Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1725

Search results for: groundwater observation

1725 Application of Groundwater Level Data Mining in Aquifer Identification

Authors: Liang Cheng Chang, Wei Ju Huang, You Cheng Chen


Investigation and research are keys for conjunctive use of surface and groundwater resources. The hydrogeological structure is an important base for groundwater analysis and simulation. Traditionally, the hydrogeological structure is artificially determined based on geological drill logs, the structure of wells, groundwater levels, and so on. In Taiwan, groundwater observation network has been built and a large amount of groundwater-level observation data are available. The groundwater level is the state variable of the groundwater system, which reflects the system response combining hydrogeological structure, groundwater injection, and extraction. This study applies analytical tools to the observation database to develop a methodology for the identification of confined and unconfined aquifers. These tools include frequency analysis, cross-correlation analysis between rainfall and groundwater level, groundwater regression curve analysis, and decision tree. The developed methodology is then applied to groundwater layer identification of two groundwater systems: Zhuoshui River alluvial fan and Pingtung Plain. The abovementioned frequency analysis uses Fourier Transform processing time-series groundwater level observation data and analyzing daily frequency amplitude of groundwater level caused by artificial groundwater extraction. The cross-correlation analysis between rainfall and groundwater level is used to obtain the groundwater replenishment time between infiltration and the peak groundwater level during wet seasons. The groundwater regression curve, the average rate of groundwater regression, is used to analyze the internal flux in the groundwater system and the flux caused by artificial behaviors. The decision tree uses the information obtained from the above mentioned analytical tools and optimizes the best estimation of the hydrogeological structure. The developed method reaches training accuracy of 92.31% and verification accuracy 93.75% on Zhuoshui River alluvial fan and training accuracy 95.55%, and verification accuracy 100% on Pingtung Plain. This extraordinary accuracy indicates that the developed methodology is a great tool for identifying hydrogeological structures.

Keywords: aquifer identification, decision tree, groundwater, Fourier transform

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1724 A Plan of Smart Management for Groundwater Resources

Authors: Jennifer Chen, Pei Y. Hsu, Yu W. Chen


Groundwater resources play a vital role in regional water supply because over 1/3 of total demand is satisfied by groundwater resources. Because over-pumpage might cause environmental impact such as land subsidence, a sustainable management of groundwater resource is required. In this study, a blueprint of smart management for groundwater resource is proposed and planned. The framework of the smart management can be divided into two major parts, hardware and software parts. First, an internet of groundwater (IoG) which is inspired by the internet of thing (IoT) is proposed to observe the migration of groundwater usage and the associated response, groundwater levels. Second, algorithms based on data mining and signal analysis are proposed to achieve the goal of providing highly efficient management of groundwater. The entire blueprint is a 4-year plan and this year is the first year. We have finished the installation of 50 flow meters and 17 observation wells. An underground hydrological model is proposed to determine the associated drawdown caused by the measured pumpages. Besides, an alternative to the flow meter is also proposed to decrease the installation cost of IoG. An accelerometer and 3G remote transmission are proposed to detect the on and off of groundwater pumpage.

Keywords: groundwater management, internet of groundwater, underground hydrological model, alternative of flow meter

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1723 Estimating of Groundwater Recharge Value for Al-Najaf City, Iraq

Authors: Hayder H. Kareem


Groundwater recharge is a crucial parameter for any groundwater management system. The variability of the recharge rates and the difficulty in estimating this factor in many processes by direct observation leads to the complexity of estimating the recharge value. Various methods are existing to estimate the groundwater recharge, with some limitations for each method to be able for application. This paper focuses particularly on a real study area, Al-Najaf City, Iraq. In this city, there are few groundwater aquifers, but the aquifer which is considered in this study is the closest one to the ground surface, the Dibdibba aquifer. According to the Aridity Index, which is estimated in the paper, Al-Najaf City is classified as a region located in an arid climate, and this identified that the most appropriate method to estimate the groundwater recharge is Thornthwaite's formula or Thornthwaite's method. From the calculations, the estimated average groundwater recharge over the period 1980-2014 for Al-Najaf City is 40.32 mm/year. Groundwater recharge is completely affected the groundwater table level (groundwater head). Therefore, to make sure that this value of recharge is true, the MODFLOW program has been used to apply this value through finding the relationship between the calculated and observed heads where a groundwater model for the Al-Najaf City study area has been built by MODFLOW to simulate this area for different purposes, one of these purposes is to simulate the groundwater recharge. MODFLOW results show that this value of groundwater recharge is extremely high and needs to be reduced. Therefore, a further sensitivity test has been carried out for the Al-Najaf City study area by the MODFLOW program through changing the recharge value and found that the best estimation of groundwater recharge value for this city is 16.5 mm/year where this value gives the best fitting between the calculated and observed heads with minimum values of RMSE % (13.175) and RSS m² (1454).

Keywords: Al-Najaf City, groundwater modelling, recharge estimation, visual MODFLOW

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1722 Freshwater Lens Observation: Case Study of Laura Island, Majuro Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands

Authors: Kazuhisa Koda, Tsutomu Kobayashi, Rebecca Lorennji, Alington Robert, Halston DeBrum, Julious Lucky, Paul Paul


Atolls are low-lying small islands with highly permeable ground that does not allow rivers and lakes to develop. As the water resources on these atolls basically rely on precipitation, groundwater becomes a very important water resource during droughts. Freshwater lenses develop as groundwater on relatively large atoll islands and play a key role in the stable water supply. Atoll islands in the Pacific Ocean sometimes suffer from drought due to El Nino. The global warming effects are noticeable, particularly on atoll islands. The Republic of the Marshall Islands in Oceania is burdened with the problems common to atoll islands. About half of its population lives in the capital, Majuro, and securing water resources for these people is a crucial issue. There is a freshwater lens on the largest, Laura Island, which serves as a water source for the downtown area. A serious drought that occurred in 1998 resulted in excessive water intake from the freshwater lens on Laura Island causing up-coning. Up-coning mixes saltwater into groundwater pumped from water-intake wells. Because up-coning makes the freshwater lens unusable, there was a need to investigate the freshwater lens on Laura Island. In this study, we observed the electrical conductivities of the groundwater at different depths in existing monitoring wells to determine the total storage volume of the freshwater lens on Laura Island from 2010 to 2013. Our results indicated that most of the groundwater that seeped into the freshwater lens had flowed out into the sea.

Keywords: Atoll islands, drought, El-Nino, freshwater lens, groundwater observation

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1721 Comparison of Salt-Water Intrusion into Eastern and Western Coastal Aquifers of Urmia Lake thru Over-Exploration of Groundwater Resources

Authors: Saman Javadi, Mohammad Hassan Mahmoudi, Fatemeh Jafari, Aminreza Neshat


Urmia Lake’s water level has been dropped during the past decade. Although the most common reason in studies was declared climate change, but observation of adjacent lake (like Van in Turkey) is not the same as the common reason. Most of studies were focused on climate and land use change, but groundwater resource as one of the most important element is negligible. Due to population and agriculture activities growth, exploration of groundwater resource has been increased. In as much as continued decline of water levels can lead to saltwater intrusion, reduce stream discharge near outcrop regions and threaten groundwater quality, aquifers of this region were affected by saltwater intrusion of Urmia Lake. In this research comparison of saltwater intrusion into eastern and western coastal aquifer was studied. In conclusion eastern aquifers are in a critical situation; vice versa the western ones are in a better situation. Thus applying management of groundwater operation would be necessary for eastern aquifers.

Keywords: coastal aquifer, groundwater over-exploration, saltwater intrusion, Urmia Lake

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1720 Quantitative Analysis of Nutrient Inflow from River and Groundwater to Imazu Bay in Fukuoka, Japan

Authors: Keisuke Konishi, Yoshinari Hiroshiro, Kento Terashima, Atsushi Tsutsumi


Imazu Bay plays an important role for endangered species such as horseshoe crabs and black-faced spoonbills that stay in the bay for spawning or the passing of winter. However, this bay is semi-enclosed with slow water exchange, which could lead to eutrophication under the condition of excess nutrient inflow to the bay. Therefore, quantification of nutrient inflow is of great importance. Generally, analysis of nutrient inflow to the bays takes into consideration nutrient inflow from only the river, but that from groundwater should not be ignored for more accurate results. The main objective of this study is to estimate the amounts of nutrient inflow from river and groundwater to Imazu Bay by analyzing water budget in Zuibaiji River Basin and loads of T-N, T-P, NO3-N and NH4-N. The water budget computation in the basin is performed using groundwater recharge model and quasi three-dimensional two-phase groundwater flow model, and the multiplication of the measured amount of nutrient inflow with the computed discharge gives the total amount of nutrient inflow to the bay. In addition, in order to evaluate nutrient inflow to the bay, the result is compared with nutrient inflow from geologically similar river basins. The result shows that the discharge is 3.50×107 m3/year from the river and 1.04×107 m3/year from groundwater. The submarine groundwater discharge accounts for approximately 23 % of the total discharge, which is large compared to the other river basins. It is also revealed that the total nutrient inflow is not particularly large. The sum of NO3-N and NH4-N loadings from groundwater is less than 10 % of that from the river because of denitrification in groundwater. The Shin Seibu Sewage Treatment Plant located below the observation points discharges treated water of 15,400 m3/day and plans to increase it. However, the loads of T-N and T-P from the treatment plant are 3.9 mg/L and 0.19 mg/L, so that it does not contribute a lot to eutrophication.

Keywords: Eutrophication, groundwater recharge model, nutrient inflow, quasi three-dimensional two-phase groundwater flow model, submarine groundwater discharge

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1719 Development of Groundwater Management Model Using Groundwater Sustainability Index

Authors: S. S. Rwanga, J. M. Ndambuki, Y. Woyessa


Development of a groundwater management model is an important step in the exploitation and management of any groundwater aquifer as it assists in the long-term sustainable planning of the resource. The current study was conducted in Central Limpopo province of South Africa with the overall objective of determining how much water can be withdrawn from the aquifer without producing nonreversible impacts on the groundwater quantity, hence developing a model which can sustainably protect the aquifer. The development was done through the computation of Groundwater Sustainability Index (GSI). Values of GSI close to unity and above indicated overexploitation. In this study, an index of 0.8 was considered as overexploitation. The results indicated that there is potential for higher abstraction rates compared to the current abstraction rates. GSI approach can be used in the management of groundwater aquifer to sustainably develop the resource and also provides water managers and policy makers with fundamental information on where future water developments can be carried out.

Keywords: development, groundwater, groundwater sustainability index, model

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1718 Approach to Quantify Groundwater Recharge Using GIS Based Water Balance Model

Authors: S. S. Rwanga, J. M. Ndambuki


Groundwater quantification needs a method which is not only flexible but also reliable in order to accurately quantify its spatial and temporal variability. As groundwater is dynamic and interdisciplinary in nature, an integrated approach of remote sensing (RS) and GIS technique is very useful in various groundwater management studies. Thus, the GIS water balance model (WetSpass) together with remote sensing (RS) can be used to quantify groundwater recharge. This paper discusses the concept of WetSpass in combination with GIS on the quantification of recharge with a view to managing water resources in an integrated framework. The paper presents the simulation procedures and expected output after simulation. Preliminary data are presented from GIS output only.

Keywords: groundwater, recharge, GIS, WetSpass

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1717 Characterization and Modelling of Groundwater Flow towards a Public Drinking Water Well Field: A Case Study of Ter Kamerenbos Well Field

Authors: Buruk Kitachew Wossenyeleh


Groundwater is the largest freshwater reservoir in the world. Like the other reservoirs of the hydrologic cycle, it is a finite resource. This study focused on the groundwater modeling of the Ter Kamerenbos well field to understand the groundwater flow system and the impact of different scenarios. The study area covers 68.9Km2 in the Brussels Capital Region and is situated in two river catchments, i.e., Zenne River and Woluwe Stream. The aquifer system has three layers, but in the modeling, they are considered as one layer due to their hydrogeological properties. The catchment aquifer system is replenished by direct recharge from rainfall. The groundwater recharge of the catchment is determined using the spatially distributed water balance model called WetSpass, and it varies annually from zero to 340mm. This groundwater recharge is used as the top boundary condition for the groundwater modeling of the study area. During the groundwater modeling using Processing MODFLOW, constant head boundary conditions are used in the north and south boundaries of the study area. For the east and west boundaries of the study area, head-dependent flow boundary conditions are used. The groundwater model is calibrated manually and automatically using observed hydraulic heads in 12 observation wells. The model performance evaluation showed that the root means the square error is 1.89m and that the NSE is 0.98. The head contour map of the simulated hydraulic heads indicates the flow direction in the catchment, mainly from the Woluwe to Zenne catchment. The simulated head in the study area varies from 13m to 78m. The higher hydraulic heads are found in the southwest of the study area, which has the forest as a land-use type. This calibrated model was run for the climate change scenario and well operation scenario. Climate change may cause the groundwater recharge to increase by 43% and decrease by 30% in 2100 from current conditions for the high and low climate change scenario, respectively. The groundwater head varies for a high climate change scenario from 13m to 82m, whereas for a low climate change scenario, it varies from 13m to 76m. If doubling of the pumping discharge assumed, the groundwater head varies from 13m to 76.5m. However, if the shutdown of the pumps is assumed, the head varies in the range of 13m to 79m. It is concluded that the groundwater model is done in a satisfactory way with some limitations, and the model output can be used to understand the aquifer system under steady-state conditions. Finally, some recommendations are made for the future use and improvement of the model.

Keywords: Ter Kamerenbos, groundwater modelling, WetSpass, climate change, well operation

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1716 Groundwater Quality Assessment Using Water Quality Index and Geographical Information System Techniques: A Case Study of Busan City, South Korea

Authors: S. Venkatramanan, S. Y. Chung, S. Selvam, E. E. Hussam, G. Gnanachandrasamy


The quality of groundwater was evaluated by major ions concentration around Busan city, South Korea. The groundwater samples were collected from 40 wells. The order of abundance of major cations concentration in groundwater is Na > Ca > Mg > K, in case of anions are Cl > HCO₃ > SO₄ > NO₃ > F. Based on Piper’s diagram Ca (HCO₃)₂, CaCl₂, and NaCl are the leading groundwater types. While Gibbs diagram suggested that most of groundwater samples belong to rock-weathering zone. Hydrogeochemical condition of groundwater in this city is influenced by evaporation, ion exchange and dissolution of minerals. Water Quality Index (WQI) revealed that 86 % of the samples belong to excellent, 2 % good, 4 % poor to very poor and 8 % unsuitable categories. The results of sodium absorption ratio (SAR), Permeability Index (PI), Residual Sodium Carbonate (RSC) and Magnesium Hazard (MH) exhibit that most of the groundwater samples are suitable for domestic and irrigation purposes.

Keywords: WQI (Water Quality Index), saturation index, groundwater types, ion exchange

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1715 Impacts of Climate Elements on the Annual Periodic Behavior of the Shallow Groundwater Level: Case Study from Central-Eastern Europe

Authors: Tamas Garamhegyi, Jozsef Kovacs, Rita Pongracz, Peter Tanos, Balazs Trasy, Norbert Magyar, Istvan G. Hatvani


Like most environmental processes, shallow groundwater fluctuation under natural circumstances also behaves periodically. With the statistical tools at hand, it can easily be determined if a period exists in the data or not. Thus, the question may be raised: Does the estimated average period time characterize the whole time period, or not? This is especially important in the case of such complex phenomena as shallow groundwater fluctuation, driven by numerous factors. Because of the continuous changes in the oscillating components of shallow groundwater time series, the most appropriate method should be used to investigate its periodicity, this is wavelet spectrum analysis. The aims of the research were to investigate the periodic behavior of the shallow groundwater time series of an agriculturally important and drought sensitive region in Central-Eastern Europe and its relationship to the European pressure action centers. During the research ~216 shallow groundwater observation wells located in the eastern part of the Great Hungarian Plain with a temporal coverage of 50 years were scanned for periodicity. By taking the full-time interval as 100%, the presence of any period could be determined in percentages. With the complex hydrogeological/meteorological model developed in this study, non-periodic time intervals were found in the shallow groundwater levels. On the local scale, this phenomenon linked to drought conditions, and on a regional scale linked to the maxima of the regional air pressures in the Gulf of Genoa. The study documented an important link between shallow groundwater levels and climate variables/indices facilitating the necessary adaptation strategies on national and/or regional scales, which have to take into account the predictions of drought-related climatic conditions.

Keywords: climate change, drought, groundwater periodicity, wavelet spectrum and coherence analyses

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1714 Hydrogeochemical Assessment of Groundwater in Selected Part of Benue State Southern, Nigeria

Authors: Moses Oghenenyoreme Eyankware, Christian Ogubuchi Ede


Groundwater is the principal source for various uses in this study area. The quality and availability of groundwater depend on rock formation within the study area. To effectively study the quality of groundwater, 24 groundwater samples were collected. The study was aimed at investigating the hydrogeochemistry of groundwater, and additionally its suitability for drinking and irrigation purposes. The following parameters were analyzed using the American Public Health Association standard method: pH, turbidity, Ec, TDS, Mg2+, SO42-, NO3¯, Cl-, HCO3¯, K+, Na2+ and Ca2+. Results obtained from Water Quality Index revealed that the groundwater sample fell within good water quality that implies that groundwater is considered fit for drinking purposes. Deduced results obtained from irrigation indices revealed that Permeability Index (PI), Soluble Sodium Percentage (SSP), Sodium Percentage (Na %), Sodium Absorption Ratio (SAR), Kelly Ratio (KR), Magnesium Hazard (MH) ranges from 0.00 to 0.01, 4.04 to 412.9, 0.63 to 257.7, 0.15 to 2.34, 0.09 to 2.57 and 6.84 to 84.55 respectively. Findings from Total hardness revealed that groundwater fell within soft, moderately hard and hard categories. Estimated results obtained from CSMR, RI and LSI showed that groundwater showed corrosion tendency, salinization influenced groundwater at certain sampling points and chloride and sulfate unlikely to interfere with natural formation film.

Keywords: water, quality, suitability, anthropogenic, Nigeria

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1713 Deep Groundwater Potential and Chemical Analysis Based on Well Logging Analysis at Kapuk-Cengkareng, West Jakarta, DKI Jakarta, Indonesia

Authors: Josua Sihotang


Jakarta Capital Special Region is the province that densely populated with rapidly growing infrastructure but less attention for the environmental condition. This makes some social problem happened like lack of clean water supply. Shallow groundwater and river water condition that has contaminated make the layer of deep water carrier (aquifer) should be done. This research aims to provide the people insight about deep groundwater potential and to determine the depth, location, and quality where the aquifer can be found in Jakarta’s area, particularly Kapuk-Cengkareng’s people. This research was conducted by geophysical method namely Well Logging Analysis. Well Logging is the geophysical method to know the subsurface lithology with the physical characteristic. The observation in this research area was conducted with several well devices that is Spontaneous Potential Log (SP Log), Resistivity Log, and Gamma Ray Log (GR Log). The first devices well is SP log which is work by comprising the electrical potential difference between the electrodes on the surface with the electrodes that is contained in the borehole and rock formations. The second is Resistivity Log, used to determine both the hydrocarbon and water zone based on their porosity and permeability properties. The last is GR Log, work by identifying radioactivity levels of rocks which is containing elements of thorium, uranium, or potassium. The observation result is curve-shaped which describes the type of lithological coating in subsurface. The result from the research can be interpreted that there are four of the deep groundwater layer zone with different quality. The good groundwater layer can be found in layers with good porosity and permeability. By analyzing the curves, it can be known that most of the layers which were found in this wellbore are clay stone with low resistivity and high gamma radiation. The resistivity value of the clay stone layers is about 2-4 ohm-meter with 65-80 Cps gamma radiation. There are several layers with high resistivity value and low gamma radiation (sand stone) that can be potential for being an aquifer. This is reinforced by the sand layer with a right-leaning SP log curve proving that this layer is permeable. These layers have 4-9 ohm-meter resistivity value with 40-65 Cps gamma radiation. These are mostly found as fresh water aquifer.

Keywords: aquifer, deep groundwater potential, well devices, well logging analysis

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1712 Geochemical Evaluation Assessment of Groundwater in Selected Part of Benue State Southern, Nigeria

Authors: Moses Oghnennyoreme Eyankware, Christian Ogubuchi Ede


Groundwater is the principal source for various uses in this study area. The quality and availability of groundwater depend on rock formation within the study area. To effectively study the quality of groundwater, 24 groundwater samples were collected. The study was aimed at investigating the hydrogeochemistry of groundwater, and additionally its suitability for drinking and irrigation purposes. The following parameters were analyzed using the American Public Health Association standard method: pH, turbidity, Ec, TDS, Mg2+, SO42-, NO3¯, Cl-, HCO3¯, K+, Na2+ and Ca2+. Results obtained from Water Quality Index revealed that the groundwater sample fell within good water quality that implies that groundwater is considered fit for drinking purposes. Deduced results obtained from irrigation indices revealed that Permeability Index (PI), Soluble Sodium Percentage (SSP), Sodium Percentage (Na %), Sodium Absorption Ratio (SAR), Kelly Ratio (KR), Magnesium Hazard (MH) ranges from 0.00 to 0.01, 4.04 to 412.9, 0.63 to 257.7, 0.15 to 2.34, 0.09 to 2.57 and 6.84 to 84.55 respectively. Findings from Total hardness revealed that groundwater fell within soft, moderately hard and hard categories. Estimated results obtained from CSMR, RI and LSI showed that groundwater showed corrosion tendency, salinization influenced groundwater at certain sampling points and chloride and sulfate unlikely to interfere with natural formation film.

Keywords: water, quality, suitability, anthropogenic, Nigeria

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1711 The Impact of Election Observation on Electoral Reforms in Nigeria

Authors: Abubakar Sulaiman


The paper examines how election observation influences electoral reforms in Nigeria. Over the years, election observation continues to play critical role in the electoral process specifically in Nigeria and Africa at large. Election observation keeps an eye on the electoral process and all the stakeholders during elections, to ensure that the process is fair to all contestants. While literature abound on this role of election observation on electoral process in Nigeria, scanty scholarly efforts have been made to appraise how election observation influences electoral reforms in Nigeria. Also, while election observation may play a role in ensuring that the electoral process is credible, specifically, its role in prvoking and eliciting various electoral reforms in the country has not been explored. The paper adopts the explanatory research design using secondary data and document analysis. Preliminary findings show that election observation has influenced electoral reforms in Nigeria in no small measure. The paper concludes that election observation is critical for result oriented electoral reforms in Nigeria, albeit, such reforms have to be implemented to the latter.

Keywords: electoral reforms, election observation, electoral process, developing country

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1710 A GIS Based Approach in District Peshawar, Pakistan for Groundwater Vulnerability Assessment Using DRASTIC Model

Authors: Syed Adnan, Javed Iqbal


In urban and rural areas groundwater is the most economic natural source of drinking. Groundwater resources of Pakistan are degraded due to high population growth and increased industrial development. A study was conducted in district Peshawar to assess groundwater vulnerable zones using GIS based DRASTIC model. Six input parameters (groundwater depth, groundwater recharge, aquifer material, soil type, slope and hydraulic conductivity) were used in the DRASTIC model to generate the groundwater vulnerable zones. Each parameter was divided into different ranges or media types and a subjective rating from 1-10 was assigned to each factor where 1 represented very low impact on pollution potential and 10 represented very high impact. Weight multiplier from 1-5 was used to balance and enhance the importance of each factor. The DRASTIC model scores obtained varied from 47 to 147. Using quantile classification scheme these values were reclassified into three zones i.e. low, moderate and high vulnerable zones. The areas of these zones were calculated. The final result indicated that about 400 km2, 506 km2, and 375 km2 were classified as low, moderate, and high vulnerable areas, respectively. It is recommended that the most vulnerable zones should be treated on first priority to facilitate the inhabitants for drinking purposes.

Keywords: DRASTIC model, groundwater vulnerability, GIS in groundwater, drinking sources

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1709 Application of Remote Sensing and GIS for Delineating Groundwater Potential Zones of Ariyalur, Southern Part of India

Authors: G. Gnanachandrasamy, Y. Zhou, S. Venkatramanan, T. Ramkumar, S. Wang


The natural resources of groundwater are the most precious resources around the world that balances are shrinking day by day. In connection, there is an urgency need for demarcation of potential groundwater zone. For these rationale integration of geographical information system (GIS) and remote sensing techniques (RS) for the hydrological studies have become a dramatic change in the field of hydrological research. These techniques are provided to locate the potential zone of groundwater. This research has been made to indent groundwater potential zone in Ariyalur of the southern part of India with help of GIS and remote sensing techniques. To identify the groundwater potential zone used by different thematic layers of geology, geomorphology, drainage, drainage density, lineaments, lineaments density, soil and slope with inverse distance weighting (IDW) methods. From the overall result reveals that the potential zone of groundwater in the study area classified into five classes named as very good (12.18 %), good (22.74 %), moderate (32.28 %), poor (27.7 %) and very poor (5.08 %). This technique suggested that very good potential zone of groundwater occurred in patches of northern and central parts of Jayamkondam, Andimadam and Palur regions in Ariyalur district. The result exhibited that inverse distance weighting method offered in this research is an effective tool for interpreting groundwater potential zones for suitable development and management of groundwater resources in different hydrogeological environments.

Keywords: GIS, groundwater potential zone, hydrology, remote sensing

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1708 Effect of Waste Dumping on Groundwater Quality at Guntun Layi Funtua, Katsina State

Authors: Isiya Aminu Dabai, Adebola Kayode, Adeosun Kayode Daniel


Rural water supply relies mainly on groundwater exploitation, because it is more accessible, reliable, cheaper to develop and maintain, also with good quality compared to the surface water. Despite these advantages, groundwater has come under pollution threats like waste dumps, mineral exploitation, industrialization etc. This study investigates the effects of an open dumping to the surrounding groundwater. Ten hand dug well water samples were collected from the surroundings and tested. The average result shows that temperature, colour and turbidity to be 8.50 c, 6.1 TCU and 3.1 NTU respectively and pH, conductivity, total dissolved solids, chloride content and hardness to be 7.2, 4.78, 1.8, 5.7, and 3.4 respectively while in the bacteriological test well no. 1, 2, 3, and 5 shows the presence of coliforms and E. Coli bacteria.

Keywords: groundwater, pollution, waste, dump site, unsafe, quality

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1707 Groundwater Monitoring Using a Community: Science Approach

Authors: Shobha Kumari Yadav, Yubaraj Satyal, Ajaya Dixit


In addressing groundwater depletion, it is important to develop evidence base so to be used in assessing the state of its degradation. Groundwater data is limited compared to meteorological data, which impedes the groundwater use and management plan. Monitoring of groundwater levels provides information base to assess the condition of aquifers, their responses to water extraction, land-use change, and climatic variability. It is important to maintain a network of spatially distributed, long-term monitoring wells to support groundwater management plan. Monitoring involving local community is a cost effective approach that generates real time data to effectively manage groundwater use. This paper presents the relationship between rainfall and spring flow, which are the main source of freshwater for drinking, household consumptions and agriculture in hills of Nepal. The supply and withdrawal of water from springs depends upon local hydrology and the meteorological characteristics- such as rainfall, evapotranspiration and interflow. The study offers evidence of the use of scientific method and community based initiative for managing groundwater and springshed. The approach presents a method to replicate similar initiative in other parts of the country for maintaining integrity of springs.

Keywords: citizen science, groundwater, water resource management, Nepal

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1706 Tide Contribution in the Flood Event of Jeddah City: Mathematical Modelling and Different Field Measurements of the Groundwater Rise

Authors: Aïssa Rezzoug


This paper is aimed to bring new elements that demonstrate the tide caused the groundwater to rise in the shoreline band, on which the urban areas occurs, especially in the western coastal cities of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia like Jeddah. The reason for the last events of Jeddah inundation was the groundwater rise in the city coupled at the same time to a strong precipitation event. This paper will illustrate the tide participation in increasing the groundwater level significantly. It shows that the reason for internal groundwater recharge within the urban area is not only the excess of the water supply coming from surrounding areas, due to the human activity, with lack of sufficient and efficient sewage system, but also due to tide effect. The research study follows a quantitative method to assess groundwater level rise risks through many in-situ measurements and mathematical modelling. The proposed approach highlights groundwater level, in the urban areas of the city on the shoreline band, reaching the high tide level without considering any input from precipitation. Despite the small tide in the Red Sea compared to other oceanic coasts, the groundwater level is considerably enhanced by the tide from the seaside and by the freshwater table from the landside of the city. In these conditions, the groundwater level becomes high in the city and prevents the soil to evacuate quickly enough the surface flow caused by the storm event, as it was observed in the last historical flood catastrophe of Jeddah in 2009.

Keywords: flood, groundwater rise, Jeddah, tide

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1705 Effect of the Blending of Desalinated Seawater with Groundwater on the Formation of Trihalomethane Species in Drinking Water

Authors: Jasem Mohammad Alkandari


The World Health Organization classifies THM species (i.e., chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane, and bromoform) as possibly carcinogenic to humans. The objective of this study was to assess the formation of trihalomethane species in two different synthetic drinking water samples prepared in the laboratory. The synthetic water samples were produced by blending desalinated water with groundwater using two typical blending ratios utilized in the drinking water production facility: 97.1% desalinated water, 2.9% groundwater, 85.0% desalinated water, and 15% groundwater. Simulated distribution system trihalomethane tests were carried out to assess the formation of trihalomethane species. The results showed that bromoform in both tests was the dominant trihalomethane species. The formation of trihalomethane species in the synthetic drinking water that comprised 15% groundwater was higher than that in the synthetic drinking water samples that comprised 2.9% groundwater. The study revealed that in the process of the blending of groundwater with desalinated water, during the production of drinking water, the higher the amount of groundwater utilized to produce the drinking water, the more bromide, and organics existed in the finished water. This resulted in the formation of more brominated trihalomethanes in the finished water because of the water chlorination process.

Keywords: desalination, blending, chlorination, trihalomethanes

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1704 Using Groundwater Modeling System to Create a 3-D Groundwater Flow and Solute Transport Model for a Semiarid Region: A Case Study of the Nadhour Saouaf Sisseb El Alem Aquifer, Central Tunisia

Authors: Emna Bahri Hammami, Zammouri Mounira, Tarhouni Jamila


The Nadhour Saouaf Sisseb El Alem (NSSA) system comprises some of the most intensively exploited aquifers in central Tunisia. Since the 1970s, the growth in economic productivity linked to intensive agriculture in this semiarid region has been sustained by increasing pumping rates of the system’s groundwater. Exploitation of these aquifers has increased rapidly, ultimately causing their depletion. With the aim to better understand the behavior of the aquifer system and to predict its evolution, the paper presents a finite difference model of the groundwater flow and solute transport. The model is based on the Groundwater Modeling System (GMS) and was calibrated using data from 1970 to 2010. Groundwater levels observed in 1970 were used for the steady-state calibration. Groundwater levels observed from 1971 to 2010 served to calibrate the transient state. The impact of pumping discharge on the evolution of groundwater levels was studied through three hypothetical pumping scenarios. The first two scenarios replicated the approximate drawdown in the aquifer heads (about 17 m in scenario 1 and 23 m in scenario 2 in the center of NSSA) following an increase in pumping rates by 30% and 50% from their current values, respectively. In addition, pumping was stopped in the third scenario, which could increase groundwater reserves by about 7 Mm3/year. NSSA groundwater reserves could be improved considerably if the pumping rules were taken seriously.

Keywords: pumping, depletion, groundwater modeling system GMS, Nadhour Saouaf

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1703 Predicting Groundwater Areas Using Data Mining Techniques: Groundwater in Jordan as Case Study

Authors: Faisal Aburub, Wael Hadi


Data mining is the process of extracting useful or hidden information from a large database. Extracted information can be used to discover relationships among features, where data objects are grouped according to logical relationships; or to predict unseen objects to one of the predefined groups. In this paper, we aim to investigate four well-known data mining algorithms in order to predict groundwater areas in Jordan. These algorithms are Support Vector Machines (SVMs), Naïve Bayes (NB), K-Nearest Neighbor (kNN) and Classification Based on Association Rule (CBA). The experimental results indicate that the SVMs algorithm outperformed other algorithms in terms of classification accuracy, precision and F1 evaluation measures using the datasets of groundwater areas that were collected from Jordanian Ministry of Water and Irrigation.

Keywords: classification, data mining, evaluation measures, groundwater

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1702 Modeling the Effects of Leachate-Impacted Groundwater on the Water Quality of a Large Tidal River

Authors: Emery Coppola Jr., Marwan Sadat, Il Kim, Diane Trube, Richard Kurisko


Contamination sites like landfills often pose significant risks to receptors like surface water bodies. Surface water bodies are often a source of recreation, including fishing and swimming, which not only enhances their value but also serves as a direct exposure pathway to humans, increasing their need for protection from water quality degradation. In this paper, a case study presents the potential effects of leachate-impacted groundwater from a large closed sanitary landfill on the surface water quality of the nearby Raritan River, situated in New Jersey. The study, performed over a two year period, included in-depth field evaluation of both the groundwater and surface water systems, and was supplemented by computer modeling. The analysis required delineation of a representative average daily groundwater discharge from the Landfill shoreline into the large, highly tidal Raritan River, with a corresponding estimate of daily mass loading of potential contaminants of concern. The average daily groundwater discharge into the river was estimated from a high-resolution water level study and a 24-hour constant-rate aquifer pumping test. The significant tidal effects induced on groundwater levels during the aquifer pumping test were filtered out using an advanced algorithm, from which aquifer parameter values were estimated using conventional curve match techniques. The estimated hydraulic conductivity values obtained from individual observation wells closely agree with tidally-derived values for the same wells. Numerous models were developed and used to simulate groundwater contaminant transport and surface water quality impacts. MODFLOW with MT3DMS was used to simulate the transport of potential contaminants of concern from the down-gradient edge of the Landfill to the Raritan River shoreline. A surface water dispersion model based upon a bathymetric and flow study of the river was used to simulate the contaminant concentrations over space within the river. The modeling results helped demonstrate that because of natural attenuation, the Landfill does not have a measurable impact on the river, which was confirmed by an extensive surface water quality study.

Keywords: groundwater flow and contaminant transport modeling, groundwater/surface water interaction, landfill leachate, surface water quality modeling

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1701 Assessment of Groundwater Chemistry and Quality Characteristics in an Alluvial Aquifer and a Single Plane Fractured-Rock Aquifer in Bloemfontein, South Africa

Authors: Modreck Gomo


The evolution of groundwater chemistry and its quality is largely controlled by hydrogeochemical processes and their understanding is therefore important for groundwater quality assessments and protection of the water resources. A study was conducted in Bloemfontein town of South Africa to assess and compare the groundwater chemistry and quality characteristics in an alluvial aquifer and single-plane fractured-rock aquifers. 9 groundwater samples were collected from monitoring boreholes drilled into the two aquifer systems during a once-off sampling exercise. Samples were collected through low-flow purging technique and analysed for major ions and trace elements. In order to describe the hydrochemical facies and identify dominant hydrogeochemical processes, the groundwater chemistry data are interpreted using stiff diagrams and principal component analysis (PCA), as complimentary tools. The fitness of the groundwater quality for domestic and irrigation uses is also assessed. Results show that the alluvial aquifer is characterised by a Na-HCO3 hydrochemical facie while fractured-rock aquifer has a Ca-HCO3 facie. The groundwater in both aquifers originally evolved from the dissolution of calcite rocks that are common on land surface environments. However the groundwater in the alluvial aquifer further goes through another evolution as driven by cation exchange process in which Na in the sediments exchanges with Ca2+ in the Ca-HCO3 hydrochemical type to result in the Na-HCO3 hydrochemical type. Despite the difference in the hydrogeochemical processes between the alluvial aquifer and single-plane fractured-rock aquifer, this did not influence the groundwater quality. The groundwater in the two aquifers is very hard as influenced by the elevated magnesium and calcium ions that evolve from dissolution of carbonate minerals which typically occurs in surface environments. Based on total dissolved levels (600-900 mg/L), groundwater quality of the two aquifer systems is classified to be of fair quality. The negative potential impacts of the groundwater quality for domestic uses are highlighted.

Keywords: alluvial aquifer, fractured-rock aquifer, groundwater quality, hydrogeochemical processes

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1700 Optimization of Groundwater Utilization in Fish Aquaculture

Authors: M. Ahmed Eldesouky, S. Nasr, A. Beltagy


Groundwater is generally considered as the best source for aquaculture as it is well protected from contamination. The most common problem limiting the use of groundwater in Egypt is its high iron, manganese and ammonia content. This problem is often overcome by applying the treatment before use. Aeration in many cases is not enough to oxidize iron and manganese in complex forms with organics. Most of the treatment we use potassium permanganate as an oxidizer followed by a pressurized closed green sand filter. The aim of present study is to investigate the optimum characteristics of groundwater to give lowest iron, manganese and ammonia, maximum production and quality of fish in aquaculture in El-Max Research Station. The major design goal of the system was determined the optimum time for harvesting the treated water, pH, and Glauconite weight to use it for aquaculture process in the research site and achieve the Egyptian law (48/1982) and EPA level required for aquaculture. The water characteristics are [Fe = 0.116 mg/L, Mn = 1.36 mg/L,TN = 0.44 mg/L , TP = 0.07 mg/L , Ammonia = 0.386 mg/L] by using the glauconite filter we obtained high efficiency for removal for [(Fe, Mn and Ammonia] ,but in the Lab we obtained result for (Fe, 43-97), ( Mn,92-99 ), and ( Ammonia, 66-88 )]. We summarized the results to show the optimum time, pH, Glauconite weight, and the best model for design in the region.

Keywords: aquaculture, ammonia in groundwater, groundwater, iron and manganese in water, groundwater treatment

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1699 Groundwater Flow Assessment Based on Numerical Simulation at Omdurman Area, Khartoum State, Sudan

Authors: Adil Balla Elkrail


Visual MODFLOW computer codes were selected to simulate head distribution, calculate the groundwater budgets of the area, and evaluate the effect of external stresses on the groundwater head and to demonstrate how the groundwater model can be used as a comparative technique in order to optimize utilization of the groundwater resource. A conceptual model of the study area, aquifer parameters, boundary, and initial conditions were used to simulate the flow model. The trial-and-error technique was used to calibrate the model. The most important criteria used to check the calibrated model were Root Mean Square error (RMS), Mean Absolute error (AM), Normalized Root Mean Square error (NRMS) and mass balance. The maps of the simulated heads elaborated acceptable model calibration compared to observed heads map. A time length of eight years and the observed heads of the year 2004 were used for model prediction. The predictive simulation showed that the continuation of pumping will cause relatively high changes in head distribution and components of groundwater budget whereas, the low deficit computed (7122 m3/d) between inflows and outflows cannot create a significant drawdown of the potentiometric level. Hence, the area under consideration may represent a high permeability and productive zone and strongly recommended for further groundwater development.

Keywords: aquifers, model simulation, groundwater, calibrations, trail-and- error, prediction

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1698 Hydrogeochemistry Preliminary Study of Groundwater Conservation in Buton Island, Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia

Authors: M. S. M. Prahastomi, Riki Sunaryo, Lorasa Ximanes


The research takes place in EP Area, in the Northern part of Buton, Southeast Sulawesi Province, Indonesia. It is one example of karst areas that have good water resources potential. The landscape is in the form of valleys and hills which is good enough for recharge zone and discharge zones of groundwater. However, the geological characteristics of karst dissolution and a complex geological structure are quite influential to the groundwater flow system in the region. The Discharge of groundwater to the surface can be caused by a fracture in the rock, Underground River due to dissolution, and the contact between permeable rocks with impermeable rocks. In the concept of hydrogeology, groundwater is one of the components of the hydrological cycle which is closely linked to the availability of water under the surface, precipitation, infiltration, percolation, evapotranspiration, and surface runoff. Conceptually, the condition of recharge and discharge areas can be identified through a research distribution springs in a region. The understanding of the condition and the nature of the potential catchment area of groundwater flow, mainly from the catchment area to the discharge area, is urgently needed. This research aimed to assess the general geological conditions of the study area, which is expected to provide an overview of groundwater flow events that used by the public as well as industry. Behavioral characteristics of groundwater become an integral part in the search for potential groundwater in the study area. As for the research methods used hydrogeology mapping and laboratory works.

Keywords: Buton Island, groundwater conservation, hydrogeochemistry preliminary, karst

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1697 Optimizing Groundwater Pumping for a Complex Groundwater/Surface Water System

Authors: Emery A. Coppola Jr., Suna Cinar, Ferenc Szidarovszky


Over-pumping of groundwater resources is a serious problem world-wide. In addition to depleting this valuable resource, hydraulically connected sensitive ecological resources like wetlands and surface water bodies are often impacted and even destroyed by over-pumping. Effectively managing groundwater in a way that satisfy human demand while preserving natural resources is a daunting challenge that will only worsen with growing human populations and climate change. As presented in this paper, a numerical flow model developed for a hypothetical but realistic groundwater/surface water system was combined with formal optimization. Response coefficients were used in an optimization management model to maximize groundwater pumping in a complex, multi-layered aquifer system while protecting against groundwater over-draft, streamflow depletion, and wetland impacts. Pumping optimization was performed for different constraint sets that reflect different resource protection preferences, yielding significantly different optimal pumping solutions. A sensitivity analysis on the optimal solutions was performed on select response coefficients to identify differences between wet and dry periods. Stochastic optimization was also performed, where uncertainty associated with changing irrigation demand due to changing weather conditions are accounted for. One of the strengths of this optimization approach is that it can efficiently and accurately identify superior management strategies that minimize risk and adverse environmental impacts associated with groundwater pumping under different hydrologic conditions.

Keywords: numerical groundwater flow modeling, water management optimization, groundwater overdraft, streamflow depletion

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1696 Effect of Climate Change on Groundwater Recharge in a Sub-Humid Sub-Tropical Region of Eastern India

Authors: Suraj Jena, Rabindra Kumar Panda


The study region of the reported study was in Eastern India, having a sub-humid sub-tropical climate and sandy loam soil. The rainfall in this region has wide temporal and spatial variation. Due to lack of adequate surface water to meet the irrigation and household demands, groundwater is being over exploited in that region leading to continuous depletion of groundwater level. Therefore, there is an obvious urgency in reversing the depleting groundwater level through induced recharge, which becomes more critical under the climate change scenarios. The major goal of the reported study was to investigate the effects of climate change on groundwater recharge and subsequent adaptation strategies. Groundwater recharge was modelled using HELP3, a quasi-two-dimensional, deterministic, water-routing model along with global climate models (GCMs) and three global warming scenarios, to examine the changes in groundwater recharge rates for a 2030 climate under a variety of soil and vegetation covers. The relationship between the changing mean annual recharge and mean annual rainfall was evaluated for every combination of soil and vegetation using sensitivity analysis. The relationship was found to be statistically significant (p<0.05) with a coefficient of determination of 0.81. Vegetation dynamics and water-use affected by the increase in potential evapotranspiration for large climate variability scenario led to significant decrease in recharge from 49–658 mm to 18–179 mm respectively. Therefore, appropriate conjunctive use, irrigation schedule and enhanced recharge practices under the climate variability and land use/land cover change scenarios impacting the groundwater recharge needs to be understood properly for groundwater sustainability.

Keywords: Groundwater recharge, climate variability, Land use/cover, GCM

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