Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 35

Search results for: Rogelio Portillo Vélez

35 A New Mechanical Architecture Design of a Multifunctional Bed for Bedridden Healthcare

Authors: Rogelio Portillo Vélez, Eduardo Vázquez-Santacruz, Mariano Gamboa-Zúñiga

Abstract:

In this paper a new mechanical architecture design of a multi functional robot bed, is presented. The importance of this design relies on the fact that in next years the need of assistive devices development will increase in such way that elderly patients will use this kind of devices. This mechanical design implies following specific mechanisms which attend Mexican hospital requirements. This design is the base of next step of this kind of development given that it shows all technical details of the mechanical systems which are needed in order to construct the bed. This is first hospital bed design which could responds to the Latin America hospital requirements. We have obtained these hospital requirements using our diagnosis methodology [14]. From these results we have designed the mechanical system. This is the mechanical base of the hospital robotic bed which is being developed in our robotics laboratory. It will be useful in different hospital environments for elderly and disabled patients.

Keywords: assistive robotics, methodology, feasibility analysis, robotics, operational feasibility, assistive technology, viability analysis matrix, social impact

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34 Solar Cell Using Chemical Bath Deposited PbS:Bi3+ Films as Electron Collecting Layer

Authors: Melissa Chavez Portillo, Mauricio Pacio Castillo, Hector Juarez Santiesteban, Oscar Portillo Moreno

Abstract:

Chemical bath deposited PbS:Bi3+ as an electron collection layer is introduced between the silicon wafer and the Ag electrode the performance of the PbS heterojunction thin film solar thin film solar cells with 1 cm2 active area. We employed Bi-doping to transform it into an n-type semiconductor. The experimental results reveal that the cell response parameters depend critically on the deposition procedures in terms of bath temperature, deposition time. The device achieves an open-circuit voltage of 0.4 V. The simple and low-cost deposition method of PbS:Bi3+ films is promising for the fabrication.

Keywords: Bi doping, PbS, thin films, solar cell

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33 Structural and Optoelectronic Properties of Monovalent Cation Doping PbS Thin Films

Authors: Melissa Chavez Portillo, Hector Juarez Santiesteban, Mauricio Pacio Castillo, Oscar Portillo Moreno

Abstract:

Nanocrystalline Li-doped PbS thin films have been deposited by chemical bath deposition technique. The goal of this work is to study the modification of the optoelectronic and structural properties of Lithium incorporation. The increase of Li doping in PbS thin films leads to an increase of band gap in the range of 1.4-2.3, consequently, quantum size effect becomes pronounced in the Li-doped PbS films, which lead to a significant enhancement in the optical band gap. Doping shows influence in the film growth and results in a reduction of crystallite size from 30 to 14 nm. The refractive index was calculated and a relationship with dielectric constant was investigated. The dc conductivities of Li-doped and undoped samples were measured in the temperature range 290-340K, the conductivity increase with increase of Lithium content in the PbS films.

Keywords: doping, quantum confinement, optical band gap, PbS

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32 Low Temperature Solution Processed Solar Cell Based on ITO/PbS/PbS:Bi3+ Heterojunction

Authors: M. Chavez, H. Juarez, M. Pacio, O. Portillo

Abstract:

PbS chemical bath heterojunction sollar cells have shown significant improvements in performance. Here we demonstrate a solar cell based on the heterojunction formed between PbS layer and PbS:Bi3+ thin films that are deposited via solution process at 40°C. The device achieve an current density of 4 mA/cm2. The simple and low-cost deposition method of PbS:Bi3+ films is promising for the fabrication.

Keywords: PbS doped, Bismuth, solar cell, thin films

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31 Model of Cosserat Continuum Dispersion in a Half-Space with a Scatterer

Authors: Francisco Velez, Juan David Gomez

Abstract:

Dispersion effects on the Scattering for a semicircular canyon in a micropolar continuum are analyzed, by using a computational finite element scheme. The presence of microrotational waves and the dispersive SV waves affects the propagation of elastic waves. Here, a contrast with the classic model is presented, and the dependence with the micropolar parameters is studied.

Keywords: scattering, semicircular canyon, wave dispersion, micropolar medium, FEM modeling

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30 A Correlational Study: Dark Triad and Self-Restraint among Criminology Students

Authors: Mary Heather Lee T. Walker, Audilon Benjamin Madamba, Mizheal Vstrechnny Vidal, Rogelio Angeles, John Rhey Banag, Lorraine Martin

Abstract:

Criminology students are the future police officers of the country that plays a major role in protecting the citizens. Their behavior must be thoroughly assessed before given a badge of responsibility. Therefore, it is important to highlight their Dark Triad that is composed of Machiavellianism, Narcissism, and Psychopathy which are considered to be controversial variables in the present while self-restraint is considered to be their way of controlling themselves especially in their line of work. The researchers used convenience and random sampling and found the respondents from a private school. Thus, the study’s aim is to determine whether there is a relationship among these variables. Machiavellianism and Psychopathy is linked to Self-Restraint except Narcissism. There are lots of factors that resulted into this.

Keywords: criminology, dark triad, self-restraint, students

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29 Evaluation of Interspecific Pollination of Elaeis guineensis and Elaeis oleifera Carried Out in the Ucayali Region-Peru

Authors: Victor Sotero, Cindy Castro, Ena Velazco, Ursula Monteiro, Dora Garcia

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to carry out the evaluation of the artificial pollination of the female flowers of E. oleifera with pollen of E. guineensis, to obtain the hybrid Palma OXG, which presents two characteristics of interest, such as high resistance to the disease of spear rot and high concentration of oleic acid. The works were carried out with matrices from the experimental fields and INIA in the Province of Colonel Portillo in the Ucayali Region-Peru. From the pollination of five species of E. oleifera, fruits were obtained in two of them, called O7 and O68, with a percentage of 23.6% and 18.6% of fertile fruits. When germination was carried out in a controlled environment of temperature, air, and humidity, only the O17 species were germinated with a yield of 68.7%.

Keywords: Elaeis oleífera, Elaeis guineensis, palm OXG, pollination

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28 Strategic Management for Corporate Social Responsibility in Colombian Industries: A Typology of CSR

Authors: Iris Maria Velez Osorio

Abstract:

There has been in the last decade a concern about the environment, particularly about clean and enough water for human consumption but, some enterprises had some trouble to understand the limited resources in the environment. This research tries to understand how some industries are better oriented to the preservation of the environment through investment for strategic management of scarce resources and try in the best way possible, the contaminants. It was made an industry classification since four different group of theories for Corporate Social Responsibility agree with variables of: investment in environmental care, water protection, and residues treatment finding different levels of commitment with CSR.

Keywords: corporate social responsibility, environment, strategic management, water

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27 Primer Design for the Detection of Secondary Metabolite Biosynthetic Pathways in Metagenomic Data

Authors: Jeisson Alejandro Triana, Maria Fernanda Quiceno Vallejo, Patricia del Portillo, Juan Manuel Anzola

Abstract:

Most of the known antimicrobials so far discovered are secondary metabolites. The potential for new natural products of this category increases as new microbial genomes and metagenomes are being sequenced. Despite the advances, there is no systematic way to interrogate metagenomic clones for their potential to contain clusters of genes related to these pathways. Here we analyzed 52 biosynthetic pathways from the AntiSMASH database at the protein domain level in order to identify domains of high specificity and sensitivity with respect to specific biosynthetic pathways. These domains turned out to have various degrees of divergence at the DNA level. We propose PCR assays targetting such domains in-silico and corroborated one by Sanger sequencing.

Keywords: bioinformatic, anti smash, antibiotics, secondary metabolites, natural products, protein domains

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26 Continuous-Time and Discrete-Time Singular Value Decomposition of an Impulse Response Function

Authors: Rogelio Luck, Yucheng Liu

Abstract:

This paper proposes the continuous-time singular value decomposition (SVD) for the impulse response function, a special kind of Green’s functions e⁻⁽ᵗ⁻ ᵀ⁾, in order to find a set of singular functions and singular values so that the convolutions of such function with the set of singular functions on a specified domain are the solutions to the inhomogeneous differential equations for those singular functions. A numerical example was illustrated to verify the proposed method. Besides the continuous-time SVD, a discrete-time SVD is also presented for the impulse response function, which is modeled using a Toeplitz matrix in the discrete system. The proposed method has broad applications in signal processing, dynamic system analysis, acoustic analysis, thermal analysis, as well as macroeconomic modeling.

Keywords: singular value decomposition, impulse response function, Green’s function , Toeplitz matrix , Hankel matrix

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25 Stochastic Modeling of Secretion Dynamics in Inner Hair Cells of the Auditory Pathway

Authors: Jessica A. Soto-Bear, Virginia González-Vélez, Norma Castañeda-Villa, Amparo Gil

Abstract:

Glutamate release of the cochlear inner hair cell (IHC) ribbon synapse is a fundamental step in transferring sound information in the auditory pathway. Otoferlin is the calcium sensor in the IHC and its activity has been related to many auditory disorders. In order to simulate secretion dynamics occurring in the IHC in a few milliseconds timescale and with high spatial resolution, we proposed an active-zone model solved with Monte Carlo algorithms. We included models for calcium buffered diffusion, calcium-binding schemes for vesicle fusion, and L-type voltage-gated calcium channels. Our results indicate that calcium influx and calcium binding is managing IHC secretion as a function of voltage depolarization, which in turn mean that IHC response depends on sound intensity.

Keywords: inner hair cells, Monte Carlo algorithm, Otoferlin, secretion

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24 Mathematical Modelling of the Effect of Glucose on Pancreatic Alpha-Cell Activity

Authors: Karen K. Perez-Ramirez, Genevieve Dupont, Virginia Gonzalez-Velez

Abstract:

Pancreatic alpha-cells participate on glucose regulation together with beta cells. They release glucagon hormone when glucose level is low to stimulate gluconeogenesis from the liver. As other excitable cells, alpha cells generate Ca2+ and metabolic oscillations when they are stimulated. It is known that the glucose level can trigger or silence this activity although it is not clear how this occurs in normal and diabetic people. In this work, we propose an electric-metabolic mathematical model implemented in Matlab to study the effect of different glucose levels on the electrical response and Ca2+ oscillations of an alpha cell. Our results show that Ca2+ oscillations appear in opposite phase with metabolic oscillations in a window of glucose values. The model also predicts a direct relationship between the level of glucose and the intracellular adenine nucleotides showing a self-regulating pathway for the alpha cell.

Keywords: Ca2+ oscillations, mathematical model, metabolic oscillations, pancreatic alpha cell

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23 Discriminant Analysis as a Function of Predictive Learning to Select Evolutionary Algorithms in Intelligent Transportation System

Authors: Jorge A. Ruiz-Vanoye, Ocotlán Díaz-Parra, Alejandro Fuentes-Penna, Daniel Vélez-Díaz, Edith Olaco García

Abstract:

In this paper, we present the use of the discriminant analysis to select evolutionary algorithms that better solve instances of the vehicle routing problem with time windows. We use indicators as independent variables to obtain the classification criteria, and the best algorithm from the generic genetic algorithm (GA), random search (RS), steady-state genetic algorithm (SSGA), and sexual genetic algorithm (SXGA) as the dependent variable for the classification. The discriminant classification was trained with classic instances of the vehicle routing problem with time windows obtained from the Solomon benchmark. We obtained a classification of the discriminant analysis of 66.7%.

Keywords: Intelligent Transportation Systems, data-mining techniques, evolutionary algorithms, discriminant analysis, machine learning

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22 Peak Floor Response for Buildings with Flexible Base

Authors: Luciano Roberto Fernandez-Sola, Cesar Augusto Arredondo-Velez, Miguel Angel Jaimes-Tellez

Abstract:

This paper explores the modifications on peak acceleration, velocity and displacement profiles over the structure due to dynamic soil-structure interaction (DSSI). A shear beam model is used for the structure. Soil-foundation flexibility (inertial interaction) is considered by a set of springs and dashpots at the structure base. Kinematic interaction is considered using transfer functions. Impedance functions are computed using simplified expressions for rigid foundations. The research studies the influence of the slenderness ratio on the value of the peak floor response. It is shown that the modifications of peak floor responses are not the same for acceleration, velocity and displacement. This is opposite to the hypothesis used by methods included in several building codes. Results show that modifications produced by DSSI on different response quantities are not equal.

Keywords: peak floor intensities, dynamic soil-structure interaction, buildings with flexible base, kinematic and inertial interaction

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21 Synchronization of Two Mobile Robots

Authors: R. M. López-Gutiérrez, J. A. Michel-Macarty, H. Cervantes-De Avila, J. I. Nieto-Hipólito, C. Cruz-Hernández, L. Cardoza-Avendaño, S. Cortiant-Velez

Abstract:

It is well know that mankind benefits from the application of robot control by virtual handlers in industrial environments. In recent years, great interest has emerged in the control of multiple robots in order to carry out collective tasks. One main trend is to copy the natural organization that some organisms have, such as, ants, bees, school of fish, birds’ migration, etc. Surely, this collaborative work, results in better outcomes than those obtain in an isolated or individual effort. This topic has a great drive because collaboration between several robots has the potential capability of carrying out more complicated tasks, doing so, with better efficiency, resiliency and fault tolerance, in cases such as: coordinate navigation towards a target, terrain exploration, and search-rescue operations. In this work, synchronization of multiple autonomous robots is shown over a variety of coupling topologies: star, ring, chain, and global. In all cases, collective synchronous behavior is achieved, in the complex networks formed with mobile robots. Nodes of these networks are modeled by a mass using Matlab to simulate them.

Keywords: robots, synchronization, bidirectional, coordinate navigation

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20 Bioinformatic Screening of Metagenomic Fosmid Libraries for Identification of Biosynthetic Pathways Derived from the Colombian Soils

Authors: María Fernanda Quiceno Vallejo, Patricia del Portillo, María Mercedes Zambrano, Jeisson Alejandro Triana, Dayana Calderon, Juan Manuel Anzola

Abstract:

Microorganisms from tropical ecosystems can be novel in terms of adaptations and conservation. Given the macrodiversity of Colombian ecosystems, it is possible that this diversity is also present in Colombian soils. Tropical soil bacteria could offer a potentially novel source of bioactive compounds. In this study we analyzed a metagenomic fosmid library constructed with tropical bacterial DNAs with the aim of understanding its underlying diversity and functional potential. 8640 clones from the fosmid library were sequenced by NANOPORE MiniOn technology, then analyzed with bioinformatic tools such as Prokka, AntiSMASH and Bagel4 in order to identify functional biosynthetic pathways in the sequences. The strains showed ample difference when it comes to biosynthetic pathways. In total we identified 4 pathways related to aryl polyene synthesis, 12 related to terpenes, 22 related to NRPs (Non ribosomal peptides), 11 related PKs (Polyketide synthases) and 7 related to RiPPs (bacteriocins). We designed primers for the metagenomic clones with the most BGCs (sample 6 and sample 2). Results show the biotechnological / pharmacological potential of tropical ecosystems. Overall, this work provides an overview of the genomic and functional potential of Colombian soil and sets the groundwork for additional exploration of tropical metagenomic sequencing.

Keywords: bioactives, biosyntethic pathways, bioinformatic, bacterial gene clusters, secondary metabolites

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19 Driving Forces of Net Carbon Emissions in a Tropical Dry Forest, Oaxaca, México

Authors: Rogelio Omar Corona-Núñez, Alma Mendoza-Ponce

Abstract:

The Tropical Dry Forest not only is one of the most important tropical ecosystems in terms of area, but also it is one of the most degraded ecosystems. However, little is known about the degradation impacts on carbon stocks, therefore in carbon emissions. There are different studies which explain its deforestation dynamics, but there is still a lack of understanding of how they correlate to carbon losses. Recently different authors have built current biomass maps for the tropics and Mexico. However, it is not clear how well they predict at the local scale, and how they can be used to estimate carbon emissions. This study quantifies the forest net carbon losses by comparing the potential carbon stocks and the different current biomass maps in the Southern Pacific coast in Oaxaca, Mexico. The results show important differences in the current biomass estimates with not a clear agreement. However, by the aggregation of the information, it is possible to infer the general patterns of biomass distribution and it can identify the driving forces of the carbon emissions. This study estimated that currently ~44% of the potential carbon stock estimated for the region is still present. A total of 6,764 GgC has been emitted due to deforestation and degradation of the forest at a rate of above ground biomass loss of 66.4 Mg ha-1. Which, ~62% of the total carbon emissions can be regarded as being due to forest degradation. Most of carbon losses were identified in places suitable for agriculture, close to rural areas and to roads while the lowest losses were accounted in places with high water stress and within the boundaries of the National Protected Area. Moreover, places not suitable for agriculture, but close to the coast showed carbon losses as a result of urban settlements.

Keywords: above ground biomass, deforestation, degradation, driving forces, tropical deciduous forest

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18 DNA-Based Analysis of Gut Content of Zygoribatula sp (Acari: Oribatida) and Scheloribates sp (Acari: Oribatida), under the Canopy of Prosopis Laevigata, in a Semiarid Land

Authors: Daniel Isaac Sanchez Chavez, Salvador Rodríguez Zaragoza, Patricia Velez Aguilar

Abstract:

In arid and semi-arid regions, plants are essential in the functional activity and productivity, modifying the microclimatic conditions of their environment, which allows many organisms to grow under them. Within these organisms, oribatid mites play a key role in reintegrating nutrients into the soil through the consumption of soil fungi. However, oribatid mites feed on a vast array of fungal species, which is likely to have strong impacts on their population dynamics and their environment. So, in this study, the aim was to determine the gut content of the abundant oribatid mites Zygoribatula sp and Scheloribates sp, under the canopy of the bush P. laevigata in a semi-arid zone through DNA-based analysis. The results showed the presence in the gut of both mites of different fungal taxa. Fungi, such as Aspergillus sp and Mortierella sp, probably served as a food despite the production of deterrent compounds or structures from both fungal species. Saccharomyces sp might serve as well as a food source; however, it might be part of their microbial endosymbionts. On the other hand, the presence of Beauveria sp indicates a probable pathogenicity interaction, instead of fungal consumption, since this fungus is known to be entomopathogenic. Finally, the results might indicate a feeding preference to certain soil fungi according to diverse features from both taxa.

Keywords: microenvironment, endosymbionts, Oribatida, fungi

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17 Slaughter and Carcass Characterization, and Sensory Qualities of Native, Pure, and Upgraded Breeds of Goat Raised in the Philippines

Authors: Jonathan N. Nayga, Emelita B. Valdez, Mila R. Andres, Beulah B. Estrada, Emelina A. Lopez, Rogelio B. Tamayo, Aubrey Joy M. Balbin

Abstract:

Goat production is one of the activities included in integrated farming in the Philippines. Goats are raised for its meat and regardless of breed the animal is slaughtered for this purpose. In order to document the carcass yield of different goats slaughtered, five (5) different breeds of goats to include Purebred Boer and Anglo-nubian, Crossbred Boer and Anglo-nubian and Philippine Native goat were used in the study. Data on slaughter parameters, carcass characteristics, and sensory evaluation were gathered and analyzed using Complete Random Design (CRD) at 5% level of significance and the results of carcass conformation were assessed descriptively. Results showed that slaughter data such as slaughter/live weight, hot and chilled carcass weights, dressing percentage and percentage drip loss were significantly different (P>0.05) among breeds. On carcass and meat characteristics, pure breed and upgraded Boer were found to be moderately muscular while Native goat was rated as thin muscular. The color of the carcass also revealed that Purebred and crossbred Boer were described dark red, while Native goat was noted to be slightly pale. On sensory evaluation, the results indicated that there was no significant difference (P>0.05) among breeds evaluated. It is therefore concluded that purebred goat has heavier carcass, while both purebred Boer and upgrade are rated slightly muscular. It is further confirms that regardless of breed, goat will have the same sensory characteristics. Thus, it is recommended to slaughter heavier goats to obtain more carcasses with better conformation and quality.

Keywords: carcass quality, goat, sensory evaluation, slaughter

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16 Epidemiological and Clinical Profile of Patients with Chorioamnionitis

Authors: Isabel Cristina Ortiz Trujillo, Lina Maria Martinez Sanchez, Felipe Hernández Restrepo, Daniel Gallego Gonzalez, Natalia Vargas Grisales, Camilo Andrés Agudelo Vélez

Abstract:

Chorioamnionitis, is a pregnancy infection, causes different fetal and maternal symptoms. Streptococcus agalactiae present in the normal vaginal microflora of some women, favouring its abnormal multiplication during pregnancy, causing perinatal morbidity and mortality. Objective. Describe the clinical and epidemiological profile of the patients with diagnosis of clinical chorioanmionitis. Methodology. Descriptive, cross-sectional study. The population was patients with diagnosis of clinical chorioanmionitis. The information was taken from the medical records. The research was approved by the Ethics Committee. We used the program SPSS ® version 17.0 (SPSS Inc; Chicago, Illinois, USA) for the information analysis, descriptive statistics were used. Results. 78 patients in total with clinical chorioamnionitis, with a mean age of 26.3 ±5, 8 years old, the 69.2% primigravid women. 2.6% of women had positive culture for Streptococcus agalactiae in urine sample during current pregnancy and 30.7% had received some kind of antibiotics during current pregnancy. The 57.7% had 37 to 40 weeks of gestation in the current pregnancy it was calculated more frequently by ultrasound (66.7% in first quarter, 11.5% in the second and 1.9% in the third). In a 60.3% way of termination of pregnancy was vaginal and a 35.9 percent were caesarean section. Among the women in the study, a 30.8% had premature rupture of membranes. Conclusion. The chorioamnionitis continues to be an important cause of antibiotic use during pregnancy or labour and the decision to do a caesarean, with highest percentage in pregnancies-preterm and preterm premature rupture of membranes.

Keywords: chorioamnionitis, Streptococcus agalactiae, pregnancy complications, infectious

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15 Deployment of Beyond 4G Wireless Communication Networks with Carrier Aggregation

Authors: Bahram Khan, Anderson Rocha Ramos, Rui R. Paulo, Fernando J. Velez

Abstract:

With the growing demand for a new blend of applications, the users dependency on the internet is increasing day by day. Mobile internet users are giving more attention to their own experiences, especially in terms of communication reliability, high data rates and service stability on move. This increase in the demand is causing saturation of existing radio frequency bands. To address these challenges, researchers are investigating the best approaches, Carrier Aggregation (CA) is one of the newest innovations, which seems to fulfill the demands of the future spectrum, also CA is one the most important feature for Long Term Evolution - Advanced (LTE-Advanced). For this purpose to get the upcoming International Mobile Telecommunication Advanced (IMT-Advanced) mobile requirements (1 Gb/s peak data rate), the CA scheme is presented by 3GPP, which would sustain a high data rate using widespread frequency bandwidth up to 100 MHz. Technical issues such as aggregation structure, its implementations, deployment scenarios, control signal techniques, and challenges for CA technique in LTE-Advanced, with consideration of backward compatibility, are highlighted in this paper. Also, performance evaluation in macro-cellular scenarios through a simulation approach is presented, which shows the benefits of applying CA, low-complexity multi-band schedulers in service quality, system capacity enhancement and concluded that enhanced multi-band scheduler is less complex than the general multi-band scheduler, which performs better for a cell radius longer than 1800 m (and a PLR threshold of 2%).

Keywords: component carrier, carrier aggregation, LTE-advanced, scheduling

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14 Effects of Different Mechanical Treatments on the Physical and Chemical Properties of Turmeric

Authors: Serpa A. M., Gómez Hoyos C., Velásquez-Cock J. A., Ruiz L. F., Vélez Acosta L. M., Gañan P., Zuluaga R.

Abstract:

Turmeric (Curcuma Longa L) is an Indian rhizome known for its biological properties, derived from its active compounds such as curcuminoids. Curcumin, the main polyphenol in turmeric, only represents around 3.5% of the dehydrated rhizome and extraction yields between 41 and 90% have been reported. Therefore, for every 1000 tons of turmeric powder used for the extraction of curcumin, around 970 tons of residues are generated. The present study evaluates the effect of different mechanical treatments (waring blender, grinder and high-pressure homogenization) on the physical and chemical properties of turmeric, as an alternative for the transformation of the entire rhizome. Suspensions of turmeric (10, 20 y 30%) were processed by waring blender during 3 min at 12000 rpm, while the samples treated by grinder were processed evaluating two different Gaps (-1 and -1,5). Finally, the process by high-pressure homogenization, was carried out at 500 bar. According to the results, the luminosity of the samples increases with the severity of the mechanical treatment, due to the stabilization of the color associated with the inactivation of the oxidative enzymes. Additionally, according to the microstructure of the samples, the process by grinder (Gap -1,5) and by high-pressure homogenization allowed the largest size reduction, reaching sizes up to 3 m (measured by optical microscopy). This processes disrupts the cells and breaks their fragments into small suspended particles. The infrared spectra obtained from the samples using an attenuated total reflectance accessory indicates changes in the 800-1200 cm⁻¹ region, related mainly to changes in the starch structure. Finally, the thermogravimetric analysis shows the presence of starch, curcumin and some minerals in the suspensions.

Keywords: characterization, mechanical treatments, suspensions, turmeric rhizome

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13 Cost Benefit Analysis: Evaluation among the Millimetre Wavebands and SHF Bands of Small Cell 5G Networks

Authors: Emanuel Teixeira, Anderson Ramos, Marisa Lourenço, Fernando J. Velez, Jon M. Peha

Abstract:

This article discusses the benefit cost analysis aspects of millimetre wavebands (mmWaves) and Super High Frequency (SHF). The devaluation along the distance of the carrier-to-noise-plus-interference ratio with the coverage distance is assessed by considering two different path loss models, the two-slope urban micro Line-of-Sight (UMiLoS) for the SHF band and the modified Friis propagation model, for frequencies above 24 GHz. The equivalent supported throughput is estimated at the 5.62, 28, 38, 60 and 73 GHz frequency bands and the influence of carrier-to-noise-plus-interference ratio in the radio and network optimization process is explored. Mostly owing to the lessening caused by the behaviour of the two-slope propagation model for SHF band, the supported throughput at this band is higher than at the millimetre wavebands only for the longest cell lengths. The benefit cost analysis of these pico-cellular networks was analysed for regular cellular topologies, by considering the unlicensed spectrum. For shortest distances, we can distinguish an optimal of the revenue in percentage terms for values of the cell length, R ≈ 10 m for the millimeter wavebands and for longest distances an optimal of the revenue can be observed at R ≈ 550 m for the 5.62 GHz. It is possible to observe that, for the 5.62 GHz band, the profit is slightly inferior than for millimetre wavebands, for the shortest Rs, and starts to increase for cell lengths approximately equal to the ratio between the break-point distance and the co-channel reuse factor, achieving a maximum for values of R approximately equal to 550 m.

Keywords: millimetre wavebands, SHF band, SINR, cost benefit analysis, 5G

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12 Chromosomal Damage in Human Lymphocytes by Ultraviolet Radiation

Authors: Felipe Osorio Ospina, Maria Adelaida Mejia Arango, Esteban Onésimo Vallejo Agudelo, Victoria Lucía Dávila Osorio, Natalia Vargas Grisales, Lina María Martínez Sanchez, Camilo Andrés Agudelo Vélez, Ángela Maria Londoño García, Isabel Cristina Ortiz Trujillo

Abstract:

Excessive exposure to ultraviolet radiation, has shown to be a risk factor for photodamage, alteration of the immune mechanisms to recognize malignant cells and cutaneous pro-inflamatorios States and skin cancers. Objective: Identify the time of exposure to ultraviolet radiation for the production of chromosomal damage in human lymphocytes. Methodology: We conducted an in vitro study serial, in which samples were taken from heparinized blood of healthy people, who do not submit exposure to agents that could induce chromosomal alterations. The samples were cultured in RPMI-1640 medium containing 10% fetal bovine serum, penicillin and streptomycin antibiotic. Subsequently, they were grouped and exposed to ultraviolet light for 1 to 20 seconds. At the end of the treatments, cytology samples were prepared, and it was colored with Giemsa (5%). Reading was carried out in an optical microscope and 100 metaphases analysed by treatment for posting chromosomal alterations. Each treatment was conducted at three separate times and each became two replicas. Results: We only presented chromosomal alterations in lymphocytes exposed to UV for a groups 1 to 3 seconds (p<0.05). Conclusions: Exposure to ultraviolet radiation generates visible damage in chromosomes from human lymphocytes observed in light microscopy, the highest rates of injury was observed between two and three seconds, and above this value, the reduction in the number of mitotic cells was evident.

Keywords: ultraviolet rays, lymphocytes, chromosome breakpoints, photodamage

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11 Ultraviolet Radiation and Chromosomal Damage in Human Lymphocytes

Authors: Felipe Osorio Ospina, Maria Adelaida Mejia Arango, Esteban Onésimo Vallejo Agudelo, Victoria Lucía Dávila Osorio, Natalia Vargas Grisales, Lina María Martínez Sanchez, Camilo Andrés Agudelo Vélez, Ángela Maria Londoño García, Isabel Cristina Ortiz Trujillo

Abstract:

Excessive exposure to ultraviolet radiation, has shown to be a risk factor for photodamage, alteration of the immune mechanisms to recognize malignant cells and cutaneous pro-inflamatorios states and skin cancers. Objective: To identify the time of exposure to ultraviolet radiation for the production of chromosomal damage in human lymphocytes. Methodology: We conducted an in vitro study serial, in which samples were taken from the heparinized blood of healthy people, who do not submit exposure to agents that could induce chromosomal alterations. The samples were cultured in RPMI-1640 medium containing 10% fetal bovine serum, penicillin, and streptomycin antibiotic. Subsequently, they were grouped and exposed to ultraviolet light for 1 to 20 seconds. At the end of the treatments, cytology samples were prepared, and it was colored with Giemsa (5%). Reading was carried out in an optical microscope and 100 metaphases analysed by treatment for posting chromosomal alterations. Each treatment was conducted at three separate times and each became two replicas. Results: We only presented chromosomal alterations in lymphocytes exposed to UV for groups 1 to 3 seconds (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Exposure to ultraviolet radiation generates visible damage in chromosomes from human lymphocytes observed in light microscopy, the highest rates of injury was observed between two and three seconds, and above this value, the reduction in the number of mitotic cells was evident.

Keywords: chromosome breakpoints, lymphocytes, photodamage, ultraviolet rays

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10 Effects of Pterostilbene in Brown Adipose Tissue from Obese Rats

Authors: Leixuri Aguirre, Iñaki Milton-Laskibar, Elizabeth Hijona, Luis Bujanda, Agnes M. Rimando, Maria P. Portillo

Abstract:

Introduction: In recent years great attention has been paid by scientific community to phenolic compounds as active biomolecules naturally present in foodstuffs due to their beneficial effects on health. Pterostilbene is a resveratrol dimethylether derivative which shows higher biodisponibility. Objective. To analyze the effects of two doses of pterostilbene on several markers of thermogenic capacity in a model of genetic obesity, which shows reduced thermogenesis. Methods: The experiment was conducted with thirty Zucker (fa/fa) rats that were distributed in 3 experimental groups, the control group and two groups orally administered with pterostilbene at 15 and 30 mg/kg body weight/day for 6 weeks. Gene expression of Ucp1, Pgc-1α, Cpt1b, Pparα, Nfr1, Tfam and Cox-2 were assessed by RT-PCR, protein expression of UCP1 and GLUT4 by western blot and enzyme activity of carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1b and citrate synthase by spectrophotometry in interscapular brown adipose tissue (iBAT). Statistical analysis was performed by using one way ANOVA and Newman-Keuls as post-hoc test. Results: Pterostilbene did not change gene expression of Pgc-1α. However, significant increases were found in the expression of Ucp1, Pparα, Nfr-1 and Cox-2. Protein expression of UCP1 and GLUT4 was increased in animals treated with pterostilbene, as well as the activities of CPT-1b and CS. These effects were observed with both doses of pterostilbene, without differences between them. Conclusions: These results show that pterostilbene increases thermogenic and oxidative capacity of brown adipose tissue in obese rats. Whether these effects effectively contribute to the anti-obesity properties of these compound needs further research. Acknowledgments: MINECO-FEDER (AGL2015-65719-R), Basque Government (IT-572-13), University of the Basque Country (ELDUNANOTEK UFI11/32), Institut of Health Carlos III (CIBERobn). Iñaki Milton is a fellowship from the Basque Government.

Keywords: brown adipose tissue, pterostilbene, thermogenesis, uncoupling protein 1

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9 Prioritizing Biodiversity Conservation Areas based on the Vulnerability and the Irreplaceability Framework in Mexico

Authors: Alma Mendoza-Ponce, Rogelio Corona-Núñez, Florian Kraxner

Abstract:

Mexico is a megadiverse country and it has nearly halved its natural vegetation in the last century due to agricultural and livestock expansion. Impacts of land use cover change and climate change are unevenly distributed and spatial prioritization to minimize the affectations on biodiversity is crucial. Global and national efforts for prioritizing biodiversity conservation show that ~33% to 45% of Mexico should be protected. The width of these targets makes difficult to lead resources. We use a framework based on vulnerability and irreplaceability to prioritize conservation efforts in Mexico. Vulnerability considered exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity under two scenarios (business as usual, BAU based, on the SSP2 and RCP 4.5 and a Green scenario, based on the SSP1 and the RCP 2.6). Exposure to land use is the magnitude of change from natural vegetation to anthropogenic covers while exposure to climate change is the difference between current and future values for both scenarios. Sensitivity was considered as the number of endemic species of terrestrial vertebrates which are critically endangered and endangered. Adaptive capacity is used as the ration between the percentage of converted area (natural to anthropogenic) and the percentage of protected area at municipality level. The results suggest that by 2050, between 11.6 and 13.9% of Mexico show vulnerability ≥ 50%, and by 2070, between 12.0 and 14.8%, in the Green and BAU scenario, respectively. From an ecosystem perspective cloud forests, followed by tropical dry forests, natural grasslands and temperate forests will be the most vulnerable (≥ 50%). Amphibians are the most threatened vertebrates; 62% of the endemic amphibians are critically endangered or endangered while 39%, 12% and 9% of the mammals, birds, and reptiles, respectively. However, the distribution of these amphibians counts for only 3.3% of the country, while mammals, birds, and reptiles in these categories represent 10%, 16% and 29% of Mexico. There are 5 municipalities out of the 2,457 that Mexico has that represent 31% of the most vulnerable areas (70%).These municipalities account for 0.05% of Mexico. This multiscale approach can be used to address resources to conservation targets as ecosystems, municipalities or species considering land use cover change, climate change and biodiversity uniqueness.

Keywords: biodiversity, climate change, land use change, Mexico, vulnerability

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8 Clinical and Epidemiological Profile of Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in a Medical Institution from the City of Medellin, Colombia

Authors: Camilo Andres Agudelo-Velez, Lina María Martinez-Sanchez, Natalia Perilla-Hernandez, Maria De Los Angeles Rodriguez-Gazquez, Felipe Hernandez-Restrepo, Dayana Andrea Quintero-Moreno, Camilo Ruiz-Mejia, Isabel Cristina Ortiz-Trujillo, Monica Maria Zuluaga-Quintero

Abstract:

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is common condition, characterized by a persistent blockage of airflow, partially reversible and progressive, that represents 5% of total deaths around the world, and it is expected to become the third leading cause of death by 2030. Objective: To establish the clinical and epidemiological profile of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in a medical institution from the city of Medellin, Colombia. Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed, with a sample of 50 patients with a diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in a private institution in Medellin, during 2015. The software SPSS vr. 20 was used for the statistical analysis. For the quantitative variables, averages, standard deviations, and maximun and minimun values were calculated, while for ordinal and nominal qualitative variables, proportions were estimated. Results: The average age was 73.5±9.3 years, 52% of the patients were women, 50% of them had retired, 46% ere married and 80% lived in the city of Medellín. The mean time of diagnosis was 7.8±1.3 years and 100% of the patients were treated at the internal medicine service. The most common clinical features were: 36% were classified as class D for the disease, 34% had a FEV1 <30%, 88% had a history of smoking and 52% had oxygen therapy at home. Conclusion: It was found that class D was the most common, and the majority of the patients had a history of smoking, indicating the need to strengthen promotion and prevention strategies in this regard.

Keywords: pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive, pulmonary medicine, oxygen inhalation therapy

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7 Migration Law in Republic of Panama

Authors: Ronel Solis, Leonardo Collado

Abstract:

Migration law in the Republic of Panama has been regulated mainly by the executive branch. This has created a crisis not only institutional but also social because the evolution of these norms has rested greatly from the discretion of the government in office. This has created instability in immigration regulation and more now, with the migration crisis of which Panama is also part. Different migration policies have been established. The most recent is that of the controlled migration flow, in which, for humanitarian reasons, migrants move from the border with Colombia to the border with Costa Rica. Unfortunately, such control is not enough, and in some cases, unprotected migrants have been confined for months, their passports have been withheld, and no recognition of their rights is offered. The Inter-American Court of Human Rights has condemned Panama for the unfair detention of an irregular migrant, who was detained for two years in Panamanian prisons, without having committed a crime and without accessing a just defense. This is the case Vélez Loor vs. the Republic of Panama. Uncontrollable migration has been putting pressure on Panamanian public health services. The recent denunciation of HIV-related NGOs that warns that there are hundreds of foreigners who receive expensive antiretroviral therapy in Panama is serious, and several of them are irregular migrants. On the other hand, there are no border control posts with the Republic of Colombia, because it is a jungle area and migrants are exposed to arms and drug trafficking, and unfortunately, also to prostitution. Government entities such as the border police service have provided humanitarian support to migrants on the border with Colombia, although it is not their administrative function, and various entities discuss who should address this crisis. However, few economic resources are allocated by the government to solve this problem, especially with the recent mass migration of Venezuelans who have fled their country. The establishment of a migratory normative code is necessary to establish uniformity in the recognition and application of migratory rights. In this way, dependence on the changing migration policies of the different Panamanian governments would be eliminated, and the rights of migrants and nationals would be guaranteed.

Keywords: executive branch, irregular migration, migration code, Republic of Panama

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6 Clinical and Epidemiological Profile in Patients with Preeclampsia in a Private Institution in Medellin, Colombia 2015

Authors: Camilo Andrés Agudelo Vélez, Lina María Martínez Sánchez, Isabel Cristina Ortiz Trujillo, Evert Armando Jiménez Cotes, Natalia Perilla Hernández, María de los Ángeles Rodríguez Gázquez, Daniel Duque Restrepo, Felipe Hernández Restrepo, Dayana Andrea Quintero Moreno, Juan José Builes Gómez, Camilo Ruiz Mejía, Ana Lucia Arango Gómez

Abstract:

Preeclampsia is a clinical complication during pregnancy with high incidence in Colombia; therefore, it is important to evaluate the influence of external conditions and medical interventions, in order to promote measures that encourage improvements in the quality of life. Objective: Determine clinical and sociodemographic variables in women with preeclampsia. Methods: This cross-sectional study enrolled 50 patients with the diagnosis of preeclampsia, from a private institution in Medellin, during 2015. We used the software SPSS ver.20 for statistical analysis. For the qualitative variables, we calculated the mean and standard deviation, while, for ordinal and nominal levels of quantitative variables, ratios were estimated. Results: The average age was 26.8±5.9 years. The predominant characteristics were socioeconomic stratum 2 (48%), students (55%), mixed race (46%) and middle school as level of education (38%). As for clinical features, 72% of the cases were mild preeclampsia, and 22% were severe forms. The most common clinical manifestations were edema (46%), headache (62%), and proteinuria (55%). As for the Gyneco-obstetric history, 8% reported previous episodes of this disease and it was the first pregnancy for 60% of the patients. Conclusions: Preeclampsia is a frequent condition in young women; on the other hand, headache and edema were the most common reasons for consultation, therefore, doctors need to be aware of these symptoms in pregnant women.

Keywords: pre-eclampsia, hypertension, pregnancy complications, pregnancy, abdominal, edema

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