Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 13492

Search results for: 3D model marking

13492 Particle Swarm Optimization Based Method for Minimum Initial Marking in Labeled Petri Nets

Authors: Hichem Kmimech, Achref Jabeur Telmoudi, Lotfi Nabli

Abstract:

The estimation of the initial marking minimum (MIM) is a crucial problem in labeled Petri nets. In the case of multiple choices, the search for the initial marking leads to a problem of optimization of the minimum allocation of resources with two constraints. The first concerns the firing sequence that could be legal on the initial marking with respect to the firing vector. The second deals with the total number of tokens that can be minimal. In this article, the MIM problem is solved by the meta-heuristic particle swarm optimization (PSO). The proposed approach presents the advantages of PSO to satisfy the two previous constraints and find all possible combinations of minimum initial marking with the best computing time. This method, more efficient than conventional ones, has an excellent impact on the resolution of the MIM problem. We prove through a set of definitions, lemmas, and examples, the effectiveness of our approach.

Keywords: marking, production system, labeled Petri nets, particle swarm optimization

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13491 Retro-Reflectivity and Diffuse Reflectivity Degradation of Thermoplastic Pavement Marking: A Case Study on Asphaltic Road in Thailand

Authors: Kittichai Thanasupsin, Satis Sukniam

Abstract:

Pavement marking is an essential task of road construction and maintenance. One of several benefits of pavement markings has been used to provide information about road alignment and road conditions ahead. In some cases, retro-reflectivity of road marking at night may not meet the standard. This degradation may be caused by internal factors such as the size of glass beads and the number of glass beads or external factors such as traffic volume, lane width, vehicle weight, and so on. This research aims to investigate the reflective efficiency of thermoplastic road marking with the glass beads. Ratios of glass beads, ranging from 359 to 553 grams per square meter on an asphaltic concrete, have been tested. The reflective efficiency data was collected at the beginning and at a specific time interval for a total of 8 months. It was found that the difference in glass beads quantity affects the rate of retro-reflectivity but does not affect the diffuse reflectivity. It was also found that other factors affect retro-reflectivity, such as duration, the position of road marking, traffic density, the quantity of glass beads, and dirt coating on top. The dirt coating on top is the most crucial factor that deteriorating retro-reflectivity.

Keywords: thermoplastic pavement marking, retro-reflectivity, diffuse reflectivity, asphalt concrete

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13490 Vision and Challenges of Developing VR-Based Digital Anatomy Learning Platforms and a Solution Set for 3D Model Marking

Authors: Gizem Kayar, Ramazan Bakir, M. Ilkay Koşar, Ceren U. Gencer, Alperen Ayyildiz

Abstract:

Anatomy classes are crucial for general education of medical students, whereas learning anatomy is quite challenging and requires memorization of thousands of structures. In traditional teaching methods, learning materials are still based on books, anatomy mannequins, or videos. This results in forgetting many important structures after several years. However, more interactive teaching methods like virtual reality, augmented reality, gamification, and motion sensors are becoming more popular since such methods ease the way we learn and keep the data in mind for longer terms. During our study, we designed a virtual reality based digital head anatomy platform to investigate whether a fully interactive anatomy platform is effective to learn anatomy and to understand the level of teaching and learning optimization. The Head is one of the most complicated human anatomy structures, with thousands of tiny, unique structures. This makes the head anatomy one of the most difficult parts to understand during class sessions. Therefore, we developed a fully interactive digital tool with 3D model marking, quiz structures, 2D/3D puzzle structures, and VR support so as to integrate the power of VR and gamification. The project has been developed in Unity game engine with HTC Vive Cosmos VR headset. The head anatomy 3D model has been selected with full skeletal, muscular, integumentary, head, teeth, lymph, and vein system. The biggest issue during the development was the complexity of our model and the marking of it in the 3D world system. 3D model marking requires to access to each unique structure in the counted subsystems which means hundreds of marking needs to be done. Some parts of our 3D head model were monolithic. This is why we worked on dividing such parts to subparts which is very time-consuming. In order to subdivide monolithic parts, one must use an external modeling tool. However, such tools generally come with high learning curves, and seamless division is not ensured. Second option was to integrate tiny colliders to all unique items for mouse interaction. However, outside colliders which cover inner trigger colliders cause overlapping, and these colliders repel each other. Third option is using raycasting. However, due to its own view-based nature, raycasting has some inherent problems. As the model rotate, view direction changes very frequently, and directional computations become even harder. This is why, finally, we studied on the local coordinate system. By taking the pivot point of the model into consideration (back of the nose), each sub-structure is marked with its own local coordinate with respect to the pivot. After converting the mouse position to the world position and checking its relation with the corresponding structure’s local coordinate, we were able to mark all points correctly. The advantage of this method is its applicability and accuracy for all types of monolithic anatomical structures.

Keywords: anatomy, e-learning, virtual reality, 3D model marking

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13489 The Use of Mobile Phone as Enhancement to Mark Multiple Choice Objectives English Grammar and Literature Examination: An Exploratory Case Study of Preliminary National Diploma Students, Abdu Gusau Polytechnic, Talata Mafara, Zamfara State, Nigeria

Authors: T. Abdulkadir

Abstract:

Most often, marking and assessment of multiple choice kinds of examinations have been opined by many as a cumbersome and herculean task to accomplished manually in Nigeria. Usually this may be in obvious nexus to the fact that mass numbers of candidates were known to take the same examination simultaneously. Eventually, marking such a mammoth number of booklets dared and dread even the fastest paid examiners who often undertake the job with the resulting consequences of stress and boredom. This paper explores the evolution, as well as the set aim to envision and transcend marking the Multiple Choice Objectives- type examination into a thing of creative recreation, or perhaps a more relaxing activity via the use of the mobile phone. A more “pragmatic” dimension method was employed to achieve this work, rather than the formal “in-depth research” based approach due to the “novelty” of the mobile-smartphone e-Marking Scheme discovery. Moreover, being an evolutionary scheme, no recent academic work shares a direct same topic concept with the ‘use of cell phone as an e-marking technique’ was found online; thus, the dearth of even miscellaneous citations in this work. Additional future advancements are what steered the anticipatory motive of this paper which laid the fundamental proposition. However, the paper introduces for the first time the concept of mobile-smart phone e-marking, the steps to achieve it, as well as the merits and demerits of the technique all spelt out in the subsequent pages.

Keywords: cell phone, e-marking scheme (eMS), mobile phone, mobile-smart phone, multiple choice objectives (MCO), smartphone

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13488 Real-Time Lane Marking Detection Using Weighted Filter

Authors: Ayhan Kucukmanisa, Orhan Akbulut, Oguzhan Urhan

Abstract:

Nowadays, advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) have become popular, since they enable safe driving. Lane detection is a vital step for ADAS. The performance of the lane detection process is critical to obtain a high accuracy lane departure warning system (LDWS). Challenging factors such as road cracks, erosion of lane markings, weather conditions might affect the performance of a lane detection system. In this paper, 1-D weighted filter based on row filtering to detect lane marking is proposed. 2-D input image is filtered by 1-D weighted filter considering four-pixel values located symmetrically around the center of candidate pixel. Performance evaluation is carried out by two metrics which are true positive rate (TPR) and false positive rate (FPR). Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed approach provides better lane marking detection accuracy compared to the previous methods while providing real-time processing performance.

Keywords: lane marking filter, lane detection, ADAS, LDWS

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13487 The Impact of Initiators on Fast Drying Traffic Marking Paint

Authors: Maryam Taheri, Mehdi Jahanfar, Kenji Ogino

Abstract:

Fast drying traffic marking paint comprising a solvent-borne resin, a filler, a pigment and a solvent that is especially suitable for colder ambient (temperatures near freezing) applications, where waterborne traffic paint cannot be used. Acrylic resins based on methyl methacrylate, butyl acrylate, acrylic acid, and styrene were synthesized in different solvents using organic peroxide initiators such as peroxyester, peroxyketal, dialkylperoxide and azo. After polymerization, the molecular weight (Mw), polydispersity index= PDI (Mw/Mn), viscosity, total residual monomer and APHA color were evaluated and results of organic peroxide initiators (t- butyl and t-amyl derivatives) were also compared with the azo initiator. The Mw, PDI, viscosity, mass conversation and APHA color of resins with t-amyl derivatives of organic peroxide initiators are very proper. The results of the traffic marking paints test such as non-volatile matter, no- pick- up time, hiding power, resistance to wear and water resistance study that produced with these resins also confirm this.

Keywords: fast drying traffic marking paint, acrylic resin, organic peroxide initiator, peroxyester, peroxyketal, dialkylperoxide and azo initiator

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13486 Learning in the Virtual Laboratory via Design of Automation Process for Wooden Hammers Marking

Authors: A. Javorova, J. Oravcova, K. Velisek

Abstract:

The article summarizes the experience of technical subjects teaching methodologies using a number of software products to solve specific assigned tasks described in this paper. Task is about the problems of automation and mechanization in the industry. Specifically, it focuses on introducing automation in the wood industry. The article describes the design of the automation process for marking wooden hammers. Similar problems are solved by students in CA laboratory.

Keywords: CA system, education, simulation, subject

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13485 Application of Scoring Rubrics by Lecturers towards Objective Assessment of Essay Questions in the Department of Social Science Education, University of Calabar, Nigeria

Authors: Donald B. Enu, Clement O. Ukpor, Abigail E. Okon

Abstract:

Unreliable scoring of students’ performance by lecturers short-chains students’ assessment in terms of underequipping the school authority with facts as intended by society through the curriculum hence, the learners, the school and the society are cheated because the usefulness of testing is defeated. This study, therefore, examined lecturers’ scoring objectivity of essay items in the Department of Social Science Education, University of Calabar, Nigeria. Specifically, it assessed lecturers’ perception of the relevance of scoring rubrics and its level of application. Data were collected from all the 36 lecturers in the Department (28 members and 8 non-members adjourned to the department), through a 20-item questionnaire and checklist instruments. A case-study design was adopted. Descriptive statistics of frequency counts, weighted means, standard deviations, and percentages were used to analyze data gathered. A mean score of 2.5 and or 60 percent and above formed the acceptance or significant level in decision taking. It was found that lecturers perceived the use of scoring rubrics as a relevant practice to ensure fairness and reliable treatment of examiners scripts particularly in marking essay items and that there is a moderately high level of adherence to the application of scoring rubrics. It was also observed that some criteria necessary for the scoring objectivity of essay items were not fully put in place in the department. It was recommended strongly that students’ identities be hidden while marking and that pre-determined marking scheme should be prepared centrally and strictly adhered to during marking and recording of scores. Conference marking should be enforced in the department.

Keywords: essay items, objective scoring, scorers reliability, scoring rubrics

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13484 Exposure Assessment for Worker Exposed to Heavy Metals during Road Marking Operations

Authors: Yin-Hsuan Wu, Perng-Jy Tsai, Ying-Fang Wang, Shun-Hui Chung

Abstract:

The present study was conducted to characterize exposure concentrations, concentrations deposited on the different respiratory regions, and resultant health risks associated with heavy metal exposures for road marking workers. Road marking workers of three similar exposure groups (SEGs) were selected, including the paint pouring worker, marking worker, and preparing worker. Personal exposure samples were collected using an inhalable dust sampler (IOM), and the involved particle size distribution samples were estimated using an eight-stage Marple personal cascade impactor during five working days. In total, 25 IOM samples and 20 Marple samples were collected. All collected samples were analyzed for their heavy metal contents using the ICP/MS. The resultant heavy metal particle size distributions were also used to estimate the fractions of particle deposited on the head airways (Chead), tracheobronchial (Cthorac) and alveolar regions (Cresp) of the exposed workers. In addition, Pb and Cr were selected to estimate the incremental cancer risk, and Zn, Ti, and Mo were selected to estimate the corresponding non-cancer risk in the present study. Results show that three heavy metals, including Pb, Cr, and Ti, were found with the highest concentrations for the SEG of the paint pouring worker (=0.585±2.98, 0.307±1.71, 0.902±2.99 μg/m³, respectively). For the fraction of heavy metal particle deposited on the respiratory tract, both alveolar and head regions were found with the highest values (=23-43% and 39-61%, respectively). For both SEGs of the paint pouring and marking, 51% of Cr, 59-61% of Zn, and 48-51% of Ti were found to be deposited on the alveolar region, and 41-43% of Pb was deposited on the head region. Finally, the incremental cancer risk for the SEGs of the paint pouring, marking, and preparing were found as 1.08×10⁻⁵, 2.78×10⁻⁶, and 2.20×10⁻⁶, respectively. In addition, the estimated non-cancer risk for the above three SEGs was found to be consistently less than unity. In conclusion, though the estimated non-cancer risk was less than unity, all resultant incremental cancer risk was greater than 10⁻⁶ indicating the abatement of workers’ exposure is necessary. It is suggested that strategies, including placing on the molten kettle, substitution the currently used paints for less heavy metal containing paints, and wearing fume protecting personal protective equipment can be considered in the future from reducing the worker’s exposure aspect.

Keywords: health risk assessment, heavy metal, respiratory track deposition, road marking

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13483 The Mashishing Marking Memories Project: A Culture-Centered Approach to Participation

Authors: Nongcebo Ngcobo

Abstract:

This research explores the importance of including a multitude of voices in the cultural heritage narrative, particularly in South Africa. The Mashishing project is an extension of and builds on the existing ‘Biesje Poort project’ which is a rock art project that was funded by the National Heritage Council in 2010 - 2013. Hence, the Mashishing marking memories project applies comparable Biesje Poort project objectives, though in a different geographical area. The wider project objectives are to transfer skills, promote social cohesion and empowerment, and lastly to add to the knowledge base of the Mashishing region and the repository of the local museum in the Lydenburg museum. This study is located in the Mashishing area, in Mpumalanga, South Africa. In this area, there were no present multi-vocal heritage projects. This research assesses the Mashishing marking memories project through the culture-centered approach for communication for social change, which examines the impact that the diverse participants have on the operations of the Mashishing project and also investigates whether the culturally diverse participants facilitates or hinders effective participation within the project. Key findings of this research uncovered the significance of participation and diverse voices in the cultural heritage field. Furthermore, this study highlights how unequal power relations affect effective participation. As a result, this study encourages the importance of bringing the researcher and the participant in a safe space to facilitate mutual learning. It also encourages an exchange of roles, where the researcher shifts from being an authoritarian figure to being in the role of a listener.

Keywords: culture, heritage, participation, social change

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13482 A Focus Group Study of Student's Attitude towards University Teachers and Semester System

Authors: Sehrish Khan

Abstract:

The present study investigated the attitude of university students towards semester system and teachers with a specific objective of finding problems faced by students in semester system. 10 focus group discussions were conducted among students in five Universities of Hazara Division of KPK regarding their knowledge and attitudes about semester system and problems they faced due to this system and teacher’s attitude. The key findings were the problems like favoritism, gender biased ness, racial biased ness, biased ness in marking, relative marking, harassment, using students for personal tasks and authoritarian attitude from teachers’ side and the heavy tasks in less time which are causing stress among students. It was recommended that proper training and monitoring system should be maintained for evaluation of teachers to minimize the corruption in this sacred profession and maximize the optimal functioning. The information gathered in this research can be used to develop training modules for University teachers.

Keywords: university teachers, favoritism, biasedness, harassment

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13481 Empirical Study of Running Correlations in Exam Marks: Same Statistical Pattern as Chance

Authors: Weisi Guo

Abstract:

It is well established that there may be running correlations in sequential exam marks due to students sitting in the order of course registration patterns. As such, a random and non-sequential sampling of exam marks is a standard recommended practice. Here, the paper examines a large number of exam data stretching several years across different modules to see the degree to which it is true. Using the real mark distribution as a generative process, it was found that random simulated data had no more sequential randomness than the real data. That is to say, the running correlations that one often observes are statistically identical to chance. Digging deeper, it was found that some high running correlations have students that indeed share a common course history and make similar mistakes. However, at the statistical scale of a module question, the combined effect is statistically similar to the random shuffling of papers. As such, there may not be the need to take random samples for marks, but it still remains good practice to mark papers in a random sequence to reduce the repetitive marking bias and errors.

Keywords: data analysis, empirical study, exams, marking

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13480 A New Nonlinear State-Space Model and Its Application

Authors: Abdullah Eqal Al Mazrooei

Abstract:

In this work, a new nonlinear model will be introduced. The model is in the state-space form. The nonlinearity of this model is in the state equation where the state vector is multiplied by its self. This technique makes our model generalizes many famous models as Lotka-Volterra model and Lorenz model which have many applications in the real life. We will apply our new model to estimate the wind speed by using a new nonlinear estimator which suitable to work with our model.

Keywords: nonlinear systems, state-space model, Kronecker product, nonlinear estimator

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13479 Latest Generation Conducted Electrical Weapon Dart Design: Signature Marking and Removal for the Emergency Medicine Professional

Authors: J. D. Ho, D. M. Dawes, B. Driver

Abstract:

Introduction: TASER Conducted Electrical Weapons (CEWs) are the dominant CEWs in use and have been used in modern police and military operations since the late 1990s as a form of non-lethal weaponry. The 3rd generation of CEWs has been recently introduced and is known as The TASER 7. This new CEW will be replacing current CEW technology and has a new dart design that is important for emergency medical professionals to be familiar with because it requires a different method of removal and will leave a different marking pattern in human tissue than they may have been previously familiar with. features of this new dart design include: higher velocity impact, larger impact surface area, break away dart body segment, dual back-barb retention, newly designed removal process. As the TASER 7 begins to be deployed by the police and military personnel, these new features make it imperative that emergency medical professionals become familiar with the signature markings that this new dart design will make on human tissue and how to remove them. Methods: Multiple observational studies using high speed photography were used to record impact patterns of the new dart design on fresh tissue and also the newly recommended dart removal process. Both animal and human subjects were used to test this dart design prior to production release. Results: Data presented will include dart design overview, flight pattern accuracy, impact analysis, and dart removal example. Tissue photographs will be presented to demonstrate examples of signature TASER 7 dart markings that emergency medical professionals can expect to see. Conclusion: This work will provide the reader with an understanding of this newest generation CEW dart design, its key features, its signature marking pattern that can be expected and a recommendation of how to remove it from human tissue.

Keywords: TASER 7, conducted electrical weapon, dart mark, dart removal

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13478 Evaluating the Influence of Road Markings Retroreflectivity on Road Safety in Low Visibility Conditions

Authors: Darko Babic, Maja Modric, Dario Babic, Mario Fiolic

Abstract:

For road markings as a part of traffic control plan, it is considered to have a positive impact on road safety. Their importance is particularly evident in low visibility conditions when the field of vision and the driver's visual acuity are significantly reduced. The aim of this article is to analyze how road marking retroreflectivity affects the frequency of traffic accidents in low visibility conditions. For this purpose, 10,417.4 km single carriageway roads were analysed across Croatia in the period from 2012 to 2016. The research included accidents that may be significantly affected by marking retroreflectivity: head-on collisions, running off the road, hitting a stationary object on the road and hitting a stationary roadside object. The results have shown that the retroreflectivity level is negatively correlated to the total number of accidents and the number of casualties and injuries, which ultimately means that the risk of traffic accidents and deaths and/or injuries of participants will be lower with the increase of road markings retroreflectivity. These results may assist in defining minimum values of retroreflectivity that the markings must meet at any time as well as the suitable technologies and materials for their implementation.

Keywords: retroreflectivity, road markings, traffic accidents, traffic safety

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13477 The Acquisition of Temporality in Italian Child Language: Case Study of Child Frog Story Narratives

Authors: Gabriella Notarianni Burk

Abstract:

The present study investigates the Aspect Hypothesis (AH) in Italian child language in the production of frog story narratives from the CHILDES database. The AH is based on the assumption that children initially encode aspectual and lexical distinctions rather than temporal relations. Children from a variety of first languages have been shown to mark past initially with achievements and accomplishments (telic predicates) and in later stages with states and activities (atelic predicates). Aspectual distinctions in Romance languages are obligatorily and overtly encoded in the inflectional morphology. In Italian the perfective viewpoint is realized by the passato prossimo, which expresses a temporal and aspectual meaning of pastness and perfectivity, whereas the imperfective viewpoint in the past tense is realized by the imperfetto. The aim of this study is to assess the role of lexical aspect in the acquisition of tense and aspect morphology and to understand if Italian children’s mapping of aspectual and temporal distinctions follows consistent developmental patterns across languages. The research methodology aligns with the cross-linguistic designs, tasks and coding procedures previously developed in the frog story literature. Results from two-factor ANOVA show that Italian children (age range: 4-6) exhibited a statistically significant distinction between foregrounded perfective and backgrounded imperfective marking. However, a closer examination of the sixty narratives reveals an idiosyncratic production pattern for Italian children, whereby the marking of imperfetto deviates from the tenets of AH and emerges as deictic tense to entail completed and bounded events in foreground clauses. Instances of ‘perfective’ uses of imperfetto were predominantly found in the four-year old narratives (25%). Furthermore, the analysis of the perfective marking suggests that morphological articulation and diatopic variation may influence the child production of formal linguistic devices in discourse.

Keywords: actionality, aspect, grounding, temporal reference

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13476 Balanced Score Card a Tool to Improve Naac Accreditation – a Case Study in Indian Higher Education

Authors: CA Kishore S. Peshori

Abstract:

Introduction: India, a country with vast diversity and huge population is going to have largest young population by 2020. Higher education has and will always be the basic requirement for making a developing nation to a developed nation. To improve any system it needs to be bench-marked. There have been various tools for bench-marking the systems. Education is delivered in India by universities which are mainly funded by government. This universities for delivering the education sets up colleges which are again funded mainly by government. Recently however there has also been autonomy given to universities and colleges. Moreover foreign universities are waiting to enter Indian boundaries. With a large number of universities and colleges it has become more and more necessary to measure this institutes for bench-marking. There have been various tools for measuring the institute. In India college assessments have been made compulsory by UGC. Naac has been offically recognised as the accrediation criteria. The Naac criteria has been based on seven criterias namely: 1. Curricular assessments, 2. Teaching learning and evaluation, 3. Research Consultancy and Extension, 4. Infrastructure and learning resources, 5. Student support and progression, 6. Governance leadership and management, 7. Innovation and best practices. The Naac tries to bench mark the institution for identification, sustainability, dissemination and adaption of best practices. It grades the institution according to this seven criteria and the funding of institution is based on these grades. Many of the colleges are struggling to get best of grades but they have not come across a systematic tool to achieve the results. Balanced Scorecard developed by Kaplan has been a successful tool for corporates to develop best of practices so as to increase their financial performance and also retain and increase their customers so as to grow the organization to next level.It is time to test this tool for an educational institute. Methodology: The paper tries to develop a prototype for college based on the secondary data. Once a prototype is developed the researcher based on questionnaire will try to test this tool for successful implementation. The success of this research will depend on its implementation of BSC on an institute and its grading improved due to this successful implementation. Limitation of time is a major constraint in this research as Naac cycle takes minimum 4 years for accreditation and reaccreditation the methodology will limit itself to secondary data and questionnaire to be circulated to colleges along with the prototype model of BSC. Conclusion: BSC is a successful tool for enhancing growth of an organization. Educational institutes are no exception to these. BSC will only have to be realigned to suit the Naac criteria. Once this prototype is developed the success will be tested only on its implementation but this research paper will be the first step towards developing this tool and will also initiate the success by developing a questionnaire and getting and evaluating the responses for moving to the next level of actual implementation

Keywords: balanced scorecard, bench marking, Naac, UGC

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13475 Logistic Regression Model versus Additive Model for Recurrent Event Data

Authors: Entisar A. Elgmati

Abstract:

Recurrent infant diarrhea is studied using daily data collected in Salvador, Brazil over one year and three months. A logistic regression model is fitted instead of Aalen's additive model using the same covariates that were used in the analysis with the additive model. The model gives reasonably similar results to that using additive regression model. In addition, the problem with the estimated conditional probabilities not being constrained between zero and one in additive model is solved here. Also martingale residuals that have been used to judge the goodness of fit for the additive model are shown to be useful for judging the goodness of fit of the logistic model.

Keywords: additive model, cumulative probabilities, infant diarrhoea, recurrent event

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13474 Can Exams Be Shortened? Using a New Empirical Approach to Test in Finance Courses

Authors: Eric S. Lee, Connie Bygrave, Jordan Mahar, Naina Garg, Suzanne Cottreau

Abstract:

Marking exams is universally detested by lecturers. Final exams in many higher education courses often last 3.0 hrs. Do exams really need to be so long? Can we justifiably reduce the number of questions on them? Surprisingly few have researched these questions, arguably because of the complexity and difficulty of using traditional methods. To answer these questions empirically, we used a new approach based on three key elements: Use of an unusual variation of a true experimental design, equivalence hypothesis testing, and an expanded set of six psychometric criteria to be met by any shortened exam if it is to replace a current 3.0-hr exam (reliability, validity, justifiability, number of exam questions, correspondence, and equivalence). We compared student performance on each official 3.0-hr exam with that on five shortened exams having proportionately fewer questions (2.5, 2.0, 1.5, 1.0, and 0.5 hours) in a series of four experiments conducted in two classes in each of two finance courses (224 students in total). We found strong evidence that, in these courses, shortening of final exams to 2.0 hrs was warranted on all six psychometric criteria. Shortening these exams by one hour should result in a substantial one-third reduction in lecturer time and effort spent marking, lower student stress, and more time for students to prepare for other exams. Our approach provides a relatively simple, easy-to-use methodology that lecturers can use to examine the effect of shortening their own exams.

Keywords: exam length, psychometric criteria, synthetic experimental designs, test length

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13473 Foregrounding Events in Modern Sundanese: The Pragmatics of Particle-to-Active Voice Marking Shift

Authors: Rama Munajat

Abstract:

Discourse information levels may be viewed from either a background-foreground distinction or a multi-level perspective, and cross-linguistic studies on this area suggest that each information level is marked by a specific linguistic device. In this sense, Sundanese, spoken in Indonesia’s West Javanese Province, further differentiates the background and foreground information into ordinary and significant types. This paper will report an ongoing shift from particle-to-active voice marking in the way Sundanese signals foregrounding events. The shift relates to decades of contact with Bahasa Indonesia (Indonesia’s official language) and linguistic compatibility between the two surface marking strategies. Representative data analyzed include three groups of short stories in both Sundanese and Bahasa Indonesia (Indonesian) published in three periods: before 1945, 1965-2006, and 2016-2019. In the first group of Sundanese data, forward-moving events dominantly appear in particle KA (Kecap Anteuran, word-accompanying) constructions, where the KA represents different particles that co-occur with a special group of verbs. The second group, however, shows that the foregrounded events are more frequently described in active-voice forms with a subject-predicate (SP) order. Subsequently, the third offers stronger evidence for the use of the SP structure. As for the Indonesian data, the foregrounding events in the first group occur in verb-initial and passive-voice constructions, while in the second and third, the events more frequently appear in active-voice structures (subject-predicate sequence). The marking shift above suggests a structural influence from Indonesian, stemmed from generational differences among authors of the Sundanese short stories, particularly related to their education and language backgrounds. The first group of short stories – published before 1945 or before Indonesia's independence from Dutch – were written by native speakers of Sundanese who spoke Indonesian as a foreign language and went through the Dutch education system. The second group of authors, on the other hand, represents a generation of Sundanese native speakers who spoke Indonesian as a second language. Finally, the third group consists of authors who are bilingual speakers of both Sundanese and Indonesian. The data suggest that the last two groups of authors completed the Indonesian education system. With these, the use of subject-predicate sequences to denote foregrounding events began to appear more frequently in the second group and then became more dominant in those of the third. The coded data also signify that cohesion, coherence, and pragmatic purposes in Particle KA constructions are intact in their respective active-voice structure counterparts. For instance, the foregrounding events in Particle KA constructions occur in Sentence-initial KA and Pre-verbal KA forms, whereas those in the active-voice are described in Subject-Predicate (SP) and Zero-Subject active-voice patterns. Cross-language data further demonstrate that the Sentence-initial KA and the SP active-voice structures each contain an overt noun phrase (NP) co-referential with one of the entities introduced in a preceding context. Similarly, the pre-verbal KA and Zero-Subject active-voice patterns have a deleted noun phrase unambiguously referable to the only one entity previously mentioned. The presence and absence of an NP inform a pragmatic strategy to place prominence on topic/given and comment/new information, respectively.

Keywords: discourse analysis, foregrounding marking, pragmatics, language contact

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13472 Mathematical Model to Quantify the Phenomenon of Democracy

Authors: Mechlouch Ridha Fethi

Abstract:

This paper presents a recent mathematical model in political sciences concerning democracy. The model is represented by a logarithmic equation linking the Relative Index of Democracy (RID) to Participation Ratio (PR). Firstly the meanings of the different parameters of the model were presented; and the variation curve of the RID according to PR with different critical areas was discussed. Secondly, the model was applied to a virtual group where we show that the model can be applied depending on the gender. Thirdly, it was observed that the model can be extended to different language models of democracy and that little use to assess the state of democracy for some International organizations like UNO.

Keywords: democracy, mathematic, modelization, quantification

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13471 The Achievement Model of University Social Responsibility

Authors: Le Kang

Abstract:

On the research question of 'how to achieve USR', this contribution reflects the concept of university social responsibility, identify three achievement models of USR as the society - diversified model, the university-cooperation model, the government - compound model, also conduct a case study to explore characteristics of Chinese achievement model of USR. The contribution concludes with discussion of how the university, government and society balance demands and roles, make necessarily strategic adjustment and innovative approach to repair the shortcomings of each achievement model.

Keywords: modern university, USR, achievement model, compound model

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13470 Model Averaging for Poisson Regression

Authors: Zhou Jianhong

Abstract:

Model averaging is a desirable approach to deal with model uncertainty, which, however, has rarely been explored for Poisson regression. In this paper, we propose a model averaging procedure based on an unbiased estimator of the expected Kullback-Leibler distance for the Poisson regression. Simulation study shows that the proposed model average estimator outperforms some other commonly used model selection and model average estimators in some situations. Our proposed methods are further applied to a real data example and the advantage of this method is demonstrated again.

Keywords: model averaging, poission regression, Kullback-Leibler distance, statistics

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13469 Implementation and Validation of a Damage-Friction Constitutive Model for Concrete

Authors: L. Madouni, M. Ould Ouali, N. E. Hannachi

Abstract:

Two constitutive models for concrete are available in ABAQUS/Explicit, the Brittle Cracking Model and the Concrete Damaged Plasticity Model, and their suitability and limitations are well known. The aim of the present paper is to implement a damage-friction concrete constitutive model and to evaluate the performance of this model by comparing the predicted response with experimental data. The constitutive formulation of this material model is reviewed. In order to have consistent results, the parameter identification and calibration for the model have been performed. Several numerical simulations are presented in this paper, whose results allow for validating the capability of the proposed model for reproducing the typical nonlinear performances of concrete structures under different monotonic and cyclic load conditions. The results of the evaluation will be used for recommendations concerning the application and further improvements of the investigated model.

Keywords: Abaqus, concrete, constitutive model, numerical simulation

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13468 Model Driven Architecture Methodologies: A Review

Authors: Arslan Murtaza

Abstract:

Model Driven Architecture (MDA) is technique presented by OMG (Object Management Group) for software development in which different models are proposed and converted them into code. The main plan is to identify task by using PIM (Platform Independent Model) and transform it into PSM (Platform Specific Model) and then converted into code. In this review paper describes some challenges and issues that are faced in MDA, type and transformation of models (e.g. CIM, PIM and PSM), and evaluation of MDA-based methodologies.

Keywords: OMG, model driven rrchitecture (MDA), computation independent model (CIM), platform independent model (PIM), platform specific model(PSM), MDA-based methodologies

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13467 The Influence of the Concentration and Temperature on the Rheological Behavior of Carbonyl-Methylcellulose

Authors: Mohamed Rabhi, Kouider Halim Benrahou

Abstract:

The rheological properties of the carbonyl-methylcellulose (CMC), of different concentrations (25000, 50000, 60000, 80000 and 100000 ppm) and different temperatures were studied. We found that the rheological behavior of all CMC solutions presents a pseudo-plastic behavior, it follows the model of Ostwald-de Waele. The objective of this work is the modeling of flow by the CMC Cross model. The Cross model gives us the variation of the viscosity according to the shear rate. This model allowed us to adjust more clearly the rheological characteristics of CMC solutions. A comparison between the Cross model and the model of Ostwald was made. Cross the model fitting parameters were determined by a numerical simulation to make an approach between the experimental curve and those given by the two models. Our study has shown that the model of Cross, describes well the flow of "CMC" for low concentrations.

Keywords: CMC, rheological modeling, Ostwald model, cross model, viscosity

Procedia PDF Downloads 249
13466 3D Model of Rain-Wind Induced Vibration of Inclined Cable

Authors: Viet-Hung Truong, Seung-Eock Kim

Abstract:

Rain–wind induced vibration of inclined cable is a special aerodynamic phenomenon because it is easily influenced by many factors, especially the distribution of rivulet and wind velocity. This paper proposes a new 3D model of inclined cable, based on single degree-of-freedom model. Aerodynamic forces are firstly established and verified with the existing results from a 2D model. The 3D model of inclined cable is developed. The 3D model is then applied to assess the effects of wind velocity distribution and the continuity of rivulets on the cable. Finally, an inclined cable model with small sag is investigated.

Keywords: 3D model, rain - wind induced vibration, rivulet, analytical model

Procedia PDF Downloads 362
13465 Identifying Model to Predict Deterioration of Water Mains Using Robust Analysis

Authors: Go Bong Choi, Shin Je Lee, Sung Jin Yoo, Gibaek Lee, Jong Min Lee

Abstract:

In South Korea, it is difficult to obtain data for statistical pipe assessment. In this paper, to address these issues, we find that various statistical model presented before is how data mixed with noise and are whether apply in South Korea. Three major type of model is studied and if data is presented in the paper, we add noise to data, which affects how model response changes. Moreover, we generate data from model in paper and analyse effect of noise. From this we can find robustness and applicability in Korea of each model.

Keywords: proportional hazard model, survival model, water main deterioration, ecological sciences

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13464 Cryptocurrency as a Payment Method in the Tourism Industry: A Comparison of Volatility, Correlation and Portfolio Performance

Authors: Shu-Han Hsu, Jiho Yoon, Chwen Sheu

Abstract:

With the rapidly growing of blockchain technology and cryptocurrency, various industries which include tourism has added in cryptocurrency as the payment method of their transaction. More and more tourism companies accept payments in digital currency for flights, hotel reservations, transportation, and more. For travellers and tourists, using cryptocurrency as a payment method has become a way to circumvent costs and prevent risks. Understanding volatility dynamics and interdependencies between standard currency and cryptocurrency is important for appropriate financial risk management to assist policy-makers and investors in marking more informed decisions. The purpose of this paper has been to understand and explain the risk spillover effects between six major cryptocurrencies and the top ten most traded standard currencies. Using data for the daily closing price of cryptocurrencies and currency exchange rates from 7 August 2015 to 10 December 2019, with 1,133 observations. The diagonal BEKK model was used to analyze the co-volatility spillover effects between cryptocurrency returns and exchange rate returns, which are measures of how the shocks to returns in different assets affect each other’s subsequent volatility. The empirical results show there are co-volatility spillover effects between the cryptocurrency returns and GBP/USD, CNY/USD and MXN/USD exchange rate returns. Therefore, currencies (British Pound, Chinese Yuan and Mexican Peso) and cryptocurrencies (Bitcoin, Ethereum, Ripple, Tether, Litecoin and Stellar) are suitable for constructing a financial portfolio from an optimal risk management perspective and also for dynamic hedging purposes.

Keywords: blockchain, co-volatility effects, cryptocurrencies, diagonal BEKK model, exchange rates, risk spillovers

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13463 Equivalent Circuit Model for the Eddy Current Damping with Frequency-Dependence

Authors: Zhiguo Shi, Cheng Ning Loong, Jiazeng Shan, Weichao Wu

Abstract:

This study proposes an equivalent circuit model to simulate the eddy current damping force with shaking table tests and finite element modeling. The model is firstly proposed and applied to a simple eddy current damper, which is modelled in ANSYS, indicating that the proposed model can simulate the eddy current damping force under different types of excitations. Then, a non-contact and friction-free eddy current damper is designed and tested, and the proposed model can reproduce the experimental observations. The excellent agreement between the simulated results and the experimental data validates the accuracy and reliability of the equivalent circuit model. Furthermore, a more complicated model is performed in ANSYS to verify the feasibility of the equivalent circuit model in complex eddy current damper, and the higher-order fractional model and viscous model are adopted for comparison.

Keywords: equivalent circuit model, eddy current damping, finite element model, shake table test

Procedia PDF Downloads 60