Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 39

Search results for: Meril Kate Mariano

39 Surface Morphology and Wetting Behavior of the Aspidiotus spp. Scale Covers

Authors: Meril Kate Mariano, Billy Joel Almarinez Divina Amalin, Jose Isagani Janairo

Abstract:

The scale insects Aspidiotus destructor and Aspidiotus rigidus exhibit notable scale covers made of wax which provides protection against water loss and is capable to resist wetting, thus making them a desirable model for biomimetic designs. Their waxy covers enable them to infest mainly leaves of coconut trees despite the harsh wind and rain. This study aims to describe and compare the micro morphological characters on the surfaces of their scale covers consequently, how these micro structures affect their wetting properties. Scanning electron microscope was used for the surface characterization while an optical contact angle meter was employed in the wetting measurement. The scale cover of A. destructor is composed of multiple overlapping layers of wax that is arranged regularly while that of A. rigidus is composed of a uniform layer of wax with much more prominent wax ribbons irregularly arranged compared to the former. The protrusions found on the two organisms are formed by the wax ribbons that differ in arrangement with their height being A. destructor (3.57+1.29) < A. rigidus (4.23+1.22) and their density A. destructor (15+2.94) < A. rigidus (18.33+2.64). These morphological measurements could affect the contact angle (CA θ) measurement of A. destructor (102.66+9.78°) < A. rigidus (102.77 + 11.01°) wherein the assessment that the interaction of the liquid to the microstructures of the substrate is a large factor in the wetting properties of the insect scales is realized. The calculated surface free energy of A. destructor (38.47 mJ/m²) > A. rigidus (31.02 mJ/m²) shows inverse proportionality with the CA measurement. The dispersive interaction between the surface and liquid is more prevalent compared to the polar interaction for both Aspidiotus species, which was observed using the Fowkes method. The results of this study have possible applications to be a potential biomimetic design for various industries such as textiles and coatings.

Keywords: biomimetics, Contact angle, surface characterization, Aspidiotus spp, wetting behavior

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38 Formulation of a Rapid Earthquake Risk Ranking Criteria for National Bridges in the National Capital Region Affected by the West Valley Fault Using GIS Data Integration

Authors: George Mariano Soriano

Abstract:

In this study, a Rapid Earthquake Risk Ranking Criteria was formulated by integrating various existing maps and databases by the Department of Public Works and Highways (DPWH) and Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS). Utilizing Geographic Information System (GIS) software, the above-mentioned maps and databases were used in extracting seismic hazard parameters and bridge vulnerability characteristics in order to rank the seismic damage risk rating of bridges in the National Capital Region.

Keywords: Earthquake, Risk, Bridge, Vulnerability, GIS, Hazard

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37 A Comparative Analysis of ARIMA and Threshold Autoregressive Models on Exchange Rate

Authors: Diteboho Xaba, Kolentino Mpeta, Tlotliso Qejoe

Abstract:

This paper assesses the in-sample forecasting of the South African exchange rates comparing a linear ARIMA model and a SETAR model. The study uses a monthly adjusted data of South African exchange rates with 420 observations. Akaike information criterion (AIC) and the Schwarz information criteria (SIC) are used for model selection. Mean absolute error (MAE), root mean squared error (RMSE) and mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) are error metrics used to evaluate forecast capability of the models. The Diebold –Mariano (DM) test is employed in the study to check forecast accuracy in order to distinguish the forecasting performance between the two models (ARIMA and SETAR). The results indicate that both models perform well when modelling and forecasting the exchange rates, but SETAR seemed to outperform ARIMA.

Keywords: Model selection, ARIMA, error metrices, SETAR

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36 A New Mechanical Architecture Design of a Multifunctional Bed for Bedridden Healthcare

Authors: Rogelio Portillo Vélez, Eduardo Vázquez-Santacruz, Mariano Gamboa-Zúñiga

Abstract:

In this paper a new mechanical architecture design of a multi functional robot bed, is presented. The importance of this design relies on the fact that in next years the need of assistive devices development will increase in such way that elderly patients will use this kind of devices. This mechanical design implies following specific mechanisms which attend Mexican hospital requirements. This design is the base of next step of this kind of development given that it shows all technical details of the mechanical systems which are needed in order to construct the bed. This is first hospital bed design which could responds to the Latin America hospital requirements. We have obtained these hospital requirements using our diagnosis methodology [14]. From these results we have designed the mechanical system. This is the mechanical base of the hospital robotic bed which is being developed in our robotics laboratory. It will be useful in different hospital environments for elderly and disabled patients.

Keywords: Robotics, Methodology, assistive technology, Social impact, assistive robotics, feasibility analysis, operational feasibility, viability analysis matrix

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35 An Exploration of Lighting Quality on Sleep Quality of Children in Elementary Schools

Authors: Mohamed Boubekri, Jaewook Lee, Kristen Bub, Kate Kurry

Abstract:

In this study, we explored the impact of light, particularly daylight on sleep time and quality of elementary school children. Sleep actigraphy was used to measure objectively sleep time and sleep efficiency. Our data show a good correlation between light levels and sleep. In some cases, differences of up to 36 minutes were found between students in low light levels and those in high light level classrooms. We recommend, therefore, that classroom design need to pay attention to the daily daylight exposures elementary school children are receiving.

Keywords: Sustainable Architecture, Children, Light, Sleep, Circadian Rhythm, Elementary school, daylight, actigraphy

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34 Challenges of e-Service Adoption and Implementation in Nigeria: Lessons from Asia

Authors: Kazeem Oluwakemi Oseni, Kate Dingley

Abstract:

E-Service has moved from the usual manual and traditional way of rendering services to electronic service provision for the public and there are several reasons for implementing these services, Airline ticketing have gone from its manual traditional way to an intelligent web-driven service of purchasing. Many companies have seen their profits doubled through the use of online services in their operation and a typical example is Hewlett Packard (HP) which is rapidly transforming their after sales business into a profit generating e-service business unit. This paper will examine the various challenges confronting e-Service adoption and implementation in Nigeria and also analyse lessons learnt from e-Service adoption and implementation in Asia to see how it could be useful in Nigeria which is a lower middle income country. Based on the analysis of the online survey data. It has been identified that the public in Nigeria are much aware of e-Services but successful adoption and implementation have been the problems faced.

Keywords: Implementation, Asia, Adoption, Nigeria, e-government service

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33 Comparative Analysis of Three Types of Recycled Aggregates and its Use in Masonry Mortar Fabrication

Authors: Antonio Rodríguez Sánchez, Mariano Gonzalez Cortina, Pablo Saiz Martinez, Francisco Fernandez Martinez

Abstract:

Construction sector incessant activity of the last years preceding the crisis has originated a high waste generation and an increased use of raw materials. The main aim of this research is to compare three types of recycled aggregates and the feasibility to incorporate them into masonry mortar fabrication. The tests were developed using two types of binders: CEM II/B-L 32.5 N and CEM IV/B (V) 32.5 N. 50%, 75% and 100% of natural sand were replaced with three types of recycled aggregates. Cement-to-aggregate by dry weight proportions were 1:3 and 1:4. Physical and chemical characterization of recycled aggregates showed continues particle size distribution curve, lower density and higher absorption, which was the reason to use additive to obtain required mortar consistency. Main crystalline phases determined in the X-Ray diffraction test were calcite, quartz, and gypsum. Performed tests show that cement-based mortars fabricated with CEM IV/B (V) 32. 5 N can incorporate recycled aggregates coming from ceramic, concrete and mixed recycling processes, using 1:3 and 1:4 cement-to-aggregate proportions, complying with the limits established by the Spanish standards. It was concluded that recycled mortar coming from concrete recycling process is the one which presents better characteristics.

Keywords: Waste treatment, Mechanical Properties, Construction and demolition waste, recycled aggregate, masonry mortar

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32 Fatherhood and Caregiving: An Exploratory Study of Parenting Patterns in Pakistani Families

Authors: Kate Jonathan

Abstract:

This article presents the findings of a qualitative study into parenting practices in families of Pakistani origin in the North of England. It focuses on the involvement of fathers in childrearing within the Pakistani community. Data was generated from thirty parents’ in-depth interviews and ethnographic observation of parent-child relationships. The data was analyzed by an initial coding, identifying themes, a grouping of patterns, and arriving at a meaningful understanding. The study shows that the traditional role of fathers as breadwinners, providing discipline and protection, was still prominent in most of the Pakistani families who took part in the study. However, few men were becoming pragmatic and would engage in more childrearing chores, as their wives. The findings indicate that previous general portrayal of fatherhood as the primary, and sometimes, only, breadwinner is changing to encompass a lot more in Pakistani communities. Nowadays, some fathers are more involved in caregiving and are increasingly become co-contributors in the development of their children. However, the change is slower in some families than others and varied within this community.

Keywords: Childrearing, caregiving, fathers, Pakistani families

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31 An Experimental Study of the External Thermal Insulation System’s (ETICS) Efficiency in Buildings during Spring Conditions

Authors: Cesar Porras Amores, Antonio Rodríguez Sánchez, Mariano Gonzalez Cortina, Carmen Viñas Arrebola, Sheila Varela Lujan

Abstract:

The research group TEMA from the School of Building (UPM) is working in the line of energy efficiency and comfort in building. The need to reduce energy consumption in the building construction implies designing new constructive systems. These systems help to reduce both consumption and energy losses in order to achieve adequate thermal comfort for people in any type of building. In existing buildings the best option is the rehabilitation focused on thermal insulation. The aim of this paper is to design, monitor and analyze the first results of thermal behavior of the ETICS system in façades. This retrofitting solution consists of adding thermal insulation on the outside of the building, helping to create a continuous envelope on the façades. The analysis is done by comparing a rehabilitated part of the building with ETICS system and another part which has not been rehabilitated, and it is taken as reference. Both of them have the same characteristics. Temperature measurements were taken with type K thermocouples according to the previous design of the monitoring and in the same period of time. The pilot building of the study is situated in Benimamet Street, in San Cristobal de Los Ángeles, in the south of Madrid. It was built in the late 50s. The 51st entrance hall, which is restored, and the 47th entrance hall, in original conditions, have been studied.

Keywords: Thermal Properties, comfort in building, energy efficiency in building, ETICS

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30 Social and Economic Impact of Home Sharing in Metro Manila: Hosts' Perspective

Authors: Ma. Karen Jimeno, Erika Kate Co, Ma. Claudia Alexis Frani, Shane Rosshel Guzman, Marie Jaye Constance Selga

Abstract:

Home sharing continues to gain traction in the Philippines at the expense of traditional lodging options, to which the hospitality industry has reacted in stages. This study aims to describe the social and economic impact of home sharing in Metro Manila from the perspective of hosts. A cross-sectional survey questionnaire consisting of five-point Likert items was administered to 120 hosts in Metro Manila. Kruskal-Wallis test, together with Dunn’s pairwise comparison, was used in the analysis of data. Results show that there is a significant difference in the median scores between increased awareness of Filipino food/heritage and the pursuit of enjoyable life in terms of social impact. Economic-wise, the respondents, did not perceive that their businesses as an additional source of income for the local government. These findings can be used for further exploratory studies and formulation of sustainable business policies conducive for the entrepreneurs and the hospitality industry alike.

Keywords: Marketing, Tourism, bed-and-breakfast, home sharing

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29 Energy Consumption in China’s Urban Water Supply System

Authors: Yi Liu, Kate Smith, Shuming Liu, Dragan Savic, Gustaf Olsson, Tian Chang, Xue Wu

Abstract:

In a water supply system, a great deal of care goes into sourcing, treating and delivering water to consumers, but less thought is given to the energy consumed during these processes. This study uses 2011 data to quantify energy use for urban water supply in China and investigates population density as a possible influencing factor. The objective is to provide information that can be used to develop energy-conscious water infrastructure policy, calculate the energy co-benefits of water conservation and compare energy use between China and other countries. The average electrical energy intensity and per capita electrical energy consumption for urban water supply in China in 2011 were 0.29 kWh/m3 and 33.2 kWh/cap•yr, respectively. Comparison between provinces revealed a direct correlation between energy intensity of urban water supply and population served per unit length of pipe. This could imply energy intensity is lower when more densely populated areas are supplied by relatively dense networks of pipes. This study also found that whereas the percentage of energy used for urban water supply tends to increase with the percentage of population served this increase is slower where water supply is more energy efficient and where a larger percentage of population is already supplied.

Keywords: Water supply, China, electrical energy use, water-energy nexus

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28 Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in West African Semi-Arid Lands Facing Climate Change

Authors: Mamadou Diop, Florence Crick, Momadou Sow, Kate Elizabeth Gannon

Abstract:

Understanding SME leaders’ responses to climate is essential to cope with ongoing changes in temperature and rainfall. This study analyzes the response of SME leaders to the adverse effects of climate change in semi-arid lands (SAL) in Senegal. Based on surveys administrated to 161 SME leaders, this research shows that 91% of economic units are affected by climatic conditions, although 70% do not have a plan to deal with climate risks. Economic actors have striven to take measures to adapt. However, their efforts are limited by various obstacles accentuated by a lack of support from public authorities. In doing so, substantial political, institutional and financial efforts at national and local levels are needed to promote an enabling environment for economic actors to adapt. This will focus on information and training about the threats and opportunities related to global warming, the creation of an adaptation support fund to support local initiatives and the improvement of the institutional, regulatory and political framework.

Keywords: Climate Change, Adaptation, small and medium-sized enterprises, semi-arid lands

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27 Eradication of Gram-Positive Bacteria by Photosensitizers Immobilized in Polymers

Authors: Marina Nisnevitch, Anton Valkov, Faina Nakonechny, Kate Adar Raik, Yamit Mualem

Abstract:

Photosensitizers are dye compounds belonging to various chemical groups that in all the cases have a developed structure of conjugated double bonds. Under illumination with visible light, the photosensitizers are excited and transfer the absorbed energy to the oxygen dissolved in an aqueous phase, leading to production of a reactive oxygen species which cause irreversible damage to bacterial cells. When immobilized onto a solid phase, photosensitizers preserve their antibacterial properties. In the present study, photosensitizers were immobilized in polyethylene or propylene and tested for antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive S. aureus, S. epidermidis and Streptococcus sp. For this purpose, water-soluble photosensitizers, Rose Bengal sodium salt, and methylene blue as well as water-insoluble hematoporphyrin and Rose Bengal lactone, were immobilized by dissolution in melted polymers to yield 3 mm diameter rods and 3-5 mm beads. All four photosensitizers were found to be effective in the eradication of Gram-positive bacteria under illumination by a white luminescent lamp or sunlight. The immobilized photosensitizers can be applied for continuous water disinfection; they can be easily removed at the end of the treatment and reused.

Keywords: Antimicrobial Polymers, gram-positive bacteria, immobilization of photosensitizers, photodynamic antibacterial activity

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26 Primary Fallopian Tube Carcinoma: A Case Report

Authors: Mary Abigail T. Ty, Mary Jocelyn Yu-Laygo, Jocelyn Z. Mariano

Abstract:

This is a case of L.S.T., a 61 year old, G6P4 (3124) who presented with a one month history of intermittent, brownish, watery, non foul smelling vaginal discharge. There were no other accompanying symptoms. On rectovaginal examination, a palpable adnexal mass on the left was appreciated, with the lower border measuring 3 cm. The mass was non-tender, had irregular borders and solid areas. On transvaginal sonography, it revealed a left pelvic mass measuring 3 x 4 x 2 cm, with a Sassone score of 9. It had vascularization. The primary consideration was Ovarian Newgrowth, probably malignant in nature. CA-125 results were slightly elevated at 43.2 u/ml (NV: 0-35 u/ml). After intraoperative evaluation, the left fallopian tube was converted into a 9 x 4.5 x 3 cm bulbous cystic mass with solid areas. On cut section, the ampullary portion of the fallopian tube contained necrotic and friable looking tissues. Specimen was sent for frozen section and results revealed adenocarcinoma of the left fallopian tube. Patient subsequently underwent complete surgical staging with unremarkable post-operative course. The Surg Ico pathologic diagnosis was G6P4 (3124) Fallopian tube serous cystadenocarcinoma stage 1. The mean incidence of PFTC is 3.6 per million women yearly. This is associated with a generally low survival rate. The primary diagnosis is very difficult to establish because only 0–10% of patients suffering from PFTC are diagnosed pre-operatively. Symptoms play a very important role in the discovery of this disease, because there will be no presentation to the hospital without symptoms. The most common of which may be vaginal bleeding, abdominal pain, a palpable mass and ascites. A conglomerate of manifestations may be encountered, but not at all times. This is termed hydrops tubae profluens where there is presence of colicky pain with relief from intermittent passage of serosanguinous vaginal discharge. The significance of this report is to emphasize the rarity of the case and how the dilemma in the diagnosis is almost always present despite ancillary procedures.

Keywords: rare, prognosis, Risk Factors, fallopian tube carcinoma

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25 Practitioner Reflections: The Live Case Studies

Authors: Marie Sams, Kate Barnett-Richards

Abstract:

As the need for integration between students and industry grows, classroom practitioners must find ways of engaging students whilst also involving industry professionals to help shape the changing nature of university level education. As part of a project funded by the Disruptive Media Learning Lab at Coventry University, traditional case study based seminars on two modules were replaced by interactive live cases. Utilising Google+ as a social media platform allowed students and industry professional to come together and share ideas on a range of current issues. As technology becomes an ever increasingly important part of the higher education landscape, classroom practitioners need to adapt and find ways of utilising technological tools which can enhance the overall classroom experience. Given that many of these innovations come from the individuals involved in delivering classroom based sessions it is vital to share ideas, experiences and best practices so as to allow and encourage others to use the numerous free tools and platforms available. This poster presents the reflections, challenges, and problems faced by education practitioners when engaging students with industry partners in live case study discussions via Google+ within a classroom setting. It is expected that this poster will be of interest to a number of academics and teaching fellows who may be considering utilising social media tools to connect their students with industry.

Keywords: Case study, reflections, Google+, practitioner

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24 The 5S Responses of Obese Teenagers in Verbal Bullying

Authors: Alpha Bolinao, Francine Rose De Castro, Jessie Kate Lumba, Raztine Mae Paeste, Hannah Grace Tosio

Abstract:

The present study aimed to know the role of verbal bullying in the lives of obese teenagers exposed to it. The study employed a qualitative design specifically the phenomenological approach that focuses on the obese teenagers’ verbal bullying experiences. The study also used the social constructivism approach wherein it described the obese teenagers’ verbal bullying experiences as they interact with the social world. Through purposive and referral sampling technique, the researchers were able to choose twelve (12) respondents from different schools around the City of Manila, enrolled in the School Year 2015-2016, ages 16-21 years old, has experienced verbal bullying for the last ten (10) years and with the Body Mass Index (BMI) of equal to or greater than 30. Upon the consent of the respondents, ethical considerations were ensured. In-depth one (1) hour interviews were guided by the researchers’ aide memoir. The recorded interviews were transcribed into a field text and the responses were thoroughly analyzed through Thematic Analysis and Kelly’s Repertory Grid. It was found that the role of verbal bullying in the lives of obese teenagers exposed to it is a process and is best described through a syringe, or the 5S Responses of Obese Teenagers in Bullying, with five conceptual themes which also signify the experiences and the process that obese teenagers have gone through after experiencing verbal bullying. The themes conceptualized were: Suffering, self-doubt, suppression, self-acceptance and sanguineness. This paper may serve as a basis for a counseling program to help the obese teenagers cope with their bullying experiences.

Keywords: Obesity, Bullying, Experiences, obese teenagers

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23 A Caged Bird Set Free: The Women Saviors in Fae Myenne Ng's Steer Toward Rock

Authors: Hei Yuen Pak

Abstract:

Steer Toward Rock, Fae Myenne Ng’s second novel after the National Bestseller Bone, is superficially concluded as a story of pessimism, which underestimates the sophistication of Ng’s portrayal. It is often summarized as a “heartbreaking novel of unrequited love” or “a story of timeless and tragic”; yet, Ng’s novel conveys more than a mere sense of tragedy and heartbreak, but rather an overflowing warmth and optimism. Ng is complimented of “illuminating a part of U.S. history few are aware of”—the false identity established on the paper relationships. Nevertheless, toward the end of the novel, this falsity enlightens the male protagonist, Jack Moon Szeto, of the ultimate realization of the “truthfulness” to himself, with the escort of the female characters. This paper intends to investigate how Ng’s depiction subverts the traditional sex/gender system and also the patriarchal savior stereotype. This paper mainly examines the characterization of and the relations among the four major characters: Jack Moon Szeto, Joice Qwan, Veda Qwan, and Ilin Cheung. By deploying Kate Millett’s, Marilyn French’s, Mary Daly’s feminist theories, the first half of the essay elucidates the power relations between Jack and the three females Joice, Veda, and Ilin in terms of gender and sexuality. After analyzing the relations, Jack, this male caged bird, is set free by the epiphany derived from the three female characters, which is the pivot of the second half. In reference to Jean-Paul Sartre and Simone de Beauvoir’s existentialist perspectives, I argue how Jack is transformed from, in Satre’s term, being-for-others to being-for-itself. Hence, the caged bird is free by the women saviors.

Keywords: Feminism, Gender and sexuality, Power Relations, Fae Myenne Ng

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22 Pride and Prejudice in Higher Education: Countering Elitist Perspectives in the Curriculum at Imperial College London

Authors: Mark R. Skopec, Hamdi M. Issa, Henock B. Taddese, Kate Ippolito, Matthew J. Harris

Abstract:

In peer review, there is a skew toward research from high-income countries, otherwise known as geographic bias. Research from well-known and prestigious institutions is often favored in the peer review process and is more frequently cited in biomedical research. English clinicians have been found to rate research from low-income countries worse compared to the same research presented as if from high-income countries. This entrenched bias, which is rooted in the perceived superiority of academic institutions in high-income countries is damaging in many regards. Crucially, it reinforces colonial roots by strengthening the dominance of knowledge bases in high-income contexts and perpetuates the perceived inferiority of research from low-income settings. We report on the interventions that Imperial College London is conducting to “decolonize” the higher education curriculum – a root and branch review of reading material in the Masters of Public Health course; identification of unconscious bias against low-income country research in faculty and staff; in-depth interviews with faculty members on their experiences and practices with respect to inclusion of low-income country research in their own teaching and learning practice; and exploring issues surrounding entrenched biases and structural impediments for enabling desirable changes. We intend to use these findings to develop frameworks and approaches, including workshops and online resources, to effect sustainable changes to diversify the curriculum at Imperial College London.

Keywords: Higher Education, Diversity, Curriculum Design, Inclusivity, geographic bias, implicit associations

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21 [Keynote Talk]: Unlocking Transformational Resilience in the Aftermath of a Flood Disaster: A Case Study from Cumbria

Authors: Kate Crinion, Martin Haran, Stanley McGreal, David McIlhatton

Abstract:

Past research has demonstrated that disasters are continuing to escalate in frequency and magnitude worldwide, representing a key concern for the global community. Understanding and responding to the increasing risk posed by disaster events has become a key concern for disaster managers. An emerging trend within literature, acknowledges the need to move beyond a state of coping and reinstatement of the status quo, towards incremental adaptive change and transformational actions for long-term sustainable development. As such, a growing interest in research concerns the understanding of the change required to address ever increasing and unpredictable disaster events. Capturing transformational capacity and resilience, however is not without its difficulties and explains the dearth in attempts to capture this capacity. Adopting a case study approach, this research seeks to enhance an awareness of transformational resilience by identifying key components and indicators that determine the resilience of flood-affected communities within Cumbria. Grounding and testing a theoretical resilience framework within the case studies, permits the identification of how perceptions of risk influence community resilience actions. Further, it assesses how levels of social capital and connectedness impacts upon the extent of interplay between resources and capacities that drive transformational resilience. Thus, this research seeks to expand the existing body of knowledge by enhancing the awareness of resilience in post-disaster affected communities, by investigating indicators of community capacity building and resilience actions that facilitate transformational resilience during the recovery and reconstruction phase of a flood disaster.

Keywords: Community, Capacity building, Flooding, transformational resilience

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20 Stereological and Morphometric Evaluation of Wound Healing Burns Treated with Ulmo Honey (Eucryphia cordifolia) Unsupplemented and Supplemented with Ascorbic Acid in Guinea Pig (Cavia porcellus)

Authors: Carolina Schencke, Cristian Sandoval, Belgica Vasquez, Mariano Del Sol

Abstract:

Introduction: In a burn injury, the successful repair requires not only the participation of various cells, such as granulocytes and fibroblasts, but also of collagen, which plays a crucial role as a structural and regulatory molecule of scar tissue. Since honey and ascorbic acid have presented a great therapeutic potential to cellular and structural level, experimental studies have proposed its combination in the treatment of wounds. Aim: To evaluate stereological and morphometric parameters of healing wounds, caused by burns, treated with honey Ulmo (Eucryphia cordifolia) unsupplemented, comparing its effect with Ulmo honey supplemented with ascorbic acid. Materials and Methods: Fifteen healthy adult guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) were used, of both sexes, average weight 450 g from the Centro de Excelencia en Estudios Morfológicos y Quirúrgicos (CEMyQ) at the Universidad de La Frontera, Chile. The animals were divided at random into three groups: positive control (C+), honey only (H) and supplemented honey (SH) and were fed on pellets supplemented with ascorbic acid and water ad libitum, under ambient conditions controlled for temperature, ambient noise and a cycle of 12h light–darkness. The protocol for the experiment was approved by the Scientific Ethics Committee of the Universidad de La Frontera, Chile. The parameters measured were number density per area (NA), volume density (VV), and surface density (SV) of fibroblast; NA and VV of polymorphonuclear cells (PMN) and, evaluation of the content of collagen fibers in the scar dermis. One-way ANOVA was used for statistics analysis and its respective Post hoc tests. Results: The ANOVA analysis for NA, VV and SV of fibroblasts, NA and VV of PMN, and evaluation of collagen content, type I and III, showed that at least one group differs from other (P≤ 0.001). There were differences (P= 0.000) in NA of fibroblast between the groups [C+= 3599.560 mm-2 (SD= 764.461), H= 3355.336 mm-2 (SD= 699.443) and SH= 4253.025 mm-2 (SD= 1041.751)]. The VV and SV of fibroblast increased (P= 0.000) in the SH group [20.400% (SD= 5.897) and 100.876 mm2/mm3 (SD= 29.431), respectively], compared to the C+ [16.324% (SD= 7.719) and 81.676 mm2/mm3 (SD= 28.884), respectively). The mean values of NA and VV of PMN were higher (P= 0.000) in the H [756.875 mm-2 (SD= 516.489) and 2.686% (SD= 2.380), respectively) group. Regarding to the evaluation of the content of collagen fibers, type I and III, the one-way analysis of ANOVA showed a statistically significant difference (P< 0.05). The content of collagen fibers type I was higher in C+ (1988.292 μm2; SD= 1312.379), while the content of collagen fibers type III was higher in SH (1967.163 μm2; SD= 1047.944 μm2) group. Conclusions: The stereological results were correlated with the stage of healing observed for each group. These results suggest that the combination of honey with ascorbic acid potentiate the healing effect, where both participated synergistically.

Keywords: ascorbic acid, morphometry, stereology, Ulmo honey

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19 An Exploration of Gender Differences in Academic Writing in Science

Authors: Gayani Ranawake, Kate Wilson

Abstract:

Underrepresentation of women in academia, particularly in science, has been discussed by many scholars for decades. The causes of this underrepresentation are debated to this day. Publication is an important aspect of success in academia, and publication and citation rates are significant metrics in performance review, promotion, and employment. It has been established that men’s and women’s language use in general, both spoken and written, is different. However, no one, to our knowledge, has looked at whether men’s and women’s writing in science is different. If there are significant differences in the writing of men and women, then these differences may affect women’s ability to succeed in science. This study is part of a larger project to explore whether differences can be recognized in the academic science writing of men and women. Mono authored articles from high ranking physics, biology and psychology journals by men and women authors were compared in terms of readability statistics. In particular, the abstract and introduction sections were compared, as these are the first sections encountered by a reviewer, and so may have an important effect on their impression of the work. The Flesch Reading Ease, the percentage of passive sentences and the Flesch-Kincaid Reading Grade Level were calculated for each section of each article, along with counts of numbers of sentences, words per sentence and sentences per paragraph. Significance of differences was tested using the Behrens statistic. It was found that for both physics and biology papers there were no significant differences in the complexity or verbosity of the writing of men and women authors. However, there was a significant difference between the two disciplines, with physics articles being generally more readable (higher readability score) while also more passive (higher number of passive sentences). In contrast, the psychology articles showed a difference between men and women authors which may be significant. The average readability for introductions in women’s articles was 28 which was higher than for men’s articles, which was 19 (higher values indicate more readable). Women’s articles in psychology also had a greater proportion of passive sentences. It can be concluded that, at least in the more traditional sciences, men and women have adopted similar ways of writing, and that disciplinary differences are greater than gender differences. This may not be the case in psychology, which many consider to be more closely aligned with the humanities. Whether the lack of differences is because women have adapted to a masculine way of writing, or whether the genre itself is gender neutral needs further investigation.

Keywords: Science, Gender Differences, readability, academic writing

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18 Using Industry Projects to Modernize Business Education

Authors: Marie Sams, Kate Barnett-Richards, Jacqui Speculand, Gemma Tombs

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Business education in the United Kingdom has seen a number of improvements over the years in moving from delivering traditional chalk and talk lectures to using digital technologies and inviting guest lectures from industry to deliver sessions for students. Engaging topical industry talks to enhance course delivery is generally seen as a positive aspect of enhancing curriculum, however it is acknowledged that perhaps there are better ways in which industry can contribute to the quality of business programmes. Additionally, there is a consensus amongst UK industry managers that a bigger involvement in designing and inputting into business curriculum will have a greater impact on the quality of business ready graduates. Funded by the Disruptive Media Learning Lab at Coventry University in the UK, a project (SOPI - Student Online Projects with Industry) was initiated to enable students to work in project teams to respond and engage with real problems and challenges faced by five managers in various industries including retail, events and manufacturing. Over a semester, approximately 200 students were given the opportunity to develop their management, facilitation, problem solving and reflective skills, whilst having some exposure to real challenges in industry with a focus on supply chain and project management. Face to face seminars were re-designed to enable students to work on live issues in a competitive environment, and were guided to consider the theoretical aspects of their module delivery to underpin the solutions that they were generating. Dialogue between student groups and managers took place using Google+ community; an online social media tool which enables private discussions to take place and can be accessed on mobile devices. Results of the project will be shared in how this development has added value to students experience and understanding of the two subject areas. Student reflections will be analysed and evaluated to assess how the project has contributed to their perception of how the theoretical nature of these two business subjects are applied in practical situations.

Keywords: Education, Business, Industry, projects

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17 Impact of Environmental Rule of Law towards Positive Environmental Outcomes in Nigeria

Authors: Kate N. Okeke

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The ever-growing needs of man requiring satisfaction have pushed him strongly towards industrialization which has and is still leaving environmental degradation and its attendant negative impacts in its wake. It is, therefore, not surprising that the enjoyment of fundamental rights like food supply, security of lives and property, freedom of worship, health and education have been drastically affected by such degradation. In recognition of the imperative need to protect the environment and human rights, many global instruments and constitutions have recognized the right to a healthy and sustainable environment. Some environmental advocates and quite a number of literatures on the subject matter call for the recognition of environmental rights via rule of law as a vital means of achieving positive outcomes on the subject matter. However, although there are numerous countries with constitutional environmental provisions, most of them such as Nigeria, have shown poor environmental performance. A notable problem is the fact that the constitution which recognizes environmental rights appears in its other provisions to contradict its provisions by making enforceability of the environmental rights unattainable. While adopting a descriptive, analytical, comparative and explanatory study design in reviewing a successful positive environmental outcome via the rule of law, this article argues that rule of law on a balance of scale, weighs more than just environmental rights recognition and therefore should receive more attention by environmental lawyers and advocates. This is because with rule of law, members of a society are sure of getting the most out of the environmental rights existing in their legal system. Members of Niger-Delta communities of Nigeria will benefit from the environmental rights existing in Nigeria. They are exposed to environmental degradation and pollution with effects such as acidic rainfall, pollution of farmlands and clean water sources. These and many more are consequences of oil and gas exploration. It will also pave way for solving the violence between cattle herdsmen and farmers in the Middle Belt and other regions of Nigeria. Their clashes are over natural resource control. Having seen that environmental rule of law is vital to sustainable development, this paper aims to contribute to discussions on how best the vehicle of rule law can be driven towards achieving positive environmental outcomes. This will be in reliance on other enforceable provisions in the Nigerian Constitution. Other domesticated international instruments will also be considered to attain sustainable environment and development.

Keywords: Environment, Sustainability, Constitution, Rule of Law

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16 An Online Questionnaire Investigating UK Mothers' Experiences of Bottle Refusal by Their Breastfed Baby

Authors: Clare Maxwell, Lorna Porcellato, Valerie Fleming, Kate Fleming

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A review of global online forums and social media reveals large numbers of mothers experiencing bottle refusal by their breastfed baby. It is difficult to determine precise numbers due to a lack of data, however, established virtual communities illustrate thousands of posts in relation to the issue. Mothers report various negative consequences of bottle refusal including delaying their return to work, time and financial outlay spent on methods to overcome it and experiencing stress, anxiety, and resentment of breastfeeding. A search of the literature revealed no studies being identified, and due to a lack of epidemiological data, a study investigating mother’s experiences of bottle refusal by their breastfed baby was undertaken. The aim of the study was to investigate UK mothers’ experiences of bottle refusal by their breastfed baby. Data were collected using an online questionnaire collecting quantitative and qualitative data. 841 UK mothers who had experienced or were experiencing bottle refusal by their breastfed baby completed the questionnaire. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and non-parametric testing. The results showed 61% (516/840) of mothers reported their breastfed baby was still refusing/had never accepted a bottle, with 39% (324/840) reporting their baby had eventually accepted. The most frequently reported reason to introduce a bottle was so partner/family could feed the baby 59% (499/839). 75% (634/841) of mothers intended their baby to feed on a bottle ‘occasionally’. Babies who accepted a bottle were more likely to be older at 1st attempt to introduce one than those babies who refused (Mdn = 12 weeks v 8 weeks, n = 286) (p = <0.001). Length of time taken to acceptance was 9 weeks (Mdn = 9, IQR = 18, R = 103.9, n = 306) with the older the baby was at 1st attempt to introduce a bottle being associated with a shorter length of time to acceptance (p = < 0.002). 60% (500/841) of mothers stated that none of the methods they used had worked. 26% (222/841) of mothers reported bottle refusal had had a negative impact upon their overall breastfeeding experience. 47% (303/604) reported they would have tried to introduce a bottle earlier to prevent refusal. This study provides a unique insight into the scenario of bottle refusal by breastfed babies. It highlights that bottle refusal by breastfed babies is a significant issue, which requires recognition from those communicating breastfeeding information to mothers.

Keywords: Breastfeeding, bottle feeding, bottle refusal, infant feeding

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15 A Qualitative Research Approach Exploring Early Adolescents’ Perspectives on Their Fears during School Transition and Their Strategies to Overcome These

Authors: Katharina Stiehl, Kate Woodcock, Ina Stacher, Beate Schrank

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Background: There is a consensus that school transition from primary to secondary is one of the most challenging periods for children. This time is associated with increased stress and worry. Failure to adequately cope with transition can lead to poor school adjustment, decreased self-esteem, poor academic performance, a reduced sense of general well-being and can, ultimately, result in mental health problems. There are many papers that employ a theoretical perspective, however, to our best knowledge, there is a lack of in-depth analysis of young people’s views on what they fear, how these fears manifest in everyday school life and young people’s own strategies to cope and overcome these obstacles in today’s society. Aim: This qualitative study aims to understand children’s fears in connection with school transitions and the strategies early adolescents apply to overcome these issues. Method: Workshops using youth engagement strategies were conducted with 53 classes (N = 1000 pupils; age = 9-12 years) in lower Austria. Data were collected using a vignette story about a child who had recently moved from primary to secondary school. First, the entire class brainstormed about potential fears this new classmate could experience, followed by small group discussions about possible strategies to overcome the described issues. A thematic analysis was conducted. Results: Children articulated four major fears (fear of peer victimisation, victimisation by authorities, academic failure, and being alone). Ways to overcome these include behavioural as well as more cognitive strategies, such as emotion regulation approaches. Conclusion: A better understanding of children’s fears and their natural coping strategies provides researchers with important knowledge to create child-centered preventive health programs, based on topics relevant to children in today’s society. It shows which strategies are used and helps identify potential gaps where additional support is needed.

Keywords: Strategies, fears, child voice, experts by experience, primary-secondary school transition

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14 Predictors of Lost to Follow-Up among HIV Patients Attending Anti-Retroviral Therapy Treatment Centers in Nigeria

Authors: Oluwasina Folajinmi, Kate Ssamulla, Penninah Lutung, Daniel Reijer

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Background: Despite of well-verified benefits of anti-retroviral therapy (ART) in prolonging life expectancy being lost to follow-up (LTFU) presents a challenge to the success of ART programs in resource limited countries like Nigeria. In several studies of ART programs in developing countries, researchers have reported that there has been a high rate of LTFU among patients receiving care and treatment at ART treatment centers. This study seeks to determine the cause of LTFU among HIV clients. Method: A descriptive cross sectional study focused on a population of 9,280 persons living with HIV/AIDS who were enrolled in nine treatment centers in Nigeria (both pre-ART and ART patients were included). Out of the total population, 1752 (18.9%) were found to be LTFU. Of this group we randomly selected 1200 clients (68.5%) their d patients’ information was generated through a database. Data on demographics and CD4 counts, causes of LTFU were analyzed and summarized. Results: Out of 1200 LTFU clients selected, 462 (38.5%) were on ART; 341 clients (73.8%) had CD4 level < 500cell/µL and 738 (61.5%) on pre-ART had CD4 level >500/µL. In our records we found telephone number for 675 (56.1%) of these clients. 675 (56.1%) were owners of a phone. The majority of the client’s 731 (60.9%) were living at not more than 25km away from the ART center. A majority were females (926 or 77.2%) while 274 (22.8%) were male. 675 (56.1%) clients were reported traced via telephone and home address. 326 (27.2%) of clients phone numbers were not reachable; 173 (14.4%) of telephone numbers were incomplete. 71 (5.9%) had relocated due to communal crises and expert client trackers reported that some patient could not afford transportation to ART centers. Conclusion: This study shows that, low health education levels, poverty, relocations and lack of reliable phone contact were major predictors of LTFU. Periodic updates of home addresses, telephone contacts including at least two next of kin, phone text messages and home visits may improve follow up. Early and consistent tracking of missed appointments is crucial. Creation of more ART decentralized centres are needed to avoid long distances.

Keywords: HIV/AIDS, predictors, anti-retroviral therapy, lost to follow up

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13 A Comparative Study of Post-Deposition Treatment Methods for Bio-Based Conductive Inks

Authors: Yi Chen, Robert Abbel, Jerome Leveneur, Kate Parker

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Green Printed Electronics strives to substitute materials and processes currently used in the electronics industry with alternatives that are safer, more sustainable, and environmentally benign. One important aspect is the printing of conductive inks to replace evaporation and lithography in the manufacturing of circuits and antennas, for which metal-based inks are already well-established. An additional step towards truly green electronics manufacturing is the development of metal-free products containing bio-based conductive carbon materials. These do not rely on non-sustainable mineral resources and are free of heavy metals which can pose risks during production, use, and after disposal. However, compared to the metal-based products, carbon inks typically exhibit inferior electrical performance, restricting their applicability to low-end devices. Lignin, a major waste product of the pulp and paper industries, can be processed into electrically conductive carbon fibres. Using bio-based additives, these are formulated into green electronic inks and printed on biodegradable substrates. This study aims at increasing their conductivities to make the inks more competitive with traditional metal-based products. Several post-deposition processes have been experimentally benchmarked, and their effects on conductivity and fibre network structure have been compared. They have been evaluated with respect to their practical compatibility with industrial high-volume manufacturing techniques like roll-to-roll processing. A wide range of electrical conductance improvement has been achieved. The post-deposition treatment methods have also been studied with regards to their effects on the micromorphology and crystallinity of the fibres, using electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Several methods proceeded at sufficiently high speeds to enable roll-to-roll processing and have the potential for applications in high-volume manufacturing. Overall, the research presented in this study has identified various candidates for the effective and industrially viable post-deposition treatment of green conductive inks based on lignin-carbon fibres.

Keywords: carbon fibres, conductive inks, post-deposition treatment, green printed electronics

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12 The Contribution of Buddhist-Based Mindfulness Practices on Ethical Leadership: A Qualitative Study of Organizational Leaders in Thailand

Authors: Kunkanit Sutamchai, Kate E. Rowlands

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Recent public ethical scandals in many organizations around the world have raised concern about organizational ethics, which have, in turn, made ethical behaviors and conducts on the part of leaders become more critical topics in organizational studies. However, current research on the benefits of mindfulness within the workplace contexts has predominantly focused on stress reduction and work performance enhancement, while the aspects of ethical behavior development have been far less investigated in mindfulness research in the organizational and management fields. Only recently has there been an emerging call for organizational researchers and practitioners to study mindfulness concepts and practices from the original Buddhist perspectives given that ethics is regarded as a foundation for Buddhist mindfulness. Yet little, if any, empirical research on the contributions of mindfulness practices to ethical leadership has been done in Eastern Buddhist contexts. Therefore, this study aims to explore the extent to which and how Buddhist-based mindfulness practices can influence organizational leaders’ ethical values and practices. On this basis, Thailand was selected as a context of study due to a predominantly Buddhist society and culture. Qualitative data were gathered through in-depth semi-structured interviews with twenty executive leaders from various private organizations in Thailand, who practice Buddhist-based mindfulness meditation regularly. The findings from this study shed light on the role Buddhist-based mindfulness practices can play in promoting ethical behavior among executive leaders in Thailand. The results also suggest that ethical values and practices influenced by Buddhist-based mindfulness practices are well aligned with the elements appeared in the inter-disciplinary and cross-cultural ethical leadership framework, namely: humane, justice, sustainability and responsibility, and moderation. This study concludes that the integration of ethical dimensions to mindfulness practices may provide promising opportunities for ethical leadership development, particularly in the context of Thailand. This could contribute significantly to the future development of both organizations and society at large. The study also suggests that mindfulness interventions in organizational contexts should place more explicit emphasis on ethics. This may be done by relating the ethical principles underlying Buddhist-based mindfulness to other ethical systems in different contexts and cultures where they can be aligned.

Keywords: training, Buddhism, Mindfulness, Thailand, Ethical Leadership, Leadership Development

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11 Chemical and Biological Studies of Kielmeyera coriacea Mart. (Calophyllaceae) Based on Ethnobotanical Survey of Rural Community from Brazil

Authors: Vanessa G. P. Severino, Eliangela Cristina Candida Costa, Nubia Alves Mariano Teixeira Pires Gomides, Lucilia Kato, Afif Felix Monteiro, Maria Anita Lemos Vasconcelos Ambrosio, Carlos Henrique Gomes Martins

Abstract:

One of the biomes present in Brazil is known as Cerrado, which is a vast tropical savanna ecoregion, particularly in the states of Goiás, Mato Grosso do Sul, Mato Grosso, Tocantins and Minas Gerais. Many species of plants are characterized as endemic and they have therapeutic value for a large part of the population, especially to the rural communities. Given that, the southeastern region of the state of Goiás contains about 21 rural communities, which present a form of organization based on the use of natural resources available. One of these rural communities is named of Coqueiros, where the knowledge about the medicinal plants was very important to this research. Thus, this study focuses on the ethnobotanical survey of this community on the use of Kielmeyera coriacea to treat diseases. From the 37 members interviewed, 76% indicated this species for the treatment of intestinal infection, leukemia, anemia, gastritis, gum pain, toothache, cavity, arthritis, arthrosis, healing, vermifuge, rheumatism, antibiotic, skin problems, mycoses and all kinds of infections. The medicinal properties attributed during the interviews were framed in the body system (disease categories), adapted from ICD 10; thus, 20 indications of use were obtained, among five body systems. Therefore, the root of this species was select to chemical and biological (antioxidant and antimicrobial) studies. From the liquid-liquid extraction of ethanolic extract of root (EER), the hexane (FH), ethyl acetate (FAE), and hydro alcoholic (FHA) fractions were obtained. The chemical profile study of these fractions was performed by LC-MS, identifying major compounds such as δ-tocotrienol, prenylated acylphoroglucinol, 2-hydroxy-1-methoxyxanthone and quercitrin. EER, FH, FAE and FHA were submitted to biological tests. FHA presented the best antioxidant action (EC50 201.53 μg mL-1). EER inhibited the bacterial growth of Streptococcus pyogenes and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, microorganisms associated with rheumatism, at Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of 6.25 μg mL-1. In addition, the FH-10 subfraction, obtained from FH fractionation, presented MIC of 1.56 μg mL-1 against S. pneumoniae; EER also inhibited the fungus Candida glabrata (MIC 7.81 μg mL- 1). The FAE-4.7.3 fraction, from the fractionation of FAE, presented MIC of 200 μg mL-1 against Lactobacillus casei, which is one of the causes of caries and oral infections. By the correlation of the chemical and biological data, it is possible to note that the FAE-4.7.3 and FH-10 are constituted 4-hydroxy-2,3-methylenedioxy xanthone, 3-hydroxy-1,2-dimethoxy xanthone, lupeol, prenylated acylphoroglucinol and quercitrin, which could be associated with the biological potential found. Therefore, this study provides an important basis for further investigations regarding the compounds present in the active fractions of K. coriacea, which will permit the establishment of a correlation between ethnobotanical survey and bioactivity.

Keywords: Biological Activity, ethnobotanical survey, Kielmeyera coriacea Mart, LC-MS profile

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10 Time Fetching Water and Maternal Childcare Practices: Comparative Study of Women with Children Living in Ethiopia and Malawi

Authors: Davod Ahmadigheidari, Isabel Alvarez, Kate Sinclair, Marnie Davidson, Patrick Cortbaoui, Hugo Melgar-Quiñonez

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The burden of collecting water tends to disproportionately fall on women and girls in low-income countries. Specifically, women spend between one to eight hours per day fetching water for domestic use in Sub-Saharan Africa. While there has been research done on the global time burden for collecting water, it has been mainly focused on water quality parameters; leaving the relationship between water fetching and health outcomes understudied. There is little available evidence regarding the relationship between water fetching and maternal child care practices. The main objective of this study was to help fill the aforementioned gap in the literature. Data from two surveys in Ethiopia and Malawi conducted by CARE Canada in 2016-2017 were used. Descriptive statistics indicate that women were predominantly responsible for collecting water in both Ethiopia (87%) and Malawi (99%) respectively, with the majority spending more than 30 minutes per day on water collection. With regards to child care practices, in both countries, breastfeeding was relatively high (77% and 82%, respectively); and treatment for malnutrition was low (15% and 8%, respectively). However, the same consistency was not found for weighing; in Ethiopia only 16% took their children for weighting in contrast to 94% in Malawi. These three practices were summed to create one variable for regressions analyses. Unadjusted logistic regression findings showed that only in Ethiopia was time fetching water significantly associated with child care practices. Once adjusted for covariates, this relationship was no longer found to be significant. Adjusted logistic regressions also showed that the factors that did influence child care practices differed slightly between the two countries. In Ethiopia, a lack of access to community water supply (OR= 0.668; P=0.010), poor attitudes towards gender equality (OR= 0.608; P=0.001), no access to land and (OR=0.603; P=0.000), significantly decreased a women’s odd of using positive childcare practices. Notably, being young women between 15-24 years (OR=2.308; P=0.017), and 25-29 (OR=2.065; P=0.028) increased probability of using positive childcare practices. Whereas in Malawi, higher maternal age, low decision-making power, significantly decreased a women’s odd of using positive childcare practices. In conclusion, this study found that even though amount of time spent by women fetching water makes a difference for childcare practices, it is not significantly related to women’s child care practices when controlling the covariates. Importantly, women’s age contributes to child care practices in Ethiopia and Malawi.

Keywords: Ethiopia, Malawi, time fetching water, community water supply, women’s child care practices

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