Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 68

Search results for: Sherif Heiman Shaban

68 Islamic Banking in Ghana: Prospects and Challenges

Authors: Shaibu Ali, Sherif Heiman Shaban, Musah Ismaila, Imoro Alhassan, Yusif Ali


Purpose: Islamic banking and finance is one of the most rapidly growing segments of the global finance industry. Starting with the Dubai Islamic Bank in 1975, the number of Islamic financial institutions worldwide has shot up astronomically, to over three hundred, with operations in seventy-five countries and assets in excess of US$400 billion. The purpose of this study is to explore the prospects and challenges of Islamic banking introduction in a non-Islamic country like Ghana. Design/Methodology: Data for the study was collected via an expert opinion of three Islamic scholars on Islamic banking from Ghana. Findings: Findings from this study indicates some of the benefits of Islamic banking includes connecting financial markets and economic activity, promoting the principle of financial justice, greater stability, avoiding economic bubbles (and bursts) and reducing the impact of harmful products and practices. The study also identified lack of experts in various fields of Islamic banking, product innovation, moral hazard, and need for experienced staff in Islamic banking as some of the challenges to Islamic banking system’s introduction. Contribution: The study contributes to literature on Islamic banking from a non-Islamic country like Ghana.

Keywords: Islamic banking, Shari’ah, Riba, conventional banking

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67 Extraction and Identification of Natural Antioxidants from Liquorices (Glycyrrhiza glabra) and Carob (Ceratonia siliqua) and Its Application in El-Mewled El-Nabawy Sweets (Sesames and Folia)

Authors: Mervet A. El-sherif, Ginat M El-sherif, Kadry H Tolba


The objective of this study was to determine, identify and investigate the effects of natural antioxidants of licorice and carob. Besides, their effects as powder and antioxidant extracts addition on refined sunflower oil stability as natural antioxidants were evaluated. Total polyphenol contents as total phenols, total carotenoids and total tannins were 353.93mg/100g (gallic acid), 10.62mg/100g (carotenoids) and 83.33mg/100g (tannic acid), respectively in licorice, while in carob, it was 186.07, 18.66 and 106.67, respectively. Polyphenol compounds of the studied licorice and carob extracts were determined and identified by HPLC. The stability of refined sunflower oil (which determined by peroxide value and Rancimat) was increased with increasing the level of polyphenols extracts addition. Also, our study shows the effect of addition of these polyphenols extracts to El-mewled El-nabawy sweets fortified by full cream milk powder (sesames and folia). We found that, licorice and carob as powder and polyphenols extracts were delayed the rancidity of sesame and peanut significantly. That encourages using licorice and carob as powder and polyphenols extracts as a good natural antioxidants source instead of synthetic antioxidants.

Keywords: licorice, carob, natural antioxidants, antioxidant activity, applications

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66 Variable Frequency Converter Fed Induction Motors

Authors: Abdulatif Abdulsalam Mohamed Shaban


A.C motors, in general, have superior performance characteristics to their d.c. counterparts. However, despite these advantage a.c. motors lack the controllability and simplicity and so d.c. motors retain a competitive edge where precise control is required. As part of an overall project to develop an improved cycloconverter control strategy for induction motors. Simulation and modelling techniques have been developed. This contribution describes a method used to simulate an induction motor drive using the SIMULINK toolbox within MATLAB software. The cycloconverter fed induction motor is principally modelled using the d-q axis equations. Results of the simulation for a given set of induction motor parameters are also presented.

Keywords: simulation, converter, motor, cycloconverter

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65 Interfacing and Replication of Electronic Machinery Using MATLAB/SIMULINK

Authors: Abdulatif Abdulsalam, Mohamed Shaban


This paper introduces interfacing and replication of electronic tools based on the MATLAB/ SIMULINK mock-up package. Mock-up components contain dc-dc converters, power issue rectifiers, motivation machines, dc gear, synchronous gear, and more entire systems. Power issue rectifier model includes solid state device models. The tools are the clear-cut structure and mock-up of complex energetic systems connecting with power electronic machines.

Keywords: power electronics, machine, MATLAB, simulink

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64 Cross-Layer Design of Event-Triggered Adaptive OFDMA Resource Allocation Protocols with Application to Vehicle Clusters

Authors: Shaban Guma, Naim Bajcinca


We propose an event-triggered algorithm for the solution of a distributed optimization problem by means of the projected subgradient method. Thereby, we invoke an OFDMA resource allocation scheme by applying an event-triggered sensitivity analysis at the access point. The optimal resource assignment of the subcarriers to the involved wireless nodes is carried out by considering the sensitivity analysis of the overall objective function as defined by the control of vehicle clusters with respect to the information exchange between the nodes.

Keywords: consensus, cross-layer, distributed, event-triggered, multi-vehicle, protocol, resource, OFDMA, wireless

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63 Waiting Time Reduction in a Government Hospital Emergency Department: A Case Study on AlAdan Hospital, Kuwait

Authors: Bashayer AlRobayaan, Munira Saad, Alaa AlBawab, Fatma AlHamad, Sara AlAwadhi, Sherif Fahmy


This paper addresses the problem of long waiting times in government hospitals emergency departments (ED). It aims at finding feasible and simple ways of reducing waiting times that do not require a lot of resources and/or expenses. AlAdan Hospital in Kuwait was chosen to be understudy to further understand and capture the problem.

Keywords: healthcare, hospital, Kuwait, waiting times, emergency department

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62 Effect of Water Hyacinth on Behaviour of Reinforced Concrete Beams

Authors: Ahmed Shaban Abdel Hay Gabr


Water hyacinth (W-H) has an adverse effect on Nile river in Egypt, it absorbs high quantities of water, it needs to serve these quantities especially at this time, so by burning W-H, it can be used in concrete mix to reduce the permeability of concrete and increase both the compressive and splitting strength. The effect of W-H on non-structural concrete properties was studied, but there is a lack of studies about the behavior of structural concrete containing W-H. Therefore, in the present study, the behavior of 15 RC beams with 100 x 150 mm cross section, 1250 mm span, different reinforcement ratios and different W-H ratios were studied by testing the beams under two-point bending test. The test results showed that Water Hyacinth is compatible with RC which yields promising results.

Keywords: beams, reinforcement ratio, reinforced concrete, water hyacinth

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61 Low Voltage Ride through Capability Techniques for DFIG-Based Wind Turbines

Authors: Sherif O. Zain Elabideen, Ahmed A. Helal, Ibrahim F. El-Arabawy


Due to the drastic increase of the wind turbines installed capacity; the grid codes are increasing the restrictions aiming to treat the wind turbines like other conventional sources sooner. In this paper, an intensive review has been presented for different techniques used to add low voltage ride through capability to Doubly Fed Induction Generator (DFIG) wind turbine. A system model with 1.5 MW DFIG wind turbine is constructed and simulated using MATLAB/SIMULINK to explore the effectiveness of the reviewed techniques.

Keywords: DFIG, grid side converters, low voltage ride through, wind turbine

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60 Transient Signal Generator For Fault Indicator Testing

Authors: Mohamed Shaban, Ali Alfallah


This paper describes an application for testing of a fault indicator but it could be used for other network protection testing. The application is created in the LabVIEW environment and consists of three parts. The first part of the application is determined for transient phenomenon generation and imitates voltage and current transient signal at ground fault originate. The second part allows to set sequences of trend for each current and voltage output signal, up to six trends for each phase. The last part of the application generates harmonic signal with continuously controllable amplitude of current or voltage output signal and phase shift of each signal can be changed there. Further any sub-harmonics and upper harmonics can be added to selected current output signal

Keywords: signal generator-fault indicator, harmonic signal generator, voltage output

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59 Application of Nanofiltration Membrane for River Nile Water Treatment in Egypt

Authors: Tarek S. Jamil, Ahmed M. Shaban, Eman S. Mansor, Ahmed A. Karim, Azza M. Abdel Aty


In this manuscript, 35 m³/d NF unit was designed and applied for surface water treatment of river Nile water. Intake of Embaba drinking water treatment plant was selected to install that unit at since; it has the lowest water quality index value through the examined 6 sites in greater Cairo area. The optimized operating conditions were feed and permeate flow, 40 and 7 m³/d, feed pressure 2.68 bar and flux rate 37.7 l/m2.h. The permeate water was drinkable according to Egyptian Ministerial decree 458/2007 for the tested parameters (physic-chemical, heavy metals, organic, algal, bacteriological and parasitological). Single and double sand filters were used as pretreatment for NF membranes, but continuous clogging for sand filters moved us to use UF membrane as pretreatment for NF membrane.

Keywords: River Nile, NF membrane, pretreatment, UF membrane, water quality

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58 Optical Switching Based On Bragg Solitons in A Nonuniform Fiber Bragg Grating

Authors: Abdulatif Abdusalam, Mohamed Shaban


In this paper, we consider the nonlinear pulse propagation through a nonuniform birefringent fiber Bragg grating (FBG) whose index modulation depth varies along the propagation direction. Here, the pulse propagation is governed by the nonlinear birefringent coupled mode (NLBCM) equations. To form the Bragg soliton outside the photonic bandgap (PBG), the NLBCM equations are reduced to the well known NLS type equation by multiple scale analysis. As we consider the pulse propagation in a nonuniform FBG, the pulse propagation outside the PBG is governed by inhomogeneous NLS (INLS) rather than NLS. We, then, discuss the formation of soliton in the FBG known as Bragg soliton whose central frequency lies outside but close to the PBG of the grating structure. Further, we discuss Bragg soliton compression due to a delicate balance between the SPM and the varying grating induced dispersion. In addition, Bragg soliton collision, Bragg soliton switching and possible logic gates have also been discussed.

Keywords: Bragg grating, non uniform fiber, non linear pulse

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57 Physicochemical Characterization of Mercerized Cellulose-Supported Nickel-Oxide

Authors: Sherif M. A. S. Keshk, Hisham S. M. Abd-Rabboh, Mohamed S. Hamdy, Ibrahim H. A. Badr


Microwave radiation was applied to synthesize nanoparticles of nickel oxide supported on pretreated cellulose with metal acetate in the presence of NaOH. Optimization, in terms of irradiation time and metal concentration, was investigated. FT-IR spectrum of cellulose/NiO spectrum shows a band at 445 cm^-1 that is related to the Ni–O stretching vibration of NiO6 octahedral in the cubic NiO structure. cellulose/NiO showed similar XRD pattern of cellulose I and exhibited sharpened reflection peak at 2q = 29.8°, corresponding to (111) plane of NiO, with two weak broad peaks at 48.5°, and 49.2°, representing (222) planes of NiO. XPS spectrum of mercerized cellulose/NiO composite showed did not show any peaks corresponding to Na ion.

Keywords: cellulose, mercerized cellulose, cellulose/zinc and nickeloxides composite, FTIR, XRD, XPS, SEM, Raman spectrum

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56 One Step Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles and Their Biological Activity

Authors: Samy M. Shaban, Ismail Aiad, Mohamed M. El-Sukkary, E. A. Soliman, Moshira Y. El-Awady


In situ and green synthesis of cubic and spherical silver nanoparticles were developed using sun light as reducing agent in the presence of newly prepared cationic surfactant which acting as capping agents. The morphology of prepared silver nanoparticle was estimated by transmission electron microscope (TEM) and the size distribution determined by dynamic light scattering (DLS). The hydrophobic chain length of the prepared surfactant effect on the stability of the prepared silver nanoparticles as clear from zeta-potential values. Also by increasing chain length of the used capping agent the amount of formed nanoparticle increase as indicated by increasing the absorbance. Both prepared surfactants and surfactants capping silver nanoparticles showed high antimicrobial activity against gram positive and gram-negative bacteria.

Keywords: photosynthesis, hexaonal shapes, zetapotential, biological activity

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55 Synthesis and Characterization of Recycled Isotactic Polypropylene Nanocomposites Containing Date Wood Fiber

Authors: Habib Shaban


Nanocomposites of isotactic polypropylene (iPP) and date wood fiber were prepared after modification of the host matrix by reactive extrusion grafting of maleic anhydride. Chemical and mechanical treatment of date wood flour (WF) was conducted to obtain nanocrystalline cellulose. Layered silicates (clay) were partially intercalated with date wood fiber, and the modified layered silicate was used as filler in the PP matrix via a melt-blending process. The tensile strength of composites prepared from wood fiber modified clay was greater than that of the iPP-clay and iPP-WF composites at a 6% filler concentration, whereas deterioration of mechanical properties was observed when clay and WF were used alone for reinforcement. The dispersion of the filler in the matrix significantly decreased after clay modification with cellulose at higher concentrations, as shown by X-ray diffraction (XRD) data.

Keywords: nanocomposites, isotactic polypropylene, date wood flour, intercalated, melt-blending

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54 Three Dimensional Vibration Analysis of Carbon Nanotubes Embedded in Elastic Medium

Authors: M. Shaban, A. Alibeigloo


This paper studies free vibration behavior of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) embedded on elastic medium based on three-dimensional theory of elasticity. To accounting the size effect of carbon nanotubes, nonlocal theory is adopted to shell model. The nonlocal parameter is incorporated into all constitutive equations in three dimensions. The surrounding medium is modeled as two-parameter elastic foundation. By using Fourier series expansion in axial and circumferential direction, the set of coupled governing equations are reduced to the ordinary differential equations in thickness direction. Then, the state-space method as an efficient and accurate method is used to solve the resulting equations analytically. Comprehensive parametric studies are carried out to show the influences of the nonlocal parameter, radial and shear elastic stiffness, thickness-to-radius ratio and radius-to-length ratio.

Keywords: carbon nanotubes, embedded, nonlocal, free vibration

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53 Reliability of Slender Reinforced Concrete Columns: Part 1

Authors: Metwally Abdel Aziz Ahmed, Ahmed Shaban Abdel Hay Gabr, Inas Mohamed Saleh


The main objective of structural design is to ensure safety and functional performance requirements of a structural system for its target reliability levels. In this study, the reliability index for the reinforcement concrete slender columns with rectangular cross section is studied. The variable parameters studied include the loads, the concrete compressive strength, the steel yield strength, the dimensions of concrete cross-section, the reinforcement ratio, and the location of steel placement. Risk analysis program was used to perform the analytical study. The effect of load eccentricity on the reliability index of reinforced concrete slender column was studied and presented. The results of this study indicate that the good quality control improve the performance of slender reinforced columns through increasing the reliability index β.

Keywords: reliability, reinforced concrete, safety, slender column

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52 PEA Design of the Direct Control for Training Motor Drives

Authors: Abdulatif Abdulsalam Mohamed Shaban


This paper states that the art of Procedure Entry Array (PEA) plan with a focus on control system applications. This paper begins with an impression of PEA technology development, followed by an arrangement of design technologies, and the use of programmable description languages and system-level design tools. They allow a practical approach based on a unique model for complete engineering electronics systems. There are three main design rules are implemented in the system. These are algorithm based fine-tuning, modularity, and the control act and the architectural constraints. An overview of contributions and limits of PEAs is also given, followed by a short survey of PEA-based gifted controllers for recent engineering systems. Finally, two complete and timely case studies are presented to illustrate the benefits of a PEA implementation when using the proposed system modelling and devise attitude. These consist of the direct control for training motor drives and the control of a diesel-driven stand-alone generator with the help of logical design.

Keywords: control (DC), engineering electronics systems, training motor drives, procedure entry array

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51 Impulsive Synchronization of Periodically Forced Complex Duffing's Oscillators

Authors: Shaban Aly, Ali Al-Qahtani, Houari B. Khenous


Synchronization is an important phenomenon commonly observed in nature. A system of periodically forced complex Duffings oscillators was introduced and shown to display chaotic behavior and possess strange attractors. Such complex oscillators appear in many problems of physics and engineering, as, for example, nonlinear optics, deep-water wave theory, plasma physics and bimolecular dynamics. In this paper, we study the remarkable phenomenon of chaotic synchronization on these oscillator systems, using impulsive synchronization techniques. We derive analytical expressions for impulsive control functions and show that the dynamics of error evolution is globally stable, by constructing appropriate Lyapunov functions. This means that, for a relatively large set initial conditions, the differences between the drive and response systems vanish exponentially and synchronization is achieved. Numerical results are obtained to test the validity of the analytical expressions and illustrate the efficiency of these techniques for inducing chaos synchronization in our nonlinear oscillators.

Keywords: complex nonlinear oscillators, impulsive synchronization, chaotic systems, global exponential synchronization

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50 Apply Commitment Method in Power System to Minimize the Fuel Cost

Authors: Mohamed Shaban, Adel Yahya


The goal of this paper study is to schedule the power generation units to minimize fuel consumption cost based on a model that solves unit commitment problems. This can be done by utilizing forward dynamic programming method to determine the most economic scheduling of generating units. The model was applied to a power station, which consists of four generating units. The obtained results show that the applications of forward dynamic programming method offer a substantial reduction in fuel consumption cost. The fuel consumption cost has been reduced from $116,326 to $102,181 within a 24-hour period. This means saving about 12.16 % of fuel consumption cost. The study emphasizes the importance of applying modeling schedule programs to the operation of power generation units. As a consequence less consumption of fuel, less loss of power and less pollution

Keywords: unit commitment, forward dynamic, fuel cost, programming, generation scheduling, operation cost, power system, generating units

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49 The Mediating Role of Psychological Factors in the Relationships Between Youth Problematic Internet and Subjective Well-Being

Authors: Dorit Olenik-Shemesh, Tali Heiman


The rapid increase in the massive use of the internet in recent yearshas led to an increase in the prevalence of a phenomenon called 'Problematic Internet use' (PIU), an emerging, growing health problem, especially during adolescents, that poses a challenge for mental health research and practitioners. Problematic Internet use (PIU) is defined as an excessive overuse of the internet, including an inability to control time spent on the internet, cognitivepreoccupation with the Internet, and continued use in spite of the adverse consequences, which may lead to psychological, social, and academic difficulties in one's life and daily functioning. However, little is known about the nature of the nexusbetween PIU and subjective well-being among adolescents. The main purpose of the current study was to explore in depth the network of connections between PIU, sense of well-being, and fourpersonal-emotional factors (resilience, self-control, depressive mood, and loneliness) that may mediate these relationships. A total sample of 433 adolescents, 214 (49.4%) girls and 219 (50.6%) boys between the ages of 12–17 (mean = 14.9, SD = 2.16), completed self-reportquestionnaires relating to the study variables. In line with the hypothesis, analysis of a Structural Equation modeling (SEM) revealed the main following results: high levels of PIU predicted low levels of well-being among adolescents. In addition, low levels of resilience and high levels of depressivemood (together), as well as low levels of self control and high levels of depressivemood (together), as well as low levels of resilience and high levels of loneliness, mediated the relationships between PIU and well-being. In general, girls were found to be higher in PIU and inresilience than boys. The study results revealed specific implications for developing intervention programs for adolescents in the context of PIU; aiming at more balanced adjusted use of the Internet along withpreventingthe decrease in well being.

Keywords: probelmatic inetrent Use, well-being, adolescents, SEM model

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48 MMSE-Based Beamforming for Chip Interleaved CDMA in Aeronautical Mobile Radio Channel

Authors: Sherif K. El Dyasti, Esam A. Hagras, Adel E. El-Hennawy


This paper addresses the performance of antenna array beam-forming on Chip-Interleaved Code Division Multiple Access (CI_CDMA) system based on Minimum Mean Square Error (MMSE) detector in aeronautical mobile radio channel. Multipath fading, Doppler shifts caused by the speed of the aircraft, and Multiple Access Interference (MAI) are the most important reasons that affect and reduce the performance of aeronautical system. In this paper, we suggested the CI-CDMA with antenna array to combat this fading and improve the bit error rate (BER) performance. We further evaluate the performance of the proposed system in the four standard scenarios in aeronautical mobile radio channel.

Keywords: aeronautical channel, CI-CDMA, beamforming, communication, information

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47 EEG-Based Screening Tool for School Student’s Brain Disorders Using Machine Learning Algorithms

Authors: Abdelrahman A. Ramzy, Bassel S. Abdallah, Mohamed E. Bahgat, Sarah M. Abdelkader, Sherif H. ElGohary


Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), epilepsy, and autism affect millions of children worldwide, many of which are undiagnosed despite the fact that all of these disorders are detectable in early childhood. Late diagnosis can cause severe problems due to the late treatment and to the misconceptions and lack of awareness as a whole towards these disorders. Moreover, electroencephalography (EEG) has played a vital role in the assessment of neural function in children. Therefore, quantitative EEG measurement will be utilized as a tool for use in the evaluation of patients who may have ADHD, epilepsy, and autism. We propose a screening tool that uses EEG signals and machine learning algorithms to detect these disorders at an early age in an automated manner. The proposed classifiers used with epilepsy as a step taken for the work done so far, provided an accuracy of approximately 97% using SVM, Naïve Bayes and Decision tree, while 98% using KNN, which gives hope for the work yet to be conducted.

Keywords: ADHD, autism, epilepsy, EEG, SVM

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46 Ecology in Politics: A Multimodal Eco-Critical Analysis of Environmental Discourse

Authors: Amany ElShazly, Lubna A. Sherif


The entanglement of humans with the environment has always been inevitable and often causes destruction. In this respect, ‘Ecolinguistics’ helps humans to understand the link between languages and the environment. Stibbe (2014a) has indicated that ‘linguistics’, particularly, Critical Discourse Studies (CDS), provides an interpretation of language which shapes world views, while the ‘eco’ side maintains the life-sustaining interactions of humans and the physical environment. This paper considers two key ecological instances, namely: The Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam (GERD) as a focal point of political dispute and THE LINE project as well as Etthadar lel Akhdar (Go Green Initiative) as two examples of combating ecological degradation. ‘Ecosophy’ as explained by Naess (1996) is used to describe the ecolinguistic framework, which assesses discourse where the linguistic lens focuses on the use of metaphor, and ‘Positive Discourse’ framework, which resonates with respect and care for the natural world.

Keywords: ecosophy, critical discourse studies, metaphor, positive discourse, social semiotics, ecolinguistics

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45 Phenol Degradation via Photocatalytic Oxidation Using Fe Doped TiO₂

Authors: Sherif Ismail


Degradation of phenol-contaminated wastewater using Photocatalytic oxidation process was investigated in batch experiments using Fe doped TiO₂. Moreover, the effect of oxygen aeration on the performance of photocatalytic oxidation process by iron (Fe⁺²) doped titanium dioxide (TiO₂) was assessed. Photocatalytic oxidation using Fe doped TiO₂ effectively reduce the phenol concentration in wastewater with optimum condition of light intensity, pH, catalyst-dosing and initial concentration of phenol were 50 W/m2, 5.3, 600 mg/l and 10 mg/l respectively. The results obtained that removal efficiency of phenol was 88% after 180 min in case of N₂ addition. However, aeration by oxygen resulted in a 99% removal efficiency in 120 min. The results of photo-catalysis oxidation experiments fitted the pseudo-first-order kinetic equation with high correlation. Costs estimation of 30 m3/d full-scale photo-catalysis oxidation plant was assessed.

Keywords: phenol degradation, Fe-doped TiO2, AOPs, cost analysis

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44 The Photocatalytic Approach for the Conversion of Polluted Seawater CO₂ into Renewable Source of Energy

Authors: Yasar N. Kavil, Yasser A. Shaban, Radwan K. Al Farawati, Mohamed I. Orif, Shahed U. M. Khanc


Photocatalytic way of reduction of CO₂ in polluted seawater into chemical fuel, methanol, was successfully gained over Cu/C-co-doped TiO₂ nanoparticles under UV and natural sunlight. A homemade stirred batch annular reactor was used to carry out the photocatalytic reduction experiments. Photocatalysts with various Cu loadings (0, 0.5, 1, 3, 5 and 7 wt.%) were synthesized by the sol-gel procedure and were characterized by XRD, SEM, UV–Vis, FTIR, and XPS. The photocatalytic production of methanol was promoted by the co-doping with C and Cu into TiO₂. This improvement was attributed to the modification of bandgap energy and the hindrance of the charges recombination. The polluted seawater showing the yield depended on its background hydrographic parameters. We assessed two types of polluted seawater system, the observed yield was 2910 and 990 µmol g⁻¹ after 5 h of illumination under UV and natural sunlight respectively in system 1 and the corresponding yield in system 2 was 2250 and 910 µmol g⁻¹ after 5 h of illumination. The production of methanol in the case of oxygen-depleted water was low, this is mainly attributed to the competition of methanogenic bacteria over methanol production. The results indicated that the methanol yield produced by Cu-C/TiO₂ was much higher than those of carbon-modified titanium oxide (C/TiO₂) and Degussa (P25-TiO₂). Under the current experimental condition, the optimum loading was achieved by the doping of 3 wt % of Cu. The highest methanol yield was obtained over 1 g L-1 of 3wt% Cu/C-TiO₂.

Keywords: CO₂ photoreduction, copper, Cu/C-co-doped TiO₂, methanol, seawater

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43 Implication of Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes on Polymer/MXene Nanocomposites

Authors: Mathias Aakyiir, Qunhui Zheng, Sherif Araby, Jun Ma


MXene nanosheets stack in polymer matrices, while multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) entangle themselves when used to form composites. These challenges are addressed in this work by forming MXene/MWCNT hybrid nanofillers by electrostatic self-assembly and developing elastomer/MXene/MWCNTs nanocomposites using a latex compounding method. In a 3-phase nanocomposite, MWCNTs serve as bridges between MXene nanosheets, leading to nanocomposites with well-dispersed nanofillers. The high aspect ratio of MWCNTs and the interconnection role of MXene serve as a basis for forming nanocomposites of lower percolation threshold of electrical conductivity from the hybrid fillers compared with the 2-phase composites containing either MXene or MWCNTs only. This study focuses on discussing into detail the interfacial interaction of nanofillers and the elastomer matrix and the outstanding mechanical and functional properties of the resulting nanocomposites. The developed nanocomposites have potential applications in the automotive and aerospace industries.

Keywords: elastomers, multi-walled carbon nanotubes, MXenes, nanocomposites

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42 Performance of Modified Wedge Anchorage System for Pre-Stressed FRP Bars

Authors: Othman S. Alsheraida, Sherif El-Gamal


Fiber Reinforced Polymers (FRP) is a composite material with exceptional properties that are capable of replacing conventional steel reinforcement in reinforced and pre-stressed concrete structures. However, the main obstacle for their wide use in the pre-stressed concrete application is the anchorage system. Due to the weakness of FRP in the transverse direction, the pre-stressing capacity of FRP bars is limited. This paper investigates the modification of the conventional wedge anchorage system to be used for stressing of FRP bars in pre-stressed applications. Epoxy adhesive material with glass FRP (GFRP) bars and conventional steel wedge were used in this paper. The GFRP bars are encased with epoxy at the anchor zone and the wedge system was used in the pull-out test. The results showed a loading capacity of 47.6 kN which is 69% of the bar ultimate capacity. Additionally, nylon wedge was made with the same dimensions of the steel wedge and tested for GFRP bars without epoxy layer. The nylon wedge showed a loading capacity of 19.7 kN which is only 28.5% of the ultimate bar capacity.

Keywords: anchorage, concrete, epoxy, frp, pre-stressed

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41 Energy Efficient Shading Strategies for Windows of Hospital ICUs in the Desert

Authors: A. Sherif, A. El Zafarany, R. Arafa


Hospitals, everywhere, are considered heavy energy consumers. Hospital Intensive Care Unit spaces pose a special challenge, where design guidelines requires the provision of external windows for day-lighting and external view. Window protection strategies could be employed to reduce energy loads without detriment effect on comfort or health care. This paper addresses the effectiveness of using various window strategies on the annual cooling, heating and lighting energy use of a typical Hospital Intensive Unit space. Series of experiments were performed using the EnergyPlus simulation software for a typical Intensive Care Unit (ICU) space in Cairo, located in the Egyptian desert. This study concluded that the use of shading systems is more effective in conserving energy in comparison with glazing of different types, in the Cairo ICUs. The highest energy savings in the West and South orientations were accomplished by external perforated solar screens, followed by overhangs positioned at a protection angle of 45°.

Keywords: energy, hospital, intensive care units, shading

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40 Physicochemical Characterization of Low Sulfonated Polyether Ether Ketone/ Layered Double Hydroxide/Sepiolite Hybrid to Improve the Performance of Sulfonated Poly Ether Ether Ketone Composite Membranes for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells

Authors: Zakaria Ahmed, Khaled Charradi, Sherif M. A. S. Keshk, Radhouane Chtourou


Sulfonated poly ether ether ketone (SPEEK) with a low sulfonation degree was blended using nanofiller Layered Double Hydroxide (LDH, Mg2AlCl) /sepiolite nanostructured material as additive to use as an electrolyte membrane for fuel cell application. Characterization assessments, i.e., mechanical stability, thermal gravimetric analysis, ion exchange capability, swelling properties, water uptake capacities, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy analysis, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) of the composite membranes were conducted. The presence of LDH/sepiolite nanoarchitecture material within SPEEK was found to have the highest water retention and proton conductivity value at high temperature rather than LDH/SPEEK and pristine SPEEK membranes.

Keywords: SPEEK, sepiolite clay, LDH clay, proton exchange membrane

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39 Critical Path Segments Method for Scheduling Technique

Authors: Sherif M. Hafez, Remon F. Aziz, May S. A. Elalim


Project managers today rely on scheduling tools based on the Critical Path Method (CPM) to determine the overall project duration and the activities’ float times which lead to greater efficiency in planning and control of projects. CPM was useful for scheduling construction projects, but researchers had highlighted a number of serious drawbacks that limit its use as a decision support tool and lacks the ability to clearly record and represent detailed information. This paper discusses the drawbacks of CPM as a scheduling technique and presents a modified critical path method (CPM) model which is called critical path segments (CPS). The CPS scheduling mechanism addresses the problems of CPM in three ways: decomposing the activity duration of separated but connected time segments; all relationships among activities are converted into finish–to–start relationship; and analysis and calculations are made with forward path. Sample cases are included to illustrate the shortages in CPM, CPS full analysis and calculations are explained in details, and how schedules can be handled better with the CPS technique.

Keywords: construction management, scheduling, critical path method, critical path segments, forward pass, float, project control

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