Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 10772

Search results for: material properties

10772 Development of Standard Evaluation Technique for Car Carpet Floor

Authors: In-Sung Lee, Un-Hwan Park, Jun-Hyeok Heo, Tae-Hyeon Oh, Dae-Gyu Park

Abstract:

Statistical Energy Analysis is to be the most effective CAE Method for air-born noise analysis in the Automotive area. This study deals with a method to predict the noise level inside of the car under the steady-state condition using the SEA model of car for air-born noise analysis. We can identify weakened part due to the acoustic material properties using it. Therefore, it is useful for the material structural design.

Keywords: air-born noise, material structural design, acoustic material properties, absorbing

Procedia PDF Downloads 303
10771 Study of Physico-Chimical Properties of a Silty Soil

Authors: Moulay Smaïne Ghembaza, Mokhtar Dadouch, Nour-Said Ikhlef

Abstract:

Soil treatment is to make use soil that does not have the characteristics required in a given context. We limit ourselves in this work to the field of road earthworks where we have chosen to develop a local material in the region of Sidi Bel Abbes (Algeria). This material has poor characteristics not meeting the standards used in road geo technics. To remedy this, firstly, we were trying to improve the Proctor Standard characteristics of this material by mechanical treatment increasing the compaction energy. Then, by a chemical treatment, adding some cement dosages, our results show that this material classified A1h a increase maximum dry density and a reduction in the water content of compaction. A comparative study is made on the optimal properties of the material between the two modes of treatment. On the other hand, after treatment, one finds a decrease in the plasticity index and the methylene blue value. This material exhibits a change of class. Therefore, soil class CL turned into a soil class composed CL-ML (Silt of low plasticity). This observation allows this material to be used as backfill or sub grade.

Keywords: treatment of soil, cement, subgrade, Atteberg limits, classification, optimum proctor properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 372
10770 The Design Optimization for Sound Absorption Material of Multi-Layer Structure

Authors: Un-Hwan Park, Jun-Hyeok Heo, In-Sung Lee, Tae-Hyeon Oh, Dae-Kyu Park

Abstract:

Sound absorbing material is used as automotive interior material. Sound absorption coefficient should be predicted to design it. But it is difficult to predict sound absorbing coefficient because it is comprised of several material layers. So, its targets are achieved through many experimental tunings. It causes a lot of cost and time. In this paper, we propose the process to estimate the sound absorption coefficient with multi-layer structure. In order to estimate the coefficient, physical properties of each material are used. These properties also use predicted values by Foam-X software using the sound absorption coefficient data measured by impedance tube. Since there are many physical properties and the measurement equipment is expensive, the values predicted by software are used. Through the measurement of the sound absorption coefficient of each material, its physical properties are calculated inversely. The properties of each material are used to calculate the sound absorption coefficient of the multi-layer material. Since the absorption coefficient of multi-layer can be calculated, optimization design is possible through simulation. Then, we will compare and analyze the calculated sound absorption coefficient with the data measured by scaled reverberation chamber and impedance tubes for a prototype. If this method is used when developing automotive interior materials with multi-layer structure, the development effort can be reduced because it can be optimized by simulation. So, cost and time can be saved.

Keywords: sound absorption material, sound impedance tube, sound absorption coefficient, optimization design

Procedia PDF Downloads 130
10769 Evaluation of the Elastic Mechanical Properties of a Hybrid Adhesive Material

Authors: Moudar H. A. Zgoul, Amin Al Zamer

Abstract:

Adhesive materials and adhesion have been the focal point of multiple research works related to numerous applications, particularly, aerospace, and aviation industries. To enhance the properties of conventional adhesive materials, additives have been introduced to the mix in order to enhance their mechanical and physical properties by creating a hybrid adhesive material. The evaluation of the mechanical properties of such hybrid adhesive materials is thus of an essential requirement for the purpose of properly modeling their behavior accurately. This paper presents an approach/tool to simulate the behavior such hybrid adhesives in a way that will allow researchers to better understand their behavior while in service.

Keywords: adhesive materials, analysis, hybrid adhesives, mechanical properties, simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 281
10768 Investigation on Mechanical Properties of a Composite Material of Olive Flour Wood with a Polymer Matrix

Authors: Slim Souissi, Mohamed Ben Amar, Nesrine Bouhamed, Pierre Marechal

Abstract:

The bio-composites development from biodegradable materials and natural fibers has a growing interest in the science of composite materials. The present work was conducted as part of a cooperation project between the Sfax University and the Havre University. This work consists in developing and monitoring the properties of a composite material of olive flour wood with a polymer matrix (urea formaldehyde). For this, ultrasonic non-destructive and destructive methods of characterization were used to optimize the mechanical and acoustic properties of the studied material based on the elaboration parameters.

Keywords: bio-composite, olive flour wood, polymer matrix, ultrasonic methods, mechanical properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 395
10767 Particleboard Production from Atmospheric Plasma Treated Wheat Straw Particles

Authors: Štěpán Hýsek, Milan Podlena, Miloš Pavelek, Matěj Hodoušek, Martin Böhm, Petra Gajdačová

Abstract:

Particle boards have being used in the civil engineering as a decking for load bearing and non-load bearing vertical walls and horizontal panels (e. g. floors, ceiling, roofs) in a large scale. When the straw is used as non-wood material for manufacturing of lignocellulosic panels, problems with wax layer on the surface of the material can occur. Higher percentage of silica and wax cause the problems with the adhesion of the adhesive and this is the reason why it is necessary to break the surface layer for the better bonding effect. Surface treatment of the particles cause better mechanical properties, physical properties and the overall better results of the composite material are reached. Plasma application is one possibility how to modify the surface layer. The aim of this research is to modify the surface of straw particles by using cold plasma treatment. Surface properties of lignocellulosic materials were observed before and after cold plasma treatment. Cold plasma does not cause any structural changes deeply in the material. There are only changes in surface layers, which are required. Results proved that the plasma application influenced the properties of surface layers and the properties of composite material.

Keywords: composite, lignocellulosic materials, straw, cold plasma, surface treatment

Procedia PDF Downloads 219
10766 Red Clay Properties and Application for Ceramic Production

Authors: Ruedee Niyomrath

Abstract:

This research aimed at surveying the local red clay raw material sources in Samut Songkram province, Thailand to test the physical and chemical properties of the local red clay, including to find the approach to develop the local red clay properties for ceramic production. The findings of this research would be brought to apply in the ceramic production industry of the country all at the upstream level which was the community in the raw material source, at the mid water level which was the ceramic producer and at the downstream level which was the distributor and the consumer as well as the community producer who would apply them to their identity and need of the community business.

Keywords: chemical properties of red clay, physical properties of red clay, ceramic production, red clay product

Procedia PDF Downloads 316
10765 Texture Observation of Bending by XRD and EBSD Method

Authors: Takashi Sakai, Yuri Shimomura

Abstract:

The crystal orientation is a factor that affects the microscopic material properties. Crystal orientation determines the anisotropy of the polycrystalline material. And it is closely related to the mechanical properties of the material. In this paper, for pure copper polycrystalline material, two different methods; X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD); and the crystal orientation were analyzed. In the latter method, it is possible that the X-ray beam diameter is thicker as compared to the former, to measure the crystal orientation macroscopically relatively. By measurement of the above, we investigated the change in crystal orientation and internal tissues of pure copper.

Keywords: bending, electron backscatter diffraction, X-ray diffraction, microstructure, IPF map, orientation distribution function

Procedia PDF Downloads 198
10764 Reservoir Properties Effect on Estimating Initial Gas in Place Using Flowing Material Balance Method

Authors: Yousef S. Kh. S. Hashem

Abstract:

Accurate estimation of initial gas in place (IGIP) plays an important factor in the decision to develop a gas field. One of the methods that are available in the industry to estimate the IGIP is material balance. This method required that the well has to be shut-in while pressure is measured as it builds to average reservoir pressure. Since gas demand is high and shut-in well surveys are very expensive, flowing gas material balance (FGMB) is sometimes used instead of material balance. This work investigated the effect of reservoir properties (pressure, permeability, and reservoir size) on the estimation of IGIP when using FGMB. A gas reservoir simulator that accounts for friction loss, wellbore storage, and the non-Darcy effect was used to simulate 165 different possible causes (3 pressures, 5 reservoir sizes, and 11 permeabilities). Both tubing pressure and bottom-hole pressure were analyzed using FGMB. The results showed that the FGMB method is very sensitive for tied reservoirs (k < 10). Also, it showed which method is best to be used for different reservoir properties. This study can be used as a guideline for the application of the FGMB method.

Keywords: flowing material balance, gas reservoir, reserves, gas simulator

Procedia PDF Downloads 43
10763 The Effects of Alkalization to the Mechanical Properties of Biocomposite PLA reinforced the Ijuk Fibers

Authors: Mochamad Chalid, Imam Prabowo

Abstract:

The pollution due to non-degradable material such as plastics, has led to studies about the development of environmental-friendly material. Because of biodegradability obtained from natural sources, polylactid acid (PLA) and ijuk fiber are interesting to modify into a composite. This material is also expected to reduce the impact of environmental pollution. Surface modification of ijuk fiber through alkalinization with 0.25 M NaOH solution for 30 minutes, was aimed to enhance it’s compatibility to PLA, in order to improve properties of the composite such as the mechanical properties. Alkalinization of the ijuk fibers annihilates some surface components such as lignin, wax and hemicelloluse, so the pore on the surface clearly appeared, decreasing of the density and diameter of the ijuk fibers. The change of the ijuk fiber properties leads to increase the mechanical properties of PLA composites reinforced the ijuk fibers through strengthening of the mechanical interlocking with the PLA matrix. An addition to enhance the distribution of the fibers in the PLA matrix, the stirring during DCM solvent evaporation from the mixture of the ijuk fibers and the dissolved-PLA can reduce amount of the trapped-voids and fibers pull-out phenomena, which can decrease the mechanical properties of the composite.

Keywords: polylactic acid, Arenga pinnata, alkalinization, compatibility, adhesion, morphology, mechanical properties, volume fraction, distributiom

Procedia PDF Downloads 274
10762 Electro-Thermo-Mechanical Behaviour of Functionally Graded Material Usage in Lead Acid Storage Batteries and the Benefits

Authors: Sandeep Das

Abstract:

Terminal post is one of the most important features of a Battery. The design and manufacturing of post are very much critical especially when threaded inserts (Bolt-on type) are used since all the collected energy is delivered from the lead part to the threaded insert (Cu or Cu alloy). Any imperfection at the interface may cause Voltage drop, high resistance, high heat generation, etc. This may be because of sudden change of material properties from lead to Cu alloys. To avoid this problem, a scheme of material gradation is proposed for achieving continuous variation of material properties for the Post used in commercially available lead acid battery. The Functionally graded (FG) material for the post is considered to be composed of different layers of homogeneous material. The volume fraction of the materials used corresponding to each layer is calculated by considering its variation along the direction of current flow (z) according to a power law. Accordingly, the effective properties of the homogeneous layers are estimated and the Post composed of this FG material is modeled using the commercially available ANSYS software. The solid 186 layered structural solid element has been used for discretization of the model of the FG Post. A thermal electric analysis is performed on the layered FG model. The model developed has been validated by comparing the results of the existing Post model& experimental analysis

Keywords: ANSYS, functionally graded material, lead-acid battery, terminal post

Procedia PDF Downloads 39
10761 Effect of Cryogenic Treatment on Hybrid Natural Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composites

Authors: B. Vinod, L. J. Sudev

Abstract:

Natural fibers as reinforcement in polymer matrix material are gaining lot of attention in recent years. Natural fibers like jute, sisal, coir, hemp, banana etc. have attracted substantial importance as a potential structural material because of its attractive features along with its good mechanical properties. Cryogenic applications of natural fiber reinforced polymer composites are gaining importance. These materials need to possess good mechanical and physical properties at cryogenic temperatures to meet the high requirements by the cryogenic engineering applications. The objective of this work is to investigate the mechanical behavior of hybrid hemp/jute fibers reinforced epoxy composite material at liquid nitrogen temperature. Hybrid hemp/jute fibers reinforced polymer composite is prepared by hand lay-up method and test specimens are cut according to ASTM standards. These test specimens are dipped in liquid nitrogen for different time durations. The tensile properties, flexural properties and impact strength of the specimen are tested immediately after the specimens are removed from liquid nitrogen container. The experimental results indicate that the cryogenic treatment of the polymer composite has a significant effect on the mechanical properties of this material. The tensile properties and flexural properties of the hybrid hemp/jute fibers epoxy composite at liquid nitrogen temperature is higher than at room temperature. The impact strength of the material decreased after subjecting it to liquid nitrogen temperature.

Keywords: liquid nitrogen temperature, polymer composite, tensile properties, flexural properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 249
10760 A Proposal of Local Indentation Techniques for Mechanical Property Evaluation

Authors: G. B. Lim, C. H. Jeon, K. H. Jung

Abstract:

General light metal alloys are often developed in the material of transportation equipment such as automobiles and aircraft. Among the light metal alloys, magnesium is the lightest structural material with superior specific strength and many attractive physical and mechanical properties. However, magnesium alloys were difficult to obtain the mechanical properties at warm temperature. The aims of present work were to establish an analytical relation between mechanical properties and plastic flow induced by local indentation. An experimental investigation of the local strain distribution was carried out using a specially designed local indentation equipment in conjunction with ARAMIS based on digital image correlation method.

Keywords: indentation, magnesium, mechanical property, lightweight material, ARAMIS

Procedia PDF Downloads 374
10759 Toughness of a Silt-Based Construction Material Reinforced with Fibers

Authors: Y. Shamas, S. Imanzadeh, A. Jarno, S. Taibi

Abstract:

Silt-based construction material is acknowledged since forever and lately received the researchers’ attention more than before as being an ecological and economical alternative for typical cement-based concrete. Silt-based material is known for its worldwide availability, cheapness, and various applications. Some rules should be defined to obtain a standardized method for the use of raw earth as a modern construction material; but first, its mechanical properties should be precisely studied to better understand its behavior in order to find new aspects in making it a better competitor for the cement concrete that is high energy-demanding in terms of gray energy. Some researches were performed on the raw earth material to enhance its characteristics as strength and ductility for their importance and their wide use for various materials. Yet, many other mechanical properties can be used to study the mechanical behavior of raw earth materials such as Young’smodulus and toughness. Studies concerning the toughness of material were rarely conducted previously except for metals despite its significant role associated to the energy absorbed by the material under loading before fracturing. The purpose of this paper is to restate different toughness definitions used in the literature and propose a new definition.

Keywords: silt-based material, raw earth concrete, stress-strain curve, energy, toughness

Procedia PDF Downloads 38
10758 The High Strength Biocompatible Wires of Commercially Pure Titanium

Authors: J. Palán, M. Zemko

Abstract:

COMTES FHT has been active in a field of research and development of high-strength wires for quite some time. The main material was pure titanium. The primary goal of this effort is to develop a continuous production process for ultrafine and nanostructured materials with the aid of severe plastic deformation (SPD). This article outlines mechanical and microstructural properties of the materials and the options available for testing the components made of these materials. Ti Grade 2 and Grade 4 wires are the key products of interest. Ti Grade 2 with ultrafine to nano-sized grain shows ultimate strength of up to 1050 MPa. Ti Grade 4 reaches ultimate strengths of up to 1250 MPa. These values are twice or three times as higher as those found in the unprocessed material. For those fields of medicine where implantable metallic materials are used, bulk ultrafine to nanostructured titanium is available. It is manufactured by SPD techniques. These processes leave the chemical properties of the initial material unchanged but markedly improve its final mechanical properties, in particular, the strength. Ultrafine to nanostructured titanium retains all the significant and, from the biological viewpoint, desirable properties that are important for its use in medicine, i.e. those properties which made pure titanium the preferred material also for dental implants.

Keywords: CONFORM, ECAP, rotary swaging, titanium

Procedia PDF Downloads 151
10757 Development of Low-Cost Vibro-Acoustic, and Fire-Resistant, Insulation Material from Natural and Sustainable Sources

Authors: K. Nasir, S. Ahmad, A. Khan, H. Benkreira

Abstract:

The topic of the research is to develop sustainable fire-resistant materials for vibration and acoustic damping of structure and airborne noises from sustainable recycled materials and biodegradable binders. The paper reports, methods and techniques of enhancing fire resistive, vibration and acoustic properties of building insulation materials made from natural resources like wood and recycled materials like rubber and textile waste. The structures are designed to optimize the number, size and stratification of closed (heat insulating) and open (noise insulating) pores. The samples produced are tested for their heat and noise insulating properties, including vibration damping and their structural properties (airflow resistivity, porosity, tortuosity and elastic modulus). The structural properties are then used in theoretical models to check the acoustic insulation measurements. Initial data indicate that one layer of such material can yield as much as 18 times more damping, increasing the loss factor by 18%.

Keywords: fire resistant, vibration damping, acoustic material, vibro-acoustic, thermal insulation, sustainable material, low cost materials, recycled materials, construction material

Procedia PDF Downloads 41
10756 Effects of Ingredients Proportions on the Friction Performance of a Brake Pad Material

Authors: Rukiye Ertan

Abstract:

In this study, a brake friction material composition was investigated experimentally related to the effects of the friction modifiers and abrasive proportions on the tribological properties. The investigation was based on a simple experimental formulation, consisting of seven friction materials with different proportions of abrasives (ZrSiO4 and Fe2O3) and friction modifiers (cashew dust). The friction materials were evaluated using a Chase friction tester. The tribological properties, such as the wear resistance and friction stability, depending on the test temperature and the number of braking were obtained related to the friction material ingredient proportions. The results showed that the tribological properties of the brake pad were greatly affected by the abrasive and then cashew dust proportion.

Keywords: brake pad, friction, wear, abrasives

Procedia PDF Downloads 343
10755 Mechanical Properties of Sugar Palm Fibre Reinforced Thermoplastic Polyurethane Composites

Authors: Dandi Bachtiar, Mohammed Ausama Abbas, Januar Parlaungan Siregar, Mohd Ruzaimi Bin Mat Rejab

Abstract:

Short sugar palm fibre and thermoplastic polyurethane were combined to produce new composites by using the extrude method. Two techniques used to prepare a new composite material, firstly, extrusion of the base material with short fibre, secondly hot pressing them. The size of sugar palm fibre was fixed at 250µm. Different weight percent (10 wt%, 20 wt% and 30 wt%) were used in order to optimise preparation process. The optimization of process depended on the characterization mechanical properties such as impact, tensile, and flexural of the new (TPU/SPF) composite material. The results proved that best tensile and impact properties of weight additive fibre applied 10 wt%. There was an increasing trend recorded of flexural properties during increased the fibre loading. Meanwhile, the maximum tensile strength was 14.0 MPa at 10 wt% of the fibre. Moreover, there was no significant effect for additions more than 30 wt% of the fibre.

Keywords: composites, natural fibre, polyurethane, sugar palm

Procedia PDF Downloads 241
10754 Experimental and Numerical Processes of Open Die Forging of Multimetallic Materials with the Usage of Different Lubricants

Authors: Isik Cetintav, Cenk Misirli, Yilmaz Can, Damla Gunel

Abstract:

This work investigates experimental and numerical analysis of open die forging of multimetallic materials. Multimetallic material production has recently become an interesting research field. The mechanical properties of the materials to be used for the formation of multimetallic materials and the mechanical properties of the multimetallic materials produced will be compared and the material flows of the use of different lubricants will be examined. Furthermore, in this work, the mechanical properties of multimetallic metallic materials produced using different materials will be examined by using different lubricants. The advantages and disadvantages of different lubricants will be approached with the bi-metallic material to be produced. Cylindrical specimens consisting of two different materials were used in the experiments. Specimens were prepared as aluminum sleeve and copper core and upset at different reduction. This metal combination present a material model of which chemical composition is different. ABAQUS software was used for the simulations. Simulation and experimental results have also shown reasonable agreement.

Keywords: multimetallic, forging, experimental, numerical

Procedia PDF Downloads 170
10753 The Effect of Chemical Degradation of a Nonwoven Filter Media Membrane in Polyester

Authors: Rachid El Aidani, Phuong Nguyen-Tri, Toan Vu-Khanh

Abstract:

The filter media in synthetic fibre is the most geotextile materials used in aerosol and drainage filtration, particularly for buildings soil reinforcement in civil engineering due to its appropriated properties and its low cost. However, the current understanding of the durability and stability of this material in real service conditions, especially under severe long-term conditions are completely limited. This study has examined the effects of the chemical aging of a filter media in polyester non-woven under different temperatures (50, 70 and 80˚C) and pH (2. 7 and 12). The effect of aging conditions on mechanical properties, morphology, permeability, thermal stability and molar weigh changes is investigated. The results showed a significant reduction of mechanical properties in term of tensile strength, puncture force and tearing forces of the filter media after chemical aging due to the chemical degradation. The molar mass and mechanical properties changes in different temperature and pH showed a complex dependence of material properties on environmental conditions. The SEM and AFM characterizations showed a significant impact of the thermal aging on the morphological properties of the fibers. Based on the obtained results, the lifetime of the material in different temperatures was determined by the use of the Arrhenius model. These results provide useful information to better understand phenomena occurring during chemical aging of the filter media and may help to predict the service lifetime of this material in real used conditions.

Keywords: nonwoven membrane, chemical aging, mechanical properties, lifetime, filter media

Procedia PDF Downloads 239
10752 Chemical Degradation of a Polyester Nonwoven Membrane Used in Aerosol and Drainage Filter

Authors: Rachid El Aidani, Phuong Nguyen-Tri, Toan Vu-Khanh

Abstract:

The filter media in synthetic fibre is the most geotextile materials used in aerosol and drainage filtration, particularly for buildings soil reinforcement in civil engineering due to its appropriated properties and its low cost. However, the current understanding of the durability and stability of this material in real service conditions, especially under severe long-term conditions are completely limited. This study has examined the effects of the chemical aging of a filter media in polyester nonwoven under different temperatures (50, 70 and 80˚C) and pH (2. 7 and 12). The effect of aging conditions on mechanical properties, morphology, permeability, thermal stability and molar weigh changes is investigated. The results showed a significant reduction of mechanical properties in term of tensile strength, puncture force and tearing forces of the filter media after chemical aging due to the chemical degradation. The molar mass and mechanical properties changes in different temperature and pH showed a complex dependence of material properties on environmental conditions. The SEM and AFM characterizations showed a significant impact of the thermal aging on the morphological properties of the fibres. Based on the obtained results, the lifetime of the material in different temperatures was determined by the use of the Arrhenius model. These results provide useful information to better understand phenomena occurring during chemical aging of the filter media and may help to predict the service lifetime of this material in real used conditions.

Keywords: nonwoven membrane, chemical aging, mechanical properties, lifetime, filter media

Procedia PDF Downloads 254
10751 The Effect of Hydrogen on the Magnetic Properties of ZnO: A Density Functional Tight Binding Study

Authors: M. A. Lahmer, K. Guergouri

Abstract:

The ferromagnetic properties of carbon-doped ZnO (ZnO:CO) and hydrogenated carbon-doped ZnO (ZnO:CO+H) are investigated using the density functional tight binding (DFTB) method. Our results reveal that CO-doped ZnO is a ferromagnetic material with a magnetic moment of 1.3 μB per carbon atom. The presence of hydrogen in the material in the form of CO-H complex decreases the total magnetism of the material without suppressing ferromagnetism. However, the system in this case becomes quickly antiferromagnetic when the C-C separation distance was increased.

Keywords: ZnO, carbon, hydrogen, ferromagnetism, density functional tight binding

Procedia PDF Downloads 184
10750 Light Weight Fly Ash Based Composite Material for Thermal Insulation Applications

Authors: Bharath Kenchappa, Kunigal Shivakumar

Abstract:

Lightweight, low thermal conductivity and high temperature resistant materials or the system with moderate mechanical properties and capable of taking high heating rates are needed in both commercial and military applications. A single material with these attributes is very difficult to find and one needs to come with innovative ideas to make such material system using what is available. To bring down the cost of the system, one has to be conscious about the cost of basic materials. Such a material system can be called as the thermal barrier system. This paper focuses on developing, testing and characterization of material system for thermal barrier applications. The material developed is porous, low density, low thermal conductivity of 0.1062 W/m C and glass transition temperature about 310 C. Also, the thermal properties of the developed material was measured in both longitudinal and thickness direction to highlight the fact that the material shows isotropic behavior. The material is called modified Eco-Core which uses only less than 9% weight of high-char resin in the composite. The filler (reinforcing material) is a component of fly ash called Cenosphere, they are hollow micro-bubbles made of ceramic materials. Special mixing-technique is used to surface coat the fillers with a thin layer of resin to develop a point-to-point contact of particles. One could use commercial ceramic micro-bubbles instead of Cenospheres, but it is expensive. The bulk density of Cenospheres is about 0.35 g/cc and we could accomplish the composite density of about 0.4 g/cc. One percent filler weight of 3mm length standard drywall grade fibers was used to bring the added toughness. Both thermal and mechanical characterization was performed and properties are documented. For higher temperature applications (up to 1,000 C), a hybrid system was developed using an aerogel mat. Properties of combined material was characterized and documented. Thermal tests were conducted on both the bare modified Eco-Core and hybrid materials to assess the suitability of the material to a thermal barrier application. The hybrid material system was found to meet the requirement of the application.

Keywords: aerogel, fly ash, porous material, thermal barrier

Procedia PDF Downloads 27
10749 Properties of Hot-Pressed Alumina-Graphene Composites

Authors: P. Rutkowski, G. Górny, L. Stobierski, D. Zientara, W. Piekarczyk, K. Tran

Abstract:

The polycrystalline dense alumina shows thermal conductivity about 30 W/mK and very high electrical resistivity. These last two properties can be modified by introducing commercial relatively cheap graphene nanoparticles which, as two-dimensional flakes show very high thermal and electrical properties. The aim of this work is to show that it is possible to manufacture the anisotropic alumina-graphene material with directed multilayer graphene particles. Such materials can show the anisotropic properties mentioned before.

Keywords: alumina, composite, hot-pressed, graphene, properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 160
10748 Monte Carlo Simulation of Magnetic Properties in Bit Patterned Media

Authors: O. D. Arbeláez-Echeverri, E. Restrepo-Parra, J. C. Riano-Rojas

Abstract:

A two dimensional geometric model of Bit Patterned Media is proposed, the model is based on the crystal structure of the materials commonly used to produce the nano islands in bit patterned materials and the possible defects that may arise from the interaction between the nano islands and the matrix material. The dynamic magnetic properties of the material are then computed using time aware integration methods for the multi spin Hamiltonian. The Hamiltonian takes into account both the spatial and topological disorder of the sample as well as the high perpendicular anisotropy that is pursued when building bit patterned media. The main finding of the research was the possibility of replicating the results of previous experiments on similar materials and the ability of computing the switching field distribution given the geometry of the material and the parameters required by the model.

Keywords: nanostructures, Monte Carlo, pattern media, magnetic properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 406
10747 An Investigation of Raw Material Effects on Nano SiC Based Foam Glass Production

Authors: Aylin Sahin, Yasemin Kilic, Abdulkadir Sari, Burcu Duymaz, Mustafa Kara

Abstract:

Foam glass is an innovative material which composed of glass and carbon/carbonate based minerals; and has incomparable properties like light weight, high thermal insulation and cellular structure with sufficient rigidity. In the present study, the effects of the glass type and mineral addition on the foam glass properties were investigated. Nano sized SiC was fixed as foaming agent at the whole of the samples, mixed glass waste and sheet glass were selectively used as glass sources; finally Al₂O₃ was optionally used as mineral additive. These raw material powders were mixed homogenously, pressed at same pressure and sintered at same schedule. Finally, obtained samples were characterized based on the required properties of foam glass material, and optimum results were determined. At the end of the study, 0.049 W/mK thermal conductivity, 72 % porosity, and 0.21 kg/cm² apparent density with 2.41 MPa compressive strength values were achieved with using nano sized SiC, sheet glass and Al₂O₃ mineral additive. It can be said that the foam glass materials can be preferred as an alternative insulation material rather than polymeric based conventional insulation materials because of supplying high thermal insulation properties without containing unhealthy chemicals and burn risks.

Keywords: foam glass, foaming, silicon carbide, waste glass

Procedia PDF Downloads 140
10746 Towards the Design of Gripper Independent of Substrate Surface Structures

Authors: Annika Schmidt, Ausama Hadi Ahmed, Carlo Menon

Abstract:

End effectors for robotic systems are becoming more and more advanced, resulting in a growing variety of gripping tasks. However, most grippers are application specific. This paper presents a gripper that interacts with an object’s surface rather than being dependent on a defined shape or size. For this purpose, ingressive and astrictive features are combined to achieve the desired gripping capabilities. The developed prototype is tested on a variety of surfaces with different hardness and roughness properties. The results show that the gripping mechanism works on all of the tested surfaces. The influence of the material properties on the amount of the supported load is also studied and the efficiency is discussed.

Keywords: claw, dry adhesion, insects, material properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 238
10745 Trial Version of a Systematic Material Selection Tool in Building Element Design

Authors: Mine Koyaz, M. Cem Altun

Abstract:

Selection of the materials satisfying the expected performances is significantly important for any design. Today, with the constantly evolving and developing technologies, the material options are so wide that the necessity of the use of some support tools in the selection process is arising. Therefore, as a sub process of building element design, a systematic material selection tool is developed, that defines four main steps of the material selection; definition, research, comparison and decision. The main purpose of the tool is being an educational instrument that would show a methodic way of material selection in architectural detailing for the use of architecture students. The tool predefines the possible uses of various material databases and other sources of information on material properties. Hence, it is to be used as a guidance for designers, especially with a limited material knowledge and experience. The material selection tool not only embraces technical properties of materials related with building elements’ functional requirements, but also its sensual properties related with the identity of design and its environmental impacts with respect to the sustainability of the design. The method followed in the development of the tool has two main sections; first the examination and application of the existing methods and second the development of trial versions and their applications. Within the scope of the existing methods; design support tools, methodic approaches for the building element design and material selection process, material properties, material databases, methodic approaches for the decision making process are examined. The existing methods are applied by architecture students and newly graduate architects through different design problems. With respect to the results of these applications, strong and weak sides of the existing material selection tools are presented. A main flow chart of the material selection tool has been developed with the objective to apply the strong aspects of the existing methods and develop their weak sides. Through different stages, a different aspect of the material selection process is investigated and the tool took its final form. Systematic material selection tool, within the building element design process, guides the users with a minimum background information, to practically and accurately determine the ideal material that is to be chosen, satisfying the needs of their design. The tool has a flexible structure that answers different needs of different designs and designers. The trial version issued in this paper shows one of the paths that could be followed and illustrates its application over a design problem.

Keywords: architectural education, building element design, material selection tool, systematic approach

Procedia PDF Downloads 253
10744 Mechanical Behavior of Hybrid Hemp/Jute Fibers Reinforced Polymer Composites at Liquid Nitrogen Temperature

Authors: B. Vinod, L. Jsudev

Abstract:

Natural fibers as reinforcement in polymer matrix material is gaining lot of attention in recent years, as they are light in weight, less in cost, and ecologically advanced surrogate material to glass and carbon fibers in composites. Natural fibers like jute, sisal, coir, hemp, banana etc. have attracted substantial importance as a potential structural material because of its attractive features along with its good mechanical properties. Cryogenic applications of natural fiber reinforced polymer composites like cryogenic wind tunnels, cryogenic transport vessels, support structures in space shuttles and rockets are gaining importance. In these unique cryogenic applications, the requirements of polymer composites are extremely severe and complicated. These materials need to possess good mechanical and physical properties at cryogenic temperatures such as liquid helium (4.2 K), liquid hydrogen (20 K), liquid nitrogen (77 K), and liquid oxygen (90 K) temperatures, etc., to meet the high requirements by the cryogenic engineering applications. The objective of this work is to investigate the mechanical behavior of hybrid hemp/jute fibers reinforced epoxy composite material at liquid nitrogen temperature. Hemp and Jute fibers are used as reinforcement material as they have high specific strength, stiffness and good adhering property and has the potential to replace the synthetic fibers. Hybrid hemp/jute fibers reinforced polymer composite is prepared by hand lay-up method and test specimens are cut according to ASTM standards. These test specimens are dipped in liquid nitrogen for different time durations. The tensile properties, flexural properties and impact strength of the specimen are tested immediately after the specimens are removed from liquid nitrogen container. The experimental results indicate that the cryogenic treatment of the polymer composite has a significant effect on the mechanical properties of this material. The tensile properties and flexural properties of the hybrid hemp/jute fibers epoxy composite at liquid nitrogen temperature is higher than at room temperature. The impact strength of the material decreased after subjecting it to liquid nitrogen temperature.

Keywords: liquid nitrogen temperature, polymer composite, tensile properties, flexural properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 230
10743 Advanced Model for Calculation of the Neutral Axis Shifting and the Wall Thickness Distribution in Rotary Draw Bending Processes

Authors: B. Engel, H. Hassan

Abstract:

Rotary draw bending is a method which is being used in tube forming. In the tube bending process, the neutral axis moves towards the inner arc and the wall thickness distribution changes for tube’s cross section. Thinning takes place in the outer arc of the tube (extrados) due to the stretching of the material, whereas thickening occurs in the inner arc of the tube (intrados) due to the comparison of the material. The calculations of the wall thickness distribution, neutral axis shifting, and strain distribution have not been accurate enough, so far. The previous model (the geometrical model) describes the neutral axis shifting and wall thickness distribution. The geometrical of the tube, bending radius and bending angle are considered in the geometrical model, while the influence of the material properties of the tube forming are ignored. The advanced model is a modification of the previous model using material properties that depends on the correction factor. The correction factor is a purely empirically determined factor. The advanced model was compared with the Finite element simulation (FE simulation) using a different bending factor (Bf=bending radius/ diameter of the tube), wall thickness (Wf=diameter of the tube/ wall thickness), and material properties (strain hardening exponent). Finite element model of rotary draw bending has been performed in PAM-TUBE program (version: 2012). Results from the advanced model resemble the FE simulation and the experimental test.

Keywords: rotary draw bending, material properties, neutral axis shifting, wall thickness distribution

Procedia PDF Downloads 318