Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 74

Search results for: rewards

74 The Powerful of Training; Development and Compensation; Rewards in Sustaining SME’s Performance

Authors: Mohd Fitri Mansor, Noor Hidayah Abu, Hussen Nasir

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Human capital is one of valuable assets to the organization in order to sustain organization performance and to achieve both employees and employer objectives. The aim of the study is to examine the powerful of both Human Resource practices (i.e. Training & Development and Compensation & Rewards) towards sustaining SME’s performance. The objectives of the current study are to examine the relationship between training and development as well as compensation and rewards in sustaining Malaysian SME’s performance. Finally, is to identify the strongest variable contribute to the sustainability of SMEs performance. The result from 80 Malaysian SME’s owners found that both variables training & development and compensation & rewards significantly contributes to the sustainability of SME,s performance. Meanwhile, the strongest variable contributes to the sustainability of SMEs performance was training and development. The study contributes to the knowledge and awareness to the SME’s owners an important or the powerful of human resource practices in sustaining their organization performance.

Keywords: training and development, compensation and rewards, sustainability, SME’s performance

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73 An Intercontinental Comparison of Delay Discounting for Real and Hypothetical Money and Cigarettes among Cigarette Smokers

Authors: Steven R. Lawyer, Tereza Prihodova, Katerina Prihodova

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Delay discounting (DD) is one of the most frequently used behavioral-economic measures of impulsive choice, but there are few cross-cultural comparisons of discounting, and to the best of our knowledge, none compare patterns of DD across different commodities or compare real and hypothetical rewards across cultures. The purpose of this study was to compare patterns of DD for both real and hypothetical money and cigarettes among participants in the USA and the Czech Republic. Adult smokers from the United States and the Czech Republic completed standard measures of DD for hypothetical and real money (~$10USD) and cigarettes (1 pack, or 20 cigarettes). Contrary to data from the USA sample, Czech Republic participants discounted the value of real money steeper than hypothetical money, though this could be related to the relatively poor fit of the hyperbolic decay function to DD for hypothetical money in the Czech sample. These findings suggest that there might be cultural differences in delay discounting that warrant further attention.

Keywords: delay discounting, temporal discounting, cigarette smoking, real rewards, hypothetical rewards

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72 The Dilemma of Retention in the Context of Rapidly Growing Economies Based on the Effectiveness of HRM Policies: A Case Study of Qatar

Authors: A. Qayed Al-Emadi, C. Schwabenland, Q. Wei, B. Czarnecka

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In 2009, the new HRM policy was implemented in Qatar for public sector organisations. The purpose of this research is to examine how Qatar’s 2009 HRM policy was significant in influencing employee retention in public organisations. The conducted study utilised quantitative methodology to analyse the data on employees’ perceptions of such HRM practices as performance çanagement, rewards and promotion, training and development associated with the HRM policy in public organisations in comparison to semi-private organisations. Employees of seven public and semi-private organisations filled in the questionnaire based on the 5-point likert scale to present quantitative results. The data was analysed with the correlation and multiple regression statistical analyses. It was found that Performance Management had the relationship with Employee Retention, and Rewards and Promotion influenced Job Satisfaction in public organisations. The relationship between Job Satisfaction and Employee Retention was also observed. However, no significant differences were observed in the role of HRM practices in public and semi-private organisations.

Keywords: performance management, rewards and promotion, training and development, job satisfaction, employee retention, SHRM, configurational perspective

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71 Money as Motivation Amongst Industrial Sales People in Nigeria

Authors: Mahmoud Rufai Mahmoud

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A look at existing literature on sales force motivation reveals lack of consensus on the role monetary rewards play in motivating salespeople. In view of the apparent contradiction inherent in the literature, it follows perhaps, chat sales managers are faced with the dilemma of what role to assign to monetary incentives in the scheme of motivating salespeople. This study investigated the perception of industrial salespeople on the role of money as a motivator. The result shows that salespeople believe that money is an important motivator whose power of motivation is influenced by a complex function of economic, social and psychological variables. Based on the findings, if is recommended that managers need different types of rewards to achieve a given level of motivation.  

Keywords: motivation, salespeople, money, Nigeria

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70 How to Reconcile Financial Incentives and Pro-Social Motivations of Loan Officers in Microfinance?

Authors: Julie De Pril, Cécile Godfroid

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Nowadays, achieving double bottom line has become a widely recognized objective for microfinance institutions (MFIs). They would like to be financially sustainable or even profitable while continuing to focus on their social mission. In order to rise their financial performance, MFIs tend to grant financial bonuses to loan officers so that they increase their performance and efficiency. However, as argued by motivation crowding theory, monetary rewards may not have only positive effects but can also erode intrinsic motivation. Since MFIs pursue social objectives in addition to their financial ones, their employees’ intrinsic motivations may include the willingness to help others, like in many non-profit organizations. This is called pro-social motivation in the psychology literature. Particularly, this type of motivation should be highly reflected among microfinance loan officers as a part of their role consists in improving clients’ welfare. Therefore, it seems to be crucial for MFIs to find an equilibrium between the efficiency benefits obtained thanks to the granting of financial incentives and the deterioration of social performance that may result from the reduction of the loan officers’ pro-social motivation. This paper attempts to suggest, with a mathematical model, an optimal incentive scheme MFIs could rely on.

Keywords: loan officers, microfinance, prosocial motivation, rewards

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69 A Principal-Agent Model for Sharing Mechanism in Integrated Project Delivery Context

Authors: Shan Li, Qiuwen Ma

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Integrated project delivery (IPD) is a project delivery method distinguished by a shared risk/rewards mechanism and multiparty agreement. IPD has drawn increasingly attention from construction industry because of its efficiency of solving adversarial problems and reliability to deliver high-performing buildings. However, some evidence showed that some project participants obtained less profit from IPD projects than the typical projects. They attributed it to the unfair IPD sharing mechanism, which resulted in additional time and cost of negotiation on the sharing fractions among project participants. The study is aimed to investigate the reward distribution by constructing a principal-agent model. Based on cooperative game theory, it is examined how to distribute the shared project rewards between client and non-client parties, and identify the sharing fractions among non-client parties. It is found that at least half of the project savings should be allocated to the non-client parties to motivate them to create more project value. Second, the client should raise his sharing fractions when the integration among project participants is efficient. In addition, the client should allocate higher sharing fractions to the non-client party who is more able. This study can help the IPD project participants make fair and motivated sharing mechanisms.

Keywords: cooperative game theory, IPD, principal agent model, sharing mechanism

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68 Effective Verbal Disciplining Strategies to Deal with Classroom Misconduct in Primary Schools

Authors: Charity Okeke, Elizabeth Venter

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Verbal discipline is one of the most regularly used disciplinary strategies to deal with classroom misconduct in schools globally. This study provides effective verbal discipline strategies to deal with classroom misconduct in primary schools. The study was qualitative research often teachers that took place in two South African primary schools. Data were collected through recorded semi-structured face-to-face interviews. The interview recordings were transcribed and analysed using content analysis. Findings from the study show that talking to learners in a calm and polite manner, raising one’s voice occasionally to show seriousness and disapproval of misconduct, engaging misbehaved learners in private talk to understand the reasons behind their unruly actions, verbal praise and rewards are effective in dealing with classroom misconduct. The study recommends that teachers should avoid shouting at learners and talk to them politely to get them to behave well in class. Teachers should avoid embarrassing misbehaving learners in the classroom but engage them privately to understand the reasons behind their unruly activities. Teachers should also use verbal praise and rewards such as well-done stickers to motivate learners to keep behaving well, as reinforcement is very important in the classroom. The study concludes that the verbal disciplining strategies mentioned above are effective in achieving a conducive teaching and learning atmosphere in the classroom.

Keywords: classroom discipline, classroom misconduct, verbal discipline, verbal discipline strategies

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67 Effort-Reward-Imbalance and Self-Rated Health Among Healthcare Professionals in the Gambia

Authors: Amadou Darboe, Kuo Hsien-Wen

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Background/Objective: The Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI) model by Siegrist et al (1986) have been widely used to examine the relationship between psychosocial factors at work and health. It claimed that failed reciprocity in terms of high efforts and low rewards elicits strong negative emotions in combination with sustained autonomic activation and is hazardous to health. The aim of this study is to identify the association between Self-rated Health and Effort-reward Imbalance (ERI) among Nurses and Environmental Health officers in the Gambia. Method: a cross-sectional study was conducted using a multi-stage random sampling of 296 healthcare professionals (206 nurses and 90 environmental health officers) working in public health facilities. The 22 items Effort-reward imbalance questionnaire (ERI-L version 22.11.2012) will be used to collect data on the psychosocial factors defined by the model. In addition, self-rated health will be assessed by using structured questionnaires containing Likert scale items. Results: We found that self-rated health among environmental health officers has a significant negative correlation with extrinsic effort and a positive significant correlations with occupational reward and job satisfaction. However, among the nurses only job satisfaction was significantly correlated with self-rated health and was positive. Overall, Extrinsic effort has a significant negative correlation with reward and job satisfaction but a positive correlation with over-commitment. Conclusion: Because low reward and high over-commitment among the nursing group, It is necessary to modify working conditions through improving psychosocial factors, such as reasonable allocation of resources to increase pay or rewards from government.

Keywords: effort-reward imbalance model, healthcare professionals, self-rated health

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66 Primary and Secondary Psychopathic Traits: Assessing Differences in Interpersonal Relationships through Friendship, Emotional Contagion, and Social Rewards

Authors: Silene Ten Seldam, Kiara Margarita Lu, Melina Nicole Kyranides

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Psychopathic traits are marked by a lack of empathy and an inability to maintain meaningful relationships. Yet little research has investigated differences in interpersonal relationships between primary and secondary psychopathic traits. Emotional contagion, the tendency to automatically mimic others’ facial expressions and movements, is a type of empathy contributing to relationship quality. Additionally, the motivating and pleasurable aspects of social interaction, social reward is integral to understanding relationships. Therefore, the current research investigated interpersonal relationships through relationship status, the quality of friendships, the susceptibility to positive (happiness, love) and negative (sadness, fear, anger) emotional contagion, and social reward. Recruited online, 389 participants between 18 and 76 years old (M = 33.61; of which 241 were female) completed self-report questionnaires assessing primary and secondary psychopathic traits, friendship, emotional contagion, and social rewards. Hierarchical multiple regression showed relationship status as a protective factor and that individuals with secondary psychopathic traits are less likely to be in a relationship. This study is the first to investigate emotional contagion with primary and secondary psychopathic traits. Emotional contagion for sadness predicted secondary psychopathic traits. Negative social potency (enjoying being cruel and antagonistic to others) predicted both primary and secondary traits. However, admiration and prosocial interactions only predicted primary psychopathic traits. Findings infer differences in maintaining relationships, regulating emotions, empathising with others through emotional contagion, and motivation to socially engage, perhaps due to each dimensions’distinct origins and manifestations.

Keywords: primary psychopathic traits, secondary psychopathic traits, interpersonal relationships, friendship, emotional contagion, social reward

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65 Motivating Factors and Prospects for Rural Community Involvement in Entrepreneurship: Evidence from Mantanani Island, Sabah, Malaysia

Authors: F. Fabeil Noor, Roslinah Mahmud, Janice L. H. Nga, Rasid Mail

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In Malaysia, particularly in Sabah, the government has been promoting entrepreneurship among rural people to encourage them to earn their living by making good use of the diverse natural resources and local cultures of Sabah. Nevertheless, despite the government’s aim to encourage more local community in rural area to involve in entrepreneurship, the involvement of community in entrepreneurial activity is still low. It is crucial to identify the factors stimulate (or prevent) the involvement of rural community in Sabah in entrepreneurial activity. Therefore, this study tries to investigate the personal and contextual factors that may have impact on decision to start a business among the local community in Mantanani Island. In addition, this study also aims to identify the perceived benefits they receive from entrepreneurial activity. A structured face-to-face interview was conducted with 61 local communities in Mantanani Island. Data analysis revealed that passion, personal skills and self-confidence are the significant internal factors to entrepreneurial activity, whereas access to finance, labour and infrastructure are the significant external factors that are found to influence entrepreneurship. In terms of perceived rewards they received from taking up small business, it was found that respondents are predominantly agreed that entrepreneurship offers financial benefit than non-financial. In addition, this study also offers several suggestions for entrepreneurship development in Mantanani Island and it is hoped that this study may help the related agency to develop effective support policies in order to encourage more people in rural area to involve in entrepreneurship.

Keywords: entrepreneurship, motivation, perceived rewards, rural community

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64 Impact of Leadership Styles on Work Motivation and Organizational Commitment among Faculty Members of Public Sector Universities in Punjab

Authors: Wajeeha Shahid

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The study was designed to assess the impact of transformational and transactional leadership styles on work motivation and organizational commitment among faculty members of universities of Punjab. 713 faculty members were selected as sample through convenient random sampling technique. Three self-constructed questionnaires namely Leadership Styles Questionnaire (LSQ), Work Motivation Questionnaire (WMQ) and Organizational Commitment Questionnaire (OCMQ) were used as research instruments. Major objectives of the study included assessing the effect and impact of transformational and transactional leadership styles on work motivation and organizational commitment. Theoretical frame work of the study included Idealized Influence, Inspirational Motivation, Intellectual Stimulation, Individualized Consideration, Contingent Rewards and Management by Exception as independent variables and Extrinsic motivation, Intrinsic motivation, Affective commitment, Continuance commitment and Normative commitment as dependent variables. SPSS Version 21 was used to analyze and tabulate data. Cronbach's Alpha reliability, Pearson Correlation and Multiple regression analysis were applied as statistical treatments for the analysis. Results revealed that Idealized Influence correlated significantly with intrinsic motivation and Affective commitment whereas Contingent rewards had a strong positive correlation with extrinsic motivation and affective commitment. Multiple regression models revealed a variance of 85% for transformational leadership style over work motivation and organizational commitment. Whereas transactional style as a predictor manifested a variance of 79% for work motivation and 76% for organizational commitment. It was suggested that changing organizational cultures are demanding more from their leadership. All organizations need to consider transformational leadership style as an important part of their equipment in leveraging both soft and hard organizational targets.

Keywords: leadership styles, work motivation, organizational commitment, faculty member

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63 Identifying and Prioritizing Critical Success Factors (Csfs) in Retaining and Developing Knowledge Workers in Oil and Gas Project–Based Companies

Authors: Ehsan Samimi, Mohammaa Ali Shahosseeni, Ali Abasltian, Shahriar Shafaghi

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Background/Objectives: Voluntary turnover and early retirement request by specialists and experienced people in project-based organizations (PBO) has caused many problems in finding suitable experts to execute the projects. Methods/Statistical analysis: The present study is a descriptive and applied research. Research population consists of KWs in oil and gas PBO. The engineers in these organizations were considered as research sample. Interviews and questionnaire were used to gather information. Interviews with experts were used to identify factors and questionnaires were utilized to identify the importance and prioritization. 72 factors were identified and categorized into 9 groups within organizational and HR initiative levels. Results: Results of the research indicate the priority of each group of factors according to the proposed model in the view of KWs in oil, gas and petrochemical industries. On this basis, the following factors have the highest effect ratio based on the respondents’ point of view: 1. knowledge management 2. Performance appraisal system 3. Communication 4.Training and development 5.Job design and analysis 6. Employment policies 7. Career planning 8. Project/organizational factors 9. Salary and rewards. Additionally, in each group the priority of effective sub-factors has been identified as the result of the research .The results support the definitions of KWs and influence of factors examined and specified by similar studies in retention and development of KWs. The high importance of knowledge management and low rank for salary and rewards can be mentioned as example in this regard. Despite the priority of each group of factors the uniqueness of the result is due to identification of effective factors in the specific industry (oil and gas) and type of organization (PBO). Conclusion/Application: The findings of present study can be used to devise plans for retaining and developing KWs in PBO especially in oil and gas industry.

Keywords: project–based organizations, knowledge workers, HR management, turnover, retaining and developing employees

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62 CyberSteer: Cyber-Human Approach for Safely Shaping Autonomous Robotic Behavior to Comply with Human Intention

Authors: Vinicius G. Goecks, Gregory M. Gremillion, William D. Nothwang

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Modern approaches to train intelligent agents rely on prolonged training sessions, high amounts of input data, and multiple interactions with the environment. This restricts the application of these learning algorithms in robotics and real-world applications, in which there is low tolerance to inadequate actions, interactions are expensive, and real-time processing and action are required. This paper addresses this issue introducing CyberSteer, a novel approach to efficiently design intrinsic reward functions based on human intention to guide deep reinforcement learning agents with no environment-dependent rewards. CyberSteer uses non-expert human operators for initial demonstration of a given task or desired behavior. The trajectories collected are used to train a behavior cloning deep neural network that asynchronously runs in the background and suggests actions to the deep reinforcement learning module. An intrinsic reward is computed based on the similarity between actions suggested and taken by the deep reinforcement learning algorithm commanding the agent. This intrinsic reward can also be reshaped through additional human demonstration or critique. This approach removes the need for environment-dependent or hand-engineered rewards while still being able to safely shape the behavior of autonomous robotic agents, in this case, based on human intention. CyberSteer is tested in a high-fidelity unmanned aerial vehicle simulation environment, the Microsoft AirSim. The simulated aerial robot performs collision avoidance through a clustered forest environment using forward-looking depth sensing and roll, pitch, and yaw references angle commands to the flight controller. This approach shows that the behavior of robotic systems can be shaped in a reduced amount of time when guided by a non-expert human, who is only aware of the high-level goals of the task. Decreasing the amount of training time required and increasing safety during training maneuvers will allow for faster deployment of intelligent robotic agents in dynamic real-world applications.

Keywords: human-robot interaction, intelligent robots, robot learning, semisupervised learning, unmanned aerial vehicles

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61 Nursing Professionals’ Perception of the Work Environment, Safety Climate and Job Satisfaction in the Brazilian Hospitals During the COVID-19 Pandemic

Authors: Ana Claudia de Souza Costa, Beatriz de Cássia Pinheiro Goulart, Karine de Cássia Cavalari, Henrique Ceretta Oliveira, Edineis de Brito Guirardello

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Background: During the COVID-19 pandemic, nursing represents the largest category of health professionals who were in the front line. Thus, investigating the practice environment and the job satisfaction of nursing professionals during the pandemic becomes fundamental since it reflects on the quality of care and the safety climate. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the nursing professionals` perception of the work environment, job satisfaction, and safety climate of the different hospitals and work shifts during the COVID-19 pandemic. Method: This is a cross-sectional survey with 130 nursing professionals from public, private and mixed hospitals from Brazil. For data collection, was used an electronic form containing the personal and occupational variables, work environment, job satisfaction, and safety climate. The data was analyzed using the descriptive statistics and ANOVA or Kruskal-Wallis tests according to the data distribution. The distribution was evaluated by means of Shapiro-Wilk test. The analysis were done in the SPSS 23 software, and it was considered a significance level of 5%. Results: The mean age of the participants was 35 years (±9.8) with a mean time of 6.4 years (±6.7) working experience in the institution. Overall, the nursing professionals evaluated the work environment as favorable, they were dissatisfied with their job in terms of pay, promotion, benefits, contingent rewards, operating procedures and satisfied with coworkers, nature of work, supervision, and communication, and had a negative perception of the safety climate. When comparing the hospitals, it was found that they did not differ on the perception of work environment and safety climate. However, they differed with regard to job satisfaction, demonstrating that nursing professionals from public hospitals were more dissatisfied with their work with regard to promotion when compared to professionals from private (p=0.02) and mixed hospitals (p< 0.01), and nursing professionals from mixed hospitals were more satisfied than those from private hospitals (p= 0.04) with regard to supervision. Participants working in night shifts had worst perception of the work environment related to nurse participation in hospital affairs (p= 0.02); nursing foundations for quality care (p= 0.01), nurse manager ability, leadership and support (p= 0.02), safety climate (p< 0.01), job satisfaction related to contingent rewards (p= 0.04), nature of work (p= 0.03) and supervision (p< 0.01). Conclusion: The nursing professionals had a favorable perception of the environment and safety climate but differed among hospitals regarding job satisfaction for the promotion and supervision domains. There was also a difference between the participants regarding the work shifts, being the night shifts those with the lowest scores, except for satisfaction with operational conditions.

Keywords: health facility environment, job satisfaction, patient safety, nursing

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60 Gender and Science: Is the Association Universal?

Authors: Neelam Kumar

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Science is stratified, with an unequal distribution of research facilities and rewards among scientists. Gender stratification is one of the most prevalent phenomena in the world of science. In most countries gender segregation, horizontal as well as vertical, stands out in the field of science and engineering. India is no exception. This paper aims to examine: (1) gender and science associations, historical as well as contemporary, (2) women’s enrolment and gender differences in selection of academic fields, (2) women as professional researchers, (3) career path and recognition/trajectories. The paper reveals that in recent years the gender–science relationship has changed, but is not totally free from biases. Women’s enrolment into various science disciplines has shown remarkable and steady increase in most parts of the world, including India, yet they remain underrepresented in the S&T workforce, although to a lesser degree than in the past.

Keywords: gender, science, universal, women

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59 Aligning Organizational Culture and Compensation Strategies

Authors: Giuseppe Maria Russo, Patrícia Amélia Tomei, Antônio Linhares, André Moreira Santos

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Alignment between management strategies, policies and practices with organizational cultures holds great potential to meet the challenges of retaining professionals and maintaining their commitment. In this article, authors consider that when it is aligned with company strategy, compensation acts as an incentive for developing common visions within the organizational culture. This article verified the correlation between types of culture and compensation’s strategic components and provided inputs for the definition of strategies aligned with cultural typologies. We conclude that the impact of compensation variables varies according to the type of organizational culture. This result reinforces the theory that different cultures define different organizational strategies. Thus, compensation strategies may explain types of organizational culture.

Keywords: compensation, Handy’s cultural typology, organizational culture, rewards

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58 Human Resource Management: A Study of Human Resource Practices in 'Maharatna' Central Public Sector Enterprises in India

Authors: Shashi Pingolia

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The paper discusses best practices developed and followed by 07 'Maharatna' Central Public sector Enterprises in India. The paper begins with brief analyses of the contribution of ‘Maharatna’ companies in the growth story of India Inc. Progressively; it enlists Human Resource practices and approach of these 'Maharatna' companies in the areas such as Recruitment, Pay structure, Employee Benefits and Development, Rewards and Recognition practices, Performance Management Systems, etc. In the later part of the paper, HR factors that led some of these 'Maharatna' companies from average employers to 'Best Place at Work' are discussed in brief.

Keywords: central public sector enterprises in India, Maharatna companies in India, human resource management, best place to work

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57 A Supervised Goal Directed Algorithm in Economical Choice Behaviour: An Actor-Critic Approach

Authors: Keyvanl Yahya

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This paper aims to find a algorithmic structure that affords to predict and explain economic choice behaviour particularly under uncertainty (random policies) by manipulating the prevalent Actor-Critic learning method that complies with the requirements we have been entrusted ever since the field of neuroeconomics dawned on us. Whilst skimming some basics of neuroeconomics that might be relevant to our discussion, we will try to outline some of the important works which have so far been done to simulate choice making processes. Concerning neurological findings that suggest the existence of two specific functions that are executed through Basal Ganglia all the way down to sub-cortical areas, namely 'rewards' and 'beliefs', we will offer a modified version of actor/critic algorithm to shed a light on the relation between these functions and most importantly resolve what is referred to as a challenge for actor-critic algorithms, that is lack of inheritance or hierarchy which avoids the system being evolved in continuous time tasks whence the convergence might not emerge.

Keywords: neuroeconomics, choice behaviour, decision making, reinforcement learning, actor-critic algorithm

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56 Happiness, Media and Sustainability of Communities in Donkeaw, Mearim District, Chiang Mai, Thailand

Authors: Panida Jongsuksomsakul

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This study of the ‘happiness’ and ‘sustainability’ in the community of Donkeaw, Amphoe Mae Rim, Chiang Mai Province during the non-election period in Thailand, noted that their happiness levels are in the middle-average range. This was found using a mixed approach of qualitative and quantitative methods (N = 386, α = 0.05). The study explores indicators for six aspects of well-being and happiness, including, good local governance, administrative support for the health system that maintains people’s mental and physical health, environment and weather, job security and a regular income aids them in managing a sustainable lifestyle. The impact of economic security and community relationships on social and cultural capital, and the way these aspects impact on the life style of the community, affects the sustainable well-being of people. Moreover, living with transparency and participatory communication led to diverse rewards in many areas.

Keywords: communication, happiness, well-being, Donkeaw community, social and cultural capital

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55 Key Factors Influencing Individual Knowledge Capability in KIFs

Authors: Salman Iqbal

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Knowledge management (KM) literature has mainly focused on the antecedents of KM. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of specific human resource management (HRM) practices on employee knowledge sharing and its outcome as individual knowledge capability. Based on previous literature, a model is proposed for the study and hypotheses are formulated. The cross-sectional dataset comes from a sample of 19 knowledge intensive firms (KIFs). This study has run an item parceling technique followed by Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) on the latent constructs of the research model. Employees’ collaboration and their interpersonal trust can help to improve their knowledge sharing behaviour and knowledge capability within organisations. This study suggests that in future, by using a larger sample, better statistical insight is possible. The findings of this study are beneficial for scholars, policy makers and practitioners. The empirical results of this study are entirely based on employees’ perceptions and make a significant research contribution, given there is a dearth of empirical research focusing on the subcontinent.

Keywords: employees’ collaboration, individual knowledge capability, knowledge sharing, monetary rewards, structural equation modelling

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54 Emotion Dysregulation as Mediator between Child Abuse and Opiate Use Motives

Authors: Usha Barahmand, Ali Khazaee, Goudarz Sadeghi Hashjin

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Coping motives are considered to be indicators of problematic substance use. The present investigation examined a model with emotional abuse as an antecedent and emotional dysregulation as a mediator leading to substance use. The intent of this study was to examine the associations between various types of childhood maltreatment and motives for substance use. The sample consisted of 72 male opiate users recruited from those enrolled for Methadone Maintenance treatment. Participants responded to measures of childhood maltreatment, emotion dysregulation, and motives for opiate use. All data were analyzed using Pearson's correlation coefficients and bootstrap analysis of mediation. Results supported the hypothesis that the experience of emotional abuse in childhood is associated with problems in regulating emotions which in turn correlates with opiate use as a way to cope with negative affect, to enhance positive effect or to obtain social rewards. Bootstrap analysis confirmed the mediating role of emotion dysregulation. Findings support the potential utility of further research into emotion dysregulation and motives as antecedents of problematic opiate use.

Keywords: childhood abuse, emotion dysregulation, motives, substance use

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53 Self-Selected Intensity and Discounting Rates of Exercise in Comparison with Food and Money in Healthy Adults

Authors: Tamam Albelwi, Robert Rogers, Hans-Peter Kubis

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Background: Exercise is widely acknowledged as a highly important health behavior, which reduces risks related to lifestyle diseases like type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease. However, exercise adherence is low in high-risk groups and sedentary lifestyle is more the norm than the exception. Expressed reasons for exercise participation are often based on delayed outcomes related to health threats and benefits but also enjoyment. Whether exercise is perceived as rewarding is well established in animal literature but the evidence is sparse in humans. Additionally, the question how stable any reward is perceived with time delays is an important question influencing decision-making (in favor or against a behavior). For the modality exercise, this has not been examined before. We, therefore, investigated the discounting of pre-established self-selected exercise compared with established rewards of food and money with a computer-based discounting paradigm. We hypothesized that exercise will be discounted like an established reward (food and money); however, we expect that the discounting rate is similar to a consumable reward like food. Additionally, we expected that individuals’ characteristics like preferred intensity, physical activity and body characteristics are associated with discount rates. Methods: 71 participants took part in four sessions. The sessions were designed to let participants select their preferred exercise intensity on a treadmill. Participants were asked to adjust their speed for optimizing pleasantness over an exercise period of up to 30 minutes, heart rate and pleasantness rating was measured. In further sessions, the established exercise intensity was modified and tested on perceptual validity. In the last exercise session rates of perceived exertion was measured on the preferred intensity level. Furthermore, participants filled in questionnaires related to physical activity, mood, craving, and impulsivity and answered choice questions on a bespoke computer task to establish discounting rates of their preferred exercise (kex), their favorite food (kfood) and a value-matching amount of money (kmoney). Results: Participants self-selected preferred speed was 5.5±2.24 km/h, at a heart rate of 120.7±23.5, and perceived exertion scale of 10.13±2.06. This shows that participants preferred a light exercise intensity with low to moderate cardiovascular strain based on perceived pleasantness. Computer assessment of discounting rates revealed that exercise was quickly discounted like a consumable reward, no significant difference between kfood and kex (kfood =0.322±0.263; kex=0.223±0.203). However, kmoney (kmoney=0.080±0.02) was significantly lower than the rates of exercise and food. Moreover, significant associations were found between preferred speed and kex (r=-0.302) and between physical activity levels and preferred speed (r=0.324). Outcomes show that participants perceived and discounted self-selected exercise like an established reward (food and money) but was discounted more like consumable rewards. Moreover, exercise discounting was quicker in individuals who preferred lower speeds, being less physically active. This may show that in a choice conflict between exercise and food the delay of exercise (because of distance) might disadvantage exercise as the chosen behavior particular in sedentary people. Conclusion: exercise can be perceived as a reward and is discounted quickly in time like food. Pleasant exercise experience is connected to low to moderate cardiovascular and perceptual strain.

Keywords: delay discounting, exercise, temporal discounting, time perspective

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52 Gamification Using Stochastic Processes: Engage Children to Have Healthy Habits

Authors: Andre M. Carvalho, Pedro Sebastiao

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This article is based on a dissertation that intends to analyze and make a model, intelligently, algorithms based on stochastic processes of a gamification application applied to marketing. Gamification is used in our daily lives to engage us to perform certain actions in order to achieve goals and gain rewards. This strategy is an increasingly adopted way to encourage and retain customers through game elements. The application of gamification aims to encourage children between 6 and 10 years of age to have healthy habits and the purpose of serving as a model for use in marketing. This application was developed in unity; we implemented intelligent algorithms based on stochastic processes, web services to respond to all requests of the application, a back-office website to manage the application and the database. The behavioral analysis of the use of game elements and stochastic processes in children’s motivation was done. The application of algorithms based on stochastic processes in-game elements is very important to promote cooperation and to ensure fair and friendly competition between users which consequently stimulates the user’s interest and their involvement in the application and organization.

Keywords: engage, games, gamification, randomness, stochastic processes

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51 The Contemporary Dynamics of Board Composition and Executive Compensation for R&D Spending

Authors: Farheen Akram

Abstract:

Research and Development (R&D) is the most crucial element of the firm’s survival in a competitive business environment. R&D is a long-term investment; therefore, executives having the power to make the investment decisions may be pessimistic when their compensation is closely linked with short-term firm performance. Thus, the current study investigates the impact of board composition and executives’ compensation (cash or short-term benefits and LTIs) on R&D spending using a sample of 85 S&P/100 firms listed on the Australian Stock Exchange (ASX) in 2017. SmartPLS (v.3.2.7) was used to evaluate the proposed model of current research. The empirical findings of this study indicate that board composition has a significant and positive effect on R&D spending. While, as expected, executive cash compensation has negative and Long-Term-Incentives (LTIs) has a positive impact on R&D spending. Based on current findings, the study suggested that myopic behavior of CEOs and top management towards long-term value creation investment like R&D can be controlled by using long-term compensation rewards.

Keywords: cash compensation, LTIs, board composition, R&D spending

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50 Personal Characteristics Related to Hasty Behaviour in Korea

Authors: Sun Jin Park, Kyung-Ja Cho

Abstract:

This study focused on characteristics related to hasty behaviour. To investigate the relation between personal characteristics and hasty behaviour, 601 data were collected, 335 males and 256 females answered their own 'social avoidance and distress’, ‘anxiety’, ‘sensation seeking', 'hope', and ' hasty behaviour. And then 591 data were used for the analysis. The factor analysis resulted hasty behaviour consisted of 5 factors, time pressure, isolation, uncomfortable situation, boring condition, and expectation of reward. The result showed anxiety, sensation seeking, and hope related to hasty behaviour. Specifically, anxiety was involved in every hasty behaviour. This result means that psychological tension and worry are related to hasty behaviour in common. 'Social avoidance and distress', 'sensation seeking' and 'hope' influenced on hasty behaviour under time pressure, in isolation, in expectation of rewards respectively. This means that each factor of hasty behaviour has anxiety as its basis, expressed through a varied nature.

Keywords: hasty behaviour, social avoidance and distress, anxiety, sensation seeking, hope

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49 Human Resource Management from Islamic Perspective

Authors: Qamar Ul Haq, Talat Hussain, Mufti Fahad Ahmed Qureshi

Abstract:

From the Islamic perspective, managing human resource meets various challenges, especially in the modern organizations. The adoption of Western practices in various aspects of management have caused gaps in justice, trustworthy, responsibility and other values of workers in Muslim countries. Thus, the interference of Islamic principles in human resource management (HRM) can be considered as a great solution for treating employees fairly and justly. This research aims to examine the level of Islamic practices in HRM, in which includes recruitment and selection, training and development, career development, performance management and rewards. The paper will analyze the relationships between HRM practices and organizational justice which focus on three elements, which are distributive justice, procedure justice and interactional justice. The data will be collected from selected Malaysian Government-Linked Company (GLC). Convenience sampling will be used to select the respondents for completing questionnaires. This conceptual paper essentially provides organizations with effective ways of understanding and implementing HRM by using Islamic principles. It also can be used as guidance for decision-making and day-today HR activities and will help organization to face uncertainties in the business world as well.

Keywords: human resource management, organizational justice, Islam, Islamic banking

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48 Analysis of Labor Effectiveness at Green Tea Dry Sorting Workstation for Increasing Tea Factory Competitiveness

Authors: Bayu Anggara, Arita Dewi Nugrahini, Didik Purwadi

Abstract:

Dry sorting workstation needs labor to produce green tea in Gambung Tea Factory. Observation results show that there is labor who are not working at the moment and doing overtime jobs to meet production targets. The measurement of the level of labor effectiveness has never been done before. The purpose of this study is to determine the level of labor effectiveness and provide recommendations for improvement based on the results of the Pareto diagram and Ishikawa diagram. The method used to measure the level of labor effectiveness is Overall Labor Effectiveness (OLE). OLE had three indicators which are availability, performance, and quality. Recommendations are made based on the results of the Pareto diagram and Ishikawa diagram for indicators that do not meet world standards. Based on the results of the study, the OLE value was 68.19%. Recommendations given to improve labor performance are adding mechanics, rescheduling rest periods, providing special training for labor, and giving rewards to labor. Furthermore, the recommendations for improving the quality of labor are procuring water content measuring devices, create material standard policies, and rescheduling rest periods.

Keywords: Ishikawa diagram, labor effectiveness, OLE, Pareto diagram

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47 A Model of Knowledge Management Culture Change

Authors: Reza Davoodi, Hamid Abbasi, Heidar Norouzi, Gholamabbas Alipourian

Abstract:

A dynamic model shaping a process of knowledge management (KM) culture change is suggested. It is aimed at providing effective KM of employees for obtaining desired results in an organization. The essential requirements for obtaining KM culture change are determined. The proposed model realizes these requirements. Dynamics of the model are expressed by a change of its parameters. It is adjusted to the dynamic process of KM culture change. Building the model includes elaboration and integration of interconnected components. The “Result” is a central component of the model. This component determines a desired organizational goal and possible directions of its attainment. The “Confront” component engenders constructive confrontation in an organization. For this reason, the employees are prompted toward KM culture change with the purpose of attaining the desired result. The “Assess” component realizes complex assessments of employee proposals by management and peers. The proposals are directed towards attaining the desired result in an organization. The “Reward” component sets the order of assigning rewards to employees based on the assessments of their proposals.

Keywords: knowledge management, organizational culture change, employee, result

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46 A Constructivist Approach and Tool for Autonomous Agent Bottom-up Sequential Learning

Authors: Jianyong Xue, Olivier L. Georgeon, Salima Hassas

Abstract:

During the initial phase of cognitive development, infants exhibit amazing abilities to generate novel behaviors in unfamiliar situations, and explore actively to learn the best while lacking extrinsic rewards from the environment. These abilities set them apart from even the most advanced autonomous robots. This work seeks to contribute to understand and replicate some of these abilities. We propose the Bottom-up hiErarchical sequential Learning algorithm with Constructivist pAradigm (BEL-CA) to design agents capable of learning autonomously and continuously through interactions. The algorithm implements no assumption about the semantics of input and output data. It does not rely upon a model of the world given a priori in the form of a set of states and transitions as well. Besides, we propose a toolkit to analyze the learning process at run time called GAIT (Generating and Analyzing Interaction Traces). We use GAIT to report and explain the detailed learning process and the structured behaviors that the agent has learned on each decision making. We report an experiment in which the agent learned to successfully interact with its environment and to avoid unfavorable interactions using regularities discovered through interaction.

Keywords: cognitive development, constructivist learning, hierarchical sequential learning, self-adaptation

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45 Do Career Expectancy Beliefs Foster Stability as Well as Mobility in One's Career? A Conceptual Model

Authors: Bishakha Majumdar, Ranjeet Nambudiri

Abstract:

Considerable dichotomy exists in research regarding the role of optimism and self-efficacy in work and career outcomes. Optimism and self-efficacy are related to performance, commitment and engagement, but also are implicated in seeing opportunities outside the firm and switching jobs. There is absence of research capturing these opposing strands of findings in the same model and providing a holistic understanding of how the expectancy beliefs operate in case of the working professional. We attempt to bridge this gap by proposing that career-decision self-efficacy and career outcome expectations affect intention to quit through the competitive mediation pathways of internal and external marketability. This model provides a holistic picture of the role of career expectancy beliefs on career outcomes, by considering perceived career opportunities both inside and outside one’s present organization. The understanding extends the application of career expectancy beliefs in the context of career decision-making by the employed individual. Further, it is valuable for reconsidering the effectiveness of hiring and retention techniques used by a firm, as selection, rewards and training programs need to be supplemented by interventions that specifically strengthen the stability pathway.

Keywords: career decision self-efficacy, career outcome expectations, marketability, intention to quit, job mobility

Procedia PDF Downloads 562