Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 26

Search results for: Ramazan Bakir

26 Machine Learning Based Digitalization of Validated Traditional Cognitive Tests and Their Integration to Multi-User Digital Support System for Alzheimer’s Patients

Authors: Ramazan Bakir, Gizem Kayar


It is known that Alzheimer and Dementia are the two most common types of Neurodegenerative diseases and their visibility is getting accelerated for the last couple of years. As the population sees older ages all over the world, researchers expect to see the rate of this acceleration much higher. However, unfortunately, there is no known pharmacological cure for both, although some help to reduce the rate of cognitive decline speed. This is why we encounter with non-pharmacological treatment and tracking methods more for the last five years. Many researchers, including well-known associations and hospitals, lean towards using non-pharmacological methods to support cognitive function and improve the patient’s life quality. As the dementia symptoms related to mind, learning, memory, speaking, problem-solving, social abilities and daily activities gradually worsen over the years, many researchers know that cognitive support should start from the very beginning of the symptoms in order to slow down the decline. At this point, life of a patient and caregiver can be improved with some daily activities and applications. These activities include but not limited to basic word puzzles, daily cleaning activities, taking notes. Later, these activities and their results should be observed carefully and it is only possible during patient/caregiver and M.D. in-person meetings in hospitals. These meetings can be quite time-consuming, exhausting and financially ineffective for hospitals, medical doctors, caregivers and especially for patients. On the other hand, digital support systems are showing positive results for all stakeholders of healthcare systems. This can be observed in countries that started Telemedicine systems. The biggest potential of our system is setting the inter-user communication up in the best possible way. In our project, we propose Machine Learning based digitalization of validated traditional cognitive tests (e.g. MOCA, Afazi, left-right hemisphere), their analyses for high-quality follow-up and communication systems for all stakeholders. R. Bakir and G. Kayar are with Gefeasoft, Inc, R&D – Software Development and Health Technologies company. Emails: ramazan, gizem @ This platform has a high potential not only for patient tracking but also for making all stakeholders feel safe through all stages. As the registered hospitals assign corresponding medical doctors to the system, these MDs are able to register their own patients and assign special tasks for each patient. With our integrated machine learning support, MDs are able to track the failure and success rates of each patient and also see general averages among similarly progressed patients. In addition, our platform also supports multi-player technology which helps patients play with their caregivers so that they feel much safer at any point they are uncomfortable. By also gamifying the daily household activities, the patients will be able to repeat their social tasks and we will provide non-pharmacological reminiscence therapy (RT – life review therapy). All collected data will be mined by our data scientists and analyzed meaningfully. In addition, we will also add gamification modules for caregivers based on Naomi Feil’s Validation Therapy. Both are behaving positively to the patient and keeping yourself mentally healthy is important for caregivers. We aim to provide a therapy system based on gamification for them, too. When this project accomplishes all the above-written tasks, patients will have the chance to do many tasks at home remotely and MDs will be able to follow them up very effectively. We propose a complete platform and the whole project is both time and cost-effective for supporting all stakeholders.

Keywords: alzheimer’s, dementia, cognitive functionality, cognitive tests, serious games, machine learning, artificial intelligence, digitalization, non-pharmacological, data analysis, telemedicine, e-health, health-tech, gamification

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25 Vision and Challenges of Developing VR-Based Digital Anatomy Learning Platforms and a Solution Set for 3D Model Marking

Authors: Gizem Kayar, Ramazan Bakir, M. Ilkay Koşar, Ceren U. Gencer, Alperen Ayyildiz


Anatomy classes are crucial for general education of medical students, whereas learning anatomy is quite challenging and requires memorization of thousands of structures. In traditional teaching methods, learning materials are still based on books, anatomy mannequins, or videos. This results in forgetting many important structures after several years. However, more interactive teaching methods like virtual reality, augmented reality, gamification, and motion sensors are becoming more popular since such methods ease the way we learn and keep the data in mind for longer terms. During our study, we designed a virtual reality based digital head anatomy platform to investigate whether a fully interactive anatomy platform is effective to learn anatomy and to understand the level of teaching and learning optimization. The Head is one of the most complicated human anatomy structures, with thousands of tiny, unique structures. This makes the head anatomy one of the most difficult parts to understand during class sessions. Therefore, we developed a fully interactive digital tool with 3D model marking, quiz structures, 2D/3D puzzle structures, and VR support so as to integrate the power of VR and gamification. The project has been developed in Unity game engine with HTC Vive Cosmos VR headset. The head anatomy 3D model has been selected with full skeletal, muscular, integumentary, head, teeth, lymph, and vein system. The biggest issue during the development was the complexity of our model and the marking of it in the 3D world system. 3D model marking requires to access to each unique structure in the counted subsystems which means hundreds of marking needs to be done. Some parts of our 3D head model were monolithic. This is why we worked on dividing such parts to subparts which is very time-consuming. In order to subdivide monolithic parts, one must use an external modeling tool. However, such tools generally come with high learning curves, and seamless division is not ensured. Second option was to integrate tiny colliders to all unique items for mouse interaction. However, outside colliders which cover inner trigger colliders cause overlapping, and these colliders repel each other. Third option is using raycasting. However, due to its own view-based nature, raycasting has some inherent problems. As the model rotate, view direction changes very frequently, and directional computations become even harder. This is why, finally, we studied on the local coordinate system. By taking the pivot point of the model into consideration (back of the nose), each sub-structure is marked with its own local coordinate with respect to the pivot. After converting the mouse position to the world position and checking its relation with the corresponding structure’s local coordinate, we were able to mark all points correctly. The advantage of this method is its applicability and accuracy for all types of monolithic anatomical structures.

Keywords: anatomy, e-learning, virtual reality, 3D model marking

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24 Global Stability Of Nonlinear Itô Equations And N. V. Azbelev's W-method

Authors: Arcady Ponosov., Ramazan Kadiev


The work studies the global moment stability of solutions of systems of nonlinear differential Itô equations with delays. A modified regularization method (W-method) for the analysis of various types of stability of such systems, based on the choice of the auxiliaryequations and applications of the theory of positive invertible matrices, is proposed and justified. Development of this method for deterministic functional differential equations is due to N.V. Azbelev and his students. Sufficient conditions for the moment stability of solutions in terms of the coefficients for sufficiently general as well as specific classes of Itô equations are given.

Keywords: asymptotic stability, delay equations, operator methods, stochastic noise

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23 Prediction of Compressive Strength in Geopolymer Composites by Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System

Authors: Mehrzad Mohabbi Yadollahi, Ramazan Demirboğa, Majid Atashafrazeh


Geopolymers are highly complex materials which involve many variables which makes modeling its properties very difficult. There is no systematic approach in mix design for Geopolymers. Since the amounts of silica modulus, Na2O content, w/b ratios and curing time have a great influence on the compressive strength an ANFIS (Adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system) method has been established for predicting compressive strength of ground pumice based Geopolymers and the possibilities of ANFIS for predicting the compressive strength has been studied. Consequently, ANFIS can be used for geopolymer compressive strength prediction with acceptable accuracy.

Keywords: geopolymer, ANFIS, compressive strength, mix design

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22 The Efficacy of Motivation Management Training for Students’ Academic Achievement and Self-Concept

Authors: Ramazan Hasanzadeh, Leyla Vatandoust


This study examined the efficacy of motivation management training for students’ academic achievement and self-concept. The pretest–posttest quasi-experimental study used a cluster random sampling method to select subjects for the experimental (20 subjects) and control (20 subjects) groups. posttest was conducted with both groups to determine the effect of the training. An academic achievement and academic self-concept questionnaire (grade point average requirement) was used for the pretest and posttest. The results showed that the motivation management training increased academic self-concept and academic achievement.

Keywords: motivation management, academic self-concept, academic achievement, students

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21 Evaluation of Water Quality for the Kurtbogazi Dam Outlet and the Streams Feeding the Dam (Ankara, Turkey)

Authors: Gulsen Tozsin, Fatma Bakir, Cemil Acar, Ercument Koc


Kurtbogazi Dam has gained special meaning for Ankara, Turkey for the last decade due to the rapid depletion of nearby resources of drinking water. In this study, the results of the analyses of Kurtbogazi Dam outlet water and the rivers flowing into the Kurtbogazi Dam were discussed for the period of last five years between 2008 and 2012. The quality of these surface water resources were evaluated in terms of pH, temperature, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), nitrate, phosphate and chlorine. They were classified according to the Council Directive (75/440/EEC). Moreover, the properties of these surface waters were assessed to determine the quality of water for drinking and irrigation purposes using Piper, US Salinity Laboratory and Wilcox diagrams. The results revealed that the quality of all the investigated water sources are generally at satisfactory level as surface water except for Pazar Stream in terms of ortho-phosphate and BOD5 concentration for 2008.

Keywords: Kurtbogazi dam, water quality assessment, Ankara water, water supply

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20 Lyapunov and Input-to-State Stability of Stochastic Differential Equations

Authors: Arcady Ponosov, Ramazan Kadiev


Input-to-State Stability (ISS) is widely used in deterministic control theory but less known in the stochastic case. Roughly speaking, the theory explains when small perturbations of the right-hand sides of the system on the entire semiaxis cause only small changes in the solutions of the system, again on the entire semiaxis. This property is crucial in many applications. In the report, we explain how to define and study ISS for systems of linear stochastic differential equations with or without delays. The central result connects ISS with the property of Lyapunov stability. This relationship is well-known in the deterministic setting, but its stochastic version is new. As an application, a method of studying asymptotic Lyapunov stability for stochastic delay equations is described and justified. Several examples are provided that confirm the efficiency and simplicity of the framework.

Keywords: asymptotic stability, delay equations, operator methods, stochastic perturbations

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19 Regularization of Gene Regulatory Networks Perturbed by White Noise

Authors: Ramazan I. Kadiev, Arcady Ponosov


Mathematical models of gene regulatory networks can in many cases be described by ordinary differential equations with switching nonlinearities, where the initial value problem is ill-posed. Several regularization methods are known in the case of deterministic networks, but the presence of stochastic noise leads to several technical difficulties. In the presentation, it is proposed to apply the methods of the stochastic singular perturbation theory going back to Yu. Kabanov and Yu. Pergamentshchikov. This approach is used to regularize the above ill-posed problem, which, e.g., makes it possible to design stable numerical schemes. Several examples are provided in the presentation, which support the efficiency of the suggested analysis. The method can also be of interest in other fields of biomathematics, where differential equations contain switchings, e.g., in neural field models.

Keywords: ill-posed problems, singular perturbation analysis, stochastic differential equations, switching nonlinearities

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18 Wally Feelings Test: Validity and Reliability Study

Authors: Gökhan Kayili, Ramazan Ari


In this research, it is aimed to be adapted Wally Feelings Test to Turkish children and performed the reliability and validity analysis of the test. The sampling of the research was composed of three to five year-old 699 Turkish preschoolers who are attending official and private nursery school. The schools selected with simple random sampling method by considering different socio economic conditions and different central district in Konya. In order to determine reliability of Wally Feelings Test, internal consistency coefficients (KR-20), split-half reliability and test- retest reliability analysis have been performed. During validation process construct validity, content/scope validity and concurrent/criterion validity were used. When validity and reliability of the test examined, it is seen that Wally Feelings Test is a valid and reliable instrument to evaluate three to five year old Turkish children’s understanding feeling skills.

Keywords: reliability, validity, wally feelings test, social sciences

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17 Finite Element Analysis of RC Frames with Retrofitted Infill Walls

Authors: M. Ömer Timurağaoğlu, Adem Doğangün, Ramazan Livaoğlu


The evaluation of performance of infilled reinforced concrete (RC) frames has been a significant challenge for engineers. The strengthening of infill walls has been an important concern to enhance the behavior of RC infilled frames. The aim of this study is to investigate the behaviour of retrofitted infill walls of RC frames using finite element analysis. For this purpose, a one storey, one bay infilled and strengthened infilled RC frame which have the same geometry and material properties with the frames tested in laboratory are modelled using different analytical approaches. A fibrous material is used to strengthen infill walls and frame. As a consequence, the results of the finite element analysis were evaluated of whether these analytical approaches estimate the behavior or not. To model the infilled and strengthened infilled RC frames, a finite element program ABAQUS is used. Finally, data obtained from the nonlinear finite element analysis is compared with the experimental results.

Keywords: finite element analysis, infilled RC frames, infill wall, strengthening

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16 Stability of Solutions of Semidiscrete Stochastic Systems

Authors: Ramazan Kadiev, Arkadi Ponossov


Semidiscrete systems contain both continuous and discrete components. This means that the dynamics is mostly continuous, but at certain instants, it is exposed to abrupt influences. Such systems naturally appear in applications, for example, in biological and ecological models as well as in the control theory. Therefore, the study of semidiscrete systems has recently attracted the attention of many specialists. Stochastic effects are an important part of any realistic approach to modeling. For example, stochasticity arises in the population dynamics, demographic and ecological due to a change in time of factors external to the system affecting the survival of the population. In control theory, random coefficients can simulate inaccuracies in measurements. It will be shown in the presentation how to incorporate such effects into semidiscrete systems. Stability analysis is an essential part of modeling real-world problems. In the presentation, it will be explained how sufficient conditions for the moment stability of solutions in terms of the coefficients for linear semidiscrete stochastic equations can be derived using non-Lyapunov technique.

Keywords: abrupt changes, exponential stability, regularization, stochastic noises

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15 The Pomade for Treatment of Bovine Papilomavirus-Induced Warts in Teats

Authors: Mehmet Kale, Ramazan Sencan, Sibel Yavru, Ahmet Ak, Nuri Mamak, Sibel Hasırcıoglu, Mesih Kocamuftuoglu, Yakup Yıldırım, Hasbi Sait Saltık


Bovine Papilloma Virus (BPV)-induced warts can cause mastitis, teat blindness, reduction of milk yield, udder deformities, and a difficulty in getting the teats into the milking machine. Especially, surgical operations cannot be performed in BPV-induced teat warts because of the increased sensitivity of the breast region and small-sized papillomas. Thus, there is a need to find new topical treatment methods. We have developed a pomade for treatment of BPV in cattle. The pomade is consists of lanoline, snakeskin (two special kind of snake), alcohol, vaseline, and ether. Firstly, we determined 46 cattle with teat warts. In the study, BPV antigen was detected in 28 cattle blood samples (61%) by ELISA. The pomade was applied to all BPV infected animals. The regression and recovery of warts were 100% in all animals. We advised using the pomade for treatment of BPV-induced warts in teats.

Keywords: bovine papilloma virus, pomade, teat, udder

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14 An Experimental Study on Some Conventional and Hybrid Models of Fuzzy Clustering

Authors: Jeugert Kujtila, Kristi Hoxhalli, Ramazan Dalipi, Erjon Cota, Ardit Murati, Erind Bedalli


Clustering is a versatile instrument in the analysis of collections of data providing insights of the underlying structures of the dataset and enhancing the modeling capabilities. The fuzzy approach to the clustering problem increases the flexibility involving the concept of partial memberships (some value in the continuous interval [0, 1]) of the instances in the clusters. Several fuzzy clustering algorithms have been devised like FCM, Gustafson-Kessel, Gath-Geva, kernel-based FCM, PCM etc. Each of these algorithms has its own advantages and drawbacks, so none of these algorithms would be able to perform superiorly in all datasets. In this paper we will experimentally compare FCM, GK, GG algorithm and a hybrid two-stage fuzzy clustering model combining the FCM and Gath-Geva algorithms. Firstly we will theoretically dis-cuss the advantages and drawbacks for each of these algorithms and we will describe the hybrid clustering model exploiting the advantages and diminishing the drawbacks of each algorithm. Secondly we will experimentally compare the accuracy of the hybrid model by applying it on several benchmark and synthetic datasets.

Keywords: fuzzy clustering, fuzzy c-means algorithm (FCM), Gustafson-Kessel algorithm, hybrid clustering model

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13 Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process for Determination of Supply Chain Performance Evaluation Criteria

Authors: Ibrahim Cil, Onur Kurtcu, H. Ibrahim Demir, Furkan Yener, Yusuf. S. Turkan, Muharrem Unver, Ramazan Evren


Fuzzy AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process) method is decision-making way at the end of integrating the current AHP method with fuzzy structure. In this study, the processes of production planning, inventory management and purchasing department of a system were analysed and were requested to decide the performance criteria of each area. At this point, the current work processes were analysed by various decision-makers and comparing each criteria by giving points according to 1-9 scale were completed. The criteria were listed in order to their weights by using Fuzzy AHP approach and top three performance criteria of each department were determined. After that, the performance criteria of supply chain consisting of three departments were asked to determine. The processes of each department were compared by decision-makers at the point of building the supply chain performance system and getting the performance criteria. According to the results, the criteria of performance system of supply chain by using Fuzzy AHP were determined for which will be used in the supply chain performance system in the future.

Keywords: AHP, fuzzy, performance evaluation, supply chain

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12 Carvacrol Attenuates Lung Injury in Rats with Severe Acute Pancreatitis

Authors: Salim Cerig, Fatime Geyikoglu, Pınar Akpulat, Suat Colak, Hasan Turkez, Murat Bakir, Mirkhalil Hosseinigouzdagani, Kubra Koc


This study was designed to evaluate whether carvacrol (CAR) could provide protection against lung injury by acute pancreatitis development. The rats were randomized into groups to receive (I) no therapy; (II) 50 μg/kg cerulein at 1h intervals by four intraperitoneal injections (i.p.); (III) 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg CAR by one i.p.; and (IV) cerulein+CAR after 2h of cerulein injection. 12h later, serum samples were obtained to assess pancreatic function the lipase and amylase values. The animals were euthanized and lung samples were excised. The specimens were stained with hematoxylin-eosin (H&E), periodic acid–Schif (PAS), Mallory's trichrome and amyloid. Additionally, oxidative DNA damage was determined by measuring as increases in 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG) adducts. The results showed that the serum activity of lipase and amylase in AP rats were significantly reduced after the therapy (p<0.05). We also found that the 100 mg/kg dose of CAR significantly decreased 8-OH-dG levels. Moreover, the severe pathological findings in the lung such as necrosis, inflammation, congestion, fibrosis, and thickened alveolar septum were attenuated in the AP+CAR groups when compared with AP group. Finally, the magnitude of the protective effect on lung is certain, and CAR is an effective therapy for lung injury caused by AP.

Keywords: antioxidant activity, acute pancreatitis, carvacrol, experimental, lung injury, oxidative DNA damage

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11 Hepatoprotective Effect of Oleuropein against Cisplatin-Induced Liver Damage in Rat

Authors: Salim Cerig, Fatime Geyikoglu, Murat Bakir, Suat Colak, Merve Sonmez, Kubra Koc


Cisplatin (CIS) is one of the most effective an anticancer drug and also toxic to cells by activating oxidative stress. Oleuropein (OLE) has key role against oxidative stress in mammalian cells, but the role of this antioxidant in the toxicity of CIS remains unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate the efficacy of OLE on CIS-induced liver damages in male rats. With this aim, male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly assigned to one of eight groups: Control group; the group treated with 7 mg/kg/day CIS; the groups treated with 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg/day OLE (i.p.); and the groups treated with OLE for three days starting at 24 h following CIS injection. After 4 days of injections, serum was provided to assess the blood AST, ALT and LDH values. The liver tissues were removed for histological, biochemical (TAC, TOS and MDA) and genotoxic evaluations. In the CIS treated group, the whole liver tissue showed significant histological changes. Also, CIS significantly increased both the incidence of oxidative stress and the induction of 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG). Moreover, the rats taking CIS have abnormal results on liver function tests. However, these parameters reached to the normal range after administration of OLE for 3 days. Finally, OLE demonstrated an acceptable high potential and was effective in attenuating CIS-induced liver injury. In this trial, the 200 mg/kg dose of OLE firstly appeared to induce the most optimal protective response.

Keywords: antioxidant response, cisplatin, histology, liver, oleuropein, 8-OhdG

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10 Authority and Responsibility of Turkish Physical Education Teachers

Authors: Mufide Cotuk, Muslim Bakir


National education in Turkey aims to provide superior education opportunities to students in order to develop their intellectual abilities in accordance with contemporary pedagogy. Physical education (PE) plays an important role in this context. Various factors affect the quality and efficiency of the process of PE. Factors related to governance are crucially important, especially those of authority and responsibility. For educational institutions at high school level, the factors affecting authority and responsibility have not been clearly delineated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine authority and responsibility of PE teachers as the balance between them. The study sample consisted of 60 PE teachers (19 women, 41 men) at 57 high schools in Istanbul (65% state and 35% private institutions). All PE teachers completed the study questionnaire collecting demographic and institutional data as knowledge and attitudes regarding authority and responsibility issues. The determination of authority and responsibility of PE teachers has been grounded on the law for government officials, course-passing regulations, and school sports regulations. The PE teachers declared as the primary source of their authority and responsibility ‘school sports regulations’ (56,7% of PE teachers), ‘course-passing regulations’ (36,7% of PE teachers) and ‘the law for government officials’ (30,0% of PE teachers). The PE teachers mentioned that the school administration burdened them with additional responsibilities (58,3% of PE teachers). Such ‘additional’ responsibilities were primarily related to ‘disciplinary regulations’ (21,7% of PE teachers) and ‘maintenance of school order’ (16,0% of PE teachers). In conclusion, authority and responsibility of PE teachers were not well balanced. As authority issues were not clearly stated, ‘compulsory’ responsibilities increased causing this imbalance.

Keywords: authority, PE teacher, responsibility, sport management

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9 Antioxidant Potential and Inhibition of Key Enzymes Linked to Alzheimer's Diseases and Diabetes Mellitus by Monoterpene-Rich Essential Oil from Sideritis Galatica Bornm. Endemic to Turkey

Authors: Gokhan Zengin, Cengiz Sarikurkcu, Abdurrahman Aktumsek, Ramazan Ceylan


The present study was designated to characterize the essential oil from S. galatica (SGEOs) and evaluate its antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory activities. Antioxidant capacity were tested different methods including free radical scavenging (DPPH, ABTS and NO), reducing power (FRAP and CUPRAC), metal chelating and phosphomolybdenum. Inhibitory activities were analyzed on acetylcholiesterase, butrylcholinesterase, α-amylase and α-glucosidase. SGEOs were chemically analyzed and identified by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography/mass spectrophotometry (GC/MS). 23 components, representing 98.1% of SGEOs were identified. Monoterpene hydrocarbons (74.1%), especially α- (23.0%) and β-pinene (32.2%), were the main constituents in SGEOs. The main sesquiterpene hydrocarbons were β-caryophyllene (16.9%), Germacrene-D (1.2%) and Caryophyllene oxide (1.2%), respectively. Generally, SGEOs has shown moderate free radical, reducing power, metal chelating and enzyme inhibitory activities. These activities related to chemical profile in SGEOs. Our findings supported that the possible utility of SGEOs is a source of natural agents for food, cosmetics or pharmaceutical industries.

Keywords: sideritis galatica, antioxidant, monoterpenes, cholinesterase, anti-diabetic

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8 Numerical Verification of a Backfill-Rectangular Tank-Fluid System

Authors: Ramazan Livaoğlu, Tufan Çakır


The performance of rectangular tanks during earthquakes has been observed to depend significantly on the existence of water in the container and the presence of the backfill acting on tank wall. Therefore, in design of rectangular tanks, the topics of fluid-structure-backfill interactions and determination of modal characteristics of the interaction system have traditionally been one of the great theoretical and practical controversy. Although finite element method has been and will continue to be used to a significant extent in treating the response of the system, experimental verification of numerical models remains prerequisite for their adoption and reliable application in practice. Thus, in this study, the numerical and experimental investigations were performed on the backfill-exterior wall-fluid interaction system. Firstly, three dimensional finite element model (3D-FEM) was developed to acquire modal frequencies and mode shapes of the system by means of ANSYS. Secondly, a series of in-situ tests were fulfilled to define modal characteristics of same system to determine the applicability of the FEM to a real physical situation under field conditions. Finally, comparing the theoretical predictions from the model to results from experimental measurement, a close agreement was found between theory and experiment. Thus, it can be easily stated that experimental verification provides strong support for the use of proposed model in further investigations.

Keywords: fluid-structure interaction, modal analysis, rectangular tank, soil structure interaction

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7 Identifying of Hybrid Lines for Lpx-B1 Gene in Durum Wheat

Authors: Özlem Ateş Sönmezoğlu, Begüm Terzi, Ahmet Yıldırım, Ramazan Özbey


The basic criteria which determine durum wheat quality is its suitability for pasta processing that is pasta making quality. Bright yellow color is a desired property in pasta products. Durum wheat pasta making quality is affected by grain pigment content and oxidative enzymes which affect adversely bright yellow color. Of the oxidative enzymes, lipoxygenase LOX is the most effective one on oxidative bleaching of yellow pigments in durum wheat products. Thus, wheat cultivars that are high in yellow pigments but low in LOX enzyme activity should be preferred for the production of pasta with high color quality. The aim of this study was to reduce lipoxygenase activities of the backcross durum wheat lines that were previously improved for their protein quality. For this purpose, two advanced lines with different parents (TMB2 and TMB3) were used recurrent parents. Also, Gediz-75 wheat with low LOX enzyme activity was used as the gene source. In all of the generations, backcrossed plants carrying the targeted gene region (Lpx-B1.1) were selected using SSR markers by marker assisted selection method. As a result, the study will be completed in three years instead of six years required in a classical backcross breeding study, leading to the development of high-quality candidate varieties. This research has been financially supported by TÜBİTAK (Project No: 112T910).

Keywords: durum wheat, lipoxygenase, LOX, Lpx-B1.1, MAS, Triticum durum

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6 Study of the Effect of the Contra-Rotating Component on the Performance of the Centrifugal Compressor

Authors: Van Thang Nguyen, Amelie Danlos, Richard Paridaens, Farid Bakir


This article presents a study of the effect of a contra-rotating component on the efficiency of centrifugal compressors. A contra-rotating centrifugal compressor (CRCC) is constructed using two independent rotors, rotating in the opposite direction and replacing the single rotor of a conventional centrifugal compressor (REF). To respect the geometrical parameters of the REF one, two rotors of the CRCC are designed, based on a single rotor geometry, using the hub and shroud length ratio parameter of the meridional contour. Firstly, the first rotor is designed by choosing a value of length ratio. Then, the second rotor is calculated to be adapted to the fluid flow of the first rotor according aerodynamics principles. In this study, four values of length ratios 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, and 0.6 are used to create four configurations CF1, CF2, CF3, and CF4 respectively. For comparison purpose, the circumferential velocity at the outlet of the REF and the CRCC are preserved, which means that the single rotor of the REF and the second rotor of the CRCC rotate with the same speed of 16000rpm. The speed of the first rotor in this case is chosen to be equal to the speed of the second rotor. The CFD simulation is conducted to compare the performance of the CRCC and the REF with the same boundary conditions. The results show that the configuration with a higher length ratio gives higher pressure rise. However, its efficiency is lower. An investigation over the entire operating range shows that the CF1 is the best configuration in this case. In addition, the CRCC can improve the pressure rise as well as the efficiency by changing the speed of each rotor independently. The results of changing the first rotor speed show with a 130% speed increase, the pressure ratio rises of 8.7% while the efficiency remains stable at the flow rate of the design operating point.

Keywords: centrifugal compressor, contra-rotating, interaction rotor, vacuum

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5 Corrosion Behvaior of CS1018 in Various CO2 Capture Solvents

Authors: Aida Rafat, Ramazan Kahraman, Mert Atilhan


The aggressive corrosion behavior of conventional amine solvents is one of main barriers against large scale commerizaliation of amine absorption process for carbon capture application. Novel CO2 absorbents that exhibit minimal corrosivity against operation conditions are essential to lower corrosion damage and control and ensure more robustness in the capture plant. This work investigated corrosion behavior of carbon steel CS1018 in various CO2 absrobent solvents. The tested solvents included the classical amines MEA, DEA and MDEA, piperazine activated solvents MEA/PZ, MDEA/PZ and MEA/MDEA/PZ as well as mixtures of MEA and Room Temperature Ionic Liquids RTIL, namely MEA/[C4MIM][BF4] and MEA/[C4MIM][Otf]. Electrochemical polarization technique was used to determine the system corrosiveness in terms of corrosion rate and polarization behavior. The process parameters of interest were CO2 loading and solution temperature. Electrochemical resulted showed corrosivity order of classical amines at 40°C is MDEA> MEA > DEA wherase at 80°C corrosivity ranking changes to MEA > DEA > MDEA. Corrosivity rankings were mainly governed by CO2 absorption capacity at the test temperature. Corrosivity ranking for activated amines at 80°C was MEA/PZ > MDEA/PZ > MEA/MDEA/PZ. Piperazine addition seemed to have a dual advanatge in terms of enhancing CO2 absorption capacity as well as nullifying corrosion. For MEA/RTIL mixtures, the preliminary results showed that the partial repalcement of aqueous phase in MEA solution by the more stable nonvolatile RTIL solvents reduced corrosion rates considerably.

Keywords: corrosion, amines, CO2 capture, piperazine, ionic liquids

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4 Effects of Alpha Lipoic Acid on Limb Lengths in Neonatal Rats Exposed to Maternal Tobacco Smoke

Authors: Ramazan F. Akkoc, Elif Erdem, Nalan Kaya, Gonca Ozan, D. Özlem Dabak, Enver Ozan


Maternal tobacco smoke exposure is known to cause growth retardation in the neonatal skeletal system. Alpha lipoic acid, a natural antioxidant found in some foods, limits the activities of osteoclasts and supports the osteoblast's bone formation mechanism. In this study, it was aimed to investigate the effects of alpha lipoic acid (ALA) on the height, long bones and tail lengths of pups exposed to maternal tobacco smoke. The rats were divided into four groups: 1) control group, 2) tobacco smoke group, 3) tobacco smoke + ALA group, and 4) ALA group. Rats in the group 2 (tobacco smoke), group 3 (tobacco smoke + ALA) were exposed to tobacco smoke twice a day for one hour starting from eight weeks before mating and during pregnancy. In addition to tobacco smoke, 20 mg/kg of alpha lipoic acid was administered via oral gavage to the rats in the group 3 (tobacco smoke + ALA). Only alpha lipoic acid was administered to the rats in the group 4. On day 21 postpartum, the height and tail lengths of the pups in all groups were measured, and the length of the extremity long bones was measured after decapitation. All morphometric measurements performed in group 2 (tobacco smoke) showed a significant decrease compared to group 1 (control), while all measurements in group 3 (tobacco smoke + ALA) showed a significant increase compared to group 2 (tobacco smoke). It has been shown that ALA has a protective effect against the regression of height, long bones and tail lengths of pups exposed to maternal tobacco smoke.

Keywords: alpha lipoic acid, bone, morphometry, rat, tobacco smoke

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3 Nucleotide Based Validation of the Endangered Plant Diospyros mespiliformis (Ebenaceae) by Evaluating Short Sequence Region of Plastid rbcL Gene

Authors: Abdullah Alaklabi, Ibrahim A. Arif, Sameera O. Bafeel, Ahmad H. Alfarhan, Anis Ahamed, Jacob Thomas, Mohammad A. Bakir


Diospyros mespiliformis (Hochst. ex A.DC.; Ebenaceae) is a large deciduous medicinal plant. This plant species is currently listed as endangered in Saudi Arabia. Molecular identification of this plant species based on short sequence regions (571 and 664 bp) of plastid rbcL (ribulose-1, 5-biphosphate carboxylase) gene was investigated in this study. The endangered plant specimens were collected from Al-Baha, Saudi Arabia (GPS coordinate: 19.8543987, 41.3059349). Phylogenetic tree inferred from the rbcL gene sequences showed that this species is very closely related with D. brandisiana. The close relationship was also observed among D. bejaudii, D. Philippinensis and D. releyi (≥99.7% sequence homology). The partial rbcL gene sequence region (571 bp) that was amplified by rbcL primer-pair rbcLaF-rbcLaR failed to discriminate D. mespiliformis from the closely related plant species, D. brandisiana. In contrast, primer-pair rbcL1F-rbcL724R yielded longer amplicon, discriminated the species from D. brandisiana and demonstrated nucleotide variations in 3 different sites (645G>T; 663A>C; 710C>G). Although D. mespiliformis (EU980712) and D. brandisiana (EU980656) are very closely related species (99.4%); however, studied specimen showed 100% sequence homology with D. mespiliformis and 99.6% with D. brandisiana. The present findings showed that rbcL short sequence region (664 bp) of plastid rbcL gene, amplified by primer-pair rbcL1F-rbcL724R, can be used for authenticating samples of D. mespiliforformis and may provide help in authentic identification and management process of this medicinally valuable endangered plant species.

Keywords: Diospyros mespiliformis, endangered plant, identification partial rbcL

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2 The Socio-Technical Relationship between Architects and Nano-Enhanced Materials: An Ethnographic Study in Cairo, Egypt

Authors: Ramy Bakir


Advancements in the field of nanoscience and nanotechnology have had a sweeping effect on the manufacturing industry in the last two decades, and have specifically allowed for the enhancement of a multitude of applications in the field of building technology. Research carried out in the architectural field in the past decade highlights how those enhancements have improved the structural and environmental performance of buildings, and/or how they developed the aesthetic value of façade or interior treatments. In developing countries, such as Egypt, the actual use of those nano-enhanced applications and their benefits rarely manifest. Hence this paper investigates the socio-technical relationship between the architectural design process and nanotechnology in Cairo using participant observation within an ethnographic study. The study focused on the socio-cultural context of an environmental design process in a specific design firm, and the role of nano-enhanced applications in it, and provided a thick description of the design decisions made within the preliminary stages of the design process of a residential building in Cairo, Egypt. Using Grounded Theory, and through the analysis and coding of the qualitative data collected, this paper was able to identify specific socio-cultural issues influencing individual architect cognition, clarifying how the context of the design process of the studied project affected the design team members’ responses to nano-enhanced materials. This paper presents those findings within a framework of the three identified statuses of response to nanotechnology and classifies the socio-cultural reasons influencing them. In doing so, the paper aims to shed more light on the relation between nanotechnology and architects in their natural environment, and hence allow both to benefit more from a clearer understanding of how the socio-cultural context, along with the benefits of using nanotechnology, influences the design decisions made.

Keywords: nanotechnology, design process, socio-cultural context, nano-enhanced applications

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1 Anatomical and Histological Analysis of Salpinx and Ovary in Anatolian Wild Goat (Capra aegagrus aegagrus)

Authors: Gulseren Kirbas, Mushap Kuru, Buket Bakir, Ebru Karadag Sari


Capra (mountain goat) is a genus comprising nine species. The domestic goat (C. aegagrus hircus) is a subspecies of the wild goat that is domesticated. This study aimed to determine the anatomical structure of the salpinx and ovary of the Anatolian wild goat (C. aegagrus aegagrus). Animals that were taken to the Kafkas University Wildlife Rescue and Rehabilitation Center, Kars, Turkey, because of various reasons, such as traffic accidents and firearm injuries, were used in this study. The salpinges and ovaries of four wild goats of similar ages, which could not be rescued by the Center despite all interventions, were dissected. Measurements were taken from the right-left salpinx and ovary using digital calipers. The weights of each ovary and salpinx were measured using a precision scale (min: 0.0001 g − max: 220 g, code: XB220A; Precisa, Swiss). The histological structure of the tissues was examined after weighing the organs. The tissue samples were fixed in 10% formaldehyde for 24 h. Then a routine procedure was applied, and the tissues were embedded in paraffin. Mallory’s modified triple staining was used to demonstrate the general structure of the salpinx. The salpinx was found to consist of three different regions (infundibulum, ampulla, and isthmus). These regions consisted of tunica mucosa, tunica muscularis, and tunica serosa. The prismatic epithelial cells were observed in the lamina epithelialis of tunica mucosa in every region, but the prismatic fimbrae cells occurred most in the infundibulum. The ampulla was distinguished by its many mucosal folds. It was the longest region of the salpinx and was joined to the isthmus via the ampullary–isthmus junction. Isthmus was the caudal end of the salpinx joined to the uterus and had the thickest tunica muscularis compared with the other regions. The mean length of the ovary was 13.22 ± 1.27 mm, width was 8.46 ± 0.88 mm, the thickness was 5.67 ± 0.79 mm, and weight was 0.59 ± 0.17 g. The average length of the salpinx was 58.11 ± 14.02 mm, width was 0.80 ± 0.22 mm, the thickness was 0.41 ± 0.01 mm, and weight was 0.30 ± 0.08 g. In conclusion, the Anatolian wild goat, which is included in wildlife diversity in Turkey, has been disappearing due to illegal and uncontrolled hunting as well as traffic accidents in recent years. These findings are believed to contribute to the literature.

Keywords: Anatolian wild goat, anatomy, ovary, salpinx

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