Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 19

Search results for: Niloofar Bahramian

19 Rule-Of-Mixtures: Predicting the Bending Modulus of Unidirectional Fiber Reinforced Dental Composites

Authors: Niloofar Bahramian, Mohammad Atai, Mohammad Reza Naimi-Jamal

Abstract:

Rule of mixtures is the simple analytical model is used to predict various properties of composites before design. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the benefits and limitations of the Rule-of-Mixtures (ROM) for predicting bending modulus of a continuous and unidirectional fiber reinforced composites using in dental applications. The Composites were fabricated from light curing resin (with and without silica nanoparticles) and modified and non-modified fibers. Composite samples were divided into eight groups with ten specimens for each group. The bending modulus (flexural modulus) of samples was determined from the slope of the initial linear region of stress-strain curve on 2mm×2mm×25mm specimens with different designs: fibers corona treatment time (0s, 5s, 7s), fibers silane treatment (0%wt, 2%wt), fibers volume fraction (41%, 33%, 25%) and nanoparticles incorporation in resin (0%wt, 10%wt, 15%wt). To study the fiber and matrix interface after fracture, single edge notch beam (SENB) method and scanning electron microscope (SEM) were used. SEM also was used to show the nanoparticles dispersion in resin. Experimental results of bending modulus for composites made of both physical (corona) and chemical (silane) treated fibers were in reasonable agreement with linear ROM estimates, but untreated fibers or non-optimized treated fibers and poor nanoparticles dispersion did not correlate as well with ROM results. This study shows that the ROM is useful to predict the mechanical behavior of unidirectional dental composites but fiber-resin interface and quality of nanoparticles dispersion play important role in ROM accurate predictions.

Keywords: bending modulus, fiber reinforced composite, fiber treatment, rule-of-mixtures

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18 Detection of Cryptosporidium Oocysts by Acid-Fast Staining Method and PCR in Surface Water from Tehran, Iran

Authors: Mohamad Mohsen Homayouni, Niloofar Taghipour, Ahmad Reza Memar, Niloofar Khalaji, Hamed Kiani, Seyyed Javad Seyyed Tabaei

Abstract:

Background and Objective: Cryptosporidium is a coccidian protozoan parasite; its oocysts in surface water are a global health problem. Due to the low number of parasites in the water resources and the lack of laboratory culture, rapid and sensitive method for detection of the organism in the water resources is necessarily required. We applied modified acid-fast staining and PCR for the detection of the Cryptosporidium spp. and analysed the genotypes in 55 samples collected from surface water. Methods: Over a period of nine months, 55 surface water samples were collected from the five rivers in Tehran, Iran. The samples were filtered by using cellulose acetate membrane filters. By acid fast method, initial identification of Cryptosporidium oocyst were carried out on surface water samples. Then, nested PCR assay was designed for the specific amplification and analysed the genotypes. Results: Modified Ziehl-Neelsen method revealed 5–20 Cryptosporidium oocysts detected per 10 Liter. Five out of the 55 (9.09%) surface water samples were found positive for Cryptosporidium spp. by Ziehl-Neelsen test and seven (12.7%) were found positive by nested PCR. The staining results were consistent with PCR. Seven Cryptosporidium PCR products were successfully sequenced and five gp60 subtypes were detected. Our finding of gp60 gene revealed that all of the positive isolates were Cryptosporidium parvum and belonged to subtype families IIa and IId. Conclusion: Our investigations were showed that collection of water samples were contaminated by Cryptosporidium, with potential hazards for the significant health problem. This study provides the first report on detection and genotyping of Cryptosporidium species from surface water samples in Iran, and its result confirmed the low clinical incidence of this parasite on the community.

Keywords: Cryptosporidium spp., membrane filtration, subtype, surface water, Iran

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17 DOS and DDOS Attacks

Authors: Amin Hamrahi, Niloofar Moghaddam

Abstract:

Denial of Service is for denial-of-service attack, a type of attack on a network that is designed to bring the network to its knees by flooding it with useless traffic. Denial of Service (DoS) attacks have become a major threat to current computer networks. Many recent DoS attacks were launched via a large number of distributed attacking hosts in the Internet. These attacks are called distributed denial of service (DDoS) attacks. To have a better understanding on DoS attacks, this article provides an overview on existing DoS and DDoS attacks and major defense technologies in the Internet.

Keywords: denial of service, distributed denial of service, traffic, flooding

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16 An Analysis of Oil Price Changes and Other Factors Affecting Iranian Food Basket: A Panel Data Method

Authors: Niloofar Ashktorab, Negar Ashktorab

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Oil exports fund nearly half of Iran’s government expenditures, since many years other countries have been imposed different sanctions against Iran. Sanctions that primarily target Iran’s key energy sector have harmed Iran’s economy. The strategic effects of sanctions might be reduction as Iran adjusts to them economically. In this study, we evaluate the impact of oil price and sanctions against Iran on food commodity prices by using panel data method. Here, we find that the food commodity prices, the oil price and real exchange rate are stationary. The results show positive effect of oil price changes, real exchange rate and sanctions on food commodity prices.

Keywords: oil price, food basket, sanctions, panel data, Iran

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15 A Kinetic Study on Recovery of High-Purity Rutile TiO₂ Nanoparticles from Titanium Slag Using Sulfuric Acid under Sonochemical Procedure

Authors: Alireza Bahramian

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High-purity TiO₂ nanoparticles (NPs) with size ranging between 50 nm and 100 nm are synthesized from titanium slag through sulphate route under sonochemical procedure. The effect of dissolution parameters such as the sulfuric acid/slag weight ratio, caustic soda concentration, digestion temperature and time, and initial particle size of the dried slag on the extraction efficiency of TiO₂ and removal of iron are examined. By optimizing the digestion conditions, a rutile TiO₂ powder with surface area of 42 m²/g and mean pore diameter of 22.4 nm were prepared. A thermo-kinetic analysis showed that the digestion temperature has an important effect, while the acid/slag weight ratio and initial size of the slag has a moderate effect on the dissolution rate. The shrinking-core model including both chemical surface reaction and surface diffusion is used to describe the leaching process. A low value of activation energy, 38.12 kJ/mol, indicates the surface chemical reaction model is a rate-controlling step. The kinetic analysis suggested a first order reaction mechanism with respect to the acid concentrations.

Keywords: TiO₂ nanoparticles, titanium slag, dissolution rate, sonochemical method, thermo-kinetic study

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14 Ultrasonographic Study of Normal Scapula in Horse

Authors: Mohamad Saeed Ahrari-Khafi, Abutorab Tabatabai-Naini, Niloofar Ajvadi

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Scapular fracture is not common in horses, due to the proper protection of scapular muscles. However, if it happens, it can cause lameness in horses. Because of the overlapping of the scapula on the contralateral scapula and the thorax, usually radiography cannot be helpful in evaluation, except in small amount of its ventral part. Although ultrasonography is mainly used for diagnosis of soft tissue injuries, it also can be used for evaluation of bone surface abnormalities. This study was intended to document the normal ultrasonographic appearance of the equine scapula. Right forelimb of six horses was used. To facilitate the image assessment, a zoning system was developed. Ultrasonography was performed by using a 5-11 MHz linear array transducer. Ultrasonographic anatomy of scapula in different parts and planes was imaged and documented, hoping to help practitioners to diagnose fractures and injuries. Results showed that ultrasonography is capable to depict different parts of the scapula and regional muscles, and can be used for detecting fractures and other abnormalities.

Keywords: horse, scapula, scapular fracture, ultrasonography

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13 The Role of Smartphones on Iranian Couples' Relationship: An Analysis

Authors: Niloofar Hooman

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The present study aims at investigating the positive and negative effects of using Smartphones on couples committed relationships. Despite the fact that many couples may benefit from the positive aspects of Smartphones, it is not clear how their feeling of trust, intimacy and connection in their relationships get affected by Smartphones. This is important as it highlights the ambivalent influences of Smartphones on couple’s relationships. On the one hand, Smartphones can enhance their social and emotional interactions and on the other hand, they can cause mistrust and isolation between them. Trust, intimacy and honesty are of important factors through which a stable relationship can be constructed. Nevertheless, some characteristics of Smartphones such as being fluid and personalized can harm the relationship and consequently destroy it. Thus, it is necessary to investigate how Iranian couples in committed relationships use Smartphone to manage their relationship and how couples feel Smartphone have enhanced or detracted a sense of trust, intimacy and connection with their partner? In the first phase of the study, in-depth-interview will be conducted with 30 couples and data will be analyzed using NVIVO software. In the next phase of the study, 1500 participants aged 20 and above will be selected based on cluster sampling. Data will be analyzed both qualitatively and quantitatively.

Keywords: couple, family, internet, intimacy, Smartphone, trust

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12 Electromagnetic and Physicochemical Properties in the Addition of Silicon Oxide on the SSPS Renewable Films

Authors: Niloofar Alipoormazandarani

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The rift environmental, efficiency and being environmental-friendly of these innovative food packaging in edible films made them as an alternative to synthetic packages. This issue has been widely studied in this experiment. Some of the greatest advances in food packaging industry is associated with nanotechnology. Recently, a polysaccharide extracted from the cell wall of soybean cotyledons: A soluble soybean polysaccharide (SSPS), a pectin-like structure. In this study, the addition (0%, 1%, 3%, and 5%) of nano silica dioxide (SiO2) film is examined SSPS in different features. The research aims to investigate the effect of nano-SiO2 on the physicochemical and electromagnetic properties of the SSPS films were sonicated and then heated to the melting point, besides the addition of plasticizer. After that, it has been cooled into the room temperature and were dried with Casting method. In final examinations,improvement in Moisture Content and Water Absorption was observed with a significant decrease.Also, in Color measurements there were some obvious differences. These reports indicate that the incorporation of nano-SiO2 and SSPS has the power to be extensively used in pharmaceutical and food packaging industry as well.

Keywords: SSPS, NanoSiO2, food packaging, renewable films

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11 Evaluation of the Relation between Serum and Saliva Levels of Sodium and Glucose in Healthy Referred Patients to Tabriz Faculty of Dentistry

Authors: Samaneh Nazemi, Ayla Bahramian, Marzieh Aghazadeh

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Saliva is a clear liquid composed of water, electrolytes, glucose, amylase, glycoproteins, and antimicrobial enzymes. The presence of a wide range of molecules and proteins in saliva has made this fluid valuable in screening for some diseases as well as epidemiological studies. Saliva is easier than serum to collect in large populations. Due to the importance of sodium and glucose levels in many biological processes, this study investigates the relationship between sodium and glucose levels in salivary and serum samples of healthy individuals referring to Tabriz Dental School. This descriptive-analytical study was performed on 40 healthy individuals referred to the Oral Diseases Department of Tabriz Dental School. Serum and saliva samples were taken from these patients according to standard protocols. Data were presented as mean (standard deviation) and frequency (percentage) for quantitative and qualitative variables. Pearson test, paired-samples T-test and SPSS 24 software were used to determine the correlation between serum and salivary levels of these biomarkers. In this study, P less than 0.05% is considered significant. Out of 40 participants in this study, 14 (35%) were male, and 26 (65%) were female. According to the results of this study, the mean salivary sodium (127.53 ml/dl) was lower than the mean serum sodium (141.2725 ml/dl). In contrast, the mean salivary glucose (4.55 ml/dl) was lower than the mean serum glucose (89.7575 ml/dl). The result of paired samples T-test (p-value<0.05) showed that there is a statistically significant difference between the mean of serum sodium and salivary sodium, as well as between the serum glucose and salivary glucose. Pearson correlation test results showed that there is no significant correlation between serum sodium and salivary sodium (p-value >0.05), but here is a positive correlation between serum glucose and salivary glucose (p-value<0.001). Both serum sodium and glucose were higher than salivary sodium and glucose.In conclusion, this study found that there was not a statistical relationship between salivary glucose and serum glucose and also salivary sodium and serum sodium of healthy individuals. Perhaps salivary samples can’t be used to measure glucose and sodium in these individuals.

Keywords: glucose, saliva, serum, sodium

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10 Effectiveness of Metacognitive Therapy in Metacognitive Beliefs, Anxiety and Social Phobia of Male High School Students

Authors: Saba Hasanvandi, Molok Khademi Ashkezari, Niloofar Esmaieli

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The research purpose was to assess the effectiveness of metacognitive therapy in metacognitive beliefs, anxiety and social phobia of male students studying in the high schools of Dargaz City. The sample comprised 30 students who were randomly selected and assigned to the experimental and control groups. The kind of this study was experimental study with pre-ops and follow-up stages. Subjects filled out metacognitive beliefs, anxiety and social phobia questionnaires. The experimental group underwent 10 sessions of therapeutic metacognitive sessions. The group therapy was conducted for ten, weekly, 90-minute sessions. Mankova analysis was utilized to analyze the data. Results revealed that metacognitive group therapy decreased metacognitive beliefs (P=0.007), anxiety (P<0.001) and social phobia (P=<0.017) in the experimental group as compared to the control group. Furthermore, the effectiveness of group metacognitive therapy was stable and consistent after one month of time interval. The results of present study can be effective for mental health professional in reaching a better understanding of anxiety and social phobia.

Keywords: group metacognitive therapy, metacognitive beliefs, anxiety, social phobia, high school students

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9 Experience Level and Adoption of Interpretation Strategies by Iranian Interpreters

Authors: Niloofar Fathizaviyehkord

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Just as two hands cannot make a good boxer, knowing two or more languages cannot make a skillful interpreter. Interpreting, either consecutive or simultaneous, is a cognitively demanding task requiring not only linguistic and discourse knowledge but also strategic competence. Moreover, experience level can play a very crucial role in the strategies interpreters may employ since translation and interpretation quality is a matter of experience, besides other factors, as well. With regard to the significance of strategic competence, this study investigated what strategies are mainly employed by interpreters, what strategies are employed more frequently, and whether experience level can affect the choice of strategies by interpreters or not. To collect the necessary data, the first retrospective interviews were held with 20 interpreters experienced more or less in simultaneous and consecutive interpretation to see what strategies other than those classified in the literature are employed by interpreters. Then, several classifications of strategies in literature were merged with those emerging from the retrospective interviews to come up with a comprehensive questionnaire on interpreting strategies. After seeking five experts’ opinions regarding the wording/content of the questionnaire, it was given to 60 interpreters. The statistical analysis of the questionnaire data and experience level through ANOVA showed experience level could affect the choice of strategies. This study closes with the theoretical/practical implications of the findings for interpreter training.

Keywords: experience level, consecutive and simultaneous, interpretation strategies, translation

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8 Multi Agent Based Pre-Hospital Emergency Management Architecture

Authors: Jaleh Shoshtarian Malak, Niloofar Mohamadzadeh

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Managing pre-hospital emergency patients requires real-time practices and efficient resource utilization. Since we are facing a distributed Network of healthcare providers, services and applications choosing the right resources and treatment protocol considering patient situation is a critical task. Delivering care to emergency patients at right time and with the suitable treatment settings can save ones live and prevent further complication. In recent years Multi Agent Systems (MAS) introduced great solutions to deal with real-time, distributed and complicated problems. In this paper we propose a multi agent based pre-hospital emergency management architecture in order to manage coordination, collaboration, treatment protocol and healthcare provider selection between different parties in pre-hospital emergency in a self-organizing manner. We used AnyLogic Agent Based Modeling (ABM) tool in order to simulate our proposed architecture. We have analyzed and described the functionality of EMS center, Ambulance, Consultation Center, EHR Repository and Quality of Care Monitoring as main collaborating agents. Future work includes implementation of the proposed architecture and evaluation of its impact on patient quality of care improvement.

Keywords: multi agent systems, pre-hospital emergency, simulation, software architecture

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7 Facial Expression Phoenix (FePh): An Annotated Sequenced Dataset for Facial and Emotion-Specified Expressions in Sign Language

Authors: Marie Alaghband, Niloofar Yousefi, Ivan Garibay

Abstract:

Facial expressions are important parts of both gesture and sign language recognition systems. Despite the recent advances in both fields, annotated facial expression datasets in the context of sign language are still scarce resources. In this manuscript, we introduce an annotated sequenced facial expression dataset in the context of sign language, comprising over 3000 facial images extracted from the daily news and weather forecast of the public tv-station PHOENIX. Unlike the majority of currently existing facial expression datasets, FePh provides sequenced semi-blurry facial images with different head poses, orientations, and movements. In addition, in the majority of images, identities are mouthing the words, which makes the data more challenging. To annotate this dataset we consider primary, secondary, and tertiary dyads of seven basic emotions of "sad", "surprise", "fear", "angry", "neutral", "disgust", and "happy". We also considered the "None" class if the image’s facial expression could not be described by any of the aforementioned emotions. Although we provide FePh as a facial expression dataset of signers in sign language, it has a wider application in gesture recognition and Human Computer Interaction (HCI) systems.

Keywords: annotated facial expression dataset, gesture recognition, sequenced facial expression dataset, sign language recognition

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6 Investigating the Use of Rigid-Foundation Impedance Function for Time-Domain Substructure Soil-Structure-Interaction Analysis

Authors: Abdelrahman Taha, Niloofar Malekghaini, Hamed Ebrahimian, Ramin Motamed

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This paper compares the substructure and direct methods for soil-structure interaction (SSI) analysis in the time domain. In the substructure SSI method, the soil domain is replaced by a set of springs and dashpots, also referred to as the impedance function, derived through the study of the behavior of a massless rigid foundation. The impedance function is inherently frequency dependent, i.e., it varies as a function of the frequency content of the structural response. To use the frequency-dependent impedance function for time-domain SSI analysis, the impedance function is approximated at the fundamental frequency of the structure-soil system. To explore the potential limitations of the substructure modeling process, a two-dimensional reinforced concrete frame structure is modeled using substructure and direct methods in this study. The results show discrepancies between the simulated responses of the substructure and the direct approaches. To isolate the effects of higher modal responses, the same study is repeated using a harmonic input motion, in which a similar discrepancy is still observed between the substructure and direct approaches. It is concluded that the main source of discrepancy between the substructure and direct SSI approaches is likely attributed to the way the impedance functions are calculated, i.e., assuming a massless rigid foundation without considering the presence of the superstructure. Hence, a refined impedance function, considering the presence of the superstructure, shall be developed. This refined impedance function is expected to significantly improve the simulation accuracy of the substructure approach for structural systems whose behavior is dominated by the fundamental mode response.

Keywords: direct approach, impedance function, soil-structure interaction, substructure approach

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5 Bi-Layer Electro-Conductive Nanofibrous Conduits for Peripheral Nerve Regeneration

Authors: Niloofar Nazeri, Mohammad Ali Derakhshan, Reza Faridi Majidi, Hossein Ghanbari

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Injury of peripheral nervous system (PNS) can lead to loss of sensation or movement. To date, one of the challenges for surgeons is repairing large gaps in PNS. To solve this problem, nerve conduits have been developed. Conduits produced by means of electrospinning can mimic extracellular matrix and provide enough surface for further functionalization. In this research, a conductive bilayer nerve conduit with poly caprolactone (PCL), poly (lactic acid co glycolic acid) (PLGA) and MWCNT for promoting peripheral nerve regeneration was fabricated. The conduit was made of longitudinally aligned PLGA nanofibrous sheets in the lumen to promote nerve regeneration and randomly oriented PCL nanofibers on the outer surface for mechanical support. The intra-luminal guidance channel was made out of conductive aligned nanofibrous rolled sheets which are coated with laminin via dopamine. Different properties of electrospun scaffolds were investigated by using contact angle, mechanical strength, degradation time, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The SEM analysis was shown that size range of nanofibrous mat were about 600-750 nm and MWCNTs deposited between nanofibers. The XPS result was shown that laminin attached to the nanofibers surface successfully. The contact-angle and tensile tests analysis revealed that scaffolds have good hydrophilicity and enough mechanical strength. In vitro studies demonstrated that this conductive surface was able to enhance the attachment and proliferation of PC12 and Schwann cells. We concluded that this bilayer composite conduit has good potential for nerve regeneration.

Keywords: conductive, conduit, laminin, MWCNT

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4 Pre-Exsisting Attitude, Service Failure, and Recovery: Effect, Attributes, and Process in an Islamic Country

Authors: Niloofar Mobasem, Kambiz Heidarzadeh Hanzaee

Abstract:

Purpose: The study aimed to measure the customer satisfaction with service recovery through the conflict management framework, especially assessing the role of pre-existing attitudes for measuring the customer response to the service failure. Design/ methodology/ approach: The study is based on the experimental research method. The factorial designs are used in the research that measures the variables in two separate studies. In the first study, the factorial design is 3 conflict management style: cooperative, competitive, avoiding; - 3 service performance: exceed expectation, meet expectation, fail to meet expectation; and in the second study includes: - 3 conflict management style: cooperative, competitive, avoiding; - 2 service performance: exceed expectation, fail to meet expectation; - 2 pre-existing attitude: positive, negative. Finding: The results of study based on a scenario indicate that the conflict management style affected on customer satisfaction by service recovery efforts as well as the pre-existing attitudes affected the customer interpretation for service providers (conflict management style) and those who have positive pre-existing attitudes are interested to response to the cooperative approach in dealing with service failure. Research limitation/ implication: According to all researches, the study has several limitations. The nature of scenario in this study may cause to hit the reality of life. Although, the similar scenario approaches commonly are used for such researches, but the approaches are not without criticism. Practical implications: Given the importance of service recovery, companies can understand the importance of creating customer satisfaction achieved by the positive results due to the service recovery during the shortness or service failure by the mentioned companies. Originality/ value: The study highlights the importance of service failure and providing the education in relation to the service recovery.

Keywords: service recovery, pre-existing attitude, service failure, customer satisfaction

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3 A Comprehensive Survey on Machine Learning Techniques and User Authentication Approaches for Credit Card Fraud Detection

Authors: Niloofar Yousefi, Marie Alaghband, Ivan Garibay

Abstract:

With the increase of credit card usage, the volume of credit card misuse also has significantly increased, which may cause appreciable financial losses for both credit card holders and financial organizations issuing credit cards. As a result, financial organizations are working hard on developing and deploying credit card fraud detection methods, in order to adapt to ever-evolving, increasingly sophisticated defrauding strategies and identifying illicit transactions as quickly as possible to protect themselves and their customers. Compounding on the complex nature of such adverse strategies, credit card fraudulent activities are rare events compared to the number of legitimate transactions. Hence, the challenge to develop fraud detection that are accurate and efficient is substantially intensified and, as a consequence, credit card fraud detection has lately become a very active area of research. In this work, we provide a survey of current techniques most relevant to the problem of credit card fraud detection. We carry out our survey in two main parts. In the first part, we focus on studies utilizing classical machine learning models, which mostly employ traditional transnational features to make fraud predictions. These models typically rely on some static physical characteristics, such as what the user knows (knowledge-based method), or what he/she has access to (object-based method). In the second part of our survey, we review more advanced techniques of user authentication, which use behavioral biometrics to identify an individual based on his/her unique behavior while he/she is interacting with his/her electronic devices. These approaches rely on how people behave (instead of what they do), which cannot be easily forged. By providing an overview of current approaches and the results reported in the literature, this survey aims to drive the future research agenda for the community in order to develop more accurate, reliable and scalable models of credit card fraud detection.

Keywords: Credit Card Fraud Detection, User Authentication, Behavioral Biometrics, Machine Learning, Literature Survey

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2 A Measurement and Motor Control System for Free Throw Shots in Basketball Using Gyroscope Sensor

Authors: Niloofar Zebarjad

Abstract:

This research aims at finding a tool to provide basketball players with real-time audio feedback on their shooting form in free throw shots. Free throws played a pivotal role in taking the lead in fierce competitions. The major problem in performing an accurate free throw seems to be improper training. Since the arm movement during the free throw shot is complex, the coach or the athlete might miss the movement details during practice. Hence, there is a necessity to create a system that measures arm movements' critical characteristics and control for improper kinematics. The proposed setup in this study quantifies arm kinematics and provides real-time feedback as an audio signal consisting of a gyroscope sensor. Spatial shoulder angle data are transmitted in a mobile application in real-time and can be saved and processed for statistical and analysis purposes. The proposed system is easy to use, inexpensive, portable, and real-time applicable. Objectives: This research aims to modify and control the free throw using audio feedback and determine if and to what extent the new setup reduces errors in arm formations during throws and finally assesses the successful throw rate. Methods: One group of elite basketball athletes and two novice athletes (control and study group) participated in this study. Each group contains 5 participants being studied in three separate sessions over a week. Results: Empirical results showed enhancements in the free throw shooting style, shot pocket (SP), and locked position (LP). The mean values of shoulder angle were controlled on 25° and 45° for SP and LP, respectively, recommended by valid FIBA references. Conclusion: Throughout the experiments, the system helped correct and control the shoulder angles toward the targeted pattern of shot pocket (SP) and locked position (LP). According to the desired results for arm motion, adding another sensor to measure and control the elbow angle is recommended.

Keywords: audio-feedback, basketball, free-throw, locked-position, motor-control, shot-pocket

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1 Utilizing Topic Modelling for Assessing Mhealth App’s Risks to Users’ Health before and during the COVID-19 Pandemic

Authors: Pedro Augusto Da Silva E Souza Miranda, Niloofar Jalali, Shweta Mistry

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BACKGROUND: Software developers utilize automated solutions to scrape users’ reviews to extract meaningful knowledge to identify problems (e.g., bugs, compatibility issues) and possible enhancements (e.g., users’ requests) to their solutions. However, most of these solutions do not consider the health risk aspects to users. Recent works have shed light on the importance of including health risk considerations in the development cycle of mHealth apps to prevent harm to its users. PROBLEM: The COVID-19 Pandemic in Canada (and World) is currently forcing physical distancing upon the general population. This new lifestyle made the usage of mHealth applications more essential than ever, with a projected market forecast of 332 billion dollars by 2025. However, this new insurgency in mHealth usage comes with possible risks to users’ health due to mHealth apps problems (e.g., wrong insulin dosage indication due to a UI error). OBJECTIVE: These works aim to raise awareness amongst mHealth developers of the importance of considering risks to users’ health within their development lifecycle. Moreover, this work also aims to help mHealth developers with a Proof-of-Concept (POC) solution to understand, process, and identify possible health risks to users of mHealth apps based on users’ reviews. METHODS: We conducted a mixed-method study design. We developed a crawler to mine the negative reviews from two samples of mHealth apps (my fitness, medisafe) from the Google Play store users. For each mHealth app, we performed the following steps: • The reviews are divided into two groups, before starting the COVID-19 (reviews’ submission date before 15 Feb 2019) and during the COVID-19 (reviews’ submission date starts from 16 Feb 2019 till Dec 2020). For each period, the Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) topic model was used to identify the different clusters of reviews based on similar topics of review The topics before and during COVID-19 are compared, and the significant difference in frequency and severity of similar topics are identified. RESULTS: We successfully scraped, filtered, processed, and identified health-related topics in both qualitative and quantitative approaches. The results demonstrated the similarity between topics before and during the COVID-19.

Keywords: natural language processing (NLP), topic modeling, mHealth, COVID-19, software engineering, telemedicine, health risks

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