporal transcription profile of RbKunitz in rock bream blood tissues was analyzed upon LPS (lipopolysaccharide), Poly I:C (Polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid) and Edwardsiella tarda challenge to understand the immune responses of this gene. Compare to the unchallenged control RbKunitz exhibited strong up-regulation at 24 h post injection (p.i.) after LPS and E. tarda injection. Comparatively robust expression of RbKunits was observed at 3 h p.i. upon Poly I:C challenge. Taken together all these data indicate that RbKunitz may involve into to immune responses upon pathogenic stress, in order to protect the rock bream.

Keywords: Immune response, rock bream, Kunitz-type, serine protease inhibitor

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8 Evaluation of the Cytotoxicity and Cellular Uptake of a Cyclodextrin-Based Drug Delivery System for Cancer Therapy

Authors: Caroline Mendes, Mary McNamara, Orla Howe


Drug delivery systems are proposed for use in cancer treatment to specifically target cancer cells and deliver a therapeutic dose without affecting normal cells. For that purpose, the use of folate receptors (FR) can be considered a key strategy, since they are commonly over-expressed in cancer cells. In this study, cyclodextrins (CD) have being used as vehicles to target FR and deliver the chemotherapeutic drug, methotrexate (MTX). CDs have the ability to form inclusion complexes, in which molecules of suitable dimensions are included within their cavities. Here, β-CD has been modified using folic acid so as to specifically target the FR. Thus, this drug delivery system consists of β-CD, folic acid and MTX (CDEnFA:MTX). Cellular uptake of folic acid is mediated with high affinity by folate receptors while the cellular uptake of antifolates, such as MTX, is mediated with high affinity by the reduced folate carriers (RFCs). This study addresses the gene (mRNA) and protein expression levels of FRs and RFCs in the cancer cell lines CaCo-2, SKOV-3, HeLa, MCF-7, A549 and the normal cell line BEAS-2B, quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR) and flow cytometry, respectively. From that, four cell lines with different levels of FRs, were chosen for cytotoxicity assays of MTX and CDEnFA:MTX using the MTT assay. Real-time PCR and flow cytometry data demonstrated that all cell lines ubiquitously express moderate levels of RFC. These experiments have also shown that levels of FR protein in CaCo-2 cells are high, while levels in SKOV-3, HeLa and MCF-7 cells are moderate. A549 and BEAS-2B cells express low levels of FR protein. FRs are highly expressed in all the cancer cell lines analysed when compared to the normal cell line BEAS-2B. The cell lines CaCo-2, MCF-7, A549 and BEAS-2B were used in the cell viability assays. 48 hours treatment with the free drug and the complex resulted in IC50 values of 93.9 µM ± 15.2 and 56.0 µM ± 4.0 for CaCo-2 for free MTX and CDEnFA:MTX respectively, 118.2 µM ± 16.8 and 97.8 µM ± 12.3 for MCF-7, 36.4 µM ± 6.9 and 75.0 µM ± 10.5 for A549 and 132.6 µM ± 16.1 and 288.1 µM ± 26.3 for BEAS-2B. These results demonstrate that free MTX is more toxic towards cell lines expressing low levels of FR, such as the BEAS-2B. More importantly, these results demonstrate that the inclusion complex CDEnFA:MTX showed greater cytotoxicity than the free drug towards the high FR expressing CaCo-2 cells, indicating that it has potential to target this receptor, enhancing the specificity and the efficiency of the drug. The use of cell imaging by confocal microscopy has allowed visualisation of FR targeting in cancer cells, as well as the identification of the interlisation pathway of the drug. Hence, the cellular uptake and internalisation process of this drug delivery system is being addressed.

Keywords: Cancer Treatment, drug delivery, Cyclodextrins, folate receptors, reduced folate carriers

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7 Inhibition of Influenza Replication through the Restrictive Factors Modulation by CCR5 and CXCR4 Receptor Ligands

Authors: Thauane Silva, Gabrielle do Vale, Andre Ferreira, Marilda Siqueira, Thiago Moreno L. Souza, Milene D. Miranda


The exposure of A(H1N1)pdm09-infected epithelial cells (HeLa) to HIV-1 viral particles, or its gp120, enhanced interferon-induced transmembrane protein (IFITM3) content, a viral restriction factor (RF), resulting in a decrease in influenza replication. The gp120 binds to CCR5 (R5) or CXCR4 (X4) cell receptors during HIV-1 infection. Then, it is possible that the endogenous ligands of these receptors also modulate the expression of IFITM3 and other cellular factors that restrict influenza virus replication. Thus, the aim of this study is to analyze the role of cellular receptors R5 and X4 in modulating RFs in order to inhibit the replication of the influenza virus. A549 cells were treated with 2x effective dose (ED50) of endogenous R5 or X4 receptor agonists, CCL3 (20 ng/ml), CCL4 (10 ng/ml), CCL5 (10 ng/ml) and CXCL12 (100 ng/mL) or exogenous agonists, gp120 Bal-R5, gp120 IIIB-X4 and its mutants (5 µg/mL). The interferon α (10 ng/mL) and oseltamivir (60 nM) were used as a control. After 24 h post agonists exposure, the cells were infected with virus influenza A(H3N2) at 2 MOI (multiplicity of infection) for 1 h. Then, 24 h post infection, the supernatant was harvested and, the viral titre was evaluated by qRT-PCR. To evaluate IFITM3 and SAM and HD domain containing deoxynucleoside triphosphate triphosphohydrolase 1 (SAMHD1) protein levels, A549 were exposed to agonists for 24 h, and the monolayer was lysed with Laemmli buffer for western blot (WB) assay or fixed for indirect immunofluorescence (IFI) assay. In addition to this, we analyzed other RFs modulation in A549, after 24 h post agonists exposure by customized RT² Profiler Polymerase Chain Reaction Array. We also performed a functional assay in which SAMHD1-knocked-down, by single-stranded RNA (siRNA), A549 cells were infected with A(H3N2). In addition, the cells were treated with guanosine to assess the regulatory role of dNTPs by SAMHD1. We found that R5 and X4 agonists inhibited influenza replication in 54 ± 9%. We observed a four-fold increase in SAMHD1 transcripts by RFs mRNA quantification panel. After 24 h post agonists exposure, we did not observe an increase in IFITM3 protein levels through WB or IFI assays, but we observed an upregulation up to three-fold in the protein content of SAMHD1, in A549 exposed to agonists. Besides this, influenza replication enhanced in 20% in cell cultures that SAMDH1 was knockdown. Guanosine treatment in cells exposed to R5 ligands further inhibited influenza virus replication, suggesting that the inhibitory mechanism may involve the activation of the SAMHD1 deoxynucleotide triphosphohydrolase activity. Thus, our data show for the first time a direct relationship of SAMHD1 and inhibition of influenza replication, and provides perspectives for new studies on the signaling modulation, through cellular receptors, to induce proteins of great importance in the control of relevant infections for public health.

Keywords: Influenza, Chemokine Receptors, gp120, virus restriction factors

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6 Genetic Screening of Sahiwal Bulls for Higher Fertility

Authors: Vijay Kumar, V. Jamuna, A. K. Chakravarty, C. S. Patil, Atul C. Mahajan, Neeraj Kashyap, Bharti Deshmukh


The selection of Sahiwal bulls on the basis of dams best lactation milk yield under breeding programme in herd of the country neglecting fertility traits leads to deterioration in their performances and economy. The goal of this study was to explore polymorphism of CRISP2 gene and their association with semen traits (Post Thaw Motility, Hypo-osmotic Swelling Test, Acrosome Integrity, DNA Fragmentation and capacitation status), scrotal circumference, expected predicted difference (EPD) for milk yield and fertility. Sahiwal bulls included in present study were 60 bulls used in breeding programme as well as 50 young bulls yet to be included in breeding programme. All the Sahiwal bulls were found to be polymorphic for CRISP2 gene (AA, AG and GG) present within exon 7 to the position 589 of CRISP2 mRNA by using PCR-SSCP and Sequencing. Semen analysis were done on 60 breeding bulls frozen semen doses pertaining to four season (winter, summer, rainy and autumn). The scrotal circumference was measured from existing Sahiwal breeding bulls in the herd (n=47). The effect of non-genetic factors on reproduction traits were studied by least-squares technique and the significant difference of means between subclasses of season, period, parity and age group were tested. The data were adjusted for the significant non-genetic factors to remove the differential environmental effects. The adjusted data were used to generate traits like Waiting Period (WP), Pregnancy Rate (PR), Expected Predicted Difference (EPD) of fertility, respectively. Genetic and phenotypic parameters of reproduction traits were estimated. The overall least-squares means of Age at First Calving (AFC), Service Period (SP) and WP were estimated as 36.69 ± 0.18 months, 120.47 ± 8.98 days and 79.78 ± 3.09 days respectively. Season and period of birth had significant effect (p < 0.01) on AFC. AFC was highest during autumn season of birth followed by summer, winter and rainy. Season and period of calving had significant effect (p < 0.01) on SP and WP of sahiwal cows. The WP for Sahiwal cows was standardized based on four developed predicted model for pregnancy rate 42, 63, 84 and 105 days using all lactation records. The WP for Sahiwal cows were standardized as 42 days. A selection criterion was developed for Sahiwal breeding bulls and young Sahiwal bulls on the basis of EPD of fertility. The genotype has significant effect on expected predicted difference of fertility and some semen parameters like post thaw motility and HOST. AA Genotype of CRISP2 gene revealed better EPD for fertility than EPD of milk yield. AA genotype of CRISP2 gene has higher scrotal circumference than other genotype. For young Sahiwal bulls only AA genotypes were present with similar patterns. So on the basis of association of genotype with seminal traits, EPD of milk yield and EPD for fertility status, AA and AG genotype of CRISP2 gene was better for higher fertility in Sahiwal bulls.

Keywords: Fertility, expected predicted difference, sahiwal, waiting period

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5 Gene Expression Profiling of Iron-Related Genes of Pasteurella multocida Serotype A Strain PMTB2.1

Authors: Nurulfiza Mat Isa, Abdul Rahman Omar, Shagufta Jabeen, Zunita Zakaria, Faez Jesse Firdaus Abdullah, Yung Chie Tan, Wai Yan Yee


Pasteurella multocida is associated with acute, as well as, chronic infections in avian and bovine such as pasteurellosis and hemorrhagic septicemia (HS) in cattle and buffaloes. Iron is one of the most important nutrients for pathogenic bacteria including Pasteurella and acts as a cofactor or prosthetic group in several essential enzymes and is needed for amino acid, pyrimidine, and DNA biosynthesis. In our recent study, we showed that 2% of Pasteurella multocida serotype A strain PMTB2.1 encode for iron regulating genes (Accession number CP007205.1). Genome sequencing of other Pasteurella multocida serotypes namely PM70 and HB01 also indicated up to 2.5% of the respective genome encode for iron regulating genes, suggesting that Pasteurella multocida genome comprises of multiple systems for iron uptake. Since P. multocida PMTB2.1 has more than 40 CDs out of 2097 CDs (approximately 2%), encode for iron-regulated. The gene expression profiling of four iron-regulating genes namely fbpb, yfea, fece and fur were characterized under iron-restricted environment. The P. multocida strain PMTB2.1 was grown in broth with and without iron chelating agent and samples were collected at different time points. Relative mRNA expression profile of these genes was determined using Taqman probe based real-time PCR assay. The data analysis, normalization with two house-keeping genes and the quantification of fold changes were carried out using Bio-Rad CFX manager software version 3.1. Results of this study reflect that iron reduced environment has significant effect on expression profile of iron regulating genes (p < 0.05) when compared to control (normal broth) and all evaluated genes act differently with response to iron reduction in media. The highest relative fold change of fece gene was observed at early stage of treatment indicating that PMTB2.1 may utilize its periplasmic protein at early stage to acquire iron. Furthermore, down-regulation expression of fece with the elevated expression of other genes at later time points suggests that PMTB2.1 control their iron requirements in response to iron availability by down-regulating the expression of iron proteins. Moreover, significantly high relative fold change (p ≤ 0.05) of fbpb gene is probably associated with the ability of P. multocida to directly use host iron complex such as hem, hemoglobin. In addition, the significant increase (p ≤ 0.05) in fbpb and yfea expressions also reflects the utilization of multiple iron systems in P. multocida strain PMTB2.1. The findings of this study are very much important as relative scarcity of free iron within hosts creates a major barrier to microbial growth inside host and utilization of outer-membrane proteins system in iron acquisition probably occurred at early stage of infection with P. multocida. In conclusion, the presence and utilization of multiple iron system in P. multocida strain PMTB2.1 revealed the importance of iron in the survival of P. multocida.

Keywords: real-time PCR, iron-related genes, gene expression profiling, fold changes

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4 Differential Expression Profile Analysis of DNA Repair Genes in Mycobacterium Leprae by qPCR

Authors: Mukul Sharma, Madhusmita Das, Sundeep Chaitanya Vedithi


Leprosy is a chronic human disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae, that cannot be cultured in vitro. Though treatable with multidrug therapy (MDT), recently, bacteria reported resistance to multiple antibiotics. Targeting DNA replication and repair pathways can serve as the foundation of developing new anti-leprosy drugs. Due to the absence of an axenic culture medium for the propagation of M. leprae, studying cellular processes, especially those belonging to DNA repair pathways, is challenging. Genomic understanding of M. Leprae harbors several protein-coding genes with no previously assigned function known as 'hypothetical proteins'. Here, we report identification and expression of known and hypothetical DNA repair genes from a human skin biopsy and mouse footpads that are involved in base excision repair, direct reversal repair, and SOS response. Initially, a bioinformatics approach was employed based on sequence similarity, identification of known protein domains to screen the hypothetical proteins in the genome of M. leprae, that are potentially related to DNA repair mechanisms. Before testing on clinical samples, pure stocks of bacterial reference DNA of M. leprae (NHDP63 strain) was used to construct standard graphs to validate and identify lower detection limit in the qPCR experiments. Primers were designed to amplify the respective transcripts, and PCR products of the predicted size were obtained. Later, excisional skin biopsies of newly diagnosed untreated, treated, and drug resistance leprosy cases from SIHR & LC hospital, Vellore, India were taken for the extraction of RNA. To determine the presence of the predicted transcripts, cDNA was generated from M. leprae mRNA isolated from clinically confirmed leprosy skin biopsy specimen across all the study groups. Melting curve analysis was performed to determine the integrity of the amplification and to rule out primer‑dimer formation. The Ct values obtained from qPCR were fitted to standard curve to determine transcript copy number. Same procedure was applied for M. leprae extracted after processing a footpad of nude mice of drug sensitive and drug resistant strains. 16S rRNA was used as positive control. Of all the 16 genes involved in BER, DR, and SOS, differential expression pattern of the genes was observed in terms of Ct values when compared to human samples; this was because of the different host and its immune response. However, no drastic variation in gene expression levels was observed in human samples except the nth gene. The higher expression of nth gene could be because of the mutations that may be associated with sequence diversity and drug resistance which suggests an important role in the repair mechanism and remains to be explored. In both human and mouse samples, SOS system – lexA and RecA, and BER genes AlkB and Ogt were expressing efficiently to deal with possible DNA damage. Together, the results of the present study suggest that DNA repair genes are constitutively expressed and may provide a reference for molecular diagnosis, therapeutic target selection, determination of treatment and prognostic judgment in M. leprae pathogenesis.

Keywords: DNA repair, qPCR, human biopsy, hypothetical proteins, mouse footpads, Mycobacterium leprae

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3 Non-Mammalian Pattern Recognition Receptor from Rock Bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus): Genomic Characterization and Transcriptional Profile upon Bacterial and Viral Inductions

Authors: Thanthrige Thiunuwan Priyathilaka, Don Anushka Sandaruwan Elvitigala, Bong-Soo Lim, Hyung-Bok Jeong, Jehee Lee


Toll like receptors (TLRs) are a phylogeneticaly conserved family of pattern recognition receptors, which participates in the host immune responses against various pathogens and pathogen derived mitogen. TLR21, a non-mammalian type, is almost restricted to the fish species even though those can be identified rarely in avians and amphibians. Herein, this study was carried out to identify and characterize TLR21 from rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus) designated as RbTLR21, at transcriptional and genomic level. In this study, the full length cDNA and genomic sequence of RbTLR21 was identified using previously constructed cDNA sequence database and BAC library, respectively. Identified RbTLR21 sequence was characterized using several bioinformatics tools. The quantitative real time PCR (qPCR) experiment was conducted to determine tissue specific expressional distribution of RbTLR21. Further, transcriptional modulation of RbTLR21 upon the stimulation with Streptococcus iniae (S. iniae), rock bream iridovirus (RBIV) and Edwardsiella tarda (E. tarda) was analyzed in spleen tissues. The complete coding sequence of RbTLR21 was 2919 bp in length which can encode a protein consisting of 973 amino acid residues with molecular mass of 112 kDa and theoretical isoelectric point of 8.6. The anticipated protein sequence resembled a typical TLR domain architecture including C-terminal ectodomain with 16 leucine rich repeats, a transmembrane domain, cytoplasmic TIR domain and signal peptide with 23 amino acid residues. Moreover, protein folding pattern prediction of RbTLR21 exhibited well-structured and folded ectodomain, transmembrane domain and cytoplasmc TIR domain. According to the pair wise sequence analysis data, RbTLR21 showed closest homology with orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) TLR21with 76.9% amino acid identity. Furthermore, our phylogenetic analysis revealed that RbTLR21 shows a close evolutionary relationship with its ortholog from Danio rerio. Genomic structure of RbTLR21 consisted of single exon similar to its ortholog of zebra fish. Sevaral putative transcription factor binding sites were also identified in 5ʹ flanking region of RbTLR21. The RBTLR 21 was ubiquitously expressed in all the tissues we tested. Relatively, high expression levels were found in spleen, liver and blood tissues. Upon induction with rock bream iridovirus, RbTLR21 expression was upregulated at the early phase of post induction period even though RbTLR21 expression level was fluctuated at the latter phase of post induction period. Post Edwardsiella tarda injection, RbTLR transcripts were upregulated throughout the experiment. Similarly, Streptococcus iniae induction exhibited significant upregulations of RbTLR21 mRNA expression in the spleen tissues. Collectively, our findings suggest that RbTLR21 is indeed a homolog of TLR21 family members and RbTLR21 may be involved in host immune responses against bacterial and DNA viral infections.

Keywords: rock bream, toll like receptor 21 (TLR21), pattern recognition receptor, genomic characterization

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2 Molecular Signaling Involved in the 'Benzo(a)Pyrene' Induced Germ Cell DNA Damage and Apoptosis: Possible Protection by Natural Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Antagonist and Anti-Tumor Agent

Authors: Kuladip Jana


Benzo(a)pyrene [B(a)P] is an environmental toxicant present mostly in cigarette smoke and car exhaust, is an aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) ligand that exerts its toxic effects on both male and female reproductive systems. In this study, the effect of B(a)P at different doses (0.1, 0.25, 0.5, 1 and 5 mg /kg body weight) was studied on male reproductive system of rat. A significant decrease in cauda epididymal sperm count and motility along with the presence of sperm head abnormalities and altered epididymal and testicular histology were documented following B(a)P treatment. B(a)P treatment resulted apoptotic sperm cells as observed by TUNEL and Annexin V-PI assay with increased ROS, altered sperm mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) with a simultaneous decrease in the activity of antioxidant enzymes and GSH status. TUNEL positive apoptotic cells also observed in testis as well as isolated germ and Leydig cells following B(a)P exposure. Western Blot analysis revealed the activation of p38MAPK, cytosolic translocation of cytochrome-c, up-regulation of Bax and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) with cleavage of PARP and down-regulation of BCl2 in testis upon B(a)P treatment. The protein and mRNA levels of testicular key steroidogenesis regulatory proteins like StAR, cytochrome P450 IIA1 (CYPIIA1), 3β HSD, 17β HSD showed a significant decrease in a dose dependent manner while an increase in the expression of cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1), Aryl hydrocarbon Receptor (AhR), active caspase- 9 and caspase- 3 following B(a)P exposure. We conclude that exposure of benzo(a)pyrene caused testicular gamatogenic and steroidogenic disorders by induction of oxidative stress, inhibition of StAR and other steroidogenic enzymes along with activation of p38MAPK and initiated caspase-3 mediated germ and Leydig cell apoptosis.The possible protective role of naturally occurring phytochemicals against B(a)P induced testicular toxicity needs immediate consideration. Curcumin and resveratrol separately were found to protect against B(a)P induced germ cell apoptosis, and their combinatorial effect was more significant. Our present study in isolated testicular germ cell population from adult male Wistar rats, highlighted their synergistic protective effect against B(a)P induced germ cell apoptosis. Curcumin-resveratrol co-treatment decreased the expression of pro-apoptotic proteins like cleaved caspase 3,8,9, cleaved PARP, Apaf1, FasL, tBid. Curcumin-resveratrol co-treatment decreased Bax/Bcl2 ratio, mitochondria to cytosolic translocation of cytochrome c and activated the survival protein Akt. Curcumin-resveratrol decreased the expression of p53 dependent apoptotic genes like Fas, FasL, Bax, Bcl2, Apaf1.Curcumin-resveratrol co-treatment thus prevented B(a)P induced germ cell apoptosis. B(a)P induced testicular ROS generation and oxidative stress were significantly ameliorated with curcumin and resveratrol. Curcumin-resveratrol co-treatment prevented B(a)P induced nuclear translocation of AhR and CYP1A1 production. The combinatorial treatment significantly inhibited B(a)P induced ERK 1/2, p38 MAPK and JNK 1/2 activation. B(a)P treatment increased the expression of p53 and its phosphorylation (p53 ser 15). Curcumin-resveratrol co-treatment significantly decreased p53 level and its phosphorylation (p53 ser 15). The study concludes that curcumin-resveratrol synergistically modulated MAPKs and p53, prevented oxidative stress, regulated the expression of pro and anti-apoptotic proteins as well as the proteins involved in B(a)P metabolism thus protected germ cells from B(a)P induced apoptosis.

Keywords: apoptosis, Oxidative Stress, Curcumin, Resveratrol, germ cell, benzo(a)pyrene

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1 The Pro-Reparative Effect of Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide in Chronic Inflammatory Osteolytic Periapical Lesions

Authors: Michelle C. S. Azevedo, Priscila M. Colavite, Carolina F. Francisconi, Ana P. Trombone, Gustavo P. Garlet


VIP (vasoactive intestinal peptide) know as a potential protective factor in the view of its marked immunosuppressive properties. In this work, we investigated a possible association of VIP with the clinical status of experimental periapical granulomas and the association with expression markers in the lesions potentially associated with periapical lesions pathogenesis. C57BL/6WT mice were treated or not with recombinant VIP. Animals with active/progressive (N=40), inactive/stable (N=70) periapical granulomas and controls (N=50) were anesthetized and the right mandibular first molar was surgically opened, allowing exposure of dental pulp. Endodontic pathogenic bacterial strains were inoculated: Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella nigrescens, Actinomyces viscosus, and Fusobacterium nucleatum subsp. polymorphum. The cavity was not sealed after bacterial inoculation. During lesion development, animals were treated or not with recombinant VIP 3 days post infection. Animals were killed after 3, 7, 14, and 21 days of infection and the jaws were dissected. The extraction of total RNA from periodontal tissues was performed and the integrity of samples was checked. qPCR reaction using TaqMan chemistry with inventoried primers were performed in ViiA7 equipment. The results, depicted as the relative levels of gene expression, were calculated in reference to GAPDH and β-actin expression. Periodontal tissues from upper molars were vested and incubated supplemented RPMI, followed by processing with 0.05% DNase. Cell viability and couting were determined by Neubauer chamber analysis. For flow cytometry analysis, after cell counting the cells were stained with the optimal dilution of each antibody; (PE)-conjugated and (FITC)-conjugated antibodies against CD4, CD25, FOXP3, IL-4, IL-17 and IFN-γ antibodies, as well their respective isotype controls. Cells were analyzed by FACScan and CellQuest software. Results are presented as the number of cells in the periodontal tissues or the number of positive cells for each marker in the CD4+FOXp3+, CD4+IL-4+, CD4+IFNg+ and CD4+IL-17+ subpopulations. The levels mRNA were measured by qPCR. The VIP expression was predominated in inactive lesions, as well part of the clusters of cytokine/Th markers identified as protective factors and a negative correlation between VIP expression and lesion evolution was observed. A quantitative analysis of IL1β, IL17, TNF, IFN, MMP2, RANKL, OPG, IL10, TGFβ, CTLA4, COL5A1, CTGF, CXCL11, FGF7, ITGA4, ITGA5, SERP1 and VTN expression was measured in experimental periapical lesions treated with VIP 7 and 14 days after lesion induction and healthy animals. After 7 days, all targets presented a significate increase in comparison to untreated animals. About migration kinetics, profile of chemokine receptors expression of TCD4+ subsets and phenotypic analysis of Tregs, Th1, Th2 and Th17 cells during the course of experimental periodontal disease evaluated by flow cytometry and depicted as the number of positive cells for each marker. CD4+IFNg+ and CD4+FOXp3+ cells migration were significate increased 7 days post VIP treatment. CD4+IL17+ cells migration were significate increased 7 and 14 days post VIP treatment, CD4+IL4+ cells migration were significate increased 14 and 21 days post VIP treatment compared to the control group. In conclusion, our experimental data support VIP involvement in determining the inactivity of periapical lesions. Financial support: FAPESP #2015/25618-2.

Keywords: Cytokines, chronic inflammation, osteolytic lesions, VIP (Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide)

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