Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 685

Search results for: Mona Hassan Gamal Eldein

685 Influence of Strengthening of Hip Abductors and External Rotators in Treatment of Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome

Authors: Karima Abdel Aty Hassan Mohamed, Manal Mohamed Ismail, Mona Hassan Gamal Eldein, Ahmed Hassan Hussein, Abdel Aziz Mohamed Elsingerg

Abstract:

Background: Patellofemoral pain (PFP) is a common musculoskeletal pain condition, especially in females. Decreased hip muscle strength has been implicated as a contributing factor, yet the relationships between pain, hip muscle strength and function are not known. Objective: The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of strengthening hip abductors and lateral rotators on pain intensity, function and hip abductor and hip lateral rotator eccentric and concentric torques in patients with PFPS. Methods: Thirty patients had participated in this study; they were assigned into two experimental groups. With age ranged for eighty to thirty five years. Group A consisted of 15 patients (11females and 4 males) with mean age 20.8 (±2.73) years, received closed kinetic chain exercises program, stretching exercises for tight lower extremity soft tissues, and hip strengthening exercises .Group B consisted of 15 patients (12 females and 3 males) with mean age 21.2(±3.27) years, received closed kinetic chain exercises program and stretching exercises for tight lower extremity soft tissues. Treatment was given 2-3times/week, for 6 weeks. Patients were evaluated pre and post treatment for their pain severity, function of knee joint, hip abductors and external rotators concentric/eccentric peak torque. Result: the results revealed that there were significant differences in pain and function between both groups, while there was improvement for all values for both group. Conclusion: Six weeks rehabilitation program focusing on knee strengthening exercises either supplemented by hip strengthening exercises or not effective in improving function, reducing pain and improving hip muscles torque in patients with PFPS. However, adding hip abduction and lateral rotation strengthening exercises seem to reduce pain and improve function more efficiently.

Keywords: patellofemoral pain syndrome, hip muscles, rehabilitation, isokinetic

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684 The Effects of High Velocity Low Amplitude Thrust Manipulation versus Low Velocity Low Amplitude Mobilization in Treatment of Chronic Mechanical Low Back Pain

Authors: Ahmed R. Z. Baghdadi, Ibrahim M. I. Hamoda,  Mona H. Gamal Eldein, Ibrahim Magdy Elnaggar

Abstract:

Background: High-velocity low amplitude thrust (HVLAT) manipulation and low-velocity low amplitude (LVLA) mobilization are an effective treatment for low back pain (LBP). Purpose: This study compared the effects of HVLAT versus LVLA on pain, functional deficits and segmental mobility in treatment of chronic mechanical LBP. Methods: Ninety patients suffering from chronic mechanical LBP are classified to three groups; Thirty patients treated by HVLAT (group I), thirty patients treated by LVLA (group II) and thirty patients as control group (group III) participated in the study. The mean age was 28.00±2.92, 27.83±2.28 and 28.07±3.05 years and BMI 27.98±2.60, 28.80±2.40 and 28.70±2.53 kg/m2 for group I, II and III respectively. The Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), the Oswestry low back pain disability questionnaire and modified schoper test were used for assessment. Assessments were conducted two weeks before and after treatment with the control group being assessed at the same time intervals. The treatment program group one was two weeks single session per week, and for group II two sessions per week for two weeks. Results: The One-way ANOVA revealed that group I had significantly lower pain scores and Oswestry score compared with group II two weeks after treatment. Moreover, the mobility in modified schoper increased significantly and the pain scores and Oswestry scores decreased significantly after treatment in group I and II compared with control group. Interpretation/Conclusion: HVLAT is preferable to LVLA mobilization, possibly due to a beneficial neurophysiological effect by Stimulating mechanically sensitive neurons in the lumbar facet joint capsule.

Keywords: low back pain, manipulation, mobilization, low velocity

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683 Long-Term Follow-Up of Dynamic Balance, Pain and Functional Performance in Cruciate Retaining, Posterior Stabilized Total Knee Arthroplasty

Authors: Ahmed R. Z. Baghdadi,  Mona H. Gamal Eldein

Abstract:

Background: With the perceived pain and poor function experienced following knee arthroplasty, patients usually feel unsatisfied. Yet, a controversy still persists on the appropriate operative technique that doesn’t affect proprioception much. Purpose: This study compared the effects of Cruciate Retaining (CR) and Posterior Stabilized (PS) total knee arthroplasty (TKA on dynamic balance, pain and functional performance following rehabilitation. Methods: Thirty patients with CRTKA (group I), thirty with PSTKA (group II) and fifteen indicated for arthroplasty but weren’t operated on yet (group III) participated in the study. The mean age was 54.53±3.44, 55.13±3.48 and 55.33±2.32 years and BMI 35.7±3.03, 35.7±1.99 and 35.73±1.03 kg/m2 for group I, II, and III respectively. The Berg Balance Scale (BBS), WOMAC pain subscale and Timed-Up-and-Go (TUG) and Stair-Climbing (SC) tests were used for assessment. Assessments were conducted four weeks pre- and post-operatively, three, six and twelve months post-operatively with the control group being assessed at the same time intervals. The post-operative rehabilitation involved hospitalization (1st week), home-based (2nd-4th weeks), and outpatient clinic (5th-12th weeks) programs, follow-up to all groups for twelve months. Results: The Mixed design MANOVA revealed that group I had significantly lower pain scores and SC time compared with group II three, six and twelve months post-operatively. Moreover, the BBS scores increased significantly and the pain scores and TUG and SC time decreased significantly six months post-operatively compared with four weeks pre- and post-operatively and three months post-operatively in group I and II with the opposite being true four weeks post-operatively. But no significant differences in BBS scores, pain scores and TUG and SC time between six and twelve months post-operatively in group I and II. Interpretation/Conclusion: CRTKA is preferable to PSTKA, possibly due to the preserved human proprioceptors in the un-excised PCL.

Keywords: dynamic balance, functional performance, knee arthroplasty, long-term

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682 An Attack on the Lucas Based El-Gamal Cryptosystem in the Elliptic Curve Group Over Finite Field Using Greater Common Divisor

Authors: Lee Feng Koo, Tze Jin Wong, Pang Hung Yiu, Nik Mohd Asri Nik Long

Abstract:

Greater common divisor (GCD) attack is an attack that relies on the polynomial structure of the cryptosystem. This attack required two plaintexts differ from a fixed number and encrypted under same modulus. This paper reports a security reaction of Lucas Based El-Gamal Cryptosystem in the Elliptic Curve group over finite field under GCD attack. Lucas Based El-Gamal Cryptosystem in the Elliptic Curve group over finite field was exposed mathematically to the GCD attack using GCD and Dickson polynomial. The result shows that the cryptanalyst is able to get the plaintext without decryption by using GCD attack. Thus, the study concluded that it is highly perilous when two plaintexts have a slight difference from a fixed number in the same Elliptic curve group over finite field.

Keywords: decryption, encryption, elliptic curve, greater common divisor

Procedia PDF Downloads 139
681 Chemical Profiling of Farsetia Aegyptia Turra and Farsetia Longisiliqua Decne. and Their Chemosystematic Significance

Authors: Mona M. Marzouk, Ahmed Elkhateeb, Mona Elshabrawy, Mai M. Farid, Salwa A. Kawashty, EL-Sayed S. Abdel-Hameed, Sameh R. Hussein

Abstract:

The genus Farsetia Turra belongs to the family Brassicaceae and has approximately 30 accepted species distributed worldwide. Amongst them, Farsetia aegyptia Turra and Farsetia longisiliqua Decne. are two common species characteristic to the Egyptian flora. The present study considers the first characterization of the chemical constituents of F. longisiliqua, aiming to compare with those identified from the medicinal species (F. aegyptia). Additionally, the chemosystematic relationships between the two studied species were evaluated and highlight the medicinal importance for F. longisiliqua. The chemical profiling of their aqueous methanol extracts were carried out using the LC-ESI-MS technique and afforded 54 compounds belonging to different chemical groups. Flavonoids are the major constituents and are represented by 32 compounds (two C-glycosyl flavone, four flavones, and 26 flavonols). Their structural variations and common constituents confirmed the chemosystematic significance of the two species. Moreover, the flavonoid profiles showed major common constituents between the two investigated species, which predicted the medicinal importance of F. longisiliqua.

Keywords: brassicaceae, chemosystematics, farsetia, flavonoids, glucosinolates, LC-ESI-MS

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680 History on the Screen: Nasser and the Biographical Film in Egyptian Cinema

Authors: Omar Khalifah

Abstract:

The emergence of Muhammad Fadel’s 1996 film ‘Nasser 56’ ushered in a new era in Egyptian cinema. Not only was it the first biographical film of late Egyptian president Gamal ‘Abdel Nasser (1918-1970); it also broke a long-accepted taboo against cinematic depiction of modern political leaders. Passionately received by Egyptians and Arabs throughout the world, the success of ‘Nasser 56’ empowered other filmmakers to follow Fadel’s suit. Interestingly, the three biographical films that followed had, completely or partially, a Nasser dimension. In addition to another biographical film of Nasser, Anwar al-Qawadri’s ‘Gamal ‘Abdel Nasser’ (1999); Muhammad Khan’s ‘Ayyam al-Sadat (Days of Sadat)’ (2001), and Sherif Arafa’s ‘Halim (Halim)’ (2006) portray, as the titles clearly suggest, two significant figures whose lives thoroughly intersected with Nasser’s - Nasser’s successor Anwar al-Sadat and the legendary singer Abdel Halim Hafiz. Expectedly, therefore, Nasser himself is abundantly referenced in those films, albeit differently. This paper seeks to examine the ways in which Egyptian filmmakers impersonate Nasser on the screen. Starting with scholarly definitions of the biopic, the paper will first ponder the reasons that have made the biopic an unattractive genre to Egyptian filmmakers. It will then argue that the popularity of Nasser and his wide appeal to the public has transformed the status of the biopic genre in Egyptian cinema. However, the impersonation of Nasser in the four films above proved a daunting mission to filmmakers. As this paper will show, unless he is the main character, the reenactment of Nasser in films will constantly pose dilemmas to filmmakers, a few of which will be discussed in this paper.

Keywords: Ahmad Zaki, bio-pictures, Egyptian cinema, Nasser, Nasser 56

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679 Radon Concentration in the Water Samples of Hassan District, Karnataka, India

Authors: T. S. Shashikumar

Abstract:

Radon is a radioactive gas emitted from radium, a daughter product of uranium that occurs naturally in rocks and soil. Radon, together with its decay products, emits alpha particles that can damage lung tissue. The activity concentration of 222Ra has been analyzed in water samples collected from borewells and rivers in and around Hassan city, Karnataka State, India. The measurements were performed by Emanometry technique. The concentration of 222Rn in borewell waters varies from 18.49±1.89 to 397.26±12.3 Bql-1 with geometric mean 120.48±12.87 Bql-1 and in river waters it varies from 92.63±9.31 to 93.98±9.51 Bql-1 with geometric mean of 93.16±9.33 Bql-1. In the present study, the radon concentrations are higher in Adarshanagar and Viveka Nagar which are found to be 397.26±12.3 Bql-1 and 325.78±32.56 Bql-1. Most of the analysed samples show a 222Rn concentration more than 100 Bql-1 and this can be attributed to the geology of the area where the ground waters are located, which is predominantly of granitic characteristic. The average inhalation dose and ingestion dose in the borewell water are found to be 0.405 and 0.033 µSvy-1; and in river water it is found to be 0.234 and 0.019 µSvy-1, respectively. The average total effective dose rate in borewell waters and river waters are found to be 0.433 and 0.253 µSvy-1, which does not cause any health risk to the population of Hassan region.

Keywords: borewell, effective dose, emanometry, 222Rn

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678 Seismological Studies in Some Areas in Egypt

Authors: Gamal Seliem, Hassan Seliem

Abstract:

Aswan area is one of the important areas in Egypt and because it encompasses the vital engineering structure of the High dam, so it has been selected for the present study. The study of the crustal deformation and gravity associated with earthquake activity in the High Dam area of great importance for the safety of the High Dam and its economic resources. This paper deals with using micro-gravity, precise leveling and GPS data for geophysical and geodetically studies. For carrying out the detailed gravity survey in the area, were established for studying the subsurface structures. To study the recent vertical movements, a profile of 10 km length joins the High Dam and Aswan old dam were established along the road connecting the two dams. This profile consists of 35 GPS/leveling stations extending along the two sides of the road and on the High Dam body. Precise leveling was carried out with GPS and repeated micro-gravity survey in the same time. GPS network consisting of nine stations was established for studying the recent crustal movements. Many campaigns from December 2001 to December 2014 were performed for collecting the gravity, leveling and GPS data. The main aim of this work is to study the structural features and the behavior of the area, as depicted from repeated micro-gravity, precise leveling and GPS measurements. The present work focuses on the analysis of the gravity, leveling and GPS data. The gravity results of the present study investigate and analyze the subsurface geologic structures and reveal to there be minor structures; features and anomalies are taking W-E and N-S directions. The geodetic results indicated lower rates of the vertical and horizontal displacements and strain values. This may be related to the stability of the area.

Keywords: repeated micro-gravity changes, precise leveling, GPS data, Aswan High Dam

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677 Sustainability of Vernacular Architecture in Zegalli Houses in Northern Iran with Emphasis on Their Seismic Behavior

Authors: Mona Zaryoun, Mahmood Hosseini, Seyed Mohammad Hassan Khalkhali, Haniyeh Okhovat

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Zegalli houses in Guilan province, northern Iran, are a type of vernacular houses which their foundation, skeleton and walls all have been made of wood. The only houses which could survive the major Manjil-Rudbar earthquake of 1990 with a magnitude of 7.2 were these houses. Regarding this fact, some researchers started thinking of this type of foundations used in these houses to benefit from rocking-wise behavior. On the one hand, the relatively light weight of the houses, have helped these houses to withstand well against seismic excitations. In this paper at first a brief description of Zegalli houses and their architectural features, with emphasis on their foundation is presented. in the next stage foundation of one of these houses is modeled as a sample by a using a computer program, which has been developed in MATLAB environment, and by using the horizontal and vertical accelerograms of a set of selected site compatible earthquakes, a series of time history analysis (THA) are carried out to investigate the behavior of this type of houses against earthquake. Based on numerical results of THA it can be said that even without no sliding at the foundation timbers, only due to the rocking which occurs in various levels of the foundation the seismic response of the house is significantly reduced., which results in their stability subjected to earthquakes with peak ground acceleration of around 0.35g. Therefore, it can be recommended the Zegalli houses are considered as sustainable Iranian vernacular architecture, and it can be recommended that the use of these houses and their architecture and their structural merits are reconsidered by architects as well as civil and structural engineers.

Keywords: MATLAB software, rocking behavior, time history analysis, Zegalli houses

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676 Flexural Strengthening of Steel Beams Using Fiber Reinforced Polymers

Authors: Sally Hosny, Mona G. Ibrahim, N. K. Hassan

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Fiber reinforced polymers (FRP) is one of the most environmentally method for strengthening and retrofitting steel structure buildings. The behaviour of flexural strengthened steel I-beams using FRP was investigated. The finite element (FE) models were developed using ANSYS® as verification cases to simulate the experimental behaviour of using FRP strips to flexure strengthen steel I-beam. Two experimental studies were selected for verification; first examined the effect of different thicknesses and modulus of elasticity while the second studied the effect of applying different carbon fiber reinforced polymers (CFRP) bond lengths. The proposed FE models were in good agreement with the experimental results in terms of failure modes, load bearing capacities and strain distribution on CFRP strips. The verified FE models can be utilized to conduct a parametric study where various widths (40, 50, 60, 70 and 80 mm), thickness (1.2, 2 and 4 mm) and lengths (1500, 1700 and 1800 mm) of CFRP were analyzed. The results presented clearly revealed that the load bearing capacity was significantly increased (+7%) when the width and thickness were increased. However, load bearing capacity was slightly affected using longer CFRP strips. Moreover, applying another glass fiber reinforced polymers (GFRP) of 1500 mm in length, 50 mm in width and thicknesses of 1.2, 2 and 4 mm were investigated. Load bearing capacity of strengthened I-beams using GFRP is less than CFRP by average 8%. Statistical analysis has been conducted using Minitab®.

Keywords: FRP, strengthened steel I-beams, flexural, FEM, ANSYS

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675 Socioeconomic Values and Administration in Northern Nigeria: An Examination of the Impacts of Dearth of Values

Authors: Hassan Alhaji Hassan, Inuwa Abdu Ibrahim

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The research looks at the decaying socioeconomic values in northern Nigeria, which is directly affecting the administration of service at different levels. The aim is to establish the consequence of a valueless society on individual and public life at different levels. The result of governments’ continued neglect of education, societal values, which have negatively affected societal development and indeed development in general. Therefore, focus is on governments’ poor performance in Nigeria, using secondary sources of data. In conclusion, the research asserts the need for the application of the values of some traditional values as personal principles and good governance as the way out of the present deteriorating conditions.

Keywords: socioeconomic, values, education, Northern Nigeria, good governance

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674 Bacterial Flora of the Anopheles Fluviatilis S. L. in an Endemic Malaria Area in Southeastern Iran for Candidate Paraterasgenesis Strains

Authors: Seyed Hassan Moosa-kazemi, Jalal Mohammadi Soleimani, Hassan Vatandoost, Mohammad Hassan Shirazi, Sara Hajikhani, Roonak Bakhtiari, Morteza Akbari, Siamak Hydarzadeh

Abstract:

Malaria is an infectious disease and considered most important health problems in the southeast of Iran. Iran is elimination malaria phase and new tool need to vector control. Paraterasgenesis is a new way to cut of life cycle of the malaria parasite. In this study, the microflora of the surface and gut of various stages of Anopheles fluviatilis James as one of the important malaria vector was studied using biochemical and molecular techniques during 2013-2014. Twelve bacteria species were found including; Providencia rettgeri, Morganella morganii, Enterobacter aerogenes, Pseudomonas oryzihabitans, Citrobacter braakii، Citrobacter freundii، Aeromonas hydrophila، Klebsiella oxytoca, Citrobacter koseri, Serratia fonticola، Enterobacter sakazakii and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. The species of Alcaligenes faecalis, Providencia vermicola and Enterobacter hormaechei were identified in various stages of the vector and confirmed by biochemical and molecular techniques. We found Providencia rettgeri proper candidate for paratransgenesis.

Keywords: Anopheles fluviatilis, bacteria, malaria, Paraterasgenesis, Southern Iran

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673 Influence of Applied Inorganic and Organic Nitrogen Fertilizers on Nitrogen Forms in Biochar-Treated Soil

Authors: Eman H. El-Gamal, Maher E. Saleh, Mohamed Rashad, Ibrahim Elsokkary, Mona M. Abd El-Latif

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Biochar application to calcareous soils could potentially influence the nitrogen dynamics that affect the bioavailability of plants. This study was carried out to investigate the effect of incubation periods on the changes of nitrogen levels (total nitrogen TN and exchangeable ammonium NH₄⁺ and nitrate NO₃⁻) in biochar-treated calcareous soil. The incubation course was extended to 144 days at 30 ± 3 ℃ and at 50% of soil water holding capacity (WHC). Two types of biochars were obtained by pyrolysis at 500 ℃ from rice husk (RHB) and sugarcane bagasse (SCBB). The experiment was planned in a factorial experimental design with three factors (6 periods '24 days for each period' × 3 biochar types 'un-amended, RHB and SCBB' × 3 nitrogen fertilizers 'control, ammonium nitrate; AN and animal manure; AM') in a completely randomized design. The results obtained showed that the highest level of TN was found in the first 24 days of the incubation period in all treatments. However, the amount of TN was decreased with proceeding incubation period up to 144 days and reached to the lowest level at the end of incubation with values of change rate was 17.5, 16.6, and 14.6 g kg⁻¹ day⁻¹ for the un-amended, RHB and SCBB treated soil, respectively. The values of change rate in biochar-soils treated with nitrogen fertilizers were decreased gradually through the whole incubation time from 127.22 to 12.45 g kg⁻¹ day⁻¹ and from 65.00 to 13.43 g kg⁻¹ day⁻¹ for AN and AM respectively, in the case of RHB-soil. While in SCBB-soil, these values were decreased from 70.83 to 12.13 g kg⁻¹ day⁻¹ and from 59.17 to 11.48 g kg⁻¹ day⁻¹ for AN and AM treatments, respectively. The lowest concentration of exchangeable NH₄⁺ was generally found through the period from 24-48 days of incubation. However, the addition of nitrogen fertilizers, enhanced NH₄⁺ production through incubation periods. In the case of RHB-soil, the value of change rate in NH₄⁺ level in the first 24 days of incubation was 0.43 mg kg⁻¹ day⁻¹ and with the addition of AN and AM this value increased to 1.54 and 4.38 mg kg⁻¹ day⁻¹, respectively. In the case of SCBB-soil, the value of change rate in NH₄⁺ level was 0.29 mg kg⁻¹ day⁻¹ which increased to 1.04 mg kg⁻¹ day⁻¹ at the end of incubation, and due to the addition of AN and AM this value increased to 2.78 and 1.90 mg kg⁻¹ day⁻¹ in the first 24 days of incubation period, respectively. However, as compared to the control treatment, the lowest rate of change in NH₄⁺ level was found at the end of incubation. On the other hand, incubation of all biochars-amended soil and treated with AN and AM decreased the concentration levels of NO₃⁻, especially through the first 24-72 days of incubation period. As a result, the values of change rate in NO₃⁻ concentrations in all treatments were almost negative.

Keywords: ammonium nitrate, animal manure, biochar, rice husk, sugarcane bagasse

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672 Circulating Oxidized LDL and Insulin Resistance among Obese School Students

Authors: Nayera E. Hassan, Sahar A. El-Masry, Mones M. Abu Shady, Rokia A. El Banna, Muhammad Al-Tohamy, Mehrevan M. Abd El-Moniem, Mona Anwar

Abstract:

Circulating oxidized LDL (ox-LDL) is associated with obesity, insulin resistance (HOMA), metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease in adults. Little is known about relations in children. Aim: To assess association of ox-LDL with fat distribution and insulin resistance in a group of obese Egyptian children. Methods: Study is cross-sectional consisting of 68 obese children, with a mean age of 9.96 ± 1.32. Each underwent a complete physical examination; blood pressure (SBP, DBP) and anthropometric measurements (weight, height, BMI; waist, hip circumferences, waist/hip ratio), biochemical tests of fasting blood glucose (FBS), insulin levels; lipid profile (TC, LDL,HDL, TG) and ox-LDL; calculated HOMA. Sample was classified according to waist/hip ratio into: group I with and group II without central obesity. Results: ox-LDL showed significant positive correlation with LDL and TC in all groups of obesity. After adjustment for age and sex, significant positive correlation was detected between ox-LDL with SBP, DBP, TC, LDL, insulin, and HOMA in group II and with TC and FBS in group I. Insignificant association was detected between ox-LDL and other anthropometric parameters including BMI in any group of obese children (p > 0.05). Conclusions: ox-LDL, as a marker of oxidative stress is not correlated with BMI among all studied obese children (aged 6-12 years). Increased oxidative stress has causal effects on insulin resistance in obese children without central obesity and on fasting blood sugar in those with central obesity. These findings emphasize the importance of obesity during childhood and suggest that the metabolic complications of obesity and body fat distribution are detectable early in life.

Keywords: ox-LDL, obesity, insulin resistance, children

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671 Chemical Constituents of Matthiola Longipetala Extracts: In Vivo Antioxidant and Antidiabetic Effects in Alloxan Induced Diabetes Rats

Authors: Mona Marzouk, Nesrine Hegazi, Aliaa Ragheb, Mona El Shabrawy, Salwa Kawashty

Abstract:

The whole plant of Matthiola longipetala (Brassicaceae) was extracted by 70% methanol to give the total aqueous methanol extract (AME), which was defatted by hexane yielded hexane extract (HE) and defatted AME (DAME). HE was analyzed through GC/MS assay and revealed the detection of 28 non-polar compounds. In addition, the chemical investigation of DAME led to the isolation and purification of twelve flavonoids and three chlorogenic acids. Their structures were interpreted through chemical (complete and partial acid hydrolysis) and spectroscopic analysis (MS, UV, 1D and 2D NMR). Among them, nine compounds have been isolated for the first time from M. longipetala. Moreover, LC-ESI-MS analysis of DAME was achieved to detect additional 46 metabolites, including phospholipids, organic acids, phenolic acids and flavonoids. The biological activity of AME, HE and DAME against alloxan inducing oxidative stress and diabetes in male rats was investigated. Diabetes was induced using a single dose of Alloxan (150 mg/kg b.wt.). HE and DAME significantly increased serum GSH content in rats (37.3±0.7 and 35.9±0.6 mmol/l) compared to diabetic rats (21.8±0.3) and vitamin E (36.2±1.1) at P<0.01. Also, HE, DAME and AME revealed a significant acute anti-hyperglycemic effect potentiated after four weeks of treatment with blood glucose levels of 96.2±5.4, 98.7±6.1 and 98.9±8.6 mg/dl, respectively, compared to diabetic rats (263.4±7.8) and metaformin group (81.9±2.4) at P<0.01.

Keywords: Brassicaceae, Flavonoid, LCMS/MS, Matthiola

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670 Enhancing Warehousing Operation In Cold Supply Chain Through The Use Of IOT And Lifi Technologies

Authors: Sarah El-Gamal, Passent Hossam, Ahmed Abd El Aziz, Rojina Mahmoud, Ahmed Hassan, Dalia Hilal, Eman Ayman, Hana Haytham, Omar Khamis

Abstract:

Several concerns fall upon the supply chain, especially the cold supply chain. According to the literature, the main challenges in the cold supply chain are the distribution and storage phases. In this research, researchers focused on the storage area, which contains several activities such as the picking activity that faces a lot of obstacles and challenges The implementation of IoT solutions enables businesses to monitor the temperature of food items, which is perhaps the most critical parameter in cold chains. Therefore, researchers proposed a practical solution that would help in eliminating the problems related to ineffective picking for products, especially fish and seafood products, by using IoT technology, most notably LiFi technology. Thus, guaranteeing sufficient picking, reducing waste, and consequently lowering costs. A prototype was specially designed and examined. This research is a single case study research. Two methods of data collection were used; observation and semi-structured interviews. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with managers and decision maker at Carrefour Alexandria to validate the problem and the proposed practical solution using IoTandLiFi technology. A total of three interviews were conducted. As a result, a SWOT analysis was achieved in order to highlight all the strengths and weaknesses of using the recommended Lifi solution in the picking process. According to the investigations, it was found that the use of IoT and LiFi technology is cost effective, efficient, and reduces human errors, minimize the percentage of product waste and thus save money and cost. Thus, increasing customer satisfaction and profits gained.

Keywords: cold supply chain, picking process, temperature control, IOT, warehousing, LIFI

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669 25-Hydroxy Vit D, Adiponectin Levels and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in a Sample of Obese Children

Authors: Nayera E. Hassan, Sahar A. El-Masry, Rokia A. El Banna, Mones M. Abu Shady, Muhammad Al-Tohamy, Manal Mouhamed Ali, Mehrevan M. Abd El-Moniem, Mona Anwar

Abstract:

Association between vitamin D, adiponectin and obesity is a matter of debate, as they play important role in linking obesity with different cardiometabolic risk factors. Objectives: Evaluation of the association between metabolic risk factors with both adiponectin and vitamin D levels and that between adiponectin and vitamin D among obese Egyptian children. Subjects and Methods: This case-control cross-sectional study consisted of 65 obese and 30 healthy children, aged 8-11 years. 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH) D) level, serum adiponectin, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) were measured. Results: The mean 25(OH) D levels in the obese and control groups were 29.9± 10.3 and 39.7 ± 12.7 ng/mL respectively (P < 0.001). The mean 25(OH) D and adiponectin levels in the obese were lower than that in the control group (P < 0.0001). 25(OH) D were inversely correlated with body mass index (BMI), triglyceride, total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C), while adiponectin level were inversely correlated with systolic blood pressure (SBP), and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and positively correlated with HDL-C. However, there is no relation between 25(OH) D and adiponectin levels among obese children and total sample. Conclusion: In spite of strong association between vitamin D and adiponectin levels with metabolic risk factors and obesity, there is no relation between 25(OH) D and adiponectin levels. In obese children, there are significant negative correlations between 25(OH) D with lipid profile, and between adiponectin levels with blood pressure. At certain adiponectin level, the relation between it and BMI disappears.

Keywords: 25-hydroxy vitamin D, adiponectin, lipid profile, blood pressure, children

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668 Chemical Analysis and Cytotoxic Evaluation of Asphodelus Aestivus Brot. Flowers

Authors: Mai M. Farid, Mona El-Shabrawy, Sameh R. Hussein, Ahmed Elkhateeb, El-Said S. Abdel-Hameed, Mona M. Marzouk

Abstract:

Asphodelus aestivus Brot. Is a wild plant distributed in Egypt and is considered one of the five Asphodelus spp. from the family Asphodelaceae; it grows in dry grasslands and on rocky or sandy soil. The chemical components of A. aestivus flowers extract were analyzed using different chromatographic and spectral techniques and led to the isolation of two anthraquinones identified as emodin and emodin-O-glucoside. In addition to, five flavonoid compounds;kaempferol,Kaempferol-3-O-glucoside,Apigenin-6-C-glucoside-7-O-glucoside (Saponarine), luteolin 7-O-β-glucopyranoside, Isoorientin-O-malic acid which is a new compound in nature. The LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis of the flower extract of A. aestivus led to the identification of twenty- two compounds characterized by the presence of flavones, flavonols, and flavone C-glycosides. While GC/MS analysis led to the identification of 24 compounds comprising 98.32% of the oil, the major components of the oil were 9, 12, 15-Octadecatrieoic acid methyl ester 28.72%, and 9, 12-Octadecadieroic acid (Z, Z)-methyl ester 19.96%. In vitro cytotoxic activity of the aqueous methanol extract of A. aestivus flowers against HEPG2, HCT-116, MCF-7, and A549 culture was examined and showed moderate inhibition (62.3±1.1)% on HEPG2 cell line followed by (36.8±0.2)% inhibition on HCT-116 and a weak inhibition (5.7± 0.0.2) on MCF-7 cell line followed by (4.5± 0.4) % inhibition on A549 cell line and this is considered the first cytotoxic report of A. aestivus flowers.

Keywords: Anthraquinones, Asphodelus aestivus, Cytotoxic activity, Flavonoids, LC-ESI-MS/MS

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667 Nutrition Role in the Management of Psychiatric Disorders

Authors: Abeer Mohammed, Nevein Mustafa Elashery, Mona Hassan Abdel Aal, Ereny Wilson Nagib

Abstract:

The Aim of the current study is to investigate nutrition role in the management of psychiatric disorders. Research Design: A quasi- experimental research design was utilized for this study. Setting The study was conducted at outpatient clinic at Institute of Psychiatry affiliated to Ain Shams University hospitals, using a convenient sample of 50 psychiatric patients with depression, schizophrenia, bipolar disorders, and obsessive compulsive disorders. Tools: data were collected through; first, an interview questionnaire covering socio-demographic characteristics, second, nutrition assessment tools Third, nutrition risk assessment. Fourth, nutrition management program Results showed that there were highly statistically significant improvements in modified nutritional supplements for patients with depression, schizophrenia, bipolar disorders, and obsessive compulsive disorders' patients after conducting the nutrition management program. Regarding psychiatric patients’ knowledge about healthy food, healthy nutritional habits, and patients’ awareness & readiness for change, there were highly statistically significant improvements. Concerning signs and symptoms of psychiatric disorders, there were highly statistically significant improvements for depression, schizophrenia, bipolar disorders, and obsessive-compulsive patients after conducting the management program. In conclusion, the nutrition management program was effective in improving symptoms associated with, depression, schizophrenia, bipolar disorders, and obsessive compulsive disorders. The study recommended that nurses should have more contribution in counseling psychiatric patients, and their families about healthy diet and healthy habits. Further research should recommend studying the effectiveness of herbs on enhancing mental health for psychiatric patients.

Keywords: nutrition, role, management, psychiatric disorders

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666 Investigating the Suitability of Utilizing Lyophilized Gels to Improve the Stability of Ufasomes

Authors: Mona Hassan Aburahma, Alaa Hamed Salama

Abstract:

Ufasomes “unsaturated fatty acids liposomes” are unique nano-sized self-assembled bilayered vesicles that can be easily created from the readily available unsaturated fatty acid. Ufasomes are formed due to weak associative interaction of the fully ionized and unionized fatty acids into bilayers structures. In the ufasomes constructs, the fatty acid molecules are oriented with their hydrocarbon tails directed toward the membrane interior and the carboxyl groups are in contact with water. Although ufasomes can be employed as a safe vesicular carrier for drugs, the extreme instability of their aqueous dispersions hinders their effective use in drug delivery field. Accordingly, in our study, lyophilized gels containing ufasomes were prepared using a simple assembling technique form the readily available oleic acid to overcome the colloidal instability of the ufasomes dispersions and convert them into accurate unit dosage forms. The influence of changing cholesterol percentage relative to oleic acid on the ufasomes vesicles were investigated using factorial design. The optimized oleic acid ufasomes comprised nanoscaled spherical vesicles. Scanning electron micrographs of the lyophilized gels revealed that the included ufasomes were intact, non-aggregating, and preserved their spherical morphology. Rheological characterization (viscosity and shear stress versus shear rate) of reconstituted ufasomal lyophilized gel ensured the ease of application. The capability of the ufasomes, included in the gel, to penetrate deep through the mucosa layers was illustrated using ex-vivo confocal laser imaging, thereby, highlighting the feasibility of stabilizing ufasomes using lyophilized gel platforms.

Keywords: ufasomes, lyophilized gel, confocal scanning microscopy, rheological characterization, oleic acid

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665 Clinical Outcomes of Critically Ill Patients with Sepsis Receiving Extended and Standard Meropenem Infusion in Malaysian Hospitals

Authors: Fahmi Hassan, Noorizan Abdul Aziz, Yahaya Hassan, Hazlinda Abu Hassan

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Sepsis incidence in critical care settings is a major problem in health care. Extended antibiotic infusion is thought to be superior to traditional dosing especially when treating critically ill patients with sepsis. We compared clinical outcomes of critically ill patients with sepsis receiving 30-minute meropenem infusion and three-hour meropenem infusion. A retrospective case-control study was conducted among septic patients treated with meropenem infusion in ICUs of three hospitals. Patients included in the study received either extended or standard meropenem infusion as per the practice of individual settings. Outcomes and clinical data were retrospectively collected from the electronic databases and patients’ files. A total of 108 patients received extended meropenem infusion while another 117 patients received standard meropenem infusion. Patients receiving the extended meropenem infusion were found to have a significantly lower shorter length of hospital and ICU stay. It was also found that among those receiving extended meropenem infusion, 54.7% (64/117) had a reduction of SAPS II score, while only 44% (48/108) of patients receiving standard meropenem infusion had reduced scores. This study will strengthen the evidence in using extended meropenem infusion as a standard practice in critical care settings. As this is the first study of its kind done in Malaysia, it proves that prolonged meropenem infusion may be beneficial to critically ill patients with sepsis. However, randomized clinical trials with large sample size should be carried out in local settings in order to minimize other confounders that may influence with the result of the study.

Keywords: antibiotics, beta lactams, critical care, extended infusion, meropenem

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664 Islamization of Knowledge with Special Reference to Mohd Kamal Hassan's Perspective

Authors: Abdul Latheef O. Mavukkandy

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Islamization of knowledge (IOK) is an intellectual movement emerged in the middle of 1970s to address the threats by modern western civilizational onslaughts. This paper analyzes the discourse of Islamization of knowledge with special reference to the views of Kamal Hassan who prefers an alternative term called 'Islamicization'. First of all the theoretical and practical outlines of IOK movement were presented by Ismail Raji al-Faruqi in his book 'Islamization of Knowledge; General Principles and Work Plan' in 1982. He identified that the educational system in the Muslim world accounted for the decline of Muslim Ummah through de-Islamization and demoralization. So, the need for IOK was an academic challenge to reconstruct the Ummah. Kamal Hassan kept just different view from Ismail Raji al-Faruqi and Muhammed Naquib al-Attas that he coined the terms 'Relevantization and Contextualization'. So, he wanted the 'Islamization of Islamic Revealed Knowledge'. So, he used Islamization of Human Knowledge (IOHK) instead of IOK. As part of this movement, the IOK identified that the textbooks used in Muslim educational institutions systematically keep the students estranged from Islam and its heritage. Furthermore, the modern secular knowledge develops secular attitude devoid of Islamic moral philosophy and the sense of mission in life. Based upon the content analysis of some of the sources, this study found that Islamization of Knowledge is an important movement in Islamic world, but the IOK project is not practicable completely because of the lack of trained teachers and resources. Although, the project resulted in the foundation of some universities and publishing more works, journals and doctoral thesis on different dimensions of Islamization of Knowledge.

Keywords: Islamization, Islamicization, releventization, human knowledge

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663 Cavitating Jet Design for Enhanced Drilling Performance

Authors: Abdullah Ababtain, Mouhammad El Hassan, Hassan Assoum, Anas Sakout

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In this paper, a brief literature review on cavitation jets is presented in order to introduce the cavitation mechanism, strategies to assess when cavitation occurs, and the factors that influence cavitation in cavitating jets. The objectivity of the cavitation number often used to predict cavitation is also discussed. The results show that cavitation cannot be foreseen just using the cavitation number. Therefore, more efforts are needed to innovate and develop a self-resonating jet geometry that would be maintains the flow and the pressure in the cavitation condition just earlier than the flow acts on the target that would be used in such operating conditions. This study focused on a particular aspect related to improving drilling efficiency and the rate of penetration (ROP). In addition, a discussion on the methods used to measure cavitation and the factors that affect cavitation occurrence will be discussed. Two different types of cavitation nozzles were designed and tested. It has been shown that the self-resonating cavitation nozzle presents greater performance than standard non-resonating nozzle. It is thus concluded that a self-resonating cavitation jet present a high potential for improving drilling performance.

Keywords: cavitating jet, erosion, cavitation number, rate of penetration (ROP)

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662 Investigation of Neutral Axis Shifting and Wall Thickness Distribution of Bent Tubes Produced by Rotary Draw Bending

Authors: Bernd Engel, Hassan Raheem Hassan

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Rotary draw bending is a method used for tube forming. During the tube bending process, the neutral axis moves towards the inner arc and the wall thickness changes in the cross section of the tube. Wall thinning of the tube takes place at the extrados, whereas wall thickening of the tube occurs at the intrados. This paper investigates the tube bending with rotary draw bending process using thick-walled tubes and different material properties (16Mo3 and 10CrMo9-10). The experimental tests and finite element simulations are used to calculate the variable characteristics (wall thickness distribution, neutral axis shifting and longitudinal strain distribution). These results are compared with results of a plasto-mechanical model. Moreover, the cross section distortion is investigated in this study. This study helped to get bends with smaller wall factor for different material properties.

Keywords: rotary draw bending, thick wall tube, material properties, material influence

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661 Decision Support System for Solving Multi-Objective Routing Problem

Authors: Ismail El Gayar, Ossama Ismail, Yousri El Gamal

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This paper presented a technique to solve one of the transportation problems that faces us in real life which is the Bus Scheduling Problem. Most of the countries using buses in schools, companies and traveling offices as an example to transfer multiple passengers from many places to specific place and vice versa. This transferring process can cost time and money, so we build a decision support system that can solve this problem. In this paper, a genetic algorithm with the shortest path technique is used to generate a competitive solution to other well-known techniques. It also presents a comparison between our solution and other solutions for this problem.

Keywords: bus scheduling problem, decision support system, genetic algorithm, shortest path

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660 Evaluation of Human Amnion Hemocompatibility as a Substitute for Vessels

Authors: Ghasem Yazdanpanah, Mona Kakavand, Hassan Niknejad

Abstract:

Objectives: An important issue in tissue engineering (TE) is hemocompatibility. The current engineered vessels are seriously at risk of thrombus formation and stenosis. Amnion (AM) is the innermost layer of fetal membranes that consists of epithelial and mesenchymal sides. It has the advantages of low immunogenicity, anti-inflammatory and anti-bacterial properties as well as good mechanical properties. We recently introduced the amnion as a natural biomaterial for tissue engineering. In this study, we have evaluated hemocompatibility of amnion as potential biomaterial for tissue engineering. Materials and Methods: Amnions were derived from placentas of elective caesarean deliveries which were in the gestational ages 36 to 38 weeks. Extracted amnions were washed by cold PBS to remove blood remnants. Blood samples were obtained from healthy adult volunteers who had not previously taken anti-coagulants. The blood samples were maintained in sterile tubes containing sodium citrate. Plasma or platelet rich plasma (PRP) were collected by blood sample centrifuging at 600 g for 10 min. Hemocompatibility of the AM samples (n=7) were evaluated by measuring of activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), prothrombin time (PT), hemolysis, and platelet aggregation tests. P-selectin was also assessed by ELISA. Both epithelial and mesenchymal sides of amnion were evaluated. Glass slide and expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) samples were defined as control. Results: In comparison with glass as control (13.3 ± 0.7 s), prothrombin time was increased significantly while each side of amnion was in contact with plasma (p<0.05). There was no significant difference in PT between epithelial and mesenchymal surfaces (17.4 ± 0.7 s vs. 15.8 ± 0.7 s, respectively). However, aPPT was not significantly changed after incubation of plasma with amnion epithelial and mesenchymal surfaces or glass (28.61 ± 1.39 s, 31.4 ± 2.66 s, glass, 30.76 ± 2.53 s, respectively, p>0.05). Amnion surfaces, ePTFE and glass samples have less hemolysis induction than water considerably (p<0.001), in which no differences were detected. Platelet aggregation measurements showed that platelets were less stimulated by the amnion epithelial and mesenchymal sides, in comparison with ePTFE and glass. In addition, reduction in amount of p-selectin, as platelet activation factor, after incubation of samples with PRP indicated that amnion has less stimulatory effects on platelets than ePTFE and glass. Conclusion: Amnion as a natural biomaterial has the potential to be used in tissue engineering. Our results suggest that amnion has appropriate hemocompatibility to be employed as a vascular substitute.

Keywords: amnion, hemocompatibility, tissue engineering, biomaterial

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659 Tension-Free Vaginal Tape Secur (TVT Secur) versus Tension-Free Vaginal Tape-Obturator (TVT-O) from inside to outside in Surgical Management of Genuine Stress Urinary Incontinence

Authors: Ibrahim Mohamed Ibrahim Hassanin, Hany Hassan Mostafa, Mona Mohamed Shaban, Ahlam El Said Kamel

Abstract:

Background: New so-called minimally invasive devices have been developed to limit groin pain after sling placement for treatment of stress urinary incontinence (SUI) to minimize the risk of postoperative pain and organ perforation. A new generation of suburethral slings was described that avoided skin incision to pull out and tension the sling. Evaluation of this device through prospective short-term series has shown controversial results compared with other tension-free techniques. The aim of this study is to compare success rates and complications for tension-free vaginal tape secur (TVT secur) and trans-obturator sub urethral tape inside-out technique (TVT-O) for treatment of stress urinary incontinence (SUI). Materials and Methods: Fifty patients with genuine SUI were divided into two groups: group S (n=25) were operated upon using (TVT secur) and group O (n=25) were operated upon using trans-obturator suburethral tape inside-out technique (TVT-O). Success rate, quality of life and postoperative complications such as groin pain, urgency, urine retention and vaginal tape erosion were reported in both groups at one, three, and six months after surgery. Results: As regards objective cure rate at one, three, six months intervals; there was a significant difference between group S (56%, 64%, and 60%), and group O (80%, 88%, and 88%) respectively (P <0.05). As regards subjective cure rate at one, three, six months intervals; there was a significant difference between group S (44%, 44%, and 48%), and group O (76%, 80%, and 80%) respectively (P <0.05). Quality of life (QoL) parameters improved significantly in cured patients with no difference between both groups. As regards complications, group O had a higher frequency of complications than group S; groin pain (12% vs 12% p= 0.05), urgency (4% (1 case) vs 0%), urine retention (8% (2 cases) vs 0%), vaginal tape erosion (4% (1 case) vs 0%). No cases were complicated with wound infection. Conclusion: Compared to TVT secur, TVT-O showed higher subjective and objective cure rates after six months but higher rate of complications. Both techniques were comparable as regards improvement of quality of life after surgery.

Keywords: stress urinary incontinence, trans-vaginal tape-obturator, TVT Secur, TVT-O

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658 Possible Sulfur Induced Superconductivity in Nano-Diamond

Authors: J. Mona, R. R. da Silva, C.-L.Cheng, Y. Kopelevich

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We report on a possible occurrence of superconductivity in 5 nm particle size diamond powders treated with sulfur (S) at 500 o C for 10 hours in ~10-2 Torr vacuum. Superconducting-like magnetization hysteresis loops M(H) have been measured up to ~ 50 K by means of the SQUID magnetometer (Quantum Design). Both X-ray (Θ-2Θ geometry) and Raman spectroscopy analyses revealed no impurity or additional phases. Nevertheless, the measured Raman spectra are characteristic to the diamond with embedded disordered carbon and/or graphitic fragments suggesting a link to the previous reports of the local or surface superconductivity in graphite- and amorphous carbon–sulfur composites.

Keywords: nanodiamond, sulfur, superconductivity, Raman spectroscopy

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657 Nonclassical Antifolates: Synthesis, Biological Evaluation and Molecular Modeling Study of Some New Quinazolin-4-One Analogues as Dihydrofolate Reductase Inhibitors

Authors: Yomna Ibrahim El-Gazzar, Hussien Ibrahim El-Subbagh, Hanan Hanaa Georgey, Ghada S. Hassan Hassan

Abstract:

Dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) is an enzyme that has pivotal importance in biochemistry and medicinal chemistry. It catalyzes the reduction of dihydrofolate to tetrahydrofolate and intimately couples with thymidylate synthase. Thymidylate synthase is a crucial enzyme that catalyzes the reductive methylation of (dUMP) to (dTMP) utilizing N5, N10-methylenetetrahydrofolate as a cofactor. A new series of 2-substituted thio-quinazolin-4-one analogs was designed that possessed electron withdrawing or donating functional groups (Cl or OCH3) at position 6- or 7-, 4-methoxyphenyl function at position 3-.The thiol function is used to connect to either 1,2,4-triazole, or 1,3,4-thiadiazole via a methylene bridge. Most of the functional groups designed to be accommodated on the quinazoline ring such as thioether, alkyl to increase lipid solubility of polar compounds, a character very much needed in the nonclassical DHFR inhibitors. The target compounds were verified with spectral data and elemental analysis. DHFR inhibitions, as well as antitumor activity, were applied on three cell lines (MCF-7, CACO-2, HEPG-2).

Keywords: nonclassical antifolates, DHFR Inhibitors, antitumor activity, quinazoline ring

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656 Current Status of Mosquitoes Vector Research and Control in Iran

Authors: Seyed Hassan Moosa-kazemi, Hassan Vatandoost

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Malaria, Dirofilaria immitis (dog heart worm), and D. repens (dirofilariasis), which are transmitted by mosquitoes, have been reported in Iran. The Iranian mosquito fauna includes seven genera, 65 species, and three subspecies. Aedes albopictus has been reported since. West Nile, Sindbis, Dengue, Japanese encephalitis viruses, and the nematode Setaria (setariasis) has been reported in the country but there are no information about their vectors in Iran. Iran is malaria elimination phase. Insecticides residual spraying (IRS), distributed of insecticides long lasting treated nets (ITNs), fogging, release of larvivours fishes and Bacillus thuringiensis, chemical larviciding, as well as case finding and manipulation and modification of breeding places carried out thought the IVM program in the country. Prolonged exposure to insecticides over several generations of the vectors, develop resistance, a capacity to survive contact with insecticides. However, use of insecticides in agriculture has often been implicated as contributing to resistance in mosquito’s vectors. Resistance of mosquitoes to some insecticides has been documented just within a few years after the insecticides were introduced. Some enzymes such as monooxygenases, esterases and glutathione S-transferases have been considered as a reason for resistance to pyrethroid insecticides. In conclusion, regarding to documented resistance and tolerance of mosquitoes vectors to some insecticides, resistance management is suggested by using new insecticide with novel mode of action.

Keywords: control, Iran, resistance, vector

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