Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

Search results for: borewell

4 Radon Concentration in the Water Samples of Hassan District, Karnataka, India

Authors: T. S. Shashikumar

Abstract:

Radon is a radioactive gas emitted from radium, a daughter product of uranium that occurs naturally in rocks and soil. Radon, together with its decay products, emits alpha particles that can damage lung tissue. The activity concentration of 222Ra has been analyzed in water samples collected from borewells and rivers in and around Hassan city, Karnataka State, India. The measurements were performed by Emanometry technique. The concentration of 222Rn in borewell waters varies from 18.49±1.89 to 397.26±12.3 Bql-1 with geometric mean 120.48±12.87 Bql-1 and in river waters it varies from 92.63±9.31 to 93.98±9.51 Bql-1 with geometric mean of 93.16±9.33 Bql-1. In the present study, the radon concentrations are higher in Adarshanagar and Viveka Nagar which are found to be 397.26±12.3 Bql-1 and 325.78±32.56 Bql-1. Most of the analysed samples show a 222Rn concentration more than 100 Bql-1 and this can be attributed to the geology of the area where the ground waters are located, which is predominantly of granitic characteristic. The average inhalation dose and ingestion dose in the borewell water are found to be 0.405 and 0.033 µSvy-1; and in river water it is found to be 0.234 and 0.019 µSvy-1, respectively. The average total effective dose rate in borewell waters and river waters are found to be 0.433 and 0.253 µSvy-1, which does not cause any health risk to the population of Hassan region.

Keywords: borewell, effective dose, emanometry, 222Rn

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3 Groundwater Geophysical Studies in the Developed and Sub-Urban BBMP Area, Bangalore, Karnataka, South India

Authors: G. Venkatesha, Urs Samarth, H. K. Ramaraju, Arun Kumar Sharma

Abstract:

The projection for Groundwater states that the total domestic water demand for greater Bangalore would increase from 1,170 MLD in 2010 to 1,336 MLD in 2016. Dependence on groundwater is ever increasing due to rapid Industrialization & Urbanization. It is estimated that almost 40% of the population of Bangalore is dependent on groundwater. Due to the unscientific disposal of domestic and industrial waste generated, groundwater is getting highly polluted in the city. The scale of this impact will depend mainly upon the water-service infrastructure, the superficial geology and the regional setting. The quality of ground water is equally important as that of quantity. Jointed and fractured granites and gneisses constitute the major aquifer system of BBMP area. Two new observatory Borewells were drilled and lithology report has been prepared. Petrographic Analysis (XRD/XRF) and Water quality Analysis were carried out as per the standard methods. Petrographic samples were analysed by collecting chip of rock from the borewell for every 20ft depth, most of the samples were similar and samples were identified as Biotite-Gneiss, Schistose Amphibolite. Water quality analysis was carried out for individual chemical parameters for two borewells drilled. 1st Borewell struck water at 150ft (Total depth-200ft) & 2nd struck at 740ft (Total depth-960ft). 5 water samples were collected till end of depth in each borewell. Chemical parameter values such as, Total Hardness (360-348, 280-320) mg/ltr, Nitrate (12.24-13.5, 45-48) mg/ltr, Chloride (104-90, 70-70)mg/ltr, Fe (0.75-0.09, 1.288-0.312)mg/ltr etc. are calculated respectively. Water samples were analysed from various parts of BBMP covering 750 sq kms, also thematic maps (IDW method) of water quality is generated for these samples for Post-Monsoon season. The study aims to explore the sub-surface Lithological layers and the thickness of weathered zone, which indirectly helps to know the Groundwater pollution source near surface water bodies, dug wells, etc. The above data are interpreted for future ground water resources planning and management.

Keywords: lithology, petrographic, pollution, urbanization

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2 Green Revolution and Reckless Use of Water and Its Implication on Climate Change Leading to Desertification: Situation of Karnataka, India

Authors: Arun Das

Abstract:

One of the basic objectives of Independent India five decades ago was to meet the increasing demand for food to its growing population. Self-sufficiency was accomplished towards food production and it was attained through launching green revolution program. The green revolution repercussions were not realized at that moment. Many projects were undertaken. Especially, major and minor irrigation projects were executed to harness the river water in the dry land regions of Karnataka. In the elevated topographical lands, extraction of underground water was a solace given by the government to protect the interest of the dry land farmers whose land did not come under the command area. Free borewell digging, pump sets, and electricity were provided. Thus, the self-sufficiency was achieved. Contrary to this, the Continuous long-term extraction of water for agriculture from bore well and in the irrigated tracks has lead to two-way effect such as soil leeching (Alkalinity and Salinity), secondly, depleted underground water to incredible deeps has pushed the natural process to an un-reparable damage which in turn the nature lost to support even a tiny plants like grass to grow, discouraging human and animal habitation, Both the process is silently turning southwestern, central, northeastern and north western regions of Karnataka into desert. The grave situation of Karnataka green revolution is addressed in this paper to alert reckless use of water and also some of the suggestions are recommended based on the ground information.

Keywords: alkalinity, desertification, green revolution, salinity, water

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1 Technical Option Brought Solution for Safe Waste Water Management in Urban Public Toilet and Improved Ground Water Table

Authors: Chandan Kumar

Abstract:

Background and Context: Population growth and rapid urbanization resulted nearly 2 Lacs migrants along with families moving to Delhi each year in search of jobs. Most of these poor migrant families end up living in slums and constitute an estimated population of 1.87 lacs every year. Further, more than half (52 per cent) of Delhiā€™s population resides in places such as unauthorized and resettled colonies. Slum population is fully dependent on public toilet to defecate. In Public toilets, manholes either connected with Sewer line or septic tank. Septic tank connected public toilet faces major challenges to dispose of waste water. They have to dispose of waste water in outside open drain and waste water struck out side of public toilet complex and near to the slum area. As a result, outbreak diseases such as Malaria, Dengue and Chikungunya in slum area due to stagnated waste water. Intervention and Innovation took place by Save the Children in 21 Public Toilet Complexes of South Delhi and North Delhi. These public toilet complexes were facing same waste water disposal problem. They were disposing of minimum 1800 liters waste water every day in open drain. Which caused stagnated water-borne diseases among the nearest community. Construction of Soak Well: Construction of soak well in urban context was an innovative approach to minimizing the problem of waste water management and increased water table of existing borewell in toilet complex. This technique made solution in Ground water recharging system, and additional water was utilized in vegetable gardening within the complex premises. Soak well had constructed with multiple filter media with inlet and safeguarding bed on surrounding surface. After construction, soak well started exhausting 2000 liters of waste water to raise ground water level through different filter media. Finally, we brought a change in the communities by constructing soak well and with zero maintenance system. These Public Toilet Complexes were empowered by safe disposing waste water mechanism and reduced stagnated water-borne diseases.

Keywords: diseases, ground water recharging system, soak well, toilet complex, waste water

Procedia PDF Downloads 218