Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 390

Search results for: microwave conveyor-belt drier

390 Electromagnetic Interference Shielding Effectiveness of a Corrugated Rectangular Waveguide for a Microwave Conveyor-Belt Drier

Authors: Sang-Hyeon Bae, Sung-Yeon Kim, Min-Gyo Jeong, Ji-Hong Kim, Wang-Sang Lee

Abstract:

Traditional heating methods such as electric ovens or steam heating are slow and not very efficient. For continuously heating the objects, a microwave conveyor-belt drier is widely used in the industrial microwave heating systems. However, there is a problem in which electromagnetic wave leaks toward outside of the heating cavity through the insertion opening. To achieve the prevention of the leakage of microwaves and improved heating characteristics, the corrugated rectangular waveguide at the entrance and exit openings of a microwave conveyor-belt drier is proposed and its electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding effectiveness is analyzed and verified. The corrugated waveguides in the proposed microwave heating system achieve at least 20 dB shielding effectiveness while ensuring a sufficient height of the openings.

Keywords: corrugated, electromagnetic wave, microwave conveyor-belt drier, rectangular waveguide, shielding effectiveness

Procedia PDF Downloads 244
389 Dried Venison Quality Parameters Changes during Storage

Authors: Laima Silina, Ilze Gramatina, Liga Skudra, Tatjana Rakcejeva

Abstract:

The aim of the current research was to determine quality parameters changes of dried venison during storage. Protein, fat and moisture content dynamics as well microbiological quality was analyzed. For the experiments the meat (0.02×4.00×7.00 cm) pieces were marinated in “teriyaki sauce” marinade (composition: teriyaki sauce, sweet and sour sauce, taco sauce, soy sauce, American BBQ sauce hickory, sesame oil, garlic, garlic salt, tabasco red pepper sauce) at 4±2°C temperature for 48±1h. Sodium monophosphate (E339) was also added in part of marinade to improve the meat textural properties. After marinating, meat samples were dried in microwave-vacuum drier MUSSON–1, packaged in vacuum pouches made from polymer film (PA/PE) with barrier properties and storage for 4 months at 18±1°C temperature in dark place. Dried venison samples were analyzed after 0, 35, 91 and 112 days of storage. During the storage total plate counts of dried venison samples significantly (p<0.05) increased. No significant differences in the content of protein, fat and moisture were detected when analyzing dried meat samples during storage and comparing them with the chemical parameters of just dried meat.

Keywords: drying, microwave-vacuum drier, quality, venison

Procedia PDF Downloads 208
388 Reflection Performance of Truncated Pyramidal and Truncated Wedge Microwave Absorber Using Sugarcane Bagasse (SCB)

Authors: Liyana Zahid, Mohd Fareq Abd Malek, Ee Meng Cheng, Wei Wen Liu, Yeng Seng Lee, Muhammad Nadeem Iqbal, Fwen Hoon Wee

Abstract:

One of the parameters that affect the performance of microwave absorbers is the shape of the absorbers. This paper shows the performance (reflection loss) of truncated pyramidal and truncated wedge microwave absorbers in the range frequency between 8.2 to 12.4 GHz (X-Band) in simulation. The material used is sugarcane bagasse (SCB) which is one of the new materials that used to fabricate the microwave absorber. The complex permittivity was measured using Agilent dielectric probe technique. The designs were simulated using CST Microwave Studio Software. The reflection losses between these two shapes were compared.

Keywords: microwave absorber, reflection loss, sugarcane bagasse (SCB), X-Band

Procedia PDF Downloads 180
387 Conceptual Design of a Customer Friendly Variable Volume and Variable Spinning Speed Washing Machine

Authors: C. A. Akaash Emmanuel Raj, V. R. Sanal Kumar

Abstract:

In this paper using smart materials we have proposed a specially manufactured variable volume spin tub for loading clothes for negating the vibration to a certain extent for getting better operating performance. Additionally, we have recommended a variable spinning speed rotor for handling varieties of garments for an efficient washing, aiming for increasing the life span of both the garments and the machine. As a part of the conflicting dynamic constraints and demands of the customer friendly design optimization of a lucrative and cosmetic washing machine we have proposed a drier and a desalination system capable to supply desirable heat and a pleasing fragrance to the garments. We thus concluded that while incorporating variable volume and variable spinning speed tub integrated with a drier and desalination system, the washing machine could meet the varieties of domestic requirements of the customers cost-effectively.

Keywords: customer friendly washing machine, drier design, quick cloth cleaning, variable tub volume washing machine, variable spinning speed washing machine

Procedia PDF Downloads 104
386 Microwave-Assisted Eradication of Wool

Authors: M. Salama, K. Haggag, H. El-Sayed

Abstract:

An environmentally and ecologically acceptable method for eradication of wool fabrics based on microwave irradiation (MWI) was described. The process would be a suitable alternative for mothproofing of wool using toxic degradative chemical or biological methods. The effect of microwave irradiation and exposure time on the extent of eradication of wool fabrics from moth larvae was monitored. The inherent properties of the MW-irradiated wool fabrics; viz. tensile properties, alkali solubility, and yellowing index, were not adversely altered.

Keywords: microwave, wool, fabric, moth, eradication, resistance

Procedia PDF Downloads 303
385 The Microwave and Far Infrared Spectra of Acetaldehyde-d1 in vt=2

Authors: A. Larrousi, M. Elkeurti, K. Amara, M. Zemouli, L. H. Coudert, I. R. Medvedev, F. C. De Lucia, Atsuko Maeda, R. W. C. McKellar, D. Appadoo

Abstract:

Experimental and theoretical investigations of the microwave and far infrared spectra of CH3COD are reported. Two hundred twelve lines were identified in the far infrared spectrum recorded using the Canadian synchrotron radiation light source. Two thousand one hundred and sixty-eight lines in vt=0,1 and 216 in vt=2 have been measured in the microwave spectrum obtained using the fast scan submillimeter spectroscopic technique. A global analysis of the new data and of already available microwave lines has been carried out and yielded values for rotation–torsion parameters. The unitless weighted standard deviation of the fit is 1.6. 46 parameters and 216 lines were identified.

Keywords: CH3COD, torsion, the microwave spectra, far infrared spectra high resolution

Procedia PDF Downloads 217
384 Synthesis of Mg/B Containing Compound in a Modified Microwave Oven

Authors: Gülşah Çelik Gül, Figen Kurtuluş

Abstract:

Magnesium containing boron compounds with hexagonal structure have been drawn much attention due to their superconductive nature. The main target of this work is new modified microwave oven by on our own has an ability about passing through a gas in the oven medium for attainment of oxygen-free compounds such as c-BN.  Mg containing boride was synthesized by modified-microwave method under nitrogen atmosphere using amorphous boron and magnesium source in appropriate molar ratio. Microwave oven with oxygen free environment has been modified to aimed to obtain magnesium boride without oxygen. Characterizations were done by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Mg containing boride, generally named magnesium boride, with amorphous character without oxygen is obtained via designed microwave oven system.

Keywords: magnesium containing boron compounds, modified microwave synthesis, powder X-ray diffraction, FTIR

Procedia PDF Downloads 249
383 Graphene Transistors Based Microwave Amplifiers

Authors: Pejman Hosseinioun, Ali Safari, Hamed Sarbazi

Abstract:

Graphene is a one-atom-thick sheet of carbon with numerous impressive properties. It is a promising material for future high-speed nanoelectronics due to its intrinsic superior carrier mobility and very high saturation velocity. These exceptional carrier transport properties suggest that graphene field effect transistors (G-FETs) can potentially outperform other FET technologies. In this paper, detailed discussions are introduced for Graphene Transistors Based Microwave Amplifiers.

Keywords: graphene, microwave FETs, microwave amplifiers, transistors

Procedia PDF Downloads 387
382 Microwave-Assisted Extraction of Lycopene from Gac Arils (Momordica cochinchinensis (Lour.) Spreng)

Authors: Yardfon Tanongkankit, Kanjana Narkprasom, Nukrob Narkprasom, Khwanruthai Saiupparat, Phatthareeya Siriwat

Abstract:

Gac fruit (Momordica cochinchinensis (Lour.) Spreng) possesses high potential for health food as it contains high lycopene contents. The objective of this study was to optimize the extraction of lycopene from gac arils using the microwave extraction method. Response surface method was used to find the conditions that optimize the extraction of lycopene from gac arils. The parameters of extraction used in this study were extraction time (120-600 seconds), the solvent to sample ratio (10:1, 20:1, 30:1, 40:1 and 50:1 mL/g) and set microwave power (100-800 watts). The results showed that the microwave extraction condition at the extraction time of 360 seconds, the sample ratio of 30:1 mL/g and the microwave power of 450 watts were suggested since it exhibited the highest value of lycopene content of 9.86 mg/gDW. It was also observed that lycopene contents extracted from gac arils by microwave method were higher than that by the conventional method.

Keywords: conventional extraction, Gac arils, microwave-assisted extraction, Lycopene

Procedia PDF Downloads 244
381 Microwave Tomography: The Analytical Treatment for Detecting Malignant Tumor Inside Human Body

Authors: Muhammad Hassan Khalil, Xu Jiadong

Abstract:

Early detection through screening is the best tool short of a perfect treatment against the malignant tumor inside the breast of a woman. By detecting cancer in its early stages, it can be recognized and treated before it has the opportunity to spread and change into potentially dangerous. Microwave tomography is a new imaging method based on contrast in dielectric properties of materials. The mathematical theory of microwave tomography involves solving an inverse problem for Maxwell’s equations. In this paper, we present designed antenna for breast cancer detection, which will use in microwave tomography configuration.

Keywords: microwave imaging, inverse scattering, breast cancer, malignant tumor detection

Procedia PDF Downloads 235
380 Microwave Sintering and Its Application on Cemented Carbides

Authors: Rumman M. D. Raihanuzzaman, Lee Chang Chuan, Zonghan Xie, Reza Ghomashchi

Abstract:

Cemented carbides, owing to their excellent mechanical properties, have been of immense interest in the field of hard materials for the past few decades. A number of processing techniques have been developed to obtain high quality carbide tools, with a wide range of grain size depending on the application and requirements. Microwave sintering is one of the heating processes, which has been used on a wide range of materials including ceramics. The complete understanding of microwave sintering and its contribution towards control of grain growth and on deformation of the resulting carbide materials needs further studies and attention. In addition, the effect of binder materials and their behaviour as a function of microwave sintering is another area that requires clear understanding. This review aims to focus on microwave sintering, providing information of how the process works and what type of materials it is best suited for. In addition, a closer look at some microwave sintered Tungsten Carbide-Cobalt samples will be taken and discussed, addressing some of the key issues and challenges faced in the research.

Keywords: cemented carbides, consolidation, microwave sintering, mechanical properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 214
379 An Insight into Early Stage Detection of Malignant Tumor by Microwave Imaging

Authors: Muhammad Hassan Khalil, Xu Jiadong

Abstract:

Detection of malignant tumor inside the breast of women is a challenging field for the researchers. MWI (Microwave imaging) for breast cancer diagnosis has been of interest for last two decades, newly it suggested for finding cancerous tissues of women breast. A simple and basic idea of the mathematical modeling is used throughout this paper for imaging of malignant tumor. In this paper, the authors explained inverse scattering method in the microwave imaging and also present some simulation results.

Keywords: breast cancer detection, microwave imaging, tomography, tumor

Procedia PDF Downloads 267
378 Sulfamethaxozole (SMX) Removal by Microwave-Assisted Heterogenous Fenton Reaction Involving Synthetic Clay (LDHS)

Authors: Chebli Derradji, Abdallah Bouguettoucha, Zoubir Manaa, S. Nacef, A. Amrane

Abstract:

Antibiotics are major pollutants of wastewater not only due to their stability in biological systems, but also due to their impact on public health. Their degradation by means of hydroxyl radicals generated through the application of microwave in the presence of hydrogen peroxide and two solid catalysts, iron-based synthetic clay (LDHs) and goethite (FeOOH) have been examined. A drastic reduction of the degradation yield was observed above pH 4, and hence the optimal conditions were found to be a pH of 3, 0.1 g/L of clay, a somewhat low amount of H2O2 (1.74 mmol/L) and a microwave intensity of 850 W. It should be observed that to maintain an almost constant temperature, a cooling with cold water was always applied between two microwaves running; and hence the ratio between microwave heating time and cooling time was 1. The obtained SMX degradation was 98.8 ± 0.2% after 30 minutes of microwave treatment. It should be observed that in the absence of the solid catalyst, LDHs, no SMX degradation was observed. From this, the use of microwave in the presence of a solid source of iron (LDHs) appears to be an efficient solution for the treatment of wastewater containing SMX.

Keywords: microwave, fenton, heterogenous fenton, degradation, oxidation, antibiotics

Procedia PDF Downloads 161
377 Mathematical Modeling of Eggplant Slices Drying Using Microwave-Oven

Authors: M.H. Keshek, M.N. Omar, A.H. Amer

Abstract:

Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) is considered one of the most important crops in summer season, and it is grown in most cultivated area in Egypt. Eggplant has a very limited shelf life for freshness and physiological changes occur after harvest. Nowadays, microwave drying offers an alternative way to drying agricultural products. microwave drying is not only faster but also requiring less energy consumption than conventional drying. The main objective of this research was to evaluate using the microwave oven in Eggplant drying, to determine the optimum drying time of higher drying efficiency and lower energy consumption. The eggplants slices, having a thickness of about 5, 10, 15, and 20 mm, with diameter 50±2 mm was dried using microwave oven (KOR-9G2B) using three different levels were 450, 630, and 810 Watt (50%, 70%, and 90% of 900 Watt). The results show that, the initial moisture content of the eggplant slices was around 93 % wet basis (13.28 g water/g dry matter). The results indicated that, the moisture transfer within the sample was more rapidly during higher microwave power heating (810 watt) and lower thickness (5 mm) of the eggplant slices. In addition, the results show that, the drying efficiency increases by increasing slices thickness at power levels 450, 630 and 810 Watt. The higher drying efficiency was 83.13% occurred when drying the eggplant slices 20 mm thickness in microwave oven at power 630 Watt. the higher total energy consumption per dry kilogram was 1.275 (kWh/ dry kg) occurred at used microwave 810 Watt for drying eggplant slices 5 mm thickness, and the lower total energy consumption per dry kilogram was 0.55 (kWh/ dry kg) occurred at used microwave 810 Watt for drying eggplant slices 20 mm thickness.

Keywords: microwave drying, eggplant, drying rate, drying efficiency, energy consumption

Procedia PDF Downloads 36
376 Synthesis and Characterization of CaZrTi2O7 from Tartrate Precursor Employing Microwave Heating Technique

Authors: B. M. Patil, S. R. Dharwadkar

Abstract:

Zirconolite (CaZrTi2O7) is one of the three major phases in the synthetic ceramic 'SYNROC' which is used for immobilization of high-level nuclear waste and also acts as photocatalytic and photophysical properties. In the present work the nanocrystalline CaZrTi2O7 was synthesized from Calcium Zirconyl Titanate tartrate precursor (CZTT) employing two different heating techniques such as Conventional heating (Muffle furnace) and Microwave heating (Microwave Oven). Thermal decomposition of the CZTT precursors in air yielded nanocrystalline CaZrTi2O7 powder as the end product. The products obtained by annealing the CZTT precursor using both heating method were characterized using simultaneous TG-DTA, FTIR, XRD, SEM, TEM, NTA and thermodilatometric study. The physical characteristics such as crystallinity, morphology and particle size of the product obtained by heating the CZTT precursor at the different temperatures in a Muffle furnace and Microwave oven were found to be significantly different. The microwave heating technique considerably lowered the synthesis temperature of CaZrTi2O7. The influence of microwave heating was more pronounced as compared to Muffle furnace heating. The details of the synthesis of CaZrTi2O7 from CZTT precursor are discussed.

Keywords: CZTT, CaZrTi2O7, microwave, SYNROC, zirconolite

Procedia PDF Downloads 58
375 Microwave Assisted Extraction (MAE) of Castor Oil from Castor Bean

Authors: Ghazi Faisal Najmuldeen, Rosli Mohd Yunus, Nurfarahin Bt Harun, Mardhiana Binti Ismail

Abstract:

The microwave extraction has attracted great interest among the researchers. The main virtue of the microwave technique is cost-effective, time saving and simple handling procedure. Castor beans was chosen because of its high content in fatty acid, especially ricinoleic acid. The purpose of this research is to extract the castor oil by using the microwave assisted extraction (MAE) using ethanol as solvent and to investigate the influence of extraction time on castor oil yield and to characterize the main composition of the produced castor oil by using the GC-MS. It was found that there is a direct dependence between the oil yield and the time of extraction as it increases from 45% to 58% as the time increase from 10 min to 60 min. The major components of castor oil detected by GC-MS were ricinoleic acid, linoleic acid and oleic acid.

Keywords: microwave assisted extraction (MAE), castor oil, ricinoleic acid, linoleic acid

Procedia PDF Downloads 298
374 Zinc Adsorption Determination of H2SO4 Activated Pomegranate Peel

Authors: S. N. Turkmen Koc, A. S. Kipcak, M. B. Piskin, E. Moroydor Derun, N. Tugrul

Abstract:

Active carbon can be obtained from agricultural sources. Due to the high surface area, the production of activated carbon from cheap resources is very important. Since the surface area of 1 g activated carbon is approximately between 300 and 2000 m2, it can be used to remove both organic and inorganic impurities. In this study, the adsorption of Zn metal was studied with the product of activated carbon, which is obtained from pomegranate peel by microwave and chemical activation methods. The microwave process of pomegranate peel was carried out under constant microwave power of 800 W and 1 to 4 minutes. After the microwave process, samples were treated with H2SO4 for 3 h. Then prepared product was used in synthetic waste water including 40 ppm Zn metal. As a result, removal of waste Zn in waste water ranged from 91% to 93%.

Keywords: activated carbon, chemical activation, H₂SO₄, microwave, pomegranate peel

Procedia PDF Downloads 36
373 Microwave Sanitization of Polyester Fabrics

Authors: K. Haggag, M. Salama, H. El-Sayed

Abstract:

Polyester fabrics were sanitized by exposing them to vaporized water under the influence of conventional heating or microwave irradiation. Hydrogen peroxide was added the humid sanitizing environment as a disinfectant. The said sanitization process was found to be effective towards two types of bacteria, namely Escherichia coli ATCC 2666 (G –ve) and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538 (G +ve). The effect of the sanitization process on some of the inherent properties of polyester fabrics was monitored.

Keywords: polyester, fabric, sanitization, microwave, bacteria

Procedia PDF Downloads 250
372 MWCNT/CuFe10Al2O19/Polyanilie Nanocomposite for Microwave Absorbing Applications

Authors: Pallab Bhattacharya, C. K. Das

Abstract:

Development of microwave absorbing material is a growing field of research in both the commercial and defense sector, and also to enrich the field of stealth technology. The recent work is attentive to the preparation of nanocomposite based on acid modified MWCNT, hexagonal shaped magnetic M-type hexaferrite (CuFe10Al2O19) and polyaniline. CuFe10Al2O19 was prepared by a facile chemical co-precipitation method. An in-situ approach was employed for the coating of polyaniline on MWCNT/CuFe10Al2O19 nanocomposite. The final fabrication of this nanocomposite for microwave measurements was done suitably in the matrix of thermoplastic polyurethane with 10% filler content. The nanocomposites showed the maximum reflection loss of -60.2 dB (in X-band) at the thickness of 2.5 mm with a broad absorption range in contrast to the pristine MWCNT and CuFe10Al2O19. Addition of PANI improves the microwave absorption property of the nanocomposites. The thermal stability of the prepared nanocomposites is also very high.

Keywords: magnetic materials, microwave absorption, MWCNT, nanocomposites

Procedia PDF Downloads 177
371 Microwave Assisted Foam-Mat Drying of Guava Pulp

Authors: Ovais S. Qadri, Abhaya K. Srivastava

Abstract:

Present experiments were carried to study the drying kinetics and quality of microwave foam-mat dried guava powder. Guava pulp was microwave foam mat dried using 8% egg albumin as foaming agent and then dried at microwave power 480W, 560W, 640W, 720W and 800W, foam thickness 3mm, 5mm and 7mm and inlet air temperature of 40˚C and 50˚C. Weight loss was used to estimate change in drying rate with respect to time. Powdered samples were analysed for various physicochemical quality parameters viz. acidity, pH, TSS, colour change and ascorbic acid content. Statistical analysis using three-way ANOVA revealed that sample of 5mm foam thickness dried at 800W and 50˚C was the best with 0.3584% total acid, 3.98 pH, 14min drying time, 8˚Brix TSS, 3.263 colour change and 154.762mg/100g ascorbic acid content.

Keywords: foam mat drying, foam mat guava, guava powder, microwave drying

Procedia PDF Downloads 217
370 Produced Gas Conversion of Microwave Carbon Receptor Reforming

Authors: Young Nam Chun, Mun Sup Lim

Abstract:

Carbon dioxide and methane, the major components of biomass pyrolysis/gasification gas and biogas, top the list of substances that cause climate change, but they are also among the most important renewable energy sources in modern society. The purpose of this study is to convert carbon dioxide and methane into high-quality energy using char and commercial activated carbon obtained from biomass pyrolysis as a microwave receptor. The methane reforming process produces hydrogen and carbon. This carbon is deposited in the pores of the microwave receptor and lowers catalytic activity, thereby reducing the methane conversion rate. The deposited carbon was removed by carbon gasification due to the supply of carbon dioxide, which solved the problem of microwave receptor inactivity. In particular, the conversion rate remained stable at over 90% when the ratio of carbon dioxide to methane was 1:1. When the reforming results of carbon dioxide and methane were compared after fabricating nickel and iron catalysts using commercial activated carbon as a carrier, the conversion rate was higher in the iron catalyst than in the nickel catalyst and when no catalyst was used. 

Keywords: microwave, gas reforming, greenhouse gas, microwave receptor, catalyst

Procedia PDF Downloads 252
369 Coaxial Helix Antenna for Microwave Coagulation Therapy in Liver Tissue Simulations

Authors: M. Chaichanyut, S. Tungjitkusolmun

Abstract:

This paper is concerned with microwave (MW) ablation for a liver cancer tissue by using helix antenna. The antenna structure supports the propagation of microwave energy at 2.45 GHz. A 1½ turn spiral catheter-based microwave antenna applicator has been developed. We utilize the three-dimensional finite element method (3D FEM) simulation to analyze where the tissue heat flux, lesion pattern and volume destruction during MW ablation. The configurations of helix antenna where Helix air-core antenna and Helix Dielectric-core antenna. The 3D FEMs solutions were based on Maxwell and bio-heat equations. The simulation protocol was power control (10 W, 300s). Our simulation result, both helix antennas have heat flux occurred around the helix antenna and that can be induced the temperature distribution similar (teardrop). The region where the temperature exceeds 50°C the microwave ablation was successful (i.e. complete destruction). The Helix air-core antenna and Helix Dielectric-core antenna, ablation zone or axial ratios (Widest/length) were respectively 0.82 and 0.85; the complete destructions were respectively 4.18 cm³ and 5.64 cm³.

Keywords: liver cancer, Helix antenna, finite element, microwave ablation

Procedia PDF Downloads 206
368 Ultra-Low Loss Dielectric Properties of (Mg1-xNix)2(Ti0.95Sn0.05)O4 Microwave Ceramics

Authors: Bing-Jing Li, Sih-Yin Wang, Tse-Chun Yeh, Yuan-Bin Chen

Abstract:

Microwave dielectric ceramic materials of (Mg1-xNix)2(Ti0.95Sn0.05)O4 for x = 0.01, 0.03, 0.05, 0.07 and 0.09 were prepared and sintered at 1250–1400ºC. The microstructure and microwave dielectric properties of the ceramic materials were examined and measured. The observations shows that the content of Ni2+ ions has little effect on the crystal structure, dielectric constant, temperature coefficient of resonant frequency (τf) and sintering temperatures of the ceramics. However, the quality values (Q×f) are greatly improved due to the addition of Ni2+ ions. The present study showed that the ceramic material prepared for x = 0.05 and sintered at 1325ºC had the best Q×f value of 392,000 GHz, about 23% improvement compared with that of Mg2(Ti0.95Sn0.05)O4.

Keywords: (Mg1-xNix)2(Ti0.95Sn0.05)O4, microwave dielectric ceramics, high quality factor, high frequency wireless communication

Procedia PDF Downloads 349
367 The Effect of Microwave Radiation on Biogas Production Efficiency Using Different Plant Substrates

Authors: Marcin Zieliński, Marcin Dębowski, Mirosław Krzemieniewski

Abstract:

The purpose of the present work was to assess the impact of using electromagnetic microwave radiation as a means of stimulating the thermal conditions in anaerobic reactors on biomethanation efficiency of different plant substrates, as measured by the quantity and quality of the resultant biogas. Using electromagnetic microwave radiation to maintain optimal thermal conditions during biomethanation allows for achievement of much higher technological effects in comparison with a conventional heating system. After subjecting different plant substrates to fermentation in the model fermentation chambers, the largest improvements in regard to biogas production efficiency and biogas quality were recorded in the series with corn silage and grass silage. In the first case, the quantity of methane produced in the microwave-stimulated technological system exceeded by 15.26% the quantities produced in reactors heated conventionally. When grass silage was utilized as the organic substrate in the process of biomethanation, anaerobic reactors treated with microwave radiation produced 12.62% more methane.

Keywords: microwave radiation, biogas, methane fermentation, biomass

Procedia PDF Downloads 404
366 Microwave Security System in Museums: Design and Implementation

Authors: Dalia Elsheakh, Hala Elsadek

Abstract:

The objective of this paper is to propose a competitive microwave security system that can be applied with reasonable price at museums in Egypt, considering the priceless elements in 23 Egyptian museums countrywide and the lack of good recent security systems even in big ones. The system main goal is to detect valuable targets to ensure their presence in the pre-defined positions in order to protect them from being stolen. The system is based on real time microwave scanning for the required space volume through transmitting RF waves at consecutive angles and detecting the back scattered waves from required objects to detect their existence at pre-specified locations.

Keywords: microwave security system, object locating system, real time locating system (RTLS), antenna array, array electronic scanning

Procedia PDF Downloads 255
365 Synthesis of Magnesium Borates from the Slurries of Magnesium Wastes by Microwave Energy

Authors: N. Tugrul, F. T. Senberber, A. S. Kipcak, E. Moroydor Derun, S. Piskin

Abstract:

In this research, it is aimed not only microwave synthesis of magnesium borates but also evaluation of magnesium wastes. Synthesis process can be described with the reaction of Mg wastes and boric acid using microwave energy. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) were applied to synthesized minerals. According to XRD results, magnesium borate hydrate mixtures were obtained as mcallisterite (pdf# = 01-070-1902, Mg2(B6O7(OH)6)2.9(H2O)) at higher crystallinity properties was achieved at the mole ratio raw material 1:1. Also, other kinds of magnesium borate hydrates were obtained at lower crystallinity such as admontite (pdf # = 01-076-0540, MgO(B2O3)3.7(H2O)), inderite (pdf # = 01-072-2308, 2MgO.3B2O3.15(H2O)) and magnesium borate hydrates (pdf # = 01-076-0539, MgO(B2O3)3.6(H2O)). FT-IR spectrums indicated that minor changes were seen at the band values of characteristic stretching in each experiment. At the end of experiments it is seen that using microwave energy may contribute positive effects to design of synthesis process such as reducing reaction time and products at higher crystallinity.

Keywords: magnesium wastes, boric acid, magnesium borate, microwave energy

Procedia PDF Downloads 241
364 Evaluation of Microwave-Assisted Pretreatment for Spent Coffee Grounds

Authors: Shady S. Hassan, Brijesh K. Tiwari, Gwilym A. Williams, Amit K. Jaiswal

Abstract:

Waste materials from a wide range of agro-industrial processes may be used as substrates for microbial growth, and subsequently the production of a range of high value products and bioenergy. In addition, utilization of these agro-residues in bioprocesses has the dual advantage of providing alternative substrates, as well as solving their disposal problems. Spent coffee grounds (SCG) are a by-product (45%) of coffee processing. SCG is a lignocellulosic material, which is composed mainly of cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignin. Thus, a pretreatment process is required to facilitate an efficient enzymatic hydrolysis of such carbohydrates. In this context, microwave pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass without the addition of harsh chemicals represents a green technology. Moreover, microwave treatment has a high heating efficiency and is easy to implement. Thus, microwave pretreatment of SCG without adding of harsh chemicals investigated as a green technology to enhance enzyme hydrolysis. In the present work, microwave pretreatment experiments were conducted on SCG at varying power levels (100, 250, 440, 600, and 1000 W) for 60 s. By increasing microwave power to a certain level (which vary by varying biomass), reducing sugar increases, then reducing sugar from biomass start to decrease with microwave power increase beyond this level. Microwave pretreatment of SCG at 60s followed by enzymatic hydrolysis resulted in total reducing sugars of 91.6 ± 7.0 mg/g of biomass (at microwave power of 100 w). Fourier transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) was employed to investigate changes in functional groups of biomass after pretreatment, while high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was employed for determination of glucose. Pretreatment of lignocellulose using microwave was found to be an effective and energy efficient technology to improve saccharification and glucose yield. Energy performance will be evaluated for the microwave pretreatment, and the enzyme hydrolysate will be used as media component substitute for the production of ethanol and other high value products.

Keywords: lignocellulose, microwave, pretreatment, spent coffee grounds

Procedia PDF Downloads 44
363 Design of Microwave Building Block by Using Numerical Search Algorithm

Authors: Haifeng Zhou, Tsungyang Liow, Xiaoguang Tu, Eujin Lim, Chao Li, Junfeng Song, Xianshu Luo, Ying Huang, Lianxi Jia, Lianwee Luo, Qing Fang, Mingbin Yu, Guoqiang Lo

Abstract:

With the development of technology, countries gradually allocated more and more frequency spectrums for civilization and commercial usage, especially those high radio frequency bands indicating high information capacity. The field effect becomes more and more prominent in microwave components as frequency increases, which invalidates the transmission line theory and complicate the design of microwave components. Here a modeling approach based on numerical search algorithm is proposed to design various building blocks for microwave circuits to avoid complicated impedance matching and equivalent electrical circuit approximation. Concretely, a microwave component is discretized to a set of segments along the microwave propagation path. Each of the segment is initialized with random dimensions, which constructs a multiple-dimension parameter space. Then numerical searching algorithms (e.g. Pattern search algorithm) are used to find out the ideal geometrical parameters. The optimal parameter set is achieved by evaluating the fitness of S parameters after a number of iterations. We had adopted this approach in our current projects and designed many microwave components including sharp bends, T-branches, Y-branches, microstrip-to-stripline converters and etc. For example, a stripline 90° bend was designed in 2.54 mm x 2.54 mm space for dual-band operation (Ka band and Ku band) with < 0.18 dB insertion loss and < -55 dB reflection. We expect that this approach can enrich the tool kits for microwave designers.

Keywords: microwave component, microstrip and stripline, bend, power division, the numerical search algorithm.

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362 Flood Monitoring Using Active Microwave Remote Sensed Synthetic Aperture Radar Data

Authors: Bikramjit Goswami, Manoranjan Kalita

Abstract:

Active microwave remote sensing is useful in remote sensing applications in cloud-covered regions in the world. Because of high spatial resolution, the spatial variations of land cover can be monitored in greater detail using synthetic aperture radar (SAR). Inundation is studied using the SAR images obtained from Sentinel-1A in both VH and VV polarizations in the present experimental study. The temporal variation of the SAR scattering coefficient values for the area gives a good indication of flood and its boundary. The study area is the district of Morigaon in the state of Assam in India. The period of flood monitoring study is the monsoon season of the year 2017, during which high flood occurred in the state of Assam. The variation of microwave scattering value shows a distinctive indication of flood from the non-flooded period. Frequent monitoring of flood in a large area (10 km x 10 km) using passive microwave sensing and pin-pointing the actual flooded portions (5 m x 5 m) within the flooded area using active microwave sensing, can be a highly useful combination, as revealed by the present experimental results.

Keywords: active remote sensing, flood monitoring, microwave remote sensing, synthetic aperture radar

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361 Impact of Microwave Heating Temperatures on the Pharmaceutical Powder Characteristics

Authors: Maha Al-Ali, Selvakannan Periasamy, Rajarathinam Parthasarathy

Abstract:

Drying temperature is an important factor impacting the physicochemical properties of the dried materials, particularly the pharmaceutical powders. Drying of pharmaceuticals by using microwave radiation is very limited, and the available information about the interaction between the electromagnetic radiations and the pharmaceutical material is still scarce. Therefore, microwave drying process is employed in this work to dry the wet (moisturised) granules of the formulated naproxen-sodium drug. This study aims to investigate the influences of the microwave radiation temperatures on the moisture removal, the crystalline structure, the size and morphology of the dried naproxen-sodium particles, and identify any potential changes in the chemical groups of the drug. In this work, newly formulated naproxen-sodium is prepared and moisturized by wet granulation process and hence dried by using microwave radiation at different temperatures. Moisture analyzer, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscope are used to characterise the non-moisturised powder (reference powder), the moisturised granules, and the dried particles. The results show that microwave drying of naproxen-sodium at high drying temperature is more efficient than that at low temperatures in terms of the moisture removal. Although there is no significant change in the chemical structure of the dried particles, the particle size, crystallinity and morphology are relatively changed with changing of heating temperature.

Keywords: heating temperature, microwave drying, naproxen-sodium, particle size

Procedia PDF Downloads 71