Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 23

Search results for: Sergei Semenov

23 Species Diversity of Coleoptera (Insecta: Coleoptera) Damaging Saxaul (Chenopodiáceae: Haloxylon spp.) in the Deserts Area of South-East Kazakhstan

Authors: B. Mombayeva

Abstract:

In the deserts area of south east of Kazakhstan, 16 species of Coleoptera from 6 families and 12 genus of insects damaging Saxaul have been revealed. The vast number of species belong to the Cerambycidae familyCapricorn Beetle (4 species) and Hemlock Borer of Melanophila genus and 3 species of weevils and flea-beetles, and 1 species of coctsinelids and carrion beetle. Some of them cause appreciable harm, and sometimes very heavy damageto saxaul. According to food specialization they are divided into polyphages and - oligophages. According to the confinement to saxaul parts, registered beetles insects mainly feed on generative parts (11 species) and leaves (5 species). 9 species from them feed on roots, leaves and generative organs. They are scarablike beetle’s larvae (Apatophysismongolica Semenov., Tursmenigenavarentzovi Melg., Phytoecia (Opsilla) coerulescens Scopoli., Apatophysismongolica Semenov.), Jewel beetles (Julodis (s. Str.) Variolaris (Pallas), Sphenoptera (s. Str.) cuprina Motschulsky, S. (s. str.) exarata (Fischer), SphenopterapotaniniJak.) and some weevil (Barisartemisiae Hbst.). The larvae eat the roots and the imago - generative organs. Their feeding noticeably has its effect on the condition of saxaul. Beetles also slightlygnaw vegetative organs of plants. Among the harmful species the desert Capricorn Beetle Julodisvariolaris (Pallas) deserved attention. Its larvae live in the soil and cause harm to the roots of Saxaul and other pasture plants. In addition, the larvae of Sphenopterapotanini, S.punctatissima colonize the roots, trunk and branches of Haloxylon. In the spring Saxaul flowers are much damaged by Ladybeetle Bulaealichatchovi.

Keywords: saxaul, coleoptera, insecta, haloxylon

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22 Detection of Clipped Fragments in Speech Signals

Authors: Sergei Aleinik, Yuri Matveev

Abstract:

In this paper a novel method for the detection of clipping in speech signals is described. It is shown that the new method has better performance than known clipping detection methods, is easy to implement, and is robust to changes in signal amplitude, size of data, etc. Statistical simulation results are presented.

Keywords: clipping, clipped signal, speech signal processing, digital signal processing

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21 Multiaxial Stress Based High Cycle Fatigue Model for Adhesive Joint Interfaces

Authors: Martin Alexander Eder, Sergei Semenov

Abstract:

Many glass-epoxy composite structures, such as large utility wind turbine rotor blades (WTBs), comprise of adhesive joints with typically thick bond lines used to connect the different components during assembly. Performance optimization of rotor blades to increase power output by simultaneously maintaining high stiffness-to-low-mass ratios entails intricate geometries in conjunction with complex anisotropic material behavior. Consequently, adhesive joints in WTBs are subject to multiaxial stress states with significant stress gradients depending on the local joint geometry. Moreover, the dynamic aero-elastic interaction of the WTB with the airflow generates non-proportional, variable amplitude stress histories in the material. Empiricism shows that a prominent failure type in WTBs is high cycle fatigue failure of adhesive bond line interfaces, which in fact over time developed into a design driver as WTB sizes increase rapidly. Structural optimization employed at an early design stage, therefore, sets high demands on computationally efficient interface fatigue models capable of predicting the critical locations prone for interface failure. The numerical stress-based interface fatigue model presented in this work uses the Drucker-Prager criterion to compute three different damage indices corresponding to the two interface shear tractions and the outward normal traction. The two-parameter Drucker-Prager model was chosen because of its ability to consider shear strength enhancement under compression and shear strength reduction under tension. The governing interface damage index is taken as the maximum of the triple. The damage indices are computed through the well-known linear Palmgren-Miner rule after separate rain flow-counting of the equivalent shear stress history and the equivalent pure normal stress history. The equivalent stress signals are obtained by self-similar scaling of the Drucker-Prager surface whose shape is defined by the uniaxial tensile strength and the shear strength such that it intersects with the stress point at every time step. This approach implicitly assumes that the damage caused by the prevailing multiaxial stress state is the same as the damage caused by an amplified equivalent uniaxial stress state in the three interface directions. The model was implemented as Python plug-in for the commercially available finite element code Abaqus for its use with solid elements. The model was used to predict the interface damage of an adhesively bonded, tapered glass-epoxy composite cantilever I-beam tested by LM Wind Power under constant amplitude compression-compression tip load in the high cycle fatigue regime. Results show that the model was able to predict the location of debonding in the adhesive interface between the webfoot and the cap. Moreover, with a set of two different constant life diagrams namely in shear and tension, it was possible to predict both the fatigue lifetime and the failure mode of the sub-component with reasonable accuracy. It can be concluded that the fidelity, robustness and computational efficiency of the proposed model make it especially suitable for rapid fatigue damage screening of large 3D finite element models subject to complex dynamic load histories.

Keywords: adhesive, fatigue, interface, multiaxial stress

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20 Signs-Only Compressed Row Storage Format for Exact Diagonalization Study of Quantum Fermionic Models

Authors: Michael Danilov, Sergei Iskakov, Vladimir Mazurenko

Abstract:

The present paper describes a high-performance parallel realization of an exact diagonalization solver for quantum-electron models in a shared memory computing system. The proposed algorithm contains a storage format for efficient computing eigenvalues and eigenvectors of a quantum electron Hamiltonian matrix. The results of the test calculations carried out for 15 sites Hubbard model demonstrate reduction in the required memory and good multiprocessor scalability, while maintaining performance of the same order as compressed row storage.

Keywords: sparse matrix, compressed format, Hubbard model, Anderson model

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19 Influence of the Popular Literature on Consciousness of the Person

Authors: Alua Temirbolat, Sergei Kibalnik, Zhuldyz Essimova

Abstract:

The article is devoted to research of influence of the modern literature on the consciousness of the person. Tendencies and features of the progress of the historical-cultural and artistic process at the end of XX–the beginning of XXI centuries are considered. The object of the analysis is the popular literature which has found last decades greater popularity among readers of different generations. In the article, such genres, as melodramas, female, espionage, criminal, pink, costume-historical novels, thrillers, elements, a fantasy are considered. During research, specific features of the popular literature, its difference from works of classics is revealed. On specific examples, its negative and positive influence on consciousness, psychology of the reader is shown, its role and value in a modern society are defined.

Keywords: the popular literature, the person, consciousness, a genre, psychology

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18 Time Delay Estimation Using Signal Envelopes for Synchronisation of Recordings

Authors: Sergei Aleinik, Mikhail Stolbov

Abstract:

In this work, a method of time delay estimation for dual-channel acoustic signals (speech, music, etc.) recorded under reverberant conditions is investigated. Standard methods based on cross-correlation of the signals show poor results in cases involving strong reverberation, large distances between microphones and asynchronous recordings. Under similar conditions, a method based on cross-correlation of temporal envelopes of the signals delivers a delay estimation of acceptable quality. This method and its properties are described and investigated in detail, including its limits of applicability. The method’s optimal parameter estimation and a comparison with other known methods of time delay estimation are also provided.

Keywords: cross-correlation, delay estimation, signal envelope, signal processing

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17 Simulation for the Magnetized Plasma Compression Study

Authors: Victor V. Kuzenov, Sergei V. Ryzhkov

Abstract:

Ongoing experimental and theoretical studies on magneto-inertial confinement fusion (Angara, C-2, CJS-100, General Fusion, MagLIF, MAGPIE, MC-1, YG-1, Omega) and new constructing facilities (Baikal, C-2W, Z300 and Z800) require adequate modeling and description of the physical processes occurring in high-temperature dense plasma in a strong magnetic field. This paper presents a mathematical model, numerical method, and results of the computer analysis of the compression process and the energy transfer in the target plasma, used in magneto-inertial fusion (MIF). The computer simulation of the compression process of the magnetized target by the high-power laser pulse and the high-speed plasma jets is presented. The characteristic patterns of the two methods of the target compression are being analysed.

Keywords: magnetized target, magneto-inertial fusion, mathematical model, plasma and laser beams

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16 Properties of Modified Dry Masonry Mixtures for Effective Masonry Units

Authors: Vyacheslav S. Semenov, Tamara A. Rozovskaya

Abstract:

The paper is devoted to the problem of the development of dry light-weight mixtures with hollow ceramics microspheres (CMS) for masonry works. For the one-layer fencing structures including effective masonry units, the use of “warm” masonry mortars is necessary. The used light-weight masonry mortars do not provide the brand strength and thermal uniformity of the fencing structures because of high average density. The CMS are effective light-weight aggregate for such mortars. The influence of the dosage of CMS on the physics-and-mechanics parameters and the technological properties of the masonry mortars were studied. The optimal mixture compositions have been obtained and their main properties have been determined. The influence of an air-entraining admixture and redispersible polymer powders on the average density and physics-and-mechanics parameters of the masonry mortars were studied. The optimal compositions of light-weight dry masonry mixtures with CMS have been suggested.

Keywords: dry mortar mixtures, light-weight dry mixtures, hollow ceramics microspheres, masonry mortars, “warm” mortars, air-entraining admixture, redispersible polymer powders

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15 Modelling of Heating and Evaporation of Biodiesel Fuel Droplets

Authors: Mansour Al Qubeissi, Sergei S. Sazhin, Cyril Crua, Morgan R. Heikal

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This paper presents the application of the Discrete Component Model for heating and evaporation to multi-component biodiesel fuel droplets in direct injection internal combustion engines. This model takes into account the effects of temperature gradient, recirculation and species diffusion inside droplets. A distinctive feature of the model used in the analysis is that it is based on the analytical solutions to the temperature and species diffusion equations inside the droplets. Nineteen types of biodiesel fuels are considered. It is shown that a simplistic model, based on the approximation of biodiesel fuel by a single component or ignoring the diffusion of components of biodiesel fuel, leads to noticeable errors in predicted droplet evaporation time and time evolution of droplet surface temperature and radius.

Keywords: heat/mass transfer, biodiesel, multi-component fuel, droplet

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14 Ab Initio Studies of Organic Electrodes for Li and Na Ion Batteries Based on Tetracyanoethylene

Authors: Yingqian Chen, Sergei Manzhos

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Organic electrodes are a way to achieve high rate (high power) and environment-friendly batteries. We present a computational density functional theory study of Li and Na storage in tetracyanoethylene based molecular and crystalline materials. Up to five Li and Na atoms can be stored on TCNE chemisorbed on doped graphene (corresponding to ~1000 mAh/gTCNE), with binding energies stronger than cohesive energies of the Li and Na metals by 1-2 eV. TCNE has been experimentally shown to form a crystalline material with Li with stoichiometry Li-TCNE. We confirm this computationally and also predict that a similar crystal based of Na-TCNE is also stable. These crystalline materials have well defined channels for facile Li or Na ion insertion and diffusion. Specifically, Li and Na binding energies in Li-TCNE and Na-TCNE crystals are about 1.5 eV and stronger than the cohesive energy of Li and Na, respectively. TCNE immobilized on conducting graphene-based substrates and Li/Na-TCNE crystals could therefore become efficient anode materials for organic Li and Na ion batteries, with which it should also be possible to avoid reduction of common battery electrolytes.

Keywords: organic ion batteries, tetracyanoethylene, cohesive energies, electrolytes

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13 Relation of the Anomalous Magnetic Moment of Electron with the Proton and Neutron Masses

Authors: Sergei P. Efimov

Abstract:

The anomalous magnetic moment of the electron is calculated by introducing the effective mass of the virtual part of the electron structure. In this case, the anomalous moment is inversely proportional to the effective mass Meff, which is shown to be a linear combination of the neutron, proton, and electrostatic electron field masses. The spin of a rotating structure is assumed to be equal to 3/2, while the spin of a 'bare' electron is equal to unity, the resultant spin being 1/2. A simple analysis gives the coefficients for a linear combination of proton and electron masses, the approximation precision giving here nine significant digits after the decimal point. The summand proportional to α² adds four more digits. Thus, the conception of the effective mass Meff leads to the formula for the total magnetic moment of the electron, which is accurate to fourteen digits. Association with the virtual beta-decay reaction and possible reasons for simplicity of the derived formula are discussed.

Keywords: anomalous magnetic moment of electron, comparison with quantum electrodynamics. effective mass, fifteen significant figures, proton and neutron masses

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12 The Actoprotective Efficiency of Pyrimidine Derivatives

Authors: Nail Nazarov, Vladimir Zobov, Alexandra Vyshtakalyuk, Vyacheslav Semenov, Irina Galyametdinova, Vladimir Reznik

Abstract:

There have been studied effects of xymedon and six new pyrimidine derivatives, that are close and distant analogs of xymedon, on rats' working capacity in the test 'swimming to failure'. It has been shown that a single administration of the studied compounds did not have a statistically significant effect in the test. In the conditions of multiple intraperitoneal administration of the studied pyrimidine derivatives, the compound L-ascorbate, 1-(2-hydroxyethyl)-4.6-dimethyl-1.2-dihydropyrimidine-2-one had the lowest toxicity and the most pronounced actoprotective effect. Introduction in the dose of 20 mg/kg caused a statistically significant increase 440 % in the duration of swimming of rats on the 14th day of the experiment compared with the control group. Multiple administration of the compound in the conditions of physical load did not affect leucopoiesis but stimulates erythropoiesis resulting in an increase in the number of erythrocytes and a hemoglobin level. The substance introduction under mixed exhausting loads prevented such changes of blood biochemical parameters as reduction of glucose, increased of urea and lactic acid levels, what indicates improvement in the animals' tolerability of loads and an anti-catabolic effect of the compound. Absence of hepato and cardiotoxic effects of the substance has been shown. This work was performed with the financial support of Russian Science Foundation (grant № 14-50-00014).

Keywords: actoprotectors, physical working capacity, pyrimidine derivatives, xymedon

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11 Awareness about HIV-Infection among HIV-Infected Individuals Attending Medical Moscow Center, Russia

Authors: Marina Nosik, Irina Rymanova, Sergei Sevostyanihin, Natalya Sergeeva, Alexander Sobkin

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This paper presents results of the survey regarding the awareness about HIV/AIDS among HIV-infected individuals. A questionnaire covering various aspects of HIV-infection was conducted among 110 HIV-infected individuals who attended the G.A. Zaharyan Moscow Tuberculosis Clinic, Department for the treatment of TB patients with HIV. The questionnaire included questions about modes of HIV transmission and preventive measures against HIV/AIDS, as well as questions about age, gender, education, and employment status. The survey revealed that the respondents in the whole had a good knowledge regarding modes of HIV transmission and preventive measures against HIV/AIDS: about 83,6% male respondents and 85,7% female respondents gave accurate answers regarding the HIV-infection. However, the overwhelming majority of the study participants, that is, 88,5% men and 98% women, was quite ignorant about the risk of acquiring HIV through saliva and toothbrush of HIV-infected individual. Though that risk is rather insignificant, it is still biologically possible. And this gap in knowledge needs to be filled. As the study showed another point of concern was the fact, that despite the knowledge of HIV transmission risk through unprotected sex about 40% percent of HIV-positive men and 25% of HIV-positive women did not insist on using condoms with their sexual partners. These findings indicate that there are still some aspects about HIV-infection which needed to be clarified and explained through more detailed and specific educational programmes.

Keywords: AIDS, HIV transmission risks, HIV misconceptions, risk behavior

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10 Hepatoprotective Assessment of L-Ascorbate 1-(2-Hydroxyethyl)-4,6-Dimethyl-1, 2-Dihydropyrimidine-2-On Exposure to Carbon Tetrachloride

Authors: Nail Nazarov, Alexandra Vyshtakalyuk, Vyacheslav Semenov, Irina Galyametdinova, Vladimir Zobov, Vladimir Reznik

Abstract:

Among hepatic pyrimidine used as a means of stimulating protein synthesis and recovery of liver cells in her damaged toxic and infectious etiology. When an experimental toxic hepatitis hepatoprotective activity detected some pyrimidine derivatives. There are literature data on oksimetiluratcila hepatoprotective effect. For analogs of pyrimidine nucleobases - drugs Methyluracilum pentoxy and hepatoprotective effect of weakly expressed. According to the American scientists broad spectrum of biological activity, including hepatoprotective properties, have a 2,4-dioxo-5-arilidenimino uracils. Influenced Xymedon medicinal preparation (1- (beta-hydroxyethyl) -4,6-dimethyl-1,2-dihydro-2-oksopirimidin) developed as a means of stimulating the regeneration of tissue revealed increased activity of microsomal oxidases human liver. In studies on the model of toxic liver damage in rats have shown hepatoprotective effect xymedon and stimulating its impact on the recovery of the liver tissue. Hepatoprotective properties of the new compound in the series of pyrimidine derivatives L-ascorbate 1-(2-hydroxyethyl)-4,6-dimethyl-1,2-dihydropirimidine-2-one synthesized on the basis Xymedon preparation were firstly investigated on rats under the carbon tetrachloride action. It was shown the differences of biochemical parameters from the reference value and severity of structural-morphological liver violations decreased in comparison with control group under the influence of the compound injected before exposure carbon tetrachloride. Hepatoprotective properties of the investigated compound were more pronounced in comparison with Xymedon.

Keywords: hepatoprotectors, pyrimidine derivatives, toxic liver damage, xymedon

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9 Hepatoprotective Assessment of L-Ascorbate 1-(2-Hydroxyethyl)-4,6-Dimethyl-1, 2-Dihydropyrimidine-2-on in Toxic Liver Damage Test

Authors: Vladimir Zobov, Nail Nazarov, Alexandra Vyshtakalyuk, Vyacheslav Semenov, Irina Galyametdinova, Vladimir Reznik

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to investigate hepatoprotective properties of the Xymedon derivative L-ascorbate 1- (2-hydroxyethyl)-4,6-dimethyl-1,2-dihydropyrimidine-2-one (XD), which exhibits high efficiency as actoprotector. The study was carried out on 68 male albino rats weighing 250-400 g using preventive exposure to the test preparation. Effectiveness of XD win comparison with effectiveness of Xymedon (original substance) after administration of the compounds in identical doses. Maximum dose was 20 mg/kg. The animals orally received Xymedon or its derivative in doses of 10 and 20 mg/kg over 4 days. In 1-1.5 h after drug administration, CCl4 in vegetable oil (1:1) in a dose of 2 ml/kg. Controls received CCl4 but without hepatoprotectors. Intact control group consisted of rats, not receiving CCl4 or other compounds. The next day after the last administration of CCl4 and compounds under study animals were dehematized under ether anesthesia, blood and liver samples were taken for biochemical and histological analysis. Xymedon and XD administered according to the preventice scheme, exerted hepatoprotective effects: Xymedon — in the dose of 20 mg/kg, XD — in doses of 10 and 20 mg/kg. The drugs under study had different effects on liver condition, affected by induction with CCl4. Xymedon had a more pronounced effect both on the ALT level, which can be elevated not only due to destructive changes in hepatocytes, but also as a cholestasis manifestation, and on the serum total protein level, which reflects protein synthesis in liver. XD had a more pronounced effect on AST level, which is one of the markers of hepatocyte damage. Lower effective dose of XD — 10 mg/kg, compared to Xymedon effective according to, and its pronounced effect on AST, the hepatocyte cytolysis marker, is indicative of its higher preventive effectiveness, compared to Xymedon. This work was performed with the financial support of Russian Science Foundation (grant No: 14-50-00014).

Keywords: hepatoprotectors, pyrimidine derivatives, toxic liver damage, xymedon

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8 Thermolysin Entrapment in a Gold Nanoparticles/Polymer Composite: Construction of an Efficient Biosensor for Ochratoxin a Detection

Authors: Fatma Dridi, Mouna Marrakchi, Mohammed Gargouri, Alvaro Garcia Cruz, Sergei V. Dzyadevych, Francis Vocanson, Joëlle Saulnier, Nicole Jaffrezic-Renault, Florence Lagarde

Abstract:

An original method has been successfully developed for the immobilization of thermolysin onto gold interdigitated electrodes for the detection of ochratoxin A (OTA) in olive oil samples. A mix of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), polyethylenimine (PEI) and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) was used. Cross-linking sensors chip was made by using a saturated glutaraldehyde (GA) vapor atmosphere in order to render the two polymers water stable. Performance of AuNPs/ (PVA/PEI) modified electrode was compared to a traditional immobilized enzymatic method using bovine serum albumin (BSA). Atomic force microscopy (AFM) experiments were employed to provide a useful insight into the structure and morphology of the immobilized thermolysin composite membranes. The enzyme immobilization method influence the topography and the texture of the deposited layer. Biosensors optimization and analytical characteristics properties were studied. Under optimal conditions AuNPs/ (PVA/PEI) modified electrode showed a higher increment in sensitivity. A 700 enhancement factor could be achieved with a detection limit of 1 nM. The newly designed OTA biosensors showed a long-term stability and good reproducibility. The relevance of the method was evaluated using commercial doped olive oil samples. No pretreatment of the sample was needed for testing and no matrix effect was observed. Recovery values were close to 100% demonstrating the suitability of the proposed method for OTA screening in olive oil.

Keywords: thermolysin, A. ochratoxin , polyvinyl alcohol, polyethylenimine, gold nanoparticles, olive oil

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7 Inactivation Kinetics of DNA and RNA Viruses by Ozone-Air Mixture in a Flow Mixer

Authors: Nikolai Nosik, Vladislav Podmasterjev, Nina Kondrashina, Marina Chataeva, Olga Lobach, Dmitry Noosik, Sergei Razumovskii

Abstract:

Virucidal activity of ozone is well known: dissolved in water it kill viruses very fast. The virucidal capacity of ozone in ozone-air mixture is less known. The goal of the study was to investigate the virucidal potentials of the ozone–air mixture and kinetics of virus inactivation. Materials and methods. Ozone (O3 ) was generated from oxygen with ozonizer ( 1.0 – 75.0 mg\l). The ozone concentration was determined by the spectrophotometric methods. Virus contaminated samples were placed into the flowing reactor. Viruses: poliovirus type 1, vaccine strain (Sabin) and adenovirus, type 5, were obtained from the State virus collection. Titrations of viruses were carried out in appropriate cell cultures. CxT value ( mg\l x min) was calculated. Results. Metallic, polycarbonic and fiber “Kevlar” samples were contaminated with virus, dried and treated with ozone-air mixture in the flowing reactor. Kinetics of poliovirus inactivation: in 15 min at 5.0 mg\l -2.0 lg TCID50 inhibition , in 15 min at 10 mg\l – 2.5 lg TCID50 , 4.0 lg TCID50 inactivation of poliovirus was achieved after 75min at ozone concentration 20.0mg\l (99.99%). ( CxT = 75, 150 and 1500 mg\l x min on all three types of surfaces). It was found that the inactivation of poliovirus was more effective when the virus contaminated samples were wet (in 15 min at 20mg\l inhibition of virus in dry samples was 2.0 TCID50 , in wet samples – 4.0 TCID50). Adenovirus was less resistant to ozone treatment then poliovirus: 4.0 lg TCID50 inhibition was observed after 30 min of the treatment with ozone at 20mg\l ( CxT mg\l x min = 300 for adenovirus as for poliovirus it was 1500). Conclusion. It was found that ozone-air mixture inactivates viruses at rather high concentrations (compared to the reported effect of ozone dissolved in water). Despite of that there is a difference in the resistance to ozone action between viruses – poliovirus is more resistant then adenovirus-ozone-air mixture can be used for disinfection of large rooms. The maintaining of the virus-contaminated surfaces in wet condition allow to decrease the ozone load for virus inactivation.

Keywords: adenovirus, disinfection, ozone, poliovirus

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6 Emerging VC Industry and the Important Role of Marketing Expectations in Project Selection: Evidence on Russian Data

Authors: I. Rodionov, A. Semenov, E. Gosteva, O. Sokolova

Abstract:

Currently, the venture capital becomes more and more advanced and effective source of the innovation project financing, connected with a high-risk level. In the developed countries, it plays a key role in transforming innovation projects into successful businesses and creating prosperity of the modern economy. Actually, in Russia there are many necessary preconditions for creation of the effective venture investment system: the network of the public institutes for innovation financing operates; there is a significant number of the small and medium-sized enterprises, capable to sell production with good market potential. However, the current system does not confirm the necessary level of efficiency in practice that can be substantially explained by the absence of the accurate plan of action to form the national venture model and by the lack of experience of successful venture deals with profitable exits in Russian economy. This paper studies the influence of various factors on the venture industry development by the example of the IT-sector in Russia. The choice of the sector is based on the fact, that this segment is the main driver of the venture capital market growth in Russia, and the necessary set of data exists. The size of investment of the second round is used as the dependent variable. To analyse the influence of the previous round such determinant as the volume of the previous (first) round investments is used. There is also used a dummy variable in regression to examine that the participation of an investor with high reputation and experience in the previous round can influence the size of the next investment round. The regression analysis of short-term interrelations between studied variables reveals prevailing influence of the volume of the first round investments on the venture investments volume of the second round. Because of the research, the participation of investors with first-class reputation has a small impact on an indicator of the value of investment of the second round. The expected positive dependence of the second round investments on the forecasted market growth rate now of the deal is also rejected. So, the most important determinant of the value of the second-round investment is the value of first–round investment, so it means that the most competitive on the Russian market are the start-up teams which can attract more money on the start, and the target market growth is not the factor of crucial importance.

Keywords: venture industry, venture investment, determinants of the venture sector development, IT-sector

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5 Induction of Adaptive Response in Yeast Cells under Influence of Extremely High Frequency Electromagnetic Field

Authors: Sergei Voychuk

Abstract:

Introduction: Adaptive response (AR) is a manifestation of radiation hormesis, which deal with the radiation resistance that may be increased with the pretreatment with small doses of radiation. In the current study, we evaluated the potency of radiofrequency EMF to induce the AR mechanisms and to increase a resistance to UV light. Methods: Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strains, which were created to study induction of mutagenesis and recombination, were used in the study. The strains have mutations in rad2 and rad54 genes, responsible for DNA repair: nucleotide excision repair (PG-61), postreplication repair (PG-80) and mitotic (crossover) recombination (T2). An induction of mutation and recombination are revealed due to the formation of red colonies on agar plates. The PG-61 and T2 are UV sensitive strains, while PG-80 is sensitive to ionizing radiation. Extremely high frequency electromagnetic field (EHF-EMF) was used. The irradiation was performed in floating mode and frequency changed during exposure from 57 GHz to 62 GHz. The power of irradiation was 100 mkW, and duration of exposure was 10 and 30 min. Treatment was performed at RT and then cells were stored at 28° C during 1 h without any exposure but after that they were treated with UV light (254nm) for 20 sec (strain T2) and 120 sec (strain PG-61 and PG-80). Cell viability and quantity of red colonies were determined after 5 days of cultivation on agar plates. Results: It was determined that EHF-EMF caused 10-20% decrease of viability of T2 and PG-61 strains, while UV showed twice stronger effect (30-70%). EHF-EMF pretreatment increased T2 resistance to UV, and decreased it in PG-61. The PG-80 strain was insensitive to EHF-EMF and no AR effect was determined for this strain. It was not marked any induction of red colonies formation in T2 and PG-80 strain after EHF or UV exposure. The quantity of red colonies was 2 times more in PG-61 strain after EHF-EMF treatment and at least 300 times more after UV exposure. The pretreatment of PG-61 with EHF-EMF caused at least twice increase of viability and consequent decrease of amount of red colonies. Conclusion: EHF-EMF may induce AR in yeast cells and increase their viability under UV treatment.

Keywords: Saccharomyces cerevisiae, EHF-EMF, UV light, adaptive response

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4 Intrastromal Donor Limbal Segments Implantation as a Surgical Treatment of Progressive Keratoconus: Clinical and Functional Results

Authors: Mikhail Panes, Sergei Pozniak, Nikolai Pozniak

Abstract:

Purpose: To evaluate the effectiveness of intrastromal donor limbal segments implantation for treatment of progressive keratoconus considering on main characteristics of corneal endothelial cells. Setting: Outpatient ophthalmic clinic. Methods: Twenty patients (20 eyes) with progressive keratoconus II-III of Amsler classification were recruited. The worst eye was treated with the transplantation of donor limbal segments in the recipient corneal stroma, while the fellow eye was left untreated as a control of functional and morphological changes. Furthermore, twenty patients (20 eyes) without progressive keratoconus was used as a control of corneal endothelial cells changes. All patients underwent a complete ocular examination including uncorrected and corrected distance visual acuity (UDVA, CDVA), slit lamp examination fundus examination, corneal topography and pachymetry, auto-keratometry, Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography and Corneal Endothelial Specular Microscopy. Results: After two years, statistically significant improvement in the UDVA and CDVA (on the average on two lines for UDVA and three-four lines for CDVA) were noted. Besides corneal astigmatism decreased from 5.82 ± 2.64 to 1.92 ± 1.4 D. Moreover there were no statistically significant differences in the changes of mean spherical equivalent, keratometry and pachymetry indicators. It should be noted that after two years there were no significant differences in the changes of the number and form of corneal endothelial cells. It can be regarded as a process stabilization. In untreated control eyes, there was a general trend towards worsening of UDVA, CDVA and corneal thickness, while corneal astigmatism was increased. Conclusion: Intrastromal donor segments implantation is a safe technique for keratoconus treatment. Intrastromal donor segments implantation is an efficient procedure to stabilize and improve progressive keratoconus.

Keywords: corneal endothelial cells, intrastromal donor limbal segments, progressive keratoconus, surgical treatment of keratoconus

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3 Temperature Dependence of the Optoelectronic Properties of InAs(Sb)-Based LED Heterostructures

Authors: Antonina Semakova, Karim Mynbaev, Nikolai Bazhenov, Anton Chernyaev, Sergei Kizhaev, Nikolai Stoyanov

Abstract:

At present, heterostructures are used for fabrication of almost all types of optoelectronic devices. Our research focuses on the optoelectronic properties of InAs(Sb) solid solutions that are widely used in fabrication of light emitting diodes (LEDs) operating in middle wavelength infrared range (MWIR). This spectral range (2-6 μm) is relevant for laser diode spectroscopy of gases and molecules, for systems for the detection of explosive substances, medical applications, and for environmental monitoring. The fabrication of MWIR LEDs that operate efficiently at room temperature is mainly hindered by the predominance of non-radiative Auger recombination of charge carriers over the process of radiative recombination, which makes practical application of LEDs difficult. However, non-radiative recombination can be partly suppressed in quantum-well structures. In this regard, studies of such structures are quite topical. In this work, electroluminescence (EL) of LED heterostructures based on InAs(Sb) epitaxial films with the molar fraction of InSb ranging from 0 to 0.09 and multi quantum-well (MQW) structures was studied in the temperature range 4.2-300 K. The growth of the heterostructures was performed by metal-organic chemical vapour deposition on InAs substrates. On top of the active layer, a wide-bandgap InAsSb(Ga,P) barrier was formed. At low temperatures (4.2-100 K) stimulated emission was observed. As the temperature increased, the emission became spontaneous. The transition from stimulated emission to spontaneous one occurred at different temperatures for structures with different InSb contents in the active region. The temperature-dependent carrier lifetime, limited by radiative recombination and the most probable Auger processes (for the materials under consideration, CHHS and CHCC), were calculated within the framework of the Kane model. The effect of various recombination processes on the carrier lifetime was studied, and the dominant role of Auger processes was established. For MQW structures quantization energies for electrons, light and heavy holes were calculated. A characteristic feature of the experimental EL spectra of these structures was the presence of peaks with energy different from that of calculated optical transitions between the first quantization levels for electrons and heavy holes. The obtained results showed strong effect of the specific electronic structure of InAsSb on the energy and intensity of optical transitions in nanostructures based on this material. For the structure with MQWs in the active layer, a very weak temperature dependence of EL peak was observed at high temperatures (>150 K), which makes it attractive for fabricating temperature-resistant gas sensors operating in the middle-infrared range.

Keywords: Electroluminescence, InAsSb, light emitting diode, quantum wells

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2 Integrative-Cyclical Approach to the Study of Quality Control of Resource Saving by the Use of Innovation Factors

Authors: Anatoliy A. Alabugin, Nikolay K. Topuzov, Sergei V. Aliukov

Abstract:

It is well known, that while we do a quantitative evaluation of the quality control of some economic processes (in particular, resource saving) with help innovation factors, there are three groups of problems: high uncertainty of indicators of the quality management, their considerable ambiguity, and high costs to provide a large-scale research. These problems are defined by the use of contradictory objectives of enhancing of the quality control in accordance with innovation factors and preservation of economic stability of the enterprise. The most acutely, such factors are felt in the countries lagging behind developed economies of the world according to criteria of innovativeness and effectiveness of management of the resource saving. In our opinion, the following two methods for reconciling of the above-mentioned objectives and reducing of conflictness of the problems are to solve this task most effectively: 1) the use of paradigms and concepts of evolutionary improvement of quality of resource-saving management in the cycle "from the project of an innovative product (technology) - to its commercialization and update parameters of customer value"; 2) the application of the so-called integrative-cyclical approach which consistent with complexity and type of the concept, to studies allowing to get quantitative assessment of the stages of achieving of the consistency of these objectives (from baseline of imbalance, their compromise to achievement of positive synergies). For implementation, the following mathematical tools are included in the integrative-cyclical approach: index-factor analysis (to identify the most relevant factors); regression analysis of relationship between the quality control and the factors; the use of results of the analysis in the model of fuzzy sets (to adjust the feature space); method of non-parametric statistics (for a decision on the completion or repetition of the cycle in the approach in depending on the focus and the closeness of the connection of indicator ranks of disbalance of purposes). The repetition is performed after partial substitution of technical and technological factors ("hard") by management factors ("soft") in accordance with our proposed methodology. Testing of the proposed approach has shown that in comparison with the world practice there are opportunities to improve the quality of resource-saving management using innovation factors. We believe that the implementation of this promising research, to provide consistent management decisions for reducing the severity of the above-mentioned contradictions and increasing the validity of the choice of resource-development strategies in terms of parameters of quality management and sustainability of enterprise, is perspective. Our existing experience in the field of quality resource-saving management and the achieved level of scientific competence of the authors allow us to hope that the use of the integrative-cyclical approach to the study and evaluation of the resulting and factor indicators will help raise the level of resource-saving characteristics up to the value existing in the developed economies of post-industrial type.

Keywords: integrative-cyclical approach, quality control, evaluation, innovation factors. economic sustainability, innovation cycle of management, disbalance of goals of development

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1 Concentration of Droplets in a Transient Gas Flow

Authors: Timur S. Zaripov, Artur K. Gilfanov, Sergei S. Sazhin, Steven M. Begg, Morgan R. Heikal

Abstract:

The calculation of the concentration of inertial droplets in complex flows is encountered in the modelling of numerous engineering and environmental phenomena; for example, fuel droplets in internal combustion engines and airborne pollutant particles. The results of recent research, focused on the development of methods for calculating concentration and their implementation in the commercial CFD code, ANSYS Fluent, is presented here. The study is motivated by the investigation of the mixture preparation processes in internal combustion engines with direct injection of fuel sprays. Two methods are used in our analysis; the Fully Lagrangian method (also known as the Osiptsov method) and the Eulerian approach. The Osiptsov method predicts droplet concentrations along path lines by solving the equations for the components of the Jacobian of the Eulerian-Lagrangian transformation. This method significantly decreases the computational requirements as it does not require counting of large numbers of tracked droplets as in the case of the conventional Lagrangian approach. In the Eulerian approach the average droplet velocity is expressed as a function of the carrier phase velocity as an expansion over the droplet response time and transport equation can be solved in the Eulerian form. The advantage of the method is that droplet velocity can be found without solving additional partial differential equations for the droplet velocity field. The predictions from the two approaches were compared in the analysis of the problem of a dilute gas-droplet flow around an infinitely long, circular cylinder. The concentrations of inertial droplets, with Stokes numbers of 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, in steady-state and transient laminar flow conditions, were determined at various Reynolds numbers. In the steady-state case, flows with Reynolds numbers of 1, 10, and 100 were investigated. It has been shown that the results predicted using both methods are almost identical at small Reynolds and Stokes numbers. For larger values of these numbers (Stokes — 0.1, 0.2; Reynolds — 10, 100) the Eulerian approach predicted a wider spread in concentration in the perturbations caused by the cylinder that can be attributed to the averaged droplet velocity field. The transient droplet flow case was investigated for a Reynolds number of 200. Both methods predicted a high droplet concentration in the zones of high strain rate and low concentrations in zones of high vorticity. The maxima of droplet concentration predicted by the Osiptsov method was up to two orders of magnitude greater than that predicted by the Eulerian method; a significant variation for an approach widely used in engineering applications. Based on the results of these comparisons, the Osiptsov method has resulted in a more precise description of the local properties of the inertial droplet flow. The method has been applied to the analysis of the results of experimental observations of a liquid gasoline spray at representative fuel injection pressure conditions. The preliminary results show good qualitative agreement between the predictions of the model and experimental data.

Keywords: internal combustion engines, Eulerian approach, fully Lagrangian approach, gasoline fuel sprays, droplets and particle concentrations

Procedia PDF Downloads 160