Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1057

Search results for: extended infusion

1057 Clinical Outcomes of Critically Ill Patients with Sepsis Receiving Extended and Standard Meropenem Infusion in Malaysian Hospitals

Authors: Fahmi Hassan, Noorizan Abdul Aziz, Yahaya Hassan, Hazlinda Abu Hassan

Abstract:

Sepsis incidence in critical care settings is a major problem in health care. Extended antibiotic infusion is thought to be superior to traditional dosing especially when treating critically ill patients with sepsis. We compared clinical outcomes of critically ill patients with sepsis receiving 30-minute meropenem infusion and three-hour meropenem infusion. A retrospective case-control study was conducted among septic patients treated with meropenem infusion in ICUs of three hospitals. Patients included in the study received either extended or standard meropenem infusion as per the practice of individual settings. Outcomes and clinical data were retrospectively collected from the electronic databases and patients’ files. A total of 108 patients received extended meropenem infusion while another 117 patients received standard meropenem infusion. Patients receiving the extended meropenem infusion were found to have a significantly lower shorter length of hospital and ICU stay. It was also found that among those receiving extended meropenem infusion, 54.7% (64/117) had a reduction of SAPS II score, while only 44% (48/108) of patients receiving standard meropenem infusion had reduced scores. This study will strengthen the evidence in using extended meropenem infusion as a standard practice in critical care settings. As this is the first study of its kind done in Malaysia, it proves that prolonged meropenem infusion may be beneficial to critically ill patients with sepsis. However, randomized clinical trials with large sample size should be carried out in local settings in order to minimize other confounders that may influence with the result of the study.

Keywords: antibiotics, beta lactams, critical care, extended infusion, meropenem

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1056 The Ability of Organic Acids Production by Lactic Acid Bacteria in M17 Broth and Squid, Shrimp, Octopus, Eel Infusion Broth

Authors: Fatih Özogul, Sezen Özçeli̇k, Yesim Özogul

Abstract:

Lactic, acetic, succinic, propionic, formic and butyric acid production by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were monitored in M17 broth (the control) and some fish (squid, shrimp, octopus, and eel) infusion broth by using HPLC method. There were significant differences in terms of lactic, acetic, succinic, propionic, formic and butyric acid production (p < 0.005) among bacterial strains. Acetic acid production was the lowest by LAB while succinic acid followed by propionic acid was synthesized at the highest levels. Lactic acid production ranged from 0 to 938 mg/L by all LAB strains in different infusion broth. The highest acetic acid production was found by Lb. acidophilus and Lb. delbrueckii subsp. lactic in octopus and shrimp infusion broth, with values of 872 and 674 mg/L, respectively while formic acid formation ranged from 1747 mg/L by Lb. acidophilus in octopus infusion broth to 69 mg/L by Lb. delbrueckii subsp. lactis in shrimp infusion broth. Propionic acid and butyric acid productions by St. thermophilus were 9852 and 3999 mg/L in shrimp infusion broth while Leu. mes. subsp. cremoris synthesized 312 and 9 mg/L of those organic acid in European squid infusion broth, respectively. Apparently, LAB strains had a great capability to generate succinic acid followed by propionic and butyric acid. In addition, other organic acid production differed significantly depending on bacterial strains and growth medium.

Keywords: Lactic acid bacteria , organic acid, HPLC analysis, growth medium

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1055 A Retrospective Analysis of the Use of Vancomycin by Continous Infusion in the Critical Care Setting, Edinburgh

Authors: Sonia Nemakallu, Pota Kalima

Abstract:

Introduction: Vancomycin is a glycopeptide antibiotic, commonly used to treat gram-positive bacteraemia. It has been increasingly used in the critical care setting due to an increased awareness of resistant gram positive organisms. In Edinburgh both tertiary hospitals, The Western General Hospital and The Royal Infirmary Of Edinburgh, commonly use Vancomycin for a variety of infections. Administration of Vancomyicn in these hospitals is by continuous infusion as it is thought to maintain serum concentrations easier and is a simpler monitoring system. Purpose: The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy and reliability in which Vancomycin is used. Material and Methods: A retrospective study, over a 6-month period from January 2014 to June 2014. 91 admissions were included, all received Vancomycin by continuous infusion during their critical care stay. Results: The number one use for Vancomycin in critical care settings was in the treatment of ventilator or hospital-acquired pneumonia. Only 3% of population had MRSA. 49% of admissions were not therapeutic on day 1 post loading dose. Of those that were therapeutic on day 1 post loading dose, 39% of admissions showed no organisms in any cultures taken, 42% had organisms sensitive to Vancomycin and 19% had only organisms resistant to Vancomycin. Those that were not therapeutic on day 1 showed similar organism sensitivities. 15% of admissions had Vancomycin levels above 25 (levels should be maintained between 15-25). An increase in creatinine was proportionally seen with an increase in Vancomycin levels. Conclusion: Within Edinburgh Vancomycin is being overused in the critical care setting with only 3% of the population having highly resistant organisms. Continuous infusion have not ruled out the complexity of maintaining therapeutic levels, with a large proportion of patients not being therapeutic on day 1. Further research is also required into the nephrotoxic effects of using higher doses of Vancomycin.

Keywords: Vancomycin, continuous infusion, multi resistant organisms, sepsis, renal toxicity

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1054 Effect of Humor on Pain and Anxiety in Patients with Rheumatoi̇d Arthri̇ti̇s: A Prospective, Randomized Controlled Study

Authors: Burcu Babadağ Savaş, Nihal Orlu, Güler Balcı Alparslan, Ertuğrul Çolak, Cengiz Korkmaz

Abstract:

Introduction/objectives: We aimed to investigate the effect of humor on pain and state anxiety in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) receiving biologic intravenous (IV) infusion therapy. Method: The study sample consisted of 36 patients who met the classification criteria for RA and inclusion criteria in a rheumatology outpatient clinic at a university hospital between September 2020 and November 2021. Two sample groups were formed: the intervention group (watching a comedy movie) (n=18) and the control group (n=18). The intervention group consisted of the patient watching a comedy movie of his/her choice from an archive created by the researchers during the biological IV infusion therapy (approximately 90-120 minutes). The data collection instruments used before and after the test were the descriptive identification form, the visual analog scale (VAS), and the state anxiety scale. Results: The mean VAS scores of patients in the intervention group were 5.05 ± 2.01 in the pre-test and 2.61 ± 1.91 in the post-test. The mean state anxiety scores of patients in the intervention group were 45.94 ± 9.97 in the pre-test and 34.22 ± 6.57 in the post-test. Thus, patients who watched comedy movies during biologic IV infusion therapy in the infusion center had a greater reduction in pain scores than the control group and the effect size was small. Although there was a decrease in state anxiety scores in both groups, there was no significant difference between groups and the effect size was not relevant. Conclusions: During IV infusion therapy, watching comedy movies is recommended as a nursing care intervention for reducing pain in patients with RA in cooperation with other health professionals.

Keywords: watching comedy movie, humor, pain, anxiety, nursing, care

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1053 Changes in Some Bioactive Content and Antioxidant Capacity of Different Brassica Herbals after Pretreatment and Herbal Infusion

Authors: Evren C. Eroglu, Ridvan Arslan

Abstract:

Over the course of herbal production, various pretreatments are performed and some of which have serious effect on the bioactive properties. Especially in the production of herbal tea from fresh herbals, it is considered that elapsed time from blending to last product may affect the bioactive properties and antioxidant contents. Herbal infusion is basically prepared by mixing herbs with hot water for 10-20 min. During the brewing of these herbs, it is supposed to be significant decrease in the antioxidant and phenolics content. The first aim of this study was to evaluate the changes of vitamin C (VitC), total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant contents (AO) of two brassica varieties (brussel sprouts and white head cabbage) with different holding time after blending. Second aim of this study was to understand the effect of herbal infusion on VitC, TPC and AO contents. In this study, fresh samples were subjected to 0-30 min holding time after blending. Then, samples was immediately taken to -80 °C and freeze drying process was performed. Herbal infusion was performed for 20 minutes. According to results, VitC contents in brussel sprouts was not changed significantly (p=0.12). However, there was a significant decreasing of VitC content in cabbage sample (p=0.034). 20 min of brewing caused a significant decrement in VitC of brussel sprouts by approximately 76% (1071 ppm dw), while decline in cabbage VitC content was 87% (531 ppm dw). AO and TPC values of unprocessed cabbage control sample (13791.87 ppm FeSO4·7H2O eq. dw and 5301.85 ppm gallic acid eq. dw) were higher than brussel sprouts control samples (11571.75 ppm FeSO4·7H2O dw and 5202.76 ppm, respectively). The change in AO and TPC of both brussel sprouts and cabbage samples were not statistically significant at the end of 30 minutes holding time (p=0.24 and p=0.38). After 20 minutes of brewing, AO content in brussel sprouts significantly decreased by 44% (p ˂0.05). Although, the decreasing of AO in white head cabbage was statistically important (p=0.034), decreasing was just 8%. TPC values were found to decrease by 54% in cabbage, while it was 35% in brussel sprouts after herbal infusion. It was observed that 30 min holding time had no statistically important effect on TPC values of both cabbage and brussel sprouts. As a conclusion, herbal infusion has more or less effect on VitC, TPC and AO contents of samples. Therefore, it is important to decrease brewing time. Another result was that there were no significant differences in TPC and AO content of both samples when holding samples 30 min outside after blending. However, this process had significant effect on VitC content of white head cabbage.

Keywords: Antioxidant content, brussel sprouts, herbal infusion, total phenolic content, white head cabbage, vitamin c

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1052 Application of Digital Image Correlation Technique on Vacuum Assisted Resin Transfer Molding Process and Performance Evaluation of the Produced Materials

Authors: Dingding Chen, Kazuo Arakawa, Masakazu Uchino, Changheng Xu

Abstract:

Vacuum assisted resin transfer moulding (VARTM) is a promising manufacture process for making large and complex fiber reinforced composite structures. However, the complexity of the flow of the resin in the infusion stage usually leads to nonuniform property distribution of the produced composite part. In order to control the flow of the resin, the situation of flow should be mastered. For the safety of the usage of the produced composite in practice, the understanding of the property distribution is essential. In this paper, we did some trials on monitoring the resin infusion stage and evaluation for the fiber volume fraction distribution of the VARTM produced composite using the digital image correlation methods. The results show that 3D-DIC is valid on monitoring the resin infusion stage and it is possible to use 2D-DIC to estimate the distribution of the fiber volume fraction on a FRP plate.

Keywords: digital image correlation, VARTM, FRP, fiber volume fraction

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1051 Determination of the Axial-Vector from an Extended Linear Sigma Model

Authors: Tarek Sayed Taha Ali

Abstract:

The dependence of the axial-vector coupling constant gA on the quark masses has been investigated in the frame work of the extended linear sigma model. The field equations have been solved in the mean-field approximation. Our study shows a better fitting to the experimental data compared with the existing models.

Keywords: extended linear sigma model, nucleon properties, axial coupling constant, physic

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1050 Numerical Simulation of Phase Transfer during Cryosurgery for an Irregular Tumor Using Hybrid Approach

Authors: Rama Bhargava, Surabhi Nishad

Abstract:

The infusion of nanofluids has dramatically enhanced the heat-carrying capacity of the fluids, applicable to many engineering and medical process where the temperature below freezing is required. Cryosurgery is an efficient therapy for the treatment of cancer, but sometimes the excessive cooling may harm the nearby healthy cells. Efforts are therefore done to develop a model which can cause to generate the low temperature as required. In the present study, a mathematical model is developed based on the bioheat transfer equation to simulate the heat transfer from the probe on a tumor (with irregular domain) using the hybrid technique consisting of element free Galerkin method with αα-family of approximation. The probe is loaded will nano-particles. The effects of different nanoparticles, namely Al₂O₃, Fe₃O₄, Au on the heat-producing rate, is obtained. It is observed that the temperature can be brought to (60°C)-(-30°C) at a faster freezing rate on the infusion of different nanoparticles. Besides increasing the freezing rate, the volume of the nanoparticle can also control the size and growth of ice crystals formed during the freezing process. The study is also made to find the time required to achieve the desired temperature. The problem is further extended for multi tumors of different shapes and sizes. The irregular shape of the frozen domain and the direction of ice growth are very sensitive issues, posing a challenge for simulation. The Meshfree method has been one of the accurate methods in such problems as a domain is naturally irregular. The discretization is done using the nodes only. MLS approximation is taken in order to generate the shape functions. Sufficiently accurate results are obtained.

Keywords: cryosurgery, EFGM, hybrid, nanoparticles

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1049 Formulation of Extended-Release Ranolazine Tablet and Investigation Its Stability in the Accelerated Stability Condition at 40⁰C and 75% Humidity

Authors: Farzad Khajavi, Farzaneh Jalilfar, Faranak Jafari, Leila Shokrani

Abstract:

Formulation of Ranolazine in the form of extended-release tablet in 500 mg dosage form was performed using Eudragit L100-55 as a retarding agent. Drug-release profiles were investigated in comparison with the reference Ranexa extended-release 500 mg tablet. F₂ and f₁ were calculated as 64.16 and 8.53, respectively. According to Peppas equation, the release of drug is controlled by diffusion (n=0.5). The tablets were put into accelerated stability conditions (40 °C, 75% humidity) for 3 and 6 months. The dissolution release profiles and other physical and chemical characteristics of the tablets confirmed the robustness and stability of formulation in this condition.

Keywords: drug release, extended-release tablet, ranolazine, stability

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1048 Fault Detection and Isolation in Attitude Control Subsystem of Spacecraft Formation Flying Using Extended Kalman Filters

Authors: S. Ghasemi, K. Khorasani

Abstract:

In this paper, the problem of fault detection and isolation in the attitude control subsystem of spacecraft formation flying is considered. In order to design the fault detection method, an extended Kalman filter is utilized which is a nonlinear stochastic state estimation method. Three fault detection architectures, namely, centralized, decentralized, and semi-decentralized are designed based on the extended Kalman filters. Moreover, the residual generation and threshold selection techniques are proposed for these architectures.

Keywords: component, formation flight of satellites, extended Kalman filter, fault detection and isolation, actuator fault

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1047 Computation of Stress Intensity Factor Using Extended Finite Element Method

Authors: Mahmoudi Noureddine, Bouregba Rachid

Abstract:

In this paper the stress intensity factors of a slant-cracked plate of AISI 304 stainless steel, have been calculated using extended finite element method and finite element method (FEM) in ABAQUS software, the results were compared with theoretical values.

Keywords: stress intensity factors, extended finite element method, stainless steel, abaqus

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1046 Development of Extended Trapezoidal Method for Numerical Solution of Volterra Integro-Differential Equations

Authors: Fuziyah Ishak, Siti Norazura Ahmad

Abstract:

Volterra integro-differential equations appear in many models for real life phenomena. Since analytical solutions for this type of differential equations are hard and at times impossible to attain, engineers and scientists resort to numerical solutions that can be made as accurately as possible. Conventionally, numerical methods for ordinary differential equations are adapted to solve Volterra integro-differential equations. In this paper, numerical solution for solving Volterra integro-differential equation using extended trapezoidal method is described. Formulae for the integral and differential parts of the equation are presented. Numerical results show that the extended method is suitable for solving first order Volterra integro-differential equations.

Keywords: accuracy, extended trapezoidal method, numerical solution, Volterra integro-differential equations

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1045 Extended Arithmetic Precision in Meshfree Calculations

Authors: Edward J. Kansa, Pavel Holoborodko

Abstract:

Continuously differentiable radial basis functions (RBFs) are meshfree, converge faster as the dimensionality increases, and is theoretically spectrally convergent. When implemented on current single and double precision computers, such RBFs can suffer from ill-conditioning because the systems of equations needed to be solved to find the expansion coefficients are full. However, the Advanpix extended precision software package allows computer mathematics to resemble asymptotically ideal Platonic mathematics. Additionally, full systems with extended precision execute faster graphical processors units and field-programmable gate arrays because no branching is needed. Sparse equation systems are fast for iterative solvers in a very limited number of cases.

Keywords: partial differential equations, Meshfree radial basis functions, , no restrictions on spatial dimensions, Extended arithmetic precision.

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1044 Extended Kalman Filter Based Direct Torque Control of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor

Authors: Liang Qin, Hanan M. D. Habbi

Abstract:

A robust sensorless speed for permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) has been presented for estimation of stator flux components and rotor speed based on The Extended Kalman Filter (EKF). The model of PMSM and its EKF models are modeled in Matlab /Sirnulink environment. The proposed EKF speed estimation method is also proved insensitive to the PMSM parameter variations. Simulation results demonstrate a good performance and robustness.

Keywords: DTC, Extended Kalman Filter (EKF), PMSM, sensorless control, anti-windup PI

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1043 A Different Approach to Optimize Fuzzy Membership Functions with Extended FIR Filter

Authors: Jun-Ho Chung, Sung-Hyun Yoo, In-Hwan Choi, Hyun-Kook Lee, Moon-Kyu Song, Choon-Ki Ahn

Abstract:

The extended finite impulse response (EFIR) filter is addressed to optimize membership functions (MFs) of the fuzzy model that has strong nonlinearity. MFs are important parts of the fuzzy logic system (FLS) and, thus optimizing MFs of FLS is one of approaches to improve the performance of output. We employ the EFIR as an alternative optimization option to nonlinear fuzzy model. The performance of EFIR is demonstrated on a fuzzy cruise control via a numerical example.

Keywords: fuzzy logic system, optimization, membership function, extended FIR filter

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1042 Oviposition Responses of the Malaria Mosquito Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto to Hay Infusion Volatiles in Laboratory Bioassays and Investigation of Volatile Detection Methods

Authors: Lynda K. Eneh, Okal N. Mike, Anna-Karin Borg-Karlson, Ulrike Fillinger, Jenny M. Lindh

Abstract:

The responses of individual gravid Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto (s.s.) to hay infusion volatiles were evaluated under laboratory conditions. Such infusions have long been known to be effective baits for monitoring mosquitoes that vector arboviral and filarial diseases but have previously not been tested for malaria vectors. Hay infusions were prepared by adding sun-dried Bermuda grass to lake water and leaving the mixture in a covered bucket for three days. The proportions of eggs laid by gravid An. gambiae s.s. in diluted (10%) and concentrated infusions ( ≥ 25%) was compared to that laid in lake water in two-choice egg-count bioassays. Furthermore, with the aim to develop a method that can be used to collect volatiles that influence the egg-laying behavior of malaria mosquitoes, different volatile trapping methods were investigated. Two different polymer-traps eluted using two different desorption methods and three parameters were investigated. Porapak®-Q traps and solvent desorption was compared to Tenax®-TA traps and thermal desorption. The parameters investigated were: collection time (1h vs. 20h), addition of salt (0.15 g/ml sodium chloride (NaCl) vs. no NaCl), and stirring the infusion (0 vs. 300 rpm). Sample analysis was with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). An. gambiae s.s was ten times less likely to lay eggs in concentrated hay infusion than in lake water. The volatiles were best characterized by thermally desorbed Tenax traps, collected for 20 hours from infusion aliquots with sodium chloride added. Ten volatiles identified from headspace and previously indicated as putative oviposition semiochemicals for An. gambiae s.s. or confirmed semiochemicals for other mosquito species were tested in egg-count bioassays. Six of these (3-methylbutanol, phenol, 4-methylphenol, nonanal, indole and 3-methylindole), when added to lake water, were avoided for egg-laying when lake water was offered as the alternative in dual-choice egg count bioassays. These compounds likely contribute to the unfavorable oviposition responses towards hay infusions. This difference in oviposition response of different mosquito species should be considered when designing control measures.

Keywords: Anopheles gambiae, oviposition behaviour, egg-count cage bioassays, hay infusions, volatile detection, semiochemicals

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1041 Lyapunov Functions for Extended Ross Model

Authors: Rahele Mosleh

Abstract:

This paper gives a survey of results on global stability of extended Ross model for malaria by constructing some elegant Lyapunov functions for two cases of epidemic, including disease-free and endemic occasions. The model is a nonlinear seven-dimensional system of ordinary differential equations that simulates this phenomenon in a more realistic fashion. We discuss the existence of positive disease-free and endemic equilibrium points of the model. It is stated that extended Ross model possesses invariant solutions for human and mosquito in a specific domain of the system.

Keywords: global stability, invariant solutions, Lyapunov function, stationary points

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1040 Coefficients of Some Double Trigonometric Cosine and Sine Series

Authors: Jatinderdeep Kaur

Abstract:

In this paper, the results of Kano from one-dimensional cosine and sine series are extended to two-dimensional cosine and sine series. To extend these results, some classes of coefficient sequences such as the class of semi convexity and class R are extended from one dimension to two dimensions. Under these extended classes, I have checked the function f(x,y) is two dimensional Fourier Cosine and Sine series or equivalently it represents an integrable function. Further, some results are obtained which are the generalization of Moricz's results.

Keywords: conjugate dirichlet kernel, conjugate fejer kernel, fourier series, semi-convexity

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1039 Numerical Simulation of Phase Transfer during Cryosurgery for an Irregular Tumor Using Hybrid Approach

Authors: Rama Bhargava

Abstract:

In the current paper, numerical simulation has been performed for the two-dimensional time dependent Pennes’ heat transfer model which is solved for irregular diseased tumor cells. An elliptic cryoprobe of varying sizes is taken at the center of the computational domain in such a manner that the location of the probe is fixed throughout the computation. The phase transition occurs due to the effect of probe with infusion of different nanoparticles Au, Al₂O₃, Fe₃O₄. The cooling performance of these nanoparticles injected at very low temperature, has been studied by implementing a hybrid FEM/EFGM method in which the whole domain is decomposed into two subdomains. The results are shown in terms of temperature profile inside the computational domain. Rate of cooling is obtained for various nanoparticles and it is observed that infusion of Au nanoparticles is very much efficient in increasing the heating rate than other nanoparticles. Such numerical scheme has direct applications where the domain is irregular.

Keywords: cryosurgery, hybrid EFGM/FEM, nanoparticles, simulation

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1038 Day-Case Ketamine Infusions in Patients with Chronic Pancreatitis

Authors: S. M. C. Kelly, M. Goulden

Abstract:

Introduction: Chronic Pancreatitis is an increasing problem worldwide. Pain is the main symptom and the main reason for hospital readmission following diagnosis, despite the use of strong analgesics including opioids. Ketamine infusions reduce pain in complex regional pain syndrome and other neuropathic pain conditions. Our centre has trialed the use of ketamine infusions in patients with chronic pancreatitis. We have evaluated this service to assess whether ketamine reduces emergency department admissions and analgesia requirements. Methods: This study collected retrospective data from 2010 in all patients who received a ketamine infusion for chronic pain secondary to a diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis. The day-case ketamine infusions were initiated in theatre by an anaesthetist, with standard monitoring and the assistance of an anaesthetic practitioner. A bolus dose of 0.5milligrams/kilogram was given in theatre. The infusion of 0.5 milligrams/kilogram per hour was then administered over a 6 hour period in the theatre recovery area. A study proforma detailed the medical history, analgesic use and admissions to hospital. Patients received a telephone follow up consultation. Results: Over the last eight years, a total of 30 patients have received intravenous ketamine infusions, with a total of 92 ketamine infusions being administered. 53% of the patients were male with the average age of 47. A total of 27 patients participated with the telephone consultation. A third of patients reported a reduction in hospital admissions with pain following the ketamine infusion. Analgesia requirements were reduced by an average of 48.3% (range 0-100%) for an average duration of 69.6 days (range 0-180 days.) Discussion: This service evaluation illustrates that ketamine infusions can reduce analgesic requirements and the number of hospital admissions in patients with chronic pancreatitis. In the light of increasing pressures on Emergency departments and the increasing evidence of the dangers of long-term opioid use, this is clearly a useful finding. We are now performing a prospective study to assess the long-term effectiveness of ketamine infusions in reducing analgesia requirements and improving patient’s quality of life.

Keywords: acute-on-chronic pain, intravenous analgesia infusion, ketamine, pancreatitis

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1037 The Extended Skew Gaussian Process for Regression

Authors: M. T. Alodat

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose a generalization to the Gaussian process regression(GPR) model called the extended skew Gaussian process for regression(ESGPr) model. The ESGPR model works better than the GPR model when the errors are skewed. We derive the predictive distribution for the ESGPR model at a new input. Also we apply the ESGPR model to FOREX data and we find that it fits the Forex data better than the GPR model.

Keywords: extended skew normal distribution, Gaussian process for regression, predictive distribution, ESGPr model

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1036 Complex Event Processing System Based on the Extended ECA Rule

Authors: Kwan Hee Han, Jun Woo Lee, Sung Moon Bae, Twae Kyung Park

Abstract:

ECA (Event-Condition-Action) languages are largely adopted for event processing since they are an intuitive and powerful paradigm for programming reactive systems. However, there are some limitations about ECA rules for processing of complex events such as coupling of event producer and consumer. The objective of this paper is to propose an ECA rule pattern to improve the current limitations of ECA rule, and to develop a prototype system. In this paper, conventional ECA rule is separated into 3 parts and each part is extended to meet the requirements of CEP. Finally, event processing logic is established by combining the relevant elements of 3 parts. The usability of proposed extended ECA rule is validated by a test scenario in this study.

Keywords: complex event processing, ECA rule, Event processing system, event-driven architecture, internet of things

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1035 Linear MIMO Model Identification Using an Extended Kalman Filter

Authors: Matthew C. Best

Abstract:

Linear Multi-Input Multi-Output (MIMO) dynamic models can be identified, with no a priori knowledge of model structure or order, using a new Generalised Identifying Filter (GIF). Based on an Extended Kalman Filter, the new filter identifies the model iteratively, in a continuous modal canonical form, using only input and output time histories. The filter’s self-propagating state error covariance matrix allows easy determination of convergence and conditioning, and by progressively increasing model order, the best fitting reduced-order model can be identified. The method is shown to be resistant to noise and can easily be extended to identification of smoothly nonlinear systems.

Keywords: system identification, Kalman filter, linear model, MIMO, model order reduction

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1034 Antibacterial Activity of Rosmarinus officinalis (Rosemary) and Murraya koenigii (Curry Leaves) against Multidrug Resistant S. aureus and Coagulase Negative Staphylococcus Species

Authors: Asma Naim, Warda Mushtaq

Abstract:

Staphylococcus species are the most versatile and adaptive organism. They are widespread and naturally found on the skin, mucosa and nose in humans. Among these, Staphylococcus aureus is the most important species. These organisms act as opportunistic pathogens and can infect various organs of the host, causing minor skin infection to severe toxin mediated diseases, and life threatening nosocomial infections. Staphylococcus aureus has acquired resistance against β-lactam antibiotics by the production of β-lactamase, and Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains have also been reported with increasing frequency. MRSA strains have been associated with nosocomial as well as community acquired infections. Medicinal plants have enormous potential as antimicrobial substances and have been used in traditional medicine. Search for medicinally valuable plants with antimicrobial activity is being emphasized due to increasing antibiotic resistance in bacteria. In the present study, the antibacterial potential of Rosmarinus officinalis (Rosemary) and Murraya koenigii (curry leaves) was evaluated. These are common household herbs used in food as enhancer of flavor and aroma. The crude aqueous infusion, decoction and ethanolic extracts of curry leaves and rosemary and essential oil of rosemary were investigated in the present study for antibacterial activity against multi-drug resistant Staphylococcus strains using well diffusion method. In the present study, 60 Multi-drug resistant clinical isolates of S. aureus (43) and Coagulase Negative Staphylococci (CoNS) (17) were screened against different concentrations of crude extracts of Rosmarinus officinalis and Murraya koenigii. Out of these 60 isolates, 43 were sensitive to the aqueous infusion of rosemary; 23 to aqueous decoction and 58 to ethanolic extract whereas, 24 isolates were sensitive to the essential oil. In the case of the curry leaves, no antibacterial activity was observed in aqueous infusion and decoction while only 14 isolates were sensitive to the ethanolic extract. The aqueous infusion of rosemary (50% concentration) exhibited a zone of inhibition of 21(±5.69) mm. against CoNS and 17(±4.77) mm. against S. aureus, the zone of inhibition of 50% concentration of aqueous decoction of rosemary was also larger against CoNS 17(±5.78) mm. then S. aureus 13(±6.91) mm. and the 50% concentrated ethanolic extract showed almost similar zone of inhibition in S. aureus 22(±3.61) mm. and CoNS 21(±7.64) mm. whereas, the essential oil of rosemary showed greater zone of inhibition against S. aureus i.e., 16(±4.67) mm. while CoNS showed 15(±6.94) mm. These results show that ethanolic extract of rosemary has significant antibacterial activity. Aqueous infusion and decoction of curry leaves revealed no significant antibacterial potential against all Staphylococcal species and ethanolic extract also showed only a weak response. Staphylococcus strains were susceptible to crude extracts and essential oil of rosemary in a dose depend manner, where the aqueous infusion showed highest zone of inhibition and ethanolic extract also demonstrated antistaphylococcal activity. These results demonstrate that rosemary possesses antistaphylococcal activity.

Keywords: antibacterial activity, curry leaves, multidrug resistant, rosemary, S. aureus

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1033 Technical Aspects of Closing the Loop in Depth-of-Anesthesia Control

Authors: Gorazd Karer

Abstract:

When performing a diagnostic procedure or surgery in general anesthesia (GA), a proper introduction and dosing of anesthetic agents are one of the main tasks of the anesthesiologist. However, depth of anesthesia (DoA) also seems to be a suitable process for closed-loop control implementation. To implement such a system, one must be able to acquire the relevant signals online and in real-time, as well as stream the calculated control signal to the infusion pump. However, during a procedure, patient monitors and infusion pumps are purposely unable to connect to an external (possibly medically unapproved) device for safety reasons, thus preventing closed-loop control. The paper proposes a conceptual solution to the aforementioned problem. First, it presents some important aspects of contemporary clinical practice. Next, it introduces the closed-loop-control-system structure and the relevant information flow. Focusing on transferring the data from the patient to the computer, it presents a non-invasive image-based system for signal acquisition from a patient monitor for online depth-of-anesthesia assessment. Furthermore, it introduces a UDP-based communication method that can be used for transmitting the calculated anesthetic inflow to the infusion pump. The proposed system is independent of a medical device manufacturer and is implemented in Matlab-Simulink, which can be conveniently used for DoA control implementation. The proposed scheme has been tested in a simulated GA setting and is ready to be evaluated in an operating theatre. However, the proposed system is only a step towards a proper closed-loop control system for DoA, which could routinely be used in clinical practice.

Keywords: closed-loop control, depth of anesthesia (DoA), modeling, optical signal acquisition, patient state index (PSi), UDP communication protocol

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1032 The Malfatti’s Problem in Reuleaux Triangle

Authors: Ching-Shoei Chiang

Abstract:

The Malfatti’s Problem is to ask for fitting 3 circles into a right triangle such that they are tangent to each other, and each circle is also tangent to a pair of the triangle’s side. This problem has been extended to any triangle (called general Malfatti’s Problem). Furthermore, the problem has been extended to have 1+2+…+n circles, we call it extended general Malfatti’s problem, these circles whose tangency graph, using the center of circles as vertices and the edge connect two circles center if these two circles tangent to each other, has the structure as Pascal’s triangle, and the exterior circles of these circles tangent to three sides of the triangle. In the extended general Malfatti’s problem, there are closed-form solutions for n=1, 2, and the problem becomes complex when n is greater than 2. In solving extended general Malfatti’s problem (n>2), we initially give values to the radii of all circles. From the tangency graph and current radii, we can compute angle value between two vectors. These vectors are from the center of the circle to the tangency points with surrounding elements, and these surrounding elements can be the boundary of the triangle or other circles. For each circle C, there are vectors from its center c to its tangency point with its neighbors (count clockwise) pi, i=0, 1,2,..,n. We add all angles between cpi to cp(i+1) mod (n+1), i=0,1,..,n, call it sumangle(C) for circle C. Using sumangle(C), we can reduce/enlarge the radii for all circles in next iteration, until sumangle(C) is equal to 2πfor all circles. With a similar idea, this paper proposed an algorithm to find the radii of circles whose tangency has the structure of Pascal’s triangle, and the exterior circles of these circles are tangent to the unit Realeaux Triangle.

Keywords: Malfatti’s problem, geometric constraint solver, computer-aided geometric design, circle packing, data visualization

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1031 Rectus Sheath Block to Extend the Effectiveness of Post Operative Epidural Analgesia

Authors: Sugam Kale, Arif Uzair Bin Mohammed Roslan, Cindy Lee, Syed Beevee Mohammed Ismail

Abstract:

Preemptive analgesia is an established concept in the modern practice of anaesthesia. To be most effective, it is best instituted earlier than the surgical stimulus and should last beyond the offset of surgically induced pain till healing is complete. Whereas the start of afferent pain blockade with regional anaesthesia is common, its effect often falls short to cover the entire period of pain impulses making their way to CNS in the post-operative period. We tried to use a combination of two regional anaesthetic techniques used sequentially to overcome this handicap. Madam S., a 56 year old lady, was scheduled for elective surgery for pancreatic cancer. She underwent laparotomy and distal pancreatectomy, splenectomy, bilateral salpingo oophorectomy, and sigmoid colectomy. Surgery was expected to be extensive, and it was presumed that the standard pain relief with PCA with opiates and oral analgesics would not be adequate. After counselling the patient pre-operative about the technique of regional anaesthesia techniques, including epidural catheterization and rectus sheath catheter placement, their benefits, and potential complications, informed consent was obtained. Epidural catheter was placed awake, and general anaesthesia was then induced. Epidural infusion of local anaesthetics was started prior to surgical incision and was continued till 60 hours into the postoperative period. Before skin closure, the surgeons inserted commercially available rectus sheath catheters bilaterally along the midline incision used for laparotomy. After 46 hours post-op, local anaesthetic infusion via these was started as bridging while the epidural infusion rate was tapered off. The epidural catheter was removed at 75 hours. Elastomeric pumps were used to provide local anaesthetic infusion with the ability to vary infusion rates. Acute pain service followed up the patient’s vital signs and effectiveness of pain relief twice daily or more frequently as required. Rectus sheath catheters were removed 137 hours post-op. The patient had good post-op analgesia with the minimal additional analgesic requirement. For the most part, the visual analog score (VAS) for pain remained at 1-3 on a scale of 1 to 10. Haemodynamics remained stable, and surgical recovery was as expected. Minimal opiate requirement after an extensive laparotomy also translates to the early return of intestinal motility. Our experience was encouraging, and we are hoping to extend this combination of two regional anaesthetic techniques to patients undergoing similar surgeries. Epidural analgesia is denser and offers excellent pain relief for both visceral and somatic pain in the first few days after surgery. As the pain intensity grows weaker, rectus sheath block and oral analgesics provide almost the same degree of pain relief after the epidural catheter is removed. We discovered that the background infusion of local anaesthetic down the rectus sheath catherter largely reduced the requirement for other classes of analgesics. We aim to study this further with a larger patient cohort and hope that it may become an established clinical practice that benefits patients everywhere.

Keywords: rectus sheath, epidural infusion, post operative analgesia, elastomeric

Procedia PDF Downloads 51
1030 Infusion of Skills for Undergraduate Scholarship into Teacher Education: Two Case Studies in New York and Florida

Authors: Tunde Szecsi, Janka Szilagyi

Abstract:

Students majoring in education are underrepresented in undergraduate scholarship. To enable and encourage teacher candidates to engage in scholarly activities, it is essential to infuse skills such as problem-solving, critical thinking, oral and written communication, collaboration and the utilization of information literacy, into courses in teacher preparation programs. In this empirical study, we examined two teacher education programs – one in New York State and one in Florida – in terms of the approaches of the course-based infusion of skills for undergraduate research, and the effectiveness of this infusion. First, course-related documents such as syllabi, assignment descriptions, and course activities were reviewed and analyzed. The goal of the document analysis was to identify and describe the targeted skills, and the pedagogical approaches and strategies for promoting research skills in teacher candidates. Next, a selection of teacher candidates’ scholarly products from the institution in Florida was used as a data set to examine teacher candidates’ skill development in the context of the identified assignments. This dataset was analyzed both quantitatively and qualitatively to describe the changes that occurred in teacher candidates’ critical thinking, communication, and information literacy skills, and to uncover patterns in the skill development at the two institutions. Descriptive statistics were calculated to explore the changes in these skills of teacher candidates over a period of three years. The findings based on data from the teacher education program in Florida indicated a steady gain in written communication and critical thinking and a modest increase in informational literacy. At the institution in New York, candidates’ submission and success rates on the edTPA, a New York State Teacher Certification exam, was used as a measure of scholarly skills. Overall, although different approaches were used for infusing the development of scholarly skills in the courses, the results suggest that a holistic and well-orchestrated infusion of the skills into most courses in the teacher education program might result in steadily developing scholarly skills. These results offered essential implications for teacher education programs in terms of further improvements in teacher candidates’ skills for engaging in undergraduate research and scholarship. In this presentation, our purpose is to showcase two approaches developed by two teacher education programs to demonstrate how diverse approaches toward the promotion of undergraduate scholarship activities are responsive to the context of the teacher preparation programs.

Keywords: critical thinking, pedagogical strategies, teacher education, undergraduate student research

Procedia PDF Downloads 90
1029 Monitoring the Production of Large Composite Structures Using Dielectric Tool Embedded Capacitors

Authors: Galatee Levadoux, Trevor Benson, Chris Worrall

Abstract:

With the rise of public awareness on climate change comes an increasing demand for renewable sources of energy. As a result, the wind power sector is striving to manufacture longer, more efficient and reliable wind turbine blades. Currently, one of the leading causes of blade failure in service is improper cure of the resin during manufacture. The infusion process creating the main part of the composite blade structure remains a critical step that is yet to be monitored in real time. This stage consists of a viscous resin being drawn into a mould under vacuum, then undergoing a curing reaction until solidification. Successful infusion assumes the resin fills all the voids and cures completely. Given that the electrical properties of the resin change significantly during its solidification, both the filling of the mould and the curing reaction are susceptible to be followed using dieletrometry. However, industrially available dielectrics sensors are currently too small to monitor the entire surface of a wind turbine blade. The aim of the present research project is to scale up the dielectric sensor technology and develop a device able to monitor the manufacturing process of large composite structures, assessing the conformity of the blade before it even comes out of the mould. An array of flat copper wires acting as electrodes are embedded in a polymer matrix fixed in an infusion mould. A multi-frequency analysis from 1 Hz to 10 kHz is performed during the filling of the mould with an epoxy resin and the hardening of the said resin. By following the variations of the complex admittance Y*, the filling of the mould and curing process are monitored. Results are compared to numerical simulations of the sensor in order to validate a virtual cure-monitoring system. The results obtained by drawing glycerol on top of the copper sensor displayed a linear relation between the wetted length of the sensor and the complex admittance measured. Drawing epoxy resin on top of the sensor and letting it cure at room temperature for 24 hours has provided characteristic curves obtained when conventional interdigitated sensor are used to follow the same reaction. The response from the developed sensor has shown the different stages of the polymerization of the resin, validating the geometry of the prototype. The model created and analysed using COMSOL has shown that the dielectric cure process can be simulated, so long as a sufficient time and temperature dependent material properties can be determined. The model can be used to help design larger sensors suitable for use with full-sized blades. The preliminary results obtained with the sensor prototype indicate that the infusion and curing process of an epoxy resin can be followed with the chosen configuration on a scale of several decimeters. Further work is to be devoted to studying the influence of the sensor geometry and the infusion parameters on the results obtained. Ultimately, the aim is to develop a larger scale sensor able to monitor the flow and cure of large composite panels industrially.

Keywords: composite manufacture, dieletrometry, epoxy, resin infusion, wind turbine blades

Procedia PDF Downloads 95
1028 Extended Multi-Modulus Divider for Open Loop Fractional Dividers and Fractional Multiplying Delay Locked Loops

Authors: Muhammad Swilam

Abstract:

Solutions for the wrong division problem of the Extended Multi-Modulus Divider (EMMD) that occurs during modulus extension (i.e. switching the modulus value between two different ranges of division ratios), in open loop fractional dividers and fractional multiplying delay locked loop, is proposed. A detailed study for the MMD with Sigma-Delta is also presented. Moreover, extensive simulations for the divider are presented to ensure and verify its functionality and compared with the conventional dividers.

Keywords: extended multi-modulus divider (EMMD), fractional multiplying delay locked loop, open loop fractional divider, sigma delta modulator

Procedia PDF Downloads 392