Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 64

Search results for: Rebecca Lorennji

64 Freshwater Lens Observation: Case Study of Laura Island, Majuro Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands

Authors: Kazuhisa Koda, Tsutomu Kobayashi, Rebecca Lorennji, Alington Robert, Halston DeBrum, Julious Lucky, Paul Paul

Abstract:

Atolls are low-lying small islands with highly permeable ground that does not allow rivers and lakes to develop. As the water resources on these atolls basically rely on precipitation, groundwater becomes a very important water resource during droughts. Freshwater lenses develop as groundwater on relatively large atoll islands and play a key role in the stable water supply. Atoll islands in the Pacific Ocean sometimes suffer from drought due to El Nino. The global warming effects are noticeable, particularly on atoll islands. The Republic of the Marshall Islands in Oceania is burdened with the problems common to atoll islands. About half of its population lives in the capital, Majuro, and securing water resources for these people is a crucial issue. There is a freshwater lens on the largest, Laura Island, which serves as a water source for the downtown area. A serious drought that occurred in 1998 resulted in excessive water intake from the freshwater lens on Laura Island causing up-coning. Up-coning mixes saltwater into groundwater pumped from water-intake wells. Because up-coning makes the freshwater lens unusable, there was a need to investigate the freshwater lens on Laura Island. In this study, we observed the electrical conductivities of the groundwater at different depths in existing monitoring wells to determine the total storage volume of the freshwater lens on Laura Island from 2010 to 2013. Our results indicated that most of the groundwater that seeped into the freshwater lens had flowed out into the sea.

Keywords: Atoll islands, drought, El-Nino, freshwater lens, groundwater observation

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63 The Influence of the Variety and Harvesting Date on Haskap Composition and Anti-Diabetic Properties

Authors: Aruma Baduge Kithma Hansanee De Silva

Abstract:

Haskap (Lonicera caerulea L.), also known as blue honeysuckle, is a recently commercialized berry crop in Canada. Haskap berries are rich in polyphenols, including anthocyanins, which are known for potential health-promoting effects. Cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (C3G) is the most prominent anthocyanin of haskap berries. Recent literature reveals the efficacy of C3G in reducing the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D), which has become an increasingly common health issue around the world. The T2D is characterized as a metabolic disorder of hyperglycemia and insulin resistance. It has been demonstrated that C3G has anti-diabetic effects in various ways, including improvement in insulin sensitivity, and inhibition of activities of carbohydrate-hydrolyzing enzymes, including alpha-amylase and alpha-glucosidase. The goal of this study was to investigate the influence of variety and harvesting date on haskap composition, biological properties, and antidiabetic properties. The polyphenolic compounds present in four commercially grown haskap cultivars, Aurora, Rebecca, Larissa and Evie among five harvesting stages (H1-H5), were extracted separately in 80% ethanol and analyzed to characterize their phenolic profiles. The haskap berries contain different types of polyphenols including flavonoids and phenolic acids. Anthocyanin is the major type of flavonoid. C3G is the most prominent type of anthocyanin, which accounts for 79% of total anthocyanin in all extracts. The variety Larissa at H5 contained the highest average C3G content, and its ethanol extract had the highest (1212.3±63.9 mg/100g FW) while, Evie at H1 contained the lowest C3G content (96.9±40.4 mg/100g FW). The average C3G content of Larissa from H1 – H5 varies from 208 – 1212 mg/100g FW. Quarcetin-3-Rutinoside (Q3Rut) is the major type of flavonol and highest is observed in Rebecca at H4 (47.81 mg/100g FW). The haskap berries also contained phenolic acids, but approximately 95% of the phenolic acids consisted of chlorogenic acid. The cultivar Larissa has a higher level of anthocyanin than the other four cultivars. The highest total phenolic content is observed in Evie at H5 (2.97±1.03 mg/g DW) while the lowest in Rebecca at H1 (1.47±0.96 mg/g DW). The antioxidant capacity of Evie at H5 was higher (14.40±2.21 µmol TE/ g DW) among other cultivars and the lowest observed in Aurora at H3 (5.69±0.34 µmol TE/ g DW). Furthermore, Larissa H5 shows the greatest inhibition of carbohydrate-hydrolyzing enzymes including alpha-glucosidase and alpha-amylase. In conclusion Larissa, at H5 demonstrated highest polyphenol composition and antidiabetic properties.

Keywords: anthocyanin, cyanidin-3-O-glucoside, haskap, type 2 diabetes

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62 Toward a Coalitional Subject in Contemporary American Feminist Literature

Authors: Su-Lin Yu

Abstract:

Coalition politics has been one of feminists’ persistent concerns. Following recent feminist discussion on new modes of affiliation across difference, she will explore how the process of female subject formation depends on alliances across different cultural locations. First, she will examine how coalition politics is reformulated across difference in contemporary feminist literature. In particular, the paper will identify the particular contexts and locations in which coalition building both enables and constrains the female subject. She will attempt to explore how contemporary feminist literature highlights the possibilities and limitations for solidarity and affiliations. To understand coalition politics in contemporary feminist works, she will engage in close readings of two texts: Rebecca Walker’s Black, White and Jewish: Memoir of a Shifting Self and Danzy Senna’s Caucasia. Both Walker and Senna have articulated the complex nodes of identity that are staged by a politics of location as they refuse to be boxed into simplistic essentialist positions. Their texts are characterized by the characters’ racial ambiguity and their social and geographical mobility of life in the contemporary United States. Their experiences of living through conflictual and contradictory relationships never fully fit the boundaries of racial categorization. Each of these texts demonstrates the limits as well as the possibilities of working with diversity among and within persons and groups, thus, laying the ground for complex alliance formation. Because each of the protagonists must negotiate a set of contradictions, they will have to constantly shift their affiliations. Rather than construct a static alliance, they describe a process of moving ‘beyond boundaries,’ an embracing of multiple locations. As self-identified third wavers, Rebecca Walker and Danzy Senna have been identified and marked with the status of ‘leader’ by the feminist establishment and by mainstream U.S. media. Their texts have captured both mass popularity and critical attention in the feminist and, often, the non-feminist literary community. By analyzing these texts, she will show how contemporary American feminist literature reveals coalition politics which is fraught with complications and unintended consequences. Taken as a whole, then, these works provide an important examination not only of coalition politics of American feminism, but also a snapshot of a central debate among feminist critique of coalition politics as a whole.

Keywords: coalition politics, contemporary women’s literature, identity, female subject

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61 Lessons from Nature: Defensive Designs for the Built Environment

Authors: Rebecca A. Deek

Abstract:

There is evidence that erratic and extreme weather is becoming a common occurrence, and even predictions that this will become even more frequent and more severe. It also appears that the severity of earthquakes is intensifying. Some observers believe that human conduct has given reasons for such change; others attribute this to environmental and geological cycles. However, as some physicists, environmental scientists, politicians, and others continue to debate the connection between weather events, seismic activities, and climate change, other scientists, engineers, and urban planners are exploring how can our habitat become more responsive and resilient to such phenomena. There are a number of recent instances of nature’s destructive events that provide basis for the development of defensive measures.

Keywords: biomimicry, natural disasters, protection of human lives, resilient infrastructures

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60 Kuehne + Nagel's PharmaChain: IoT-Enabled Product Monitoring Using Radio Frequency Identification

Authors: Rebecca Angeles

Abstract:

This case study features the Kuehne + Nagel PharmaChain solution for ‘cold chain’ pharmaceutical and biologic product shipments with IOT-enabled features for shipment temperature and location tracking. Using the case study method and content analysis, this research project investigates the application of the structurational model of technology theory introduced by Orlikowski in order to interpret the firm’s entry and participation in the IOT-impelled marketplace.

Keywords: Internet of Things (IOT), radio frequency identification (RFID), structurational model of technology (Orlikowski), supply chain management

Procedia PDF Downloads 105
59 Green Sustainability Using Radio Frequency Identification: Technology-Organization-Environment Perspective Using Two Case Studies

Authors: Rebecca Angeles

Abstract:

This qualitative case study seeks to understand and explain the deployment of radio frequency identification (RFID) systems in two countries (i.e. in Taiwan for the adoption of electric scooters and in Finland for supporting glass bottle recycling) using the 'Technology-Organization-Environment' theoretical framework. This study also seeks to highlight the relevance and importance of pursuing environmental sustainability in firms and in society in general due to the social urgency of the issues involved.

Keywords: environmental sustainability, radio frequency identification, technology-organization-environment framework, RFID system implementation, case study, content analysis

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58 U.S. Supreme Court Decision-Making and Bounded Rationality

Authors: Joseph Ignagni, Rebecca Deen

Abstract:

In this study, the decision making of the Justices of the United States Supreme Court will be considered in terms of constrained maximization and cognitive-cybernetic theory. This paper will integrate research in such fields as law, psychology, political science, economics and decision-making theory. It will be argued that due to its heavy workload, the Supreme Court may be forced to make decisions in a boundedly rational manner. The ideas and theory put forward here will be considered in the area of the Court’s decisions involving religion. Therefore, the cases involving the U.S. Constitution’s Free Exercise Clause and Establishment Clause will be analyzed.

Keywords: bounded rationality, cognitive-cybernetic, US supreme court, religion

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57 The Deprivation of Human Rights Experienced by African Children with Disabilities

Authors: Anna Wiltshire, Rebecca Markham

Abstract:

Over the last decade, a growing body of evidence has indicated that children with disabilities are often amongst the most excluded and vulnerable in society. The World Bank estimates that 20% of those living in poverty in developing countries are disabled which means that those with the least bear the greatest burden. Furthermore, children with disabilities in Africa have to face a multitude of difficulties ranging from the physical to the psychological. Misconceptions and cultural beliefs are used to justify violence against, or complete shunning of these individuals and their families. In addition, discrimination can prevent access to both education and health services, further compromising these individuals. All children, irrespective of their disability should be able to enjoy human rights without discrimination, but this is often not the case. This poster explores how and why children with disabilities in Africa are subject to violations of their human rights, and suggests ways of addressing these problems.

Keywords: Africa, children, disability, discrimination, human rights

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56 The Impact of a Living Wage on the UK Hotel Sector

Authors: Andreas Walmsley, Shobana Partington, Rebecca Armstrong, Harold Goodwin

Abstract:

In the UK, more than 1 in 5 workers earn less than a living wage. The hospitality sector is particularly affected where it has been claimed two thirds of workers earn less than the living wage. The UK Government is set to introduce (April 2016) a national living wage (NLW) which is therefore likely to have a significant impact on the hospitality sector. To date limited data exists that focus on how hotels are tackling the issue, what stakeholder perceptions are towards the change in legislation, and how the NLW may affect working patterns in the sector. This study draws on interviews with a range of key stakeholders such as hotel HR and general managers as well as industry representatives to explore these issues within the broader context of responsible tourism. Data collection is still ongoing and is scheduled to be completed by the end of June 2016.

Keywords: hospitality, living wage, responsible tourism, tourism employment

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55 #Push Mo Yan: A Study of the Influence of Facebook and Twitter to Adolescent Communication

Authors: Rebecca Cervantes, Elishah Maro Pangilinan

Abstract:

The current research used Uses and gratifications theory to further understand the motivations and satisfaction students get from Facebook and Twitter. The researchers relate the objectives in developing uses and gratifications theory 1) to explain how individuals use mass communication to gratify their needs, “what do people do with the media” many of these young adults use social media networks to communicate with family, friends, and even strangers. Social media sites have created new and non-personal ways for people to interact with others and young adults have taken advantage of this technological trend; 2) to discover underlying motives for individuals’ media use 3) to identify the positive and the negative consequences of individual media use. The researchers use survey questionnaires to gather information that is used in this study. A descriptive analysis was used to measure the answers to a 24-item questionnaire.

Keywords: adolescent, communication, social media, #Hashtag

Procedia PDF Downloads 191
54 Feasibility Conditions for Wind and Hydraulic Energy Coupling

Authors: Antonin Jolly, Bertrand Aubry, Corentin Michel, Rebecca Freva

Abstract:

Wind energy depends on wind strength and varies largely in time. When it is above the demand, it generates a loss while in the opposite case; energy needs are not fully satisfied. To overcome this problem specific to irregular energies, the process of pumped-storage hydroelectricity (PSH) is studied in present paper. A combination of wind turbine and pumped storage system is more predictable and is more compliant to provide electricity supply according to daily demand. PSH system is already used in several countries to accumulate electricity by pumping water during off-peak times into a storage reservoir, and to use it during peak times to produce energy. Present work discusses a feasibility study on size and financial productivity of PSH system actuated with wind turbines specific power.

Keywords: wind turbine, hydroelectricity, energy storage, pumped-storage hydroelectricity

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53 Tools for Transparency: The Role of Civic Technology in Increasing the Transparency of the State

Authors: Rebecca Rumbul

Abstract:

The operation of the state can often appear opaque to citizens wishing to access official information, who have to negotiate a path through numerous levels of bureaucracy rationalized through institutional policy to acquire what information they want. Even where individual states have 'Right to Information' legislation guaranteeing citizen access to information, public sector conformity to such laws vary between states and between state organizations. In response to such difficulties in bringing citizens and information together, many NGO's around the world have begun designing and hosting digital portals to facilitate the requesting and receiving of official information. How then, are these 'civic technology' tools affecting the behavior of the state? Are they increasing the transparency of the state? This study looked at 5 Right to Information civic technology sites in Chile, Uruguay, Ukraine, Hungary and the UK, and found that such sites were providing a useful platform to publish official information, but that states were still reluctant to comply with all requests. It concludes that civic technology can be an important tool in increasing the transparency of the state, but that the state must have an institutional commitment to information rights for this to be fully effective.

Keywords: digital, ICT, transparency, civic technology

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52 Exposure to Tactile Cues Does Not Influence Spatial Navigation in 129 S1/SvLm Mice

Authors: Rubaiyea Uddin, Rebecca Taylor, Emily Levesque

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The hippocampus, located in the limbic system, is most commonly known for its role in memory and spatial navigation (as cited in Brain Reward and Pathways). It maintains an especially important role in specifically episodic and declarative memory. The hippocampus has also recently been linked to dopamine, the reward pathway’s primary neurotransmitter. Since research has found that dopamine also contributes to memory consolidation and hippocampal plasticity, this neurotransmitter is potentially responsible for contributing to the hippocampus’s role in memory formation. In this experiment we tested to see the effect of tactile cues on spatial navigation for eight different mice. We used a radial arm that had one designated “reward” arm containing sucrose. The presence or absence of bedding was our tactile cue. We attempted to see if the memory of that cue would enhance the mice’s memory of having received the reward in that arm. The results from our study showed there was no significant response from the use of tactile cues on spatial navigation on our 129 mice. Tactile cues therefore do not influence spatial navigation.

Keywords: mice, radial arm maze, memory, spatial navigation, tactile cues, hippocampus, reward, sensory skills, Alzheimer's, neuro-degenerative diseases

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51 Effect of Whole-Body Vibration Training on Self-Reported Physical Disability in Employees with Chronic Low-Back Pain: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Authors: Tobias Stephan Kaeding, Rebecca Schwarz, Momme Kück, Lothar Stein

Abstract:

Introduction: The goal of this randomized and controlled study is to examine whether whole-body vibration (WBV) training is able to reduce self-reported physical disability in office employees with chronic low-back pain. Materials and methods: 41 subjects (68.3% female/mean age 45.5 ± 9.1 years/mean BMI 26.6 ± 5.2) were randomly allocated to an intervention group (INT (n= 21)) or a control group (CON (n=20). The INT participated in WBV training 2.5 times per week for 3 months. The primary outcome was the change in the Roland and Morris disability questionnaire (RMQ) score over the study period. In addition, secondary outcomes included changes in the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI). Results: The compliance with the intervention in the INT reached a mean of 81.1% ± 31.2% with no long-lasting unwanted side effects. We found significant positive effects of 3 months of WBV training in the INT compared to the CON regarding the RMQ (p=0.027) and the ODI (p=0.002). Conclusions: WBV training seems to be an effective, safe and suitable intervention for the reduction of the self-reported physical disability in seated working employees with chronic low-back pain.

Keywords: back pain, exercise, occupational health management, vibration training

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50 Phytochemical Screening and Evaluation of Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activity of Anethum graveolens L. (Dill) Plant

Authors: Radhika S. Oke, Rebecca S. Thombre

Abstract:

Medicinal plants and herbs have a great history of their utility as remedy for treatment of variety of ailments. Secondary metabolites present in these plants are responsible for their medicinal activity. In the present investigation, phytochemical screening of aqueous and alcoholic leaf extract of Anethum graveolens L. was performed. Total phenolic content and total antioxidant activity of the extracts was quantitatively estimated by Folin-Ciocalteau method and DPPH (1, 1-Diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl) method respectively. Qualitative tests suggested that Alkaloids, tannins and phenolic compounds were present in all the extracts of the plant. Aqueous extracts was found to have more phytochemicals as compared to alcoholic extracts. Extract of Anethum graveolens L. was found to contain good amount phenolics and exhibited antioxidant activity. The extracts also demonstrated potent antimicrobial activity against selected gram positive and negative bacteria. The study revealed the potential application of Anethum graveolens L. (Dill) in medicine and health.

Keywords: Anethum graveolens L., antioxidant, antimicrobial activity, medicine and health

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49 The Success and Failure of the Solicitor General When the U.S. Government Appears as a Direct Party before the U.S. Supreme Court

Authors: Joseph Ignagni, Rebecca Deen

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This paper analyzes the extent to which the U.S. Supreme Court votes to support the position of the United States in cases where the government is a party to the litigation. This study considers the relationship between the Solicitor General’s Office and the U.S. Supreme Court. The Solicitor General has the unique position of being the representative of the Executive Branch and the U.S. government before the Supreme Court. While a great deal of research has looked at the Solicitor General’s success as a “friend of the court,” far less has considered this relationship when the U.S. is a direct party in the litigation. This paper investigates the success rate of the Solicitor General’s Office in these cases. We find that there is considerable variation in the U.S. government’s success rate before the Court depending on the issue, Supreme Court leadership, the ideological direction of the Court and whether the U.S. approached the Court as a petitioner or respondent. We conduct our analysis on the Court’s decisions from 1953-2009. This study adds to our understanding of checks and balances, separation of powers, and inter-institutional relationships between the branches of the federal government of the United States.

Keywords: U.S. president, solicitor general, U.S. Supreme Court, separation of power, checks and balances

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48 Color Fusion of Remote Sensing Images for Imparting Fluvial Geomorphological Features of River Yamuna and Ganga over Doon Valley

Authors: P. S. Jagadeesh Kumar, Tracy Lin Huan, Rebecca K. Rossi, Yanmin Yuan, Xianpei Li

Abstract:

The fiscal growth of any country hinges on the prudent administration of water resources. The river Yamuna and Ganga are measured as the life line of India as it affords the needs for life to endure. Earth observation over remote sensing images permits the precise description and identification of ingredients on the superficial from space and airborne platforms. Multiple and heterogeneous image sources are accessible for the same geographical section; multispectral, hyperspectral, radar, multitemporal, and multiangular images. In this paper, a taxonomical learning of the fluvial geomorphological features of river Yamuna and Ganga over doon valley using color fusion of multispectral remote sensing images was performed. Experimental results exhibited that the segmentation based colorization technique stranded on pattern recognition, and color mapping fashioned more colorful and truthful colorized images for geomorphological feature extraction.

Keywords: color fusion, geomorphology, fluvial processes, multispectral images, pattern recognition

Procedia PDF Downloads 176
47 Heteroscedastic Parametric and Semiparametric Smooth Coefficient Stochastic Frontier Application to Technical Efficiency Measurement

Authors: Rebecca Owusu Coffie, Atakelty Hailu

Abstract:

Variants of production frontier models have emerged, however, only a limited number of them are applied in empirical research. Hence the effects of these alternative frontier models are not well understood, particularly within sub-Saharan Africa. In this paper, we apply recent advances in the production frontier to examine levels of technical efficiency and efficiency drivers. Specifically, we compare the heteroscedastic parametric and the semiparametric stochastic smooth coefficient (SPSC) models. Using rice production data from Ghana, our empirical estimates reveal that alternative specification of efficiency estimators results in either downward or upward bias in the technical efficiency estimates. Methodologically, we find that the SPSC model is more suitable and generates high-efficiency estimates. Within the parametric framework, we find that parameterization of both the mean and variance of the pre-truncated function is the best model. For the drivers of technical efficiency, we observed that longer farm distances increase inefficiency through a reduction in labor productivity. High soil quality, however, increases productivity through increased land productivity.

Keywords: pre-truncated, rice production, smooth coefficient, technical efficiency

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46 Synthesis of Biostabilized Gold Nanoparticles Using Garcinia indica Extract and Its Antimicrobial and Anticancer Properties

Authors: Rebecca Thombre, Aishwarya Borate

Abstract:

Chemical synthesis of nanoparticles produces toxic by-products, as a result of which eco-friendly methods of synthesis are gaining importance. The synthesis of nanoparticles using plant derived extracts is economical, safe and eco-friendly. Biostabilized gold nanoparticles were synthesized using extracts of Garcinia indica. The gold nanoparticles were characterized using UV-Vis spectrophotometry and demonstrated a peak at 527 nm. The presence of plant derived peptides and phytoconstituents was confirmed using the FTIR spectra. TEM analysis revealed formation of gold nanopyramids and nanorods. The SAED analysis confirmed the crystalline nature of nanoparticles. The gold nanoparticles demonstrated antibacterial and antifungal activity against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Aspergillus niger and Pichia pastoris. The cytotoxic activity of gold nanoparticles was studied using HEK, Hela and L929 cancerous cell lines and the apoptosis of cancerous cells were observed using propidium iodide staining. Thus, a simple and eco-friendly method for synthesis of biostabilized gold nanoparticles using fruit extracts of Garcinia indica was developed and the nanoparticles had potent antibacterial, antifungal and anticancer properties.

Keywords: cytotoxic, gold nanoparticles, green synthesis, Garcinia indica, anticancer

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45 Mastery and Lifestyle Intervention to Prevent Preterm Birth among Latinas

Authors: Kathie Records, R. Jeanne Ruiz, Kimberly Ayers, Rebecca Pasillas

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Background: Preterm births of less than 37 weeks gestation occur disproportionately to Hispanics living along the U.S.-Mexico border. Prematurity has devastating and costly effects on children, families and the health care system. Few preventive interventions have been tested for this vulnerable group. Objectives: To present the modeling and pilot testing of the theory-based Mastery Lifestyle Intervention (MLI), designed to reduce and prevent PTB among Mexican American women (the terms Hispanics or Latinas will also be used to represent this group) living in the United States. Design and Methods: The conceptualization of the problem of preterm births and the available literature underpinning the mastery lifestyle intervention will be reviewed. The lifestyle intervention includes foundational components of problem solving therapy and acceptance and commitment therapy. Findings from implementation of a one-group pilot test and focus group evaluated the feasibility and acceptability of the MLI. Summary: Participants found the MLI to be feasible and acceptable, and reported perceiving improved health status and familial relationships. Suggestions were provided for modifications prior to efficacy testing. The MLI appears to be a theoretically and empirically grounded intervention that holds promise for preventing preterm births among Latinas.

Keywords: birth, Hispanic, intervention, stress

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44 An Analysis of Innovative Cloud Model as Bridging the Gap between Physical and Virtualized Business Environments: The Customer Perspective

Authors: Asim Majeed, Rehan Bhana, Mak Sharma, Rebecca Goode, Nizam Bolia, Mike Lloyd-Williams

Abstract:

This study aims to investigate and explore the underlying causes of security concerns of customers emerged when WHSmith transformed its physical system to virtualized business model through NetSuite. NetSuite is essentially fully integrated software which helps transforming the physical system to virtualized business model. Modern organisations are moving away from traditional business models to cloud based models and consequently it is expected to have a better, secure and innovative environment for customers. The vital issue of the modern age race is the security when transforming virtualized through cloud based models and designers of interactive systems often misunderstand privacy and even often ignore it, thus causing concerns for users. The content analysis approach is being used to collect the qualitative data from 120 online bloggers including TRUSTPILOT. The results and finding provide useful new insights into the nature and form of security concerns of online users after they have used the WHSmith services offered online through their website. Findings have theoretical as well as practical implications for the successful adoption of cloud computing Business-to-Business model and similar systems.

Keywords: innovation, virtualization, cloud computing, organizational flexibility

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43 Microfinance for the Marginalised: The Impact of the Rojiroti Approach in India

Authors: Gil Yaron, Rebecca Gordon, John Best, Sunil Choudhary

Abstract:

There have been a number of studies examining the impact of microfinance; however, the magnitude of impact varies across regions, and there has been mixed evidence due to the differences in the nature of interventions, context and the way in which microfinance is implemented. The Rojiroti approach to microfinance involves the creation of women's self-help groups (SHGs), rotated loans from savings and subsequent credit from a Bihar-based NGO. Rojiroti serves customers who are significantly poorer and more marginalised than those typically served by microfinance in India. In the data analysed, more than 90 percent of members are from scheduled caste and tribes (62 percent) or other disadvantaged castes. This paper analyses the impact of Rojiroti microfinance using panel data on 740 new SHG members and 340 women in matched control sites at baseline and after 18 months. We consider changes in assets, children's education, women's mobility and domestic violence among other indicators. These results show significant gains for Rojiroti borrowers relative to control sites for important, but not all, variables. Comparison with more longstanding SHGs (at least 36 months) helps to explain how the borrowing patterns of poor and marginalised SHG members evolve. The context of this intervention is also important; in this case, innovative microfinance is provided too much poorer and marginalised women than is typically the case, and so the results seen are in contrast to numerous studies that show little or no effect of microfinance on the lives of their clients.

Keywords: microfinance, gender, impact, pro-poor

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42 Nurse Metamorphosis: Lived Experience in the RN HEALS Proram

Authors: Dennis Glen G. Ramos, Angelica S. Mendoza, Juliene Marie A. Alvarez, Claudette A. Nagal, Kayzee C. Blanza, Jayson M. Narbonita, John Anthony D. Dayot, Rebecca M. Reduca, Jermaine Jem M. Flojo, Michael E. Resultan, Clyde C. Fomocod, Cindy A. Vinluan, Jeffrie Aleona Mari C. Maclang

Abstract:

RN HEALS, an acronym for Registered Nurses for Health Enhancement and Local Service, is expected to address the shortage of skilled and experienced nurses in 1,221 rural and unserved or underserved communities for one year. The study would like to explore the lived experiences of the nurses deployed under this program.The study is a Descriptive Qualitative Research. Interview was utilized as a data gathering tool. Six community nurses who are deployed under the RN HEALS program are included in the study. Van Kaam method was used as data management. Data gathering was done from October to December 2013.Two themes emerged in the study; Value and Challenge. Under Value, it had three sub-themes; Job Satisfaction, Upholding Competency, including Personal Development and Professional Growth, and Employability. While under Challenge, it had one sub-theme, Job Stress. The study concludes that nurses adapt to strategies to pursue personal and professional competence and an evolutionary journey. The researchers recommend that Health Administrators improve the work environment of nurses to lessen the challenges experienced by nurses.

Keywords: lived experience, RN HEALS, health enhancement, local service

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41 Case of A Huge Retroperitoneal Abscess Spanning from the Diaphragm to the Pelvic Brim

Authors: Christopher Leung, Tony Kim, Rebecca Lendzion, Scott Mackenzie

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Retroperitoneal abscesses are a rare but serious condition with often delayed diagnosis, non-specific symptoms, multiple causes and high morbidity/mortality. With the advent of more readily available cross-sectional imaging, retroperitoneal abscesses are treated earlier and better outcomes are achieved. Occasionally, a retroperitoneal abscess is present as a huge retroperitoneal abscess, as evident in this 53-year-old male. With a background of chronic renal disease and left partial nephrectomy, this gentleman presented with a one-month history of left flank pain without any other symptoms, including fevers or abdominal pain. CT abdomen and pelvis demonstrated a huge retroperitoneal abscess spanning from the diaphragm, abutting the spleen, down to the iliopsoas muscle and abutting the iliac vessels at the pelvic brim. This large retroperitoneal abscess required open drainage as well as drainage by interventional radiology. A long course of intravenous antibiotics and multiple drainages was required to drain the abscess. His blood culture and fluid culture grew Proteus species suggesting a urinary source, likely from his non-functioning kidney, which had a partial nephrectomy. Such a huge retroperitoneal abscess has rarely been described in the literature. The learning point here is that the basic principle of source control and antibiotics is paramount in treating retroperitoneal abscesses regardless of the size of the abscess.

Keywords: retroperitoneal abscess, retroperitoneal mass, sepsis, genitourinary infection

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40 Toxicities associated with EBRT and Brachytherapy for Intermediate and High Risk Prostate Cancer, Correlated with Intra-operative Dosing

Authors: Rebecca Dunne, Cormac Small, Geraldine O'Boyle, Nazir Ibrahim, Anisha

Abstract:

Prostate cancer is the most common cancer among men, excluding non-melanoma skin cancers. It is estimated that approximately 12% of men will develop prostate cancer during their lifetime. Patients with intermediate, high risk, and very-high risk prostate cancer often undergo a combination of radiation treatments. These treatments include external beam radiotherapy with a low-dose rate or high-dose rate brachytherapy boost, often with concomitant androgen deprivation therapy. The literature on follow-up of patients that receive brachytherapy is scarce, particularly follow-up of patients that undergo high-dose rate brachytherapy. This retrospective study aims to investigate the biochemical failure and toxicities associated with triple therapy and external beam radiotherapy given in combination with brachytherapy. Reported toxicities and prostate specific antigen (PSA) were retrospectively evaluated in eighty patients that previously underwent external beam radiotherapy with a low-dose rate or high dose-rate brachytherapy boost. The severity of toxicities were correlated with intra-operative dosing during brachytherapy on ultrasound and CT scan. The results of this study will provide further information for clinicians and patients when considering treatment options.

Keywords: toxicities, combination, brachytherapy, intra-operative dosing, biochemical failure

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39 Stubble and Senesced Leaves Are the Primary Sites of Ice Nucleation Activity in Wheat

Authors: Amanuel Bekuma, Rebecca Swift, Sarah Jackson, Ben Biddulph

Abstract:

Economic loss to frost damage is increasing over the past years in the Western Australian Wheatbelt. Agronomic, genetic, and climatic works have still found a weak correlation between temperature and frost damage. One possibility that has not been explored within the Australian cropping system is whether ice nucleation active bacteria (INB) either present in situ on crop residue or introduced by rainfall could be responsible for the increased sensitivity of cereal plants to frost at different stages of development. This study investigated upper and lower leaf canopy, stubble, and soil as a potential site of ice nucleation activity (INA) and tracked the changes in INA during the plant development. We found that older leaves of wheat are the primary sites of ice nucleation (-4.7 to -6.3°C) followed by stubble (-5.7 to -6.7°C) which increases the risk of frost damage during heading and flowering (the most susceptible stages). However, healthy and green upper canopy leaves (flag and flag-2) and the soil have lower INA (< -11°C) during the frost-sensitive stage of wheat. We anticipate the higher INA on the stubble and older leaves to be due to the presence of biologically active ice-nucleating bacteria (INB), known to cause frost injury to sensitive plants at -5°C. Stubble retained or applied during the growing season further exacerbates additional frost risk by potentially increasing the INB load. The implications of the result for stubble and frost risk management in a frost-prone landscape will be discussed.

Keywords: frost, ice-nucleation-activity, stubble, wheat

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38 Appraising the Need to Improve Sumu Wildlife Park Bauchi, North-Eastern Nigeria to International Standard

Authors: Sanusi Abubakar Sadiq, Rebecca William Chiwar

Abstract:

Wildlife Park stands a chance of contributing to tourism development in different ways, but available infrastructure, and facilities required by visitors when they arrive, access road to the destination, and resources to facilitate positive experience are lacking in certain areas. The study set out to find out the need to develop Sumu Wildlife Park Bauchi State, to an international standard. The study focused on identifying the existing facilities and infrastructure at the park and to further identify the available resources used by visitors. In attempt to find out the impact of developing Sumu Wildlife Park and ways of filling the gap of the actual standard data were obtained from fifteen administrative staff of Sumu Wildlife Park, ten staff of Bauchi state Tourism Board and twenty-five residents of the community in Kafin Madaki, Bauchi. Relevant literature were reviewed in the study; data collected were organized and analyzed using Statistical Package of Social Sciences (SPSS), software for analysis. Findings revealed that though Sumu Wildlife Park has attractions to keep visitors patronage but has insufficient facilities to maintain visitors and has not been developed to an expected standard. The problem faced by the management of Sumu wildlife Park is lack of adequate facilities, infrastructure and resources. The need to develop Sumu Wildlife Park has enormous benefits in increasing patronage. Provision of more funds would help improve standard as there would be more activities within and around the park. Regular maintenance of those facilities protects the life span of the park.

Keywords: attractions, facilities, infrastructure, resources

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37 How Validated Nursing Workload and Patient Acuity Data Can Promote Sustained Change and Improvements within District Health Boards. the New Zealand Experience

Authors: Rebecca Oakes

Abstract:

In the New Zealand public health system, work has been taking place to use electronic systems to convey data from the ‘floor to the board’ that makes patient needs, and therefore nursing work, visible. For nurses, these developments in health information technology puts us in a very new and exciting position of being able to articulate the work of nursing through a language understood at all levels of an organisation, the language of acuity. Nurses increasingly have a considerable stake-hold in patient acuity data. Patient acuity systems, when used well, can assist greatly in demonstrating how much work is required, the type of work, and when it will be required. The New Zealand Safe Staffing Unit is supporting New Zealand nurses to create a culture of shared governance, where nursing data is informing policies, staffing methodologies and forecasting within their organisations. Assisting organisations to understand their acuity data, strengthening user confidence in using electronic patient acuity systems, and ensuring nursing and midwifery workload is accurately reflected is critical to the success of the safe staffing programme. Nurses and midwives have the capacity via an acuity tool to become key informers of organisational planning. Quality patient care, best use of health resources and a quality work environment are essential components of a safe, resilient and well resourced organisation. Nurses are the key informers of this information. In New Zealand a national level approach is paving the way for significant changes to the understanding and use of patient acuity and nursing workload information.

Keywords: nursing workload, patient acuity, safe staffing, New Zealand

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36 Exploring Alignability Effects and the Role of Information Structure in Promoting Uptake of Energy Efficient Technologies

Authors: Rebecca Hafner, David Elmes, Daniel Read

Abstract:

The current research applies decision-making theory to the problem of increasing uptake of energy efficient technologies in the market place, where uptake is currently slower than one might predict following rational choice models. We apply the alignable/non-alignable features effect and explore the impact of varying information structure on the consumers’ preference for standard versus energy efficient technologies. In two studies we present participants with a choice between similar (boiler vs. boiler) vs. dissimilar (boiler vs. heat pump) technologies, described by a list of alignable and non-alignable attributes. In study One there is a preference for alignability when options are similar; an effect mediated by an increased tendency to infer missing information is the same. No effects of alignability on preference are found when options differ. One explanation for this split-shift in attentional focus is a change in construal levels potentially induced by the added consideration of environmental concern. Study two was designed to explore the interplay between alignability and construal level in greater detail. We manipulated construal level via a thought prime task prior to taking part in the same heating systems choice task, and find that there is a general preference for non-alignability, regardless of option type. We draw theoretical and applied implications for the type of information structure best suited for the promotion of energy efficient technologies.

Keywords: alignability effects, decision making, energy-efficient technologies, sustainable behaviour change

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35 Meeting the Pedophile: Attitudes toward Pedophilia among Psychology Students

Authors: Rebecca Heron, Julie Karsten, Lena Schweikert

Abstract:

Adverse consequences of stigma towards pedophilia can, among other things, increase dynamic risk factors for sexual offending. Decreasing stigma, therefore, is a plausible approach in the attempt to prevent child sexual abuse. Stigma research suggests that providing direct contact to a stigmatized individual is the most efficient way of reducing stigma. The present study involved an educational intervention, followed by direct contact to a pedophile, to maximize effectiveness. It aimed at finding out whether a dichotomous anti-stigma intervention can change psychology students' attitudes towards pedophiles regarding perceived dangerousness, intentionality, deviance, and punitive attitudes. In a one sample pre-post design, 162 students of the University of Groningen attended a lecture about pedophilia, which was held by a psychology master’s student. Participants learned about child sex offending and pedophilia in addition to the importance of distinguishing between pedophiles and child sex offenders (CSOs). The guest lecturer Gabriel, shared his experiences about growing up, coping, and living with pedophilia. Results of the Wilcoxon signed-rank test revealed significantly diminished negative attitudes towards pedophiles after the intervention. Students perceived pedophiles as less dangerous, having less intent, and being less psychologically deviant. Additionally, students' punitive attitudes towards pedophiles diminished significantly. Also, a thematic analysis revealed that students were highly interested in the topic of pedophilia and greatly appreciative of Gabriel sharing his story. This study was the first to provide direct contact with a pedophile within an anti-stigma intervention.

Keywords: pedophilia, anti-stigma intervention, punitive attitudes, attitude change

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