Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 24

Search results for: Sonal Purohit

24 Corporate Governance in India: A Critical Analysis with Respect to Financial Market Crisis

Authors: Sonal Purohit, Animesh Dubey


Corporate governance deals with the entire network of formal and informal relationship with the management of the company and company’s stakeholders including employees, customers, creditors, local communities, and society in general. The recent financial crisis was truly a global crisis in its nature and effects. The Indian financial markets were not immune to this global financial crisis. It is believed that corporate governance also had a major role to play in staggering the effect of this crisis. The objective of this paper is to examine the failure of prevailing corporate governance practice in India during financial crisis. Lack of appropriate implementation of the corporate government norms was a reason behind the phenomenon of money being pulled-out by FIIs, which constitute major investors and influencers of the Indian financial market.

Keywords: corporate governance, FII, financial market, financial crisis

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23 Resource Management Framework in Cloud Computing

Authors: Gagandeep Kaur, Sonal Chawla


In a Cloud Computing environment, resource provisioning, resource allocation and resource scheduling is the most complex issues these days. Cloud User expects the best resource utilization and Cloud Provider expects revenue maximization by considering budget and time constraints. In this research paper, Resource Management Framework has been proposed to allocate the resources to Cloud Users and Cloud Providers in Cloud environment. The main aim of the proposed work is to provide the resources and services to Cloud Providers and Cloud Users in an efficient and effective manner. The proposed framework has been simulated and tested using the CloudSim simulator tool.

Keywords: cloud computing, resource allocation, auction, provisioning

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22 Flow as a Positive Intervention for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

Authors: Sonal Khosla


A research is proposed in the present paper to explore the role of flow in coping with traumatic experiences and attaining post-traumatic growth. A grounded theory research is proposed to be carried by analyzing memoirs of people who have been through trauma. A pilot study was carried out on two memoirs of women who were held captive for over ten years and were sexually assaulted repeatedly. The role of flow in their coping experiences was explored by analyzing the books. Some of the flow activities that were used by them were- drawing and daydreaming. Their narratives show the evidence for flow as having cathartic and healing effects on them. Applicability of the findings can take two forms: 1. Flow can be applied as a preventive technique to help the people who are going through trauma, 2. Flow can be adopted into a positive intervention to help people suffering from PTSD.

Keywords: flow, positive intervention, PTSD, PTG

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21 Variability of L-Band GPS Scintillation over Auroral Region, Maitri, Antarctica

Authors: Prakash Khatarkar, P. A. Khan, Shweta Mukherjee, Roshni Atulkar, P. K. Purohit, A. K. Gwal


We have investigated the occurrence characteristics of ionospheric scintillations, using dual frequency GPS, installed and operated at Indian scientific base station Maitri (71.45S and 11.45E), Antarctica, during December 2009 to December 2010. The scintillation morphology is described in terms of S4 Index. The scintillations are classified into four main categories as Weak (0.21.0). From the analysis we found that the percentage of weak, moderate, strong and saturated scintillations were 96%, 80%, 58% and 7%, respectively. The maximum percentage of all types of scintillation was observed in the summer season, followed by equinox and the least in winter season. As the year 2010 was a low solar activity period, consequently the maximum occurrences of scintillations were those of weak and moderate and only four cases of saturated scintillation were observed.

Keywords: L-band scintillation, GPS, auroral region, low solar activity

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20 Empirical Study on Grassroots Innovation for Entrepreneurship Development with Microfinance Provision as Moderator

Authors: Sonal H. Singh, Bhaskar Bhowmick


The research hypothesis formulated in this paper examines the importance of microfinance provision for entrepreneurship development by engendering a high level of entrepreneurial orientation among the grassroots entrepreneurs. A theoretically well supported empirical framework is proposed to identify the influence of financial services and non-financial services provided by microfinance institutes in strengthening the impact of grassroots innovation on entrepreneurial orientation under resource constraints. In this paper, Grassroots innovation is perceived in three dimensions: new learning practice, localized solution, and network development. The study analyzes the moderating effect of microfinance provision on the relationship between grassroots innovation and entrepreneurial orientation. The paper employed structural equation modelling on 400 data entries from the grassroots entrepreneurs in India. The research intends to help policymakers, entrepreneurs and microfinance providers to promote the innovative design of microfinance services for the well-being of grassroots entrepreneurs and to foster sustainable entrepreneurship development.

Keywords: entrepreneurship development, grassroots innovation, India, structural equation model

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19 Geared Turbofan with Water Alcohol Technology

Authors: Abhinav Purohit, Shruthi S. Pradeep


In today’s world, aviation industries are using turbofan engines (permutation of turboprop and turbojet) which meet the obligatory requirements to be fuel competent and to produce enough thrust to propel an aircraft. But one can imagine increasing the work output of this particular machine by reducing the input power. In striving to improve technologies, especially to augment the efficiency of the engine with some adaptations, which can be crooked to new concepts by introducing a step change in the turbofan engine development. One hopeful concept is, to de-couple the fan with the help of reduction gear box in a two spool shaft engine from the rest of the machinery to get more work output with maximum efficiency by reducing the load on the turbine shaft. By adapting this configuration we can get an additional degree of freedom to better optimize each component at different speeds. Since the components are running at different speeds we can get hold of preferable efficiency. Introducing water alcohol mixture to this concept would really help to get better results.

Keywords: emissions, fuel consumption, more power, turbofan

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18 Progressive Type-I Interval Censoring with Binomial Removal-Estimation and Its Properties

Authors: Sonal Budhiraja, Biswabrata Pradhan


This work considers statistical inference based on progressive Type-I interval censored data with random removal. The scheme of progressive Type-I interval censoring with random removal can be described as follows. Suppose n identical items are placed on a test at time T0 = 0 under k pre-fixed inspection times at pre-specified times T1 < T2 < . . . < Tk, where Tk is the scheduled termination time of the experiment. At inspection time Ti, Ri of the remaining surviving units Si, are randomly removed from the experiment. The removal follows a binomial distribution with parameters Si and pi for i = 1, . . . , k, with pk = 1. In this censoring scheme, the number of failures in different inspection intervals and the number of randomly removed items at pre-specified inspection times are observed. Asymptotic properties of the maximum likelihood estimators (MLEs) are established under some regularity conditions. A β-content γ-level tolerance interval (TI) is determined for two parameters Weibull lifetime model using the asymptotic properties of MLEs. The minimum sample size required to achieve the desired β-content γ-level TI is determined. The performance of the MLEs and TI is studied via simulation.

Keywords: asymptotic normality, consistency, regularity conditions, simulation study, tolerance interval

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17 A Study of Anthraquinone Dye Removal by Using Chitosan Nanoparticles

Authors: Pyar S. Jassal, Sonal Gupta, Neema Chand, Rajni Johar


In present study, Low molecular weight chitosan naoparticles (LMWCNP) were synthesized by using low molecular weight chitosan (LMWC) and sodium tripolyphosphate for the adsorption of anthraquinone dyes from waste water. The ionic-gel technique was used for this purpose. Size of nanoparticles was determined by “Scherrer equation”. The absorbance was carried out with UV-visible spectrophotometer for Acid Green 25 (AG25) and Reactive Blue 4 (RB4) dyes solutions at λmax 644 and λmax 598 nm respectively. The removal of dyes was dependent on the pH and the optimum adsorption was between pH 2 to 9. The extraction of dyes was linearly dependent on temperature. The equilibrium parameters, RL was calculated by using the Langmuir isotherm and shows that adsorption of dyes is favorable on the LMWCNP. The XRD images of LMWC show a crystalline nature whereas LMWCNP is amorphous one. The thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) shows that LMWCNP thermally more stable than LMWC. As the contact time increases, percentage removal of Acid Green 25 and Reactive Blue 4 dyes also increases. TEM images reveal the size of the LMWCNP were in the range of 45-50 nm. The capacity of AG25 dye on LMWC was 5.23 mg/g, it compared with LMWCNP capacity which was 6.83 mg/g respectively. The capacity of RB4 dye on LMWC was 2.30 mg/g and 2.34 mg/g was on LMWCNP.

Keywords: low molecular weight chitosan nanoparticles, anthraquinone dye, removal efficiency, adsorption isotherm

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16 Role of Direct Immunofluorescence in Diagnosing Vesiculobullous Lesions

Authors: Mitakshara Sharma, Sonal Sharma


Vesiculobullous diseases are heterogeneous group of dermatological disorders with protean manifestations. The most important technique for the patients with vesiculobullous diseases is conventional histopathology and confirmatory tests like direct immunofluorescence (DIF) and indirect immunofluorescence (IIF). DIF has been used for decades to investigate pathophysiology and in the diagnosis. It detects molecules such as immunoglobulins and complement components. It is done on the perilesional skin. Diagnosis of DIF test depends on features like primary site of the immune deposits, class of immunoglobulin, number of immune deposits and deposition at other sites. The aim of the study is to correlate DIF with clinical and histopathological findings and to analyze the utility of DIF in the diagnosis of these disorders. It is a retrospective descriptive study conducted for 2 years from 2015 to 2017 in Department of Pathology, GTB Hospital on perilesional punch biopsies of vesiculobullous lesions. Biopsies were sent in Michael’s medium. The specimens were washed, frozen and incubated with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) tagged antihuman antibodies IgA, IgG, IgM, C3 & F and were viewed under fluorescent microscope. Out of 401 skin biopsies submitted for DIF, 285 were vesiculobullous diseases, in which the most common was Pemphigus vulgaris (34%) followed by Bullous pemphigoid (21.5%), Dermatitis herpetiformis (16%), Pemphigus foliaceus (11.9%), Linear IgA disease (11.9%), Epidermolysisbullosa (2.39%) and Pemphigus herpetiformis (1.7%). We will be presenting the DIF findings in the all these vesiculobullous diseases. DIF in conjugation with histopathology gives the best diagnostic yield in these lesions. It also helps in the diagnosis whenever there is a clinical and histopathological overlap.

Keywords: antibodies, direct immunofluorescence, pemphigus, vesiculobullous

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15 Development and Evaluation of Gastro Retentive Floating Tablets of Ayurvedic Vati Formulation

Authors: Imran Khan Pathan, Anil Bhandari, Peeyush K. Sharma, Rakesh K. Patel, Suresh Purohit


Floating tablets of Marichyadi Vati were developed with an aim to prolong its gastric residence time and increase the bioavailability of drug. Rapid gastrointestinal transit could result in incomplete drug release from the drug delivery system above the absorption zone leading to diminished efficacy of the administered dose. The tablets were prepared by wet granulation technique, using HPMC E50 LV act as Matrixing agent, Carbopol as floating enhancer, microcrystalline cellulose as binder, sodium bi carbonate as effervescent agent with other excipients. The simplex lattice design was used for selection of variables for tablets formulation. Formulation was optimized on the basis of floating time and in vitro drug release. The results showed that the floating lag time for optimized formulation was found to be 61 second with about 97.32 % of total drug release within 3 hours. The in vitro release profiles of drug from the formulation could be best expressed zero order with highest linearity r2 = 0.9943. It was concluded that the gastroretentive drug delivery system can be developed for Marichyadi Vati containing piperine to increase the residence time of the drug in the stomach and thereby increasing bioavailability.

Keywords: piperine, Marichyadi Vati, gastroretentive drug delivery, floating tablet

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14 Qsar Studies of Certain Novel Heterocycles Derived From bis-1, 2, 4 Triazoles as Anti-Tumor Agents

Authors: Madhusudan Purohit, Stephen Philip, Bharathkumar Inturi


In this paper we report the quantitative structure activity relationship of novel bis-triazole derivatives for predicting the activity profile. The full model encompassed a dataset of 46 Bis- triazoles. Tripos Sybyl X 2.0 program was used to conduct CoMSIA QSAR modeling. The Partial Least-Squares (PLS) analysis method was used to conduct statistical analysis and to derive a QSAR model based on the field values of CoMSIA descriptor. The compounds were divided into test and training set. The compounds were evaluated by various CoMSIA parameters to predict the best QSAR model. An optimum numbers of components were first determined separately by cross-validation regression for CoMSIA model, which were then applied in the final analysis. A series of parameters were used for the study and the best fit model was obtained using donor, partition coefficient and steric parameters. The CoMSIA models demonstrated good statistical results with regression coefficient (r2) and the cross-validated coefficient (q2) of 0.575 and 0.830 respectively. The standard error for the predicted model was 0.16322. In the CoMSIA model, the steric descriptors make a marginally larger contribution than the electrostatic descriptors. The finding that the steric descriptor is the largest contributor for the CoMSIA QSAR models is consistent with the observation that more than half of the binding site area is occupied by steric regions.

Keywords: 3D QSAR, CoMSIA, triazoles, novel heterocycles

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13 Role of Imaging in Predicting the Receptor Positivity Status in Lung Adenocarcinoma: A Chapter in Radiogenomics

Authors: Sonal Sethi, Mukesh Yadav, Abhimanyu Gupta


The upcoming field of radiogenomics has the potential to upgrade the role of imaging in lung cancer management by noninvasive characterization of tumor histology and genetic microenvironment. Receptor positivity like epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) genotyping are critical in lung adenocarcinoma for treatment. As conventional identification of receptor positivity is an invasive procedure, we analyzed the features on non-invasive computed tomography (CT), which predicts the receptor positivity in lung adenocarcinoma. Retrospectively, we did a comprehensive study from 77 proven lung adenocarcinoma patients with CT images, EGFR and ALK receptor genotyping, and clinical information. Total 22/77 patients were receptor-positive (15 had only EGFR mutation, 6 had ALK mutation, and 1 had both EGFR and ALK mutation). Various morphological characteristics and metastatic distribution on CT were analyzed along with the clinical information. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were used. On multivariable logistic regression analysis, we found spiculated margin, lymphangitic spread, air bronchogram, pleural effusion, and distant metastasis had a significant predictive value for receptor mutation status. On univariate analysis, air bronchogram and pleural effusion had significant individual predictive value. Conclusions: Receptor positive lung cancer has characteristic imaging features compared with nonreceptor positive lung adenocarcinoma. Since CT is routinely used in lung cancer diagnosis, we can predict the receptor positivity by a noninvasive technique and would follow a more aggressive algorithm for evaluation of distant metastases as well as for the treatment.

Keywords: lung cancer, multidisciplinary cancer care, oncologic imaging, radiobiology

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12 Investigation of Effects of Geomagnetic Storms Produced by Different Solar Sources on the Total Electron Content (TEC)

Authors: P. K. Purohit, Azad A. Mansoori, Parvaiz A. Khan, Purushottam Bhawre, Sharad C. Tripathi, A. M. Aslam, Malik A. Waheed, Shivangi Bhardwaj, A. K. Gwal


The geomagnetic storm represents the most outstanding example of solar wind-magnetospheric interaction, which causes global disturbances in the geomagnetic field as well as the trigger ionospheric disturbances. We study the behaviour of ionospheric Total Electron Content (TEC) during the geomagnetic storms. For the present investigation we have selected 47 intense geomagnetic storms (Dst ≤ -100nT) that were observed during the solar cycle 23 i.e. during 1998-2006. We then categorized these storms into four categories depending upon their solar sources like Magnetic Cloud (MC), Co-rotating Interaction Region (CIR), SH+ICME and SH+MC. We then studied the behaviour of ionospheric TEC at a mid latitude station Usuda (36.13N, 138.36E), Japan during these storm events produced by four different solar sources. During our study we found that the smooth variations in TEC are replaced by rapid fluctuations and the value of TEC is strongly enhanced during the time of these storms belonging to all the four categories. However, the greatest enhancements in TEC are produced during those geomagnetic storms which are either caused by sheath driven magnetic cloud (SH+MC) or sheath driven ICME (SH+ICME). We also derived the correlation between the TEC enhancements produced during storms of each category with the minimum Dst. We found the strongest correlation exists for the SH+ICME category followed by SH+MC, MC and finally CIR. Since the most intense storms were either caused by SH+ICME or SH+MC while the least intense storms were caused by CIR, consequently the correlation was the strongest with SH+ICME and SH+MC and least with CIR.

Keywords: GPS, TEC, geomagnetic storm, sheath driven magnetic cloud

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11 A Time and Frequency Dependent Study of Low Intensity Microwave Radiation Induced Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Alteration of Autophagy in Rat Brain

Authors: Ranjeet Kumar, Pravin Suryakantrao Deshmukh, Sonal Sharma, Basudev Banerjee


With the tremendous increase in exposure to radiofrequency microwaves emitted by mobile phones, globally public awareness has grown with regard to the potential health hazards of microwaves on the nervous system in the brain. India alone has more than one billion mobile users out of 4.3 billion globally. Our studies have suggested that radio frequency able to affect neuronal alterations in the brain, and hence, affecting cognitive behaviour. However, adverse effect of low-intensity microwave exposure with endoplasmic reticulum stress and autophagy has not been evaluated yet. In this study, we explore whether low-intensity microwave induces endoplasmic reticulum stress and autophagy with varying frequency and time duration in Wistar rat. Ninety-six male Wistar rat were divided into 12 groups of 8 rats each. We studied at 900 MHz, 1800 MHz, and 2450 MHz frequency with reference to sham-exposed group. At the end of the exposure, the rats were sacrificed to collect brain tissue and expression of CHOP, ATF-4, XBP-1, Bcl-2, Bax, LC3 and Atg-4 gene was analysed by real-time PCR. Significant fold change (p < 0.05) of gene expression was found in all groups of 1800 MHz and 2450 MHz exposure group in comparison to sham exposure group. In conclusion, the microwave exposure able to induce ER stress and modulate autophagy. ER (endoplasmic reticulum) stress and autophagy vary with increasing frequency as well as the duration of exposure. Our results suggested that microwave exposure is harmful to neuronal health as it induces ER stress and hampers autophagy in neuron cells and thereby increasing the neuron degeneration which impairs cognitive behaviour of experimental animals.

Keywords: autophagy, ER stress, microwave, nervous system, rat

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10 Development and Optimization of Colon Targeted Drug Delivery System of Ayurvedic Churna Formulation Using Eudragit L100 and Ethyl Cellulose as Coating Material

Authors: Anil Bhandari, Imran Khan Pathan, Peeyush K. Sharma, Rakesh K. Patel, Suresh Purohit


The purpose of this study was to prepare time and pH dependent release tablets of Ayurvedic Churna formulation and evaluate their advantages as colon targeted drug delivery system. The Vidangadi Churna was selected for this study which contains Embelin and Gallic acid. Embelin is used in Helminthiasis as therapeutic agent. Embelin is insoluble in water and unstable in gastric environment so it was formulated in time and pH dependent tablets coated with combination of two polymers Eudragit L100 and ethyl cellulose. The 150mg of core tablet of dried extract and lactose were prepared by wet granulation method. The compression coating was used in the polymer concentration of 150mg for both the layer as upper and lower coating tablet was investigated. The results showed that no release was found in 0.1 N HCl and pH 6.8 phosphate buffers for initial 5 hours and about 98.97% of the drug was released in pH 7.4 phosphate buffer in total 17 hours. The in vitro release profiles of drug from the formulation could be best expressed first order kinetics as highest linearity (r2= 0.9943). The results of the present study have demonstrated that the time and pH dependent tablets system is a promising vehicle for preventing rapid hydrolysis in gastric environment and improving oral bioavailability of Embelin and Gallic acid for treatment of Helminthiasis.

Keywords: embelin, gallic acid, Vidangadi Churna, colon targeted drug delivery

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9 Effect of Surfactant Level of Microemulsions and Nanoemulsions on Cell Viability

Authors: Sonal Gupta, Rakhi Bansal, Javed Ali, Reema Gabrani, Shweta Dang


Nanoemulsions (NEs) and microemulsions (MEs) have been an attractive tool for encapsulation of both hydrophilic and lipophillic actives. Both these systems are composed of oil phase, surfactant, co-surfactant and aqueous phase. Depending upon the application and intended use, both oil-in-water and water-in-oil emulsions can be designed. NEs are fabricated using high energy methods employing less percentage of surfactant as compared to MEs which are self assembled drug delivery systems. Owing to the nanometric size of the droplets these systems have been widely used to enhance solubility and bioavailability of natural as well as synthetic molecules. The aim of the present study is to assess the effect of % age of surfactants on cell viability of Vero cells (African Green Monkeys’ Kidney epithelial cells) via MTT assay. Green tea catechin (Polyphenon 60) loaded ME employing low energy vortexing and NE employing high energy ultrasonication were prepared using same excipients (labrasol as oil, cremophor EL as surfactant and glycerol as co-surfactant) however, the % age of oil and surfactant needed to prepare the ME was higher as compared to NE. These formulations along with their excipients (oilME=13.3%, SmixME=26.67%; oilNE=10%, SmixNE=13.52%) were added to Vero cells for 24 hrs. The tetrazolium dye, 3-(4,5-dimethylthia/ol-2-yl)-2,5-diphi-iiyltclrazolium bromide (MTT), is reduced by live cells and this reaction is used as the end point to evaluate the cytoxicity level of a test formulation. Results of MTT assay indicated that oil at different percentages exhibited almost equal cell viability (oilME ≅ oilNE) while surfactant mixture had a significant difference in the cell viability values (SmixME < SmixNE). Polyphenon 60 loaded ME and its PlaceboME showed higher toxicity as compared to Polyphenon 60 loaded NE and its PlaceboNE that can be attributed to the higher concentration of surfactants present in MEs. Another probable reason for high % cell viability of Polyphenon 60 loaded NE might be due to the effective release of Polyphenon 60 from NE formulation that helps in the sustenance of Vero cells.

Keywords: cell viability, microemulsion, MTT, nanoemulsion, surfactants, ultrasonication

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8 Correlation Studies in Nutritional Intake, Health Status and Clinical Examination of Young Adult Girls

Authors: Sonal Tuljaram Kame


Growth and development is based on proper diet. A balanced diet contains all the nutrients in required quantum. Although physical growth is completed by young adulthood, the body tissues remain in a dynamic state with catabolism slightly exceeding anabolism, resulting in a net decrease in the number of cells. After the years of adolescence which cause upheavals in the life of the person, the individual struggle to emerge as an adult who know who he is and what his goals are. During this period nutrients are needed for maintaining the health and energy is required for physical functions and physical activities. The nutritional requirement in young adulthood differs from other periods of life. Iron is needed for haemoglobin synthesis and necessitates by the considerable examination of blood volume. Young adult girls need to ensure adequate intake of iron as they loose 0.5 mg/day by way of menstruation. This is complete awareness about nutritional and health on the other side there is widespread ignorance about nutrition and health among young adult girls. The young adult girls who are aware about nutrition and health seem to be very conscious about nutritional intake and health. Figure consciousness and fear of obesity leads to self imposed intake of nutrients. It may result in various health problems. The study was planned to investigate nutrient intake, find relation between nutritional intake, clinical examination score and health status of young adult girls. The present study is based on the data collected from 120 young adult girls studying in four different competitive exams coaching academies in Akola city of Maharashtra. It was found that nutritional intake of these young adult girls was below the recommended level, nutritional knowledge level and nutritional intake are associated attributes, calories, calcium and protein intake is positively correlated with clinical examination and health status. It was concluded that well planned nutritional counseling for the young adult girls can help prevent nutritional deficiency diseases and disorders which may lead to anaemic condition in young adult girls. Girls need to be educated on intake of iron and vitamin B12.

Keywords: nutritional intake, health status, young adult girls, correlation studies

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7 Analysis of Secondary Peak in Hα Emission Profile during Gas Puffing in Aditya Tokamak

Authors: Harshita Raj, Joydeep Ghosh, Rakesh L. Tanna, Prabal K. Chattopadhyay, K. A. Jadeja, Sharvil Patel, Kaushal M. Patel, Narendra C. Patel, S. B. Bhatt, V. K. Panchal, Chhaya Chavda, C. N. Gupta, D. Raju, S. K. Jha, J. Raval, S. Joisa, S. Purohit, C. V. S. Rao, P. K. Atrey, Umesh Nagora, R. Manchanda, M. B. Chowdhuri, Nilam Ramaiya, S. Banerjee, Y. C. Saxena


Efficient gas fueling is a critical aspect that needs to be mastered in order to maintain plasma density, to carry out fusion. This requires a fair understanding of fuel recycling in order to optimize the gas fueling. In Aditya tokamak, multiple gas puffs are used in a precise and controlled manner, for hydrogen fueling during the flat top of plasma discharge which has been instrumental in achieving discharges with enhanced density as well as energy confinement time. Following each gas puff, we observe peaks in temporal profile of Hα emission, Soft X-ray (SXR) and chord averaged electron density in a number of discharges, indicating efficient gas fueling. Interestingly, Hα temporal profile exhibited an additional peak following the peak corresponding to each gas puff. These additional peak Hα appeared in between the two gas puffs, indicating the presence of a secondary hydrogen source apart from the gas puffs. A thorough investigation revealed that these secondary Hα peaks coincide with Hard X- ray bursts which come from the interaction of runaway electrons with vessel limiters. This leads to consider that the runaway electrons (REs), which hit the wall, in turn, bring out the absorbed hydrogen and oxygen from the wall and makes the interaction of REs with limiter a secondary hydrogen source. These observations suggest that runaway electron induced recycling should also be included in recycling particle source in the particle balance calculations in tokamaks. Observation of two Hα peaks associated with one gas puff and their roles in enhancing and maintaining plasma density in Aditya tokamak will be discussed in this paper.

Keywords: fusion, gas fueling, recycling, Tokamak, Aditya

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6 Hepatoprotective Action of Emblica officinalis Linn. against Radiation and Lead Induced Changes in Swiss Albino Mice

Authors: R. K. Purohit


Ionizing radiation induces cellular damage through direct ionization of DNA and other cellular targets and indirectly via reactive oxygen species which may include effects from epigenetic changes. So there is a need of hour is to search for an ideal radioprotector which could minimize the deleterious and damaging effects caused by ionizing radiation. Radioprotectors are agents which reduce the radiation effects on cell when applied prior to exposure of radiation. The aim of this study was to access the efficacy of Emblica officinalis in reducing radiation and lead induced changes in mice liver. For the present experiment, healthy male Swiss albino mice (6-8 weeks) were selected and maintained under standard conditions of temperature and light. Fruit extract of Emblica was fed orally at the dose of 0.01 ml/animal/day. The animal were divided into seven groups according to the treatment i.e. lead acetate solution as drinking water (group-II) or exposed to 3.5 or 7.0 Gy gamma radiation (group-III) or combined treatment of radiation and lead acetate (group-IV). The animals of experimental groups were administered Emblica extract seven days prior to radiation or lead acetate treatment (group V, VI and VII) respectively. The animals from all the groups were sacrificed by cervical dislocation at each post-treatment intervals of 1, 2, 4, 7, 14 and 28 days. After sacrificing the animals pieces of liver were taken out and some of them were kept at -20°C for different biochemical parameters. The histopathological changes included cytoplasmic degranulation, vacuolation, hyperaemia, pycnotic and crenated nuclei. The changes observed in the control groups were compared with the respective experimental groups. An increase in the value of total proteins, glycogen, acid phosphtase, alkaline phosphatase activity and RNA was observed up to day-14 in the non drug treated group and day 7 in the Emblica treated groups, thereafter value declined up to day-28 without reaching to normal. The value of cholesterol and DNA showed a decreasing trend up to day -14 in non drug treated groups and day-7 in drug treated groups, thereafter value elevated up to day-28. The biochemical parameters were observed in the form of increase or decrease in the values. The changes were found dose dependent. After combined treatment of radiation and lead acetate synergistic effect were observed. The liver of Emblica treated animals exhibited less severe damage as compared to non-drug treated animals at all the corresponding intervals. An early and fast recovery was also noticed in Emblica pretreated animals. Thus, it appears that Emblica is potent enough to check lead and radiation induced heptic lesion in Swiss albino mice.

Keywords: radiation, lead , emblica, mice, liver

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5 Application of Artificial Intelligence to Schedule Operability of Waterfront Facilities in Macro Tide Dominated Wide Estuarine Harbour

Authors: A. Basu, A. A. Purohit, M. M. Vaidya, M. D. Kudale


Mumbai, being traditionally the epicenter of India's trade and commerce, the existing major ports such as Mumbai and Jawaharlal Nehru Ports (JN) situated in Thane estuary are also developing its waterfront facilities. Various developments over the passage of decades in this region have changed the tidal flux entering/leaving the estuary. The intake at Pir-Pau is facing the problem of shortage of water in view of advancement of shoreline, while jetty near Ulwe faces the problem of ship scheduling due to existence of shallower depths between JN Port and Ulwe Bunder. In order to solve these problems, it is inevitable to have information about tide levels over a long duration by field measurements. However, field measurement is a tedious and costly affair; application of artificial intelligence was used to predict water levels by training the network for the measured tide data for one lunar tidal cycle. The application of two layered feed forward Artificial Neural Network (ANN) with back-propagation training algorithms such as Gradient Descent (GD) and Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) was used to predict the yearly tide levels at waterfront structures namely at Ulwe Bunder and Pir-Pau. The tide data collected at Apollo Bunder, Ulwe, and Vashi for a period of lunar tidal cycle (2013) was used to train, validate and test the neural networks. These trained networks having high co-relation coefficients (R= 0.998) were used to predict the tide at Ulwe, and Vashi for its verification with the measured tide for the year 2000 & 2013. The results indicate that the predicted tide levels by ANN give reasonably accurate estimation of tide. Hence, the trained network is used to predict the yearly tide data (2015) for Ulwe. Subsequently, the yearly tide data (2015) at Pir-Pau was predicted by using the neural network which was trained with the help of measured tide data (2000) of Apollo and Pir-Pau. The analysis of measured data and study reveals that: The measured tidal data at Pir-Pau, Vashi and Ulwe indicate that there is maximum amplification of tide by about 10-20 cm with a phase lag of 10-20 minutes with reference to the tide at Apollo Bunder (Mumbai). LM training algorithm is faster than GD and with increase in number of neurons in hidden layer and the performance of the network increases. The predicted tide levels by ANN at Pir-Pau and Ulwe provides valuable information about the occurrence of high and low water levels to plan the operation of pumping at Pir-Pau and improve ship schedule at Ulwe.

Keywords: artificial neural network, back-propagation, tide data, training algorithm

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4 Enhancement of Cross-Linguistic Effect with the Increase in the Multilingual Proficiency during Early Childhood: A Case Study of English Language Acquisition by a Pre-School Child

Authors: Anupama Purohit


The paper is a study on the inevitable cross-linguistic effect found in the early multilingual learners. The cross-linguistic behaviour like code-mixing, code-switching, foreign accent, literal translation, redundancy and syntactic manipulation effected due to other languages on the English language output of a non-native pre-school child are discussed here. A case study method is adopted in this paper to support the claim of the title. A simultaneously tetra lingual pre-school child’s (within 1;3 to 4;0) language behaviour is analysed here. The sample output data of the child is gathered from the diary entries maintained by her family, regular observations and video recordings done since her birth. She is getting the input of her mother tongue, Sambalpuri, from her grandparents only; Hindi, the local language from her play-school and the neighbourhood; English only from her mother and occasional visit of other family friends; Odia only during the reading of the Odia story book. The child is exposed to code-mixing of all the languages throughout her childhood. But code-mixing, literal translation, redundancy and duplication were absent in her initial stage of multilingual acquisition. As the child was more proficient in English in comparison to her other first languages and had never heard code-mixing in English language; it was expected from her input pattern of English (one parent, English language) that she would maintain purity in her use of English while talking to the English language interlocutor. But with gradual increase in the language proficiency in each of the languages of the child, her handling of the multiple codes becomes deft cross-linguistically. It can be deduced from the case study that after attaining certain milestone proficiency in each language, the child’s linguistic faculty can operate at a metalinguistic level. The functional use of each morpheme, their arrangement in words and in the sentences, the supra segmental features, lexical-semantic mapping, culture specific use of a language and the pragmatic skills converge to give a typical childlike multilingual output in an intelligible manner to the multilingual people (with the same set of languages in combination). The result is appealing because for expressing the same ideas which the child used to speak (may be with grammatically wrong expressions) in one language, gradually, she starts showing cross-linguistic effect in her expressions. So the paper pleads for the separatist view from the very beginning of the holophrastic phase (as the child expresses in addressee-specific language); but development of a metalinguistic ability that helps the child in communicating in a sophisticated way according to the linguistic status of the addressee is unique to the multilingual child. This metalinguistic ability is independent of the mode if input of a multilingual child.

Keywords: code-mixing, cross-linguistic effect, early multilingualism, literal translation

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3 Current Deflecting Wall: A Promising Structure for Minimising Siltation in Semi-Enclosed Docks

Authors: A. A. Purohit, A. Basu, K. A. Chavan, M. D. Kudale


Many estuarine harbours in the world are facing the problem of siltation in docks, channel entrances, etc. The harbours in India are not an exception and require maintenance dredging to achieve navigable depths for keeping them operable. Hence, dredging is inevitable and is a costly affair. The heavy siltation in docks in well mixed tide dominated estuaries is mainly due to settlement of cohesive sediments in suspension. As such there is a need to have a permanent solution for minimising the siltation in such docks to alter the hydrodynamic flow field responsible for siltation by constructing structures outside the dock. One of such docks on the west coast of India, wherein siltation of about 2.5-3 m/annum prevails, was considered to understand the hydrodynamic flow field responsible for siltation. The dock is situated in such a region where macro type of semi-diurnal tide (range of about 5m) prevails. In order to change the flow field responsible for siltation inside the dock, suitability of Current Deflecting Wall (CDW) outside the dock was studied, which will minimise the sediment exchange rate and siltation in the dock. The well calibrated physical tidal model was used to understand the flow field during various phases of tide for the existing dock in Mumbai harbour. At the harbour entrance where the tidal flux exchanges in/out of the dock, measurements on water level and current were made to estimate the sediment transport capacity. The distorted scaled model (1:400 (H) & 1:80 (V)) of Mumbai area was used to study the tidal flow phenomenon, wherein tides are generated by automatic tide generator. Hydraulic model studies carried out under the existing condition (without CDW) reveal that, during initial hours of flood tide, flow hugs the docks breakwater and part of flow which enters the dock forms number of eddies of varying sizes inside the basin, while remaining part of flow bypasses the entrance of dock. During ebb, flow direction reverses, and part of the flow re-enters the dock from outside and creates eddies at its entrance. These eddies do not allow water/sediment-mass to come out and result in settlement of sediments in dock both due to eddies and more retention of sediment. At latter hours, current strength outside the dock entrance reduces and allows the water-mass of dock to come out. In order to improve flow field inside the dockyard, two CDWs of length 300 m and 40 m were proposed outside the dock breakwater and inline to Pier-wall at dock entrance. Model studies reveal that, during flood, major flow gets deflected away from the entrance and no eddies are formed inside the dock, while during ebb flow does not re-enter the dock, and sediment flux immediately starts emptying it during initial hours of ebb. This reduces not only the entry of sediment in dock by about 40% but also the deposition by about 42% due to less retention. Thus, CDW is a promising solution to significantly reduce siltation in dock.

Keywords: current deflecting wall, eddies, hydraulic model, macro tide, siltation

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2 Application of Unstructured Mesh Modeling in Evolving SGE of an Airport at the Confluence of Multiple Rivers in a Macro Tidal Region

Authors: A. A. Purohit, M. M. Vaidya, M. D. Kudale


Among the various developing countries in the world like China, Malaysia, Korea etc., India is also developing its infrastructures in the form of Road/Rail/Airports and Waterborne facilities at an exponential rate. Mumbai, the financial epicenter of India is overcrowded and to relieve the pressure of congestion, Navi Mumbai suburb is being developed on the east bank of Thane creek near Mumbai. The government due to limited space at existing Mumbai Airports (domestic and international) to cater for the future demand of airborne traffic, proposes to build a new international airport near Panvel at Navi Mumbai. Considering the precedence of extreme rainfall on 26th July 2005 and nearby townships being in a low-lying area, wherein new airport is proposed, it is inevitable to study this complex confluence area from a hydrodynamic consideration under both tidal and extreme events (predicted discharge hydrographs), to avoid inundation of the surrounding due to the proposed airport reclamation (1160 hectares) and to determine the safe grade elevation (SGE). The model studies conducted using the application of unstructured mesh to simulate the Panvel estuarine area (93 km2), calibration, validation of a model for hydraulic field measurements and determine the maxima water levels around the airport for various extreme hydrodynamic events, namely the simultaneous occurrence of highest tide from the Arabian Sea and peak flood discharges (Probable Maximum Precipitation and 26th July 2005) from five rivers, the Gadhi, Kalundri, Taloja, Kasadi and Ulwe, meeting at the proposed airport area revealed that: (a) The Ulwe River flowing beneath the proposed airport needs to be diverted. The 120m wide proposed Ulwe diversion channel having a wider base width of 200 m at SH-54 Bridge on the Ulwe River along with the removal of the existing bund in Moha Creek is inevitable to keep the SGE of the airport to a minimum. (b) The clear waterway of 80 m at SH-54 Bridge (Ulwe River) and 120 m at Amra Marg Bridge near Moha Creek is also essential for the Ulwe diversion and (c) The river bank protection works on the right bank of Gadhi River between the NH-4B and SH-54 bridges as well as upstream of the Ulwe River diversion channel are essential to avoid inundation of low lying areas. The maxima water levels predicted around the airport keeps SGE to a minimum of 11m with respect to Chart datum of Ulwe Bundar and thus development is not only technologically-economically feasible but also sustainable. The unstructured mesh modeling is a promising tool to simulate complex extreme hydrodynamic events and provides a reliable solution to evolve optimal SGE of airport.

Keywords: airport, hydrodynamics, safe grade elevation, tides

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1 Resolving Urban Mobility Issues through Network Restructuring of Urban Mass Transport

Authors: Aditya Purohit, Neha Bansal


Unplanned urbanization and multidirectional sprawl of the cities have resulted in increased motorization and deteriorating transport conditions like traffic congestion, longer commuting, pollution, increased carbon footprint, and above all increased fatalities. In order to overcome these problems, various practices have been adopted including– promoting and implementing mass transport; traffic junction channelization; smart transport etc. However, these methods are found to be primarily focusing on vehicular mobility rather than people accessibility. With this research gap, this paper tries to resolve the mobility issues for Ahmedabad city in India, which being the economic capital Gujarat state has a huge commuter and visitor inflow. This research aims to resolve the traffic congestion and urban mobility issues focusing on Gujarat State Regional Transport Corporation (GSRTC) for the city of Ahmadabad by analyzing the existing operations and network structure of GSRTC followed by finding possibilities of integrating it with other modes of urban transport. The network restructuring (NR) methodology is used with appropriate variations, based on commuter demand and growth pattern of the city. To do these ‘scenarios’ based on priority issues (using 12 parameters) and their best possible solution, are established after route network analysis for 2700 population sample of 20 traffic junctions/nodes across the city. Approximately 5% sample (of passenger inflow) at each node is considered using random stratified sampling technique two scenarios are – Scenario 1: Resolving mobility issues by use of Special Purpose Vehicle (SPV) in joint venture to GSRTC and Private Operators for establishing feeder service, which shall provide a transfer service for passenger for movement from inner city area to identified peripheral terminals; and Scenario 2: Augmenting existing mass transport services such as BRTS and AMTS for using them as feeder service to the identified peripheral terminals. Each of these has now been analyzed for the best suitability/feasibility in network restructuring. A desire-line diagram is constructed using this analysis which indicated that on an average 62% of designated GSRTC routes are overlapping with mass transportation service routes of BRTS and AMTS in the city. This has resulted in duplication of bus services causing traffic congestion especially in the Central Bus Station (CBS). Terminating GSRTC services on the periphery of the city is found to be the best restructuring network proposal. This limits the GSRTC buses at city fringe area and prevents them from entering into the city core areas. These end-terminals of GSRTC are integrated with BRTS and AMTS services which help in segregating intra-state and inter-state bus services. The research concludes that absence of integrated multimodal transport network resulted in complexity of transport access to the commuters. As a further scope of research comparing and understanding of value of access time in total travel time and its implication on generalized cost on trip and how it varies city wise may be taken up.

Keywords: mass transportation, multi-modal integration, network restructuring, travel behavior, urban transport

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