Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 12

Search results for: brassicaceae

12 Chemical Profiling of Farsetia Aegyptia Turra and Farsetia Longisiliqua Decne. and Their Chemosystematic Significance

Authors: Mona M. Marzouk, Ahmed Elkhateeb, Mona Elshabrawy, Mai M. Farid, Salwa A. Kawashty, EL-Sayed S. Abdel-Hameed, Sameh R. Hussein

Abstract:

The genus Farsetia Turra belongs to the family Brassicaceae and has approximately 30 accepted species distributed worldwide. Amongst them, Farsetia aegyptia Turra and Farsetia longisiliqua Decne. are two common species characteristic to the Egyptian flora. The present study considers the first characterization of the chemical constituents of F. longisiliqua, aiming to compare with those identified from the medicinal species (F. aegyptia). Additionally, the chemosystematic relationships between the two studied species were evaluated and highlight the medicinal importance for F. longisiliqua. The chemical profiling of their aqueous methanol extracts were carried out using the LC-ESI-MS technique and afforded 54 compounds belonging to different chemical groups. Flavonoids are the major constituents and are represented by 32 compounds (two C-glycosyl flavone, four flavones, and 26 flavonols). Their structural variations and common constituents confirmed the chemosystematic significance of the two species. Moreover, the flavonoid profiles showed major common constituents between the two investigated species, which predicted the medicinal importance of F. longisiliqua.

Keywords: brassicaceae, chemosystematics, farsetia, flavonoids, glucosinolates, LC-ESI-MS

Procedia PDF Downloads 113
11 Chemical Constituents of Matthiola Longipetala Extracts: In Vivo Antioxidant and Antidiabetic Effects in Alloxan Induced Diabetes Rats

Authors: Mona Marzouk, Nesrine Hegazi, Aliaa Ragheb, Mona El Shabrawy, Salwa Kawashty

Abstract:

The whole plant of Matthiola longipetala (Brassicaceae) was extracted by 70% methanol to give the total aqueous methanol extract (AME), which was defatted by hexane yielded hexane extract (HE) and defatted AME (DAME). HE was analyzed through GC/MS assay and revealed the detection of 28 non-polar compounds. In addition, the chemical investigation of DAME led to the isolation and purification of twelve flavonoids and three chlorogenic acids. Their structures were interpreted through chemical (complete and partial acid hydrolysis) and spectroscopic analysis (MS, UV, 1D and 2D NMR). Among them, nine compounds have been isolated for the first time from M. longipetala. Moreover, LC-ESI-MS analysis of DAME was achieved to detect additional 46 metabolites, including phospholipids, organic acids, phenolic acids and flavonoids. The biological activity of AME, HE and DAME against alloxan inducing oxidative stress and diabetes in male rats was investigated. Diabetes was induced using a single dose of Alloxan (150 mg/kg b.wt.). HE and DAME significantly increased serum GSH content in rats (37.3±0.7 and 35.9±0.6 mmol/l) compared to diabetic rats (21.8±0.3) and vitamin E (36.2±1.1) at P<0.01. Also, HE, DAME and AME revealed a significant acute anti-hyperglycemic effect potentiated after four weeks of treatment with blood glucose levels of 96.2±5.4, 98.7±6.1 and 98.9±8.6 mg/dl, respectively, compared to diabetic rats (263.4±7.8) and metaformin group (81.9±2.4) at P<0.01.

Keywords: Brassicaceae, Flavonoid, LCMS/MS, Matthiola

Procedia PDF Downloads 101
10 Determination of Morphological Characteristics of Brassica napus, Sinapis arvensis, Sinapis alba and Camelina sativa

Authors: Betül Gıdık, Fadul Önemli

Abstract:

The Brassicaceae (Cruciferae) is an important family of plants that include many economically important vegetable production, industrial oilseed, spice, fodder crop species and energy production. Canola and mustard species that are in Brassicaceae family have too high contribution to world herbal production. In this study, genotypes of two kinds of (Caravel and Excalibul) canola (Brassica napus), wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis), white mustard (Sinapis alba) and Camelina (Camelina sativa) were grown in the experimental field, and their morphological characteristics were determined. According to the results of the research; plant length was varied between 76.75 cm and 151.50 cm, and the longest plant was belonging to species of Sinapis arvensis. The number of branches varied from 3.75 piece/plant to 17.75 piece/plant and the most numerous branch was counted in species of Sinapis alba. It was determined that the number of grains in one capsule was between 3.75 piece/capsule and 35.75 piece/capsule and the largest amount of grains in the one capsule was in the Excalibul variety of species of Brassica napus. In our research, it has been determined that the plant of Sinapis arvensis is a potential plant for industrial of oil production; such as Brassica napus, Sinapis alba and Camelina (Camelina sativa).

Keywords: Brassica napus, Camelina sativa, canola, Sinapis alba, Sinapis arvensis, wild mustard

Procedia PDF Downloads 109
9 The Flora of Bozdağ, Sizma–Konya, Turkey and Its Environs

Authors: Esra Ipekci, Murad Aydin Sanda

Abstract:

The flora of Bozdağ (Konya) and its surroundings were investigated between 2003 and 2005 years; 700 herbarium specimens belonging to 482 taxa, 257 genera and 62 families were collected and identified from the area. The families which have the most taxa in research area are Asteraceae 67 (14.0%), Fabaceae 60 (12.6%), Lamiaceae 57 (11.9%), Brassicaceae 34 (7.1%), Poaceae 30 (6.3%), Rosaceae 24 (5.0%), Caryophyllaceae 23 (4.8%), Liliaceae 19 (4.0%), Boraginaceae 17 (3.6%), Apiaceae 13 (2.7%). The research area is in the district of Konya and is in the B4 square according to the Grid System. The phytogeographic elements are represented in the study area as follows; Mediterranean 72 (14.9%), Irano-Turanian 91 (18.9%), Euro-Siberian 21 (4.3%). The phytogeographic regions of 273 (56.6%) taxa are either multi regional or unknown. The number of endemic taxa is 79 (16.3%).

Keywords: Sizma, Bozdağ, Flora, Konya, Turkey

Procedia PDF Downloads 458
8 The Flora of Oyukludag and Its Environs Karaman,Turkey

Authors: Murad Aydin Şanda, Mustafa Küçüködük

Abstract:

The flora and it’s plants ethnobotanical features of Oyukludag were investigated between 2003 and 2006 years; 780 herbarium specimens belonging to 448 taxa, 292 genera and 62 families were collected and identified from the area. The families which have the most taxa in research area are Compositae (Asteraceae) 78 (17%), Leguminosae (Fabaceae) 58 (13%), Cruciferae (Brassicaceae) 34 (8%), Labiatae (Lamiaceae) 33 (7%), Gramineae (Poaceae) 29 (6%), Caryophyllaceae 19 (4%), Umbelliferae (Apiaceae) 18 (4%), Boraginaceae 17 (4%), Liliaceae 16 (4%). The number of cultivated plants are 17. The research area is in the district of Konya and is in the C4 square according to the Grid System. The phytogeographic elements are represented in the study area as follows; Iranian-Turanian (18%), Mediterranean (17%) and Euro-Siberian (2%). The phytogeographic regions of 268 (60%) taxa are either multi-regional or unknown. The number of endemic taxa is 56 (12%).

Keywords: flora, Oyukludag, Yellibel, Karaman, Turkey

Procedia PDF Downloads 273
7 Inventory and Pollinating Role of Bees (Hymenoptera: apoidea) on Turnip (Brassica rapa L.) and Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) (Brassicaceae) in Constantine Area (Algeria)

Authors: Benachour Karima

Abstract:

Pollination is a key factor in crop production and the presence of insect pollinators, mainly wild bees, is essential for improving yields. In this work, visiting apoids of two vegetable crops, the turnip (Brassica rapa L.) and the radish (Raphanus sativus L.) (Brassicaceae) were recorded during flowering times of 2003 and 2004 in Constantine area (36°22’N 06°37’E, 660 m). The observations were conducted in a plot of approximately 308 m2 of the Institute of Nutrition, Food and Food Technology (University of Mentouri Brothers). To estimate the density of bees (per 100 flowers or m2), 07 plots (01m2 for each one) are defined from the edge of the culture and in the first two rows. From flowering and every two days, foraging insects are recorded from 09 am until 17 pm (Gmt+1).The purpose of visit (collecting nectar, pollen or both) and pollinating efficiency (estimated by the number of flowers visited per minute and the number of positive visits) were noted for the most abundant bees on flowers. The action of pollinating insects is measured by comparing seed yields of 07 plots covered with tulle with 07 other accessible to pollinators. 04 families of Apoidea: Apidae, Halictidae, Andrenidae and Megachilidae were observed on the two plants. On turnip, the honeybee is the most common visitor (on average 214visites/ m2), it is followed by the Halictidae Lasioglossum mediterraneum whose visits are less intense (20 individuals/m2). Visits by Andrenidae, represented by several species such as Andrena lagopus, A.flavipes, A.agilissima and A.rhypara were episodic. The honeybee collected mainly nectar, its visits were all potentially fertilizing (contact with stigma) and more frequent (on average 14 flowers/min. L.mediterraneum visited only 05 flrs/min, it collected mostly the two products together and all its visits were also positive. On radish, the wild bee Ceratina cucurbitina recorded the highest number of visits (on average 06 individuals/100flo wers), the Halictidae represented mainly by L.mediterraneum, and L.malachurum, L.pauxillum were less abundant. C.cucurbitina visited on average 10 flowers /min and all its visits are positive. Visits of Halictidae were less frequent (05-06 flowers/min) and not all fertilizing. Seed yield of Brassica rapa (average number of pods /plant, seeds/ pods and average weight of 1000 seeds) was significantly higher in the presence of pollinators. Similarly, the pods of caged plants gave a percentage of aborted seeds (10.3%) significantly higher than that obtained on free plants (4.12%), the pods of caged plants also gave a percentage of malformed seeds (1.9%) significantly higher than that of the free plants (0.9%). For radish, the seed yield in the presence and absence of insects are almost similar. Only the percentage of malformed seeds (3.8%) obtained from the pods of caged plants was significantly higher in comparison with pods of free plants (1.9%). Following these results, it is clear that pollinators especially bees are essential for the production and improvement of crop yields and therefore it is necessary to protect this fauna increasingly threatened.

Keywords: foraging behavior, honey bee, radish, seed yield, turnip, wild bee

Procedia PDF Downloads 141
6 Flavonoids and Phenolic Acids from the Aerial Parts of Alyssum alyssoides

Authors: Olga St. Tsiftsoglou, Diamanto M. Lazari, Eugene L. Kokkalou

Abstract:

Most of Alyssum species of Brassicaceae family have been mainly studied for their contribution in ecology. In this study, A. alyssoides was examined for its chemical substitutes. The methanol extract of its aerial parts was fractionated with liquid-liquid extraction (distribution) with four different solvents of increasing polarity: diethyl ether, ethyl acetate, 1-butanol and water. The diethyl ether and ethyl acetate extracts were further studied for their chemical composition. So far, secondary metabolites which belong to phenolics were isolated by using several chromatographic methods (C.C. and HPLC) and were identified by using spectroscopic methods (UV/Vis, NMR and MS): two phenolic acids (p-hydroxy-benzoic acid and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxy-benzoic acid (vanillic acid)), and five flavonoids, which are derivatives of flavonol: kaempferol 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (astragalin), kaempferol 3-O-(6′′-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl)-β-D-glucopyranoside (nicotiflorin), quercetin 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (isoquercetin), isorhamnetin-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, and isoramnetin 3-O-(6′′-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl)-β-D-glucopyranoside (narcissin).

Keywords: Alyssum, chemical substitutes, flavonoids, phenolic acids

Procedia PDF Downloads 235
5 Genoprotective Effect of Lepidium sativum L. Seed Methanolic Extract on Cyclophosphamide-Induced DNA Damage in Mice and Characterization of Its Flavonoidal Content

Authors: Iman A. A. Kassem, Ayman A. Farghaly, Zeinab M. Hassan, Farouk R. Melek, Neveen S. Ghaly

Abstract:

Lipidium sativum L, an annual herb that grows to 50 cm, is known as an important member of family Brassicaceae. Besides its nutritional value, the seeds were widely used in folk medicine for treatment of cough, asthma, and headache. It was also reported to possess hypocholesterolemic, anti-inflammatory, antidiarrheal, antimicrobial and anticancer activities. In this study, the genoprotective properties of L. sativum seed methanolic extract (LSME) were evaluated in vivo. Three groups of mice were given LSME for five consecutive days at the three dose levels 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg b.wt. The three groups were then injected intraperitoneally with cyclophosphamide at a dose of 20 mg/kg b.wt. to induce DNA damage. A group received only cyclophosphamide (20 mg/kg b.wt.) served as control. LSME significantly inhibited the DNA aberrations in mice caused by cyclophosphamide in a dose-dependent manner in the two groups that received LSME at 50 and 100 mg/kg b.wt. dose levels. The chromosomal aberrations' inhibitory indices were calculated as 18 and 31 in mice bone marrow cells and 27 and 48 in mice spermatocytes, respectively. Phytochemical examination carried out by us revealed that flavonoids were the main chemical constituents of LSME. The major flavonoids kaempferol, kaempferol-3-O-rhamnoside, kaempferol-3-O-glucoside, quercetin, and quercetin-3-O-glucoside were isolated and characterized. It was concluded that the genoprotective effect of LSME might be attributed to the presence of flavonoids which are well-known for their antioxidant properties.

Keywords: cyclophosphamide, flavonoids, genoprotective effect, Lepidium sativum

Procedia PDF Downloads 75
4 Determination of Antioxidant Activity in Raphanus raphanistrum L.

Authors: Esma Hande Alıcı, Gülnur Arabacı

Abstract:

Antioxidants are compounds or systems that can safely interact with free radicals and terminate the chain reaction before vital molecules are damaged. The anti-oxidative effectiveness of these compounds depends on their chemical characteristics and physical location within a food (proximity to membrane phospholipids, emulsion interfaces, or in the aqueous phase). Antioxidants (e.g., flavonoids, phenolic acids, tannins, vitamin C, vitamin E) have diverse biological properties, such as antiinflammatory, anti-carcinogenic and anti-atherosclerotic effects, reduce the incidence of coronary diseases and contribute to the maintenance of gut health by the modulation of the gut microbial balance. Plants are excellent sources of antioxidants especially with their high content of phenolic compounds. Raphanus raphanistrum L., the wild radish, is a flowering plant in the family Brassicaceae. It grows in Asia and Mediterranean region. It has been introduced into most parts of the world. It spreads rapidly, and is often found growing on roadsides or in other places where the ground has been disturbed. It is an edible plant, in Turkey its fresh aerial parts are mostly consumed as a salad with olive oil and lemon juice after boiled. The leaves of the plant are also used as anti-rheumatic in traditional medicine. In this study, we determined the antioxidant capacity of two different solvent fractions (methanol and ethyl acetate) obtained from Raphanus raphanistrum L. plant leaves. Antioxidant capacity of the plant was introduced by using three different methods: DPPH radical scavenging activity, CUPRAC (Cupric Ion Reducing Antioxidant Capacity) activity and Reducing power activity.

Keywords: antioxidant activity, antioxidant capacity, Raphanis raphanistrum L., wild radish

Procedia PDF Downloads 198
3 Genetic Variability in Advanced Derivatives of Interspecific Hybrids in Brassica

Authors: Yasir Ali, Farhatullah

Abstract:

The present study was conducted to estimate the genetic variability, heritability and genetic advance in six parental lines and their 56 genotypes derived from five introgressed brassica populations on the basis of morphological and biochemical traits. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design with two replications at The University of Agriculture Peshawar-Pakistan during growing season of 2015-2016. The ANOVA of all traits of F5:6 populations showed highly significant differences (P ≤ 0.01) for all morphological and biochemical traits. Among F5:6 populations, the genotype 2(526) was earlier in flowering (108.65 days), and genotype 14(485) was earlier in maturity (170 days). Tallest plants (182.5 cm), largest main raceme (91.5 cm) and maximum number of pods (80.5) on main raceme were recorded for genotype 17(34). Maximum primary branches plant-1(6.2) and longest pods (10.26 cm) were recorded for genotype 15, while genotype 16(171) had more seeds pod⁻¹ (22) and gave maximum yield plant-1 (30.22 g). The maximum 100-seed weight (0.60 g) was observed for genotype 10(506) while high protein content (22.61%) was recorded for genotype 4(99). Maximum oil content (54.08 %) and low linoleic acid (7.07 %) were produced by genotype (12(138) and low glucosinolate (59.01 µMg⁻¹) was recorded for genotype 21(113). The genotype 27(303) having high oleic acid content (51.73 %) and genotype 1(209) gave low erucic acid (35.97 %). Among the F5:6 populations moderate to high heritability observed for all morphological and biochemical traits coupled with high genetic advance. Cluster analysis grouped the 56 F5:6 populations along their parental lines into seven different groups. Each group was different from the other group on the basis of morphological and biochemical traits. Moreover all the F5:6 populations showed sufficient variability. Genotypes 10(506) and 16(171) were superior for high seed yield⁻¹, 100-seeds weight, and seed pod⁻¹ and are recommended for future breeding program.

Keywords: Brassicaceae, biochemical characterization, introgression, morphological characterization

Procedia PDF Downloads 103
2 Effect of Cellulase Pretreatment for n-Hexane Extraction of Oil from Garden Cress Seeds

Authors: Boutemak Khalida, Dahmani Siham

Abstract:

Garden cress (Lepidium Sativum L.) belonging to the family Brassicaceae, is edible growing annual herb. Its various parts (roots, leaves and seeds) have been used to treat various human ailments. Its seed extracts have been screened for various biological activities like hypotensive, antimicrobial, bronchodilator, hypoglycaemic and antianemic. The aim of the present study is to optimize the process parameters (cellulase concentration and incubation time) of enzymatic pre-treatment of the garden cress seeds and to evaluate the effect of cellulase pre-treatment of the crushed seeds on the oil yield, physico-chemical properties and antibacterial activity and comparing to non-enzymatic method. The optimum parameters of cellulase pre-treatment were as follows: cellulase of 0,1% w/w and incubation time of 2h. After enzymatic pre-treatment, the oil was extracted by n-hexane for 1.5 h, the oil yield was 4,01% for cellulase pre-treatment as against 10,99% in the control sample. The decrease in yield might be caused a result of mucilage. Garden cress seeds are covered with a layer of mucilage which gels on contact with water. At the same time, the antibacterial activity was carried out using agar diffusion method against 4 food-borne pathogens (Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi,Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis). The results showed that bacterial strains are very sensitive to the oil with cellulase pre-treatment. Staphylococcus aureus is extremely sensitive with the largest zone of inhibition (40 mm), Escherichia coli and salmonella typhi had a very sensitive to the oil with a zone of inhibition (26 mm). Bacillus subtilizes is averagely sensitive which gave an inhibition of 16 mm. But it does not exhibit sensivity to the oil without enzymatic pre-treatment with a zone inhibition (< 8 mm). Enzymatic pre-treatment could be useful for antimicrobial activity of the oil, and hold a good potential for use in food and pharmaceutical industries.

Keywords: Lepidium sativum L., cellulase, enzymatic pretreatment, antibacterial activity.

Procedia PDF Downloads 380
1 Phytochemical Screening and Anti-Hypothyroidism Activity of Lepidium sativum Ethanolic Extract

Authors: Reham Hajomer, Ikram Elsiddig, Amna Hamad

Abstract:

Lepidium sativum (Garden Cress) belonging to Brassicaceae family is an annual herb locally known as El-rshad. In Ayurveda it is an important medicinal plant, traditionally used for the treatment of jaundice, liver problems, spleen diseases, gastrointestinal disorders, menstrual problems, fracture, arthritis, inflammatory conditions and for treatment of hypothyroidism. Hypothyroidism is a condition in which the thyroid gland does not produce enough thyroid hormones (Triiodithyronine T3 and Thyroxine T4) which are commonly caused by iodine deficiency. It’s divided into primary and secondary hypothyroidism, the primary caused by failure of thyroid function and secondary due to the failure of adequate thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) secretion from the pituitary gland or thyroid -releasing hormone (TRH) from the hypothalamus. The disease is most common in women over age 60. The objective regarding this study is to know whether Lepidium sativum would affect the level of thyroid hormones. The extract was prepared with 96% ethanol using Soxhlet apparatus. The anti-hypothyroidism activity was tested by using thirty male Wistar rats weighing (100-140 g) were used in the experiment. They were grouping into five groups, Group 1: Normal group= Administered only distilled water. Then 10 mg/kg Propylthiouracil was added to the drinking water of all other groups to induce hypothyroidism. Group 2: Negative control without any treatment; Group 3: Test group= treated with oral administration of 500mg/kg extract; Group 4: treated with oral administration of 250mg/kg of the extract; Group 5: Standard group (positive control) = treated with intraperitoneal Levothyroxine. All rats were incubated for 20 days at animal house with room temperature of proper ventilation provided with standard diet. The result show that the Lepidium sativum extract was found to increases the T3 and T4 in the propylthiouracil induced rats with values (0.29 ng/dl T3 and 0.57 U T4) for the 500mg/kg and (0.27 ng/dl T3 and 0.517 U T4) for the 250mg/kg in comparison with standard with values (0.241 ng/dl T3 and 0.516 U T4) so that Lepidium sativum can be stimulatory to thyroid function and possess significant anti-hypothyroidism effect with p-values ranges from (0.000006*-0.893472). In conclusion, from results obtained, Lepidium sativum plant extract was found to posses anti-hypothyroidism effects so its act as an agent that stimulates thyroid hormone secretion.

Keywords: anti-hypothyroidism, extract, lepidium, sativum

Procedia PDF Downloads 116