Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 46

Search results for: Billy Joel Almarinez Divina Amalin

46 Surface Morphology and Wetting Behavior of the Aspidiotus spp. Scale Covers

Authors: Meril Kate Mariano, Billy Joel Almarinez Divina Amalin, Jose Isagani Janairo

Abstract:

The scale insects Aspidiotus destructor and Aspidiotus rigidus exhibit notable scale covers made of wax which provides protection against water loss and is capable to resist wetting, thus making them a desirable model for biomimetic designs. Their waxy covers enable them to infest mainly leaves of coconut trees despite the harsh wind and rain. This study aims to describe and compare the micro morphological characters on the surfaces of their scale covers consequently, how these micro structures affect their wetting properties. Scanning electron microscope was used for the surface characterization while an optical contact angle meter was employed in the wetting measurement. The scale cover of A. destructor is composed of multiple overlapping layers of wax that is arranged regularly while that of A. rigidus is composed of a uniform layer of wax with much more prominent wax ribbons irregularly arranged compared to the former. The protrusions found on the two organisms are formed by the wax ribbons that differ in arrangement with their height being A. destructor (3.57+1.29) < A. rigidus (4.23+1.22) and their density A. destructor (15+2.94) < A. rigidus (18.33+2.64). These morphological measurements could affect the contact angle (CA θ) measurement of A. destructor (102.66+9.78°) < A. rigidus (102.77 + 11.01°) wherein the assessment that the interaction of the liquid to the microstructures of the substrate is a large factor in the wetting properties of the insect scales is realized. The calculated surface free energy of A. destructor (38.47 mJ/m²) > A. rigidus (31.02 mJ/m²) shows inverse proportionality with the CA measurement. The dispersive interaction between the surface and liquid is more prevalent compared to the polar interaction for both Aspidiotus species, which was observed using the Fowkes method. The results of this study have possible applications to be a potential biomimetic design for various industries such as textiles and coatings.

Keywords: biomimetics, Contact angle, surface characterization, Aspidiotus spp, wetting behavior

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45 The ‘Othered’ Body: Deafness and Disability in Nina Raine’s Tribes

Authors: Nurten Çelik

Abstract:

Under the new developments in science, medicine, sociology, psychology and literary theories, body studies has gained huge importance and the body has become a debatable issue. There has emerged, among sociologists and literary theorists, an overwhelming consensus that body is socially, politically and culturally perceived and constructed and thus, the position of an individual in the society is determined in accordance with his/her body image. In this regard, the most complicated point is the theoretical views propounded upon disability studies, where the disabled body is considered to be a site upon which social and political restrictions as well as repressions are inscribed. There has been the widely-accepted view that no matter what kind of disability it is, those with physical, mental or learning impairments face varied social, political and environmental obstacles that prevent them from being an active citizen, worker, lover and even a family member. In parallel with these approaches, the matter of the sufferings of disabled individuals attains its place in cinema and literature as well as in theatre studies under the category of disability theatre. One of the prominent plays that deal with physical disability came from the contemporary British playwright Nina Raine. In her awarded play Tribes, which premiered at the Royal Court Theatre in 2010, Raine develops the social strata where her deaf protagonist, Billy, caught up between two tribes – namely his family and his lover Slyvia, a member of the deaf community– experiences personal and social hardships due to his hearing impairment. In the play, intransigent and self-opinionated family members foster no sense of empathy towards Billy, there are noisy talking and shouting, but no communication, love, compassion or mutual understanding, and language becomes just a tool for the expression of rage and oppression. In the disordered atmosphere of the family life, Billy experiences isolation and loneliness. Billy’s hopes for success and love are destroyed when Slyvia, troubled between hearing and deafness, rejects him because she does not utterly grasp what Billy is experiencing. Drawing upon the hardships, Billy undergoes in his relationships with his family and his girlfriend, Tribes problematizes the concept of deafness and explores to what extent a deaf person can find a place in the hearing world. Setting ‘the disabled’ bodies against ‘the abled’ bodies in a family, a microcosm of the society where bodies are socially shaped and constructed, Tribes dramatizes how the disabled bodies are disenfranchised, stigmatised, marginalized and othered on the grounds that they are socially misfit. Tribes, with a specific focus on the dysfunctional family, shows that the lack of communication and empathy numbs the characters to the feelings of each other and thereby, they become more disabled than Billy. In conclusion, this paper, with the reference to the embodiment of disability and social theories, aims to explore how disabled bodies are socially marked and segregated from family and society.

Keywords: Disability, body, Deafness, tribes, disability theatre, Nina Raine

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44 Realization and Characterization of TiN Coating and Metal Working Application

Authors: Abdelouahed Chala, Nadjette Belhamra, Ibrahim Guasmi

Abstract:

Titanium nitride coatings have been extensively used in industry, such as in cutting tools. TiN coating were deposited by chemical vapour deposition (CVD) on carbide insert at a temperature between 850°C and 1100°C, which often exceeds the hardening treatment temperature of the metals. The objective of this work is to realize, to characterize of TiN coating and to apply it in the turning of steel 42CrMo4 under lubrification. Various experimental techniques were employed for the microstructural characterization of the coatings, e. g., X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) model JOEL JSM-5900 LV, equipped with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX). The results show that TiN-coated demonstrate a good wear resistance.

Keywords: Machining, Wear, Turning, hard coating TiN, carbide inserts

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43 Experimental and Analytical Design of Rigid Pavement Using Geopolymer Concrete

Authors: J. Joel Bright, P. Peer Mohamed, M. Aswin SAangameshwaran

Abstract:

The increasing usage of concrete produces 80% of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Hence, this results in various environmental effects like global warming. The amount of the carbon dioxide released during the manufacture of OPC due to the calcination of limestone and combustion of fossil fuel is in the order of one ton for every ton of OPC produced. Hence, to minimize this Geo Polymer Concrete was introduced. Geo polymer concrete is produced with 0% cement, and hence, it is eco-friendly and it also uses waste product from various industries like thermal power plant, steel manufacturing plant, and paper waste materials. This research is mainly about using Geo polymer concrete for pavement which gives very high strength than conventional concrete and at the same time gives way for sustainable development.

Keywords: fly ash, GGBS, activator solution, metakaolin

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42 New Technique of Estimation of Charge Carrier Density of Nanomaterials from Thermionic Emission Data

Authors: Moses Emetere, Olukunle C. Olawole, Dilip K. De, Emmanuel S. Joel

Abstract:

A good number of electronic properties such as electrical and thermal conductivities depend on charge carrier densities of nanomaterials. By controlling the charge carrier densities during the fabrication (or growth) processes, the physical properties can be tuned. In this paper, we discuss a new technique of estimating the charge carrier densities of nanomaterials from the thermionic emission data using the newly modified Richardson-Dushman equation. We find that the technique yields excellent results for graphene and carbon nanotube.

Keywords: Nano Materials, thermionic emission, charge carrier density, new technique

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41 Design of a Pulse Generator Based on a Programmable System-on-Chip (PSoC) for Ultrasonic Applications

Authors: Pedro Acevedo, Carlos Díaz, Mónica Vázquez, Joel Durán

Abstract:

This paper describes the design of a pulse generator based on the Programmable System-on-Chip (PSoC) module. In this module, using programmable logic is possible to implement different pulses which are required for ultrasonic applications, either in a single channel or multiple channels. This module can operate with programmable frequencies from 3-74 MHz; its programming may be versatile covering a wide range of ultrasonic applications. It is ideal for low-power ultrasonic applications where PZT or PVDF transducers are used.

Keywords: Ultrasonic Transducer, pulse generator, PVDF, PSoC

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40 An Investigation of the Use of Visible Spectrophotometric Analysis of Lead in an Herbal Tea Supplement

Authors: Salve Alessandria Alcantara, John Armand E. Aquino, Ma. Veronica Aranda, Nikki Francine Balde, Angeli Therese F. Cruz, Elise Danielle Garcia, Antonie Kyna Lim, Divina Gracia Lucero, Nikolai Thadeus Mappatao, Maylan N. Ocat, Jamille Dyanne L. Pajarillo, Jane Mierial A. Pesigan, Grace Kristin Viva, Jasmine Arielle C. Yap, Kathleen Michelle T. Yu, Joanna J. Orejola, Joanna V. Toralba

Abstract:

Lead is a neurotoxic metallic element that is slowly accumulated in bones and tissues especially if present in products taken in a regular basis such as herbal tea supplements. Although sensitive analytical instruments are already available, the USP limit test for lead is still widely used. However, because of its serious shortcomings, Lang Lang and his colleagues developed a spectrophotometric method for determination of lead in all types of samples. This method was the one adapted in this study. The actual procedure performed was divided into three parts: digestion, extraction and analysis. For digestion, HNO3 and CH3COOH were used. Afterwards, masking agents, 0.003% and 0.001% dithizone in CHCl3 were added and used for the extraction. For the analysis, standard addition method and colorimetry were performed. This was done in triplicates under two conditions. The 1st condition, using 25µg/mL of standard, resulted to very low absorbances with an r2 of 0.551. This led to the use of a higher concentration, 1mg/mL, for condition 2. Precipitation of lead cyanide was observed and the absorbance readings were relatively higher but between 0.15-0.25, resulting to a very low r2 of 0.429. LOQ and LOD were not computed due to the limitations of the Milton-Roy Spectrophotometer. The method performed has a shorter digestion time, and used less but more accessible reagents. However, the optimum ratio of dithizone-lead complex must be observed in order to obtain reliable results while exploring other concentration of standards.

Keywords: herbal tea supplement, lead-dithizone complex, standard addition, visible spectroscopy

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39 What Nigeria Education Needs

Authors: Babatunde Joel Todowede

Abstract:

The challenges of nation building and sustainable development have continued to feature prominently in the general reckoning of problems of underdevelopment in the developing countries of the world. Thus, since the attainment of political independence from the British colonial administration in 1960, one of the critical thrusts of central governance in Nigeria has been the particular policy attention of the educational sector. Of course, education is perceived as the logical bridge between the two contrasting worlds of underdevelopment and development, hence, its fundamental importance. The various public policies and practices associated with the Nigerian educational sector are specifically elaborated and critically assessed in this paper. In the final analysis, it is concluded that the educational sector should be better configured and managed in ways that the wider challenges of nation-building and sustainable development are effectively tractable.

Keywords: emerging economy, Nigeria education, educational need, educational plans and policies, educational challenges, corrective measures

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38 The Effects of Current and Future Priming on Pro-Environmental Attitudes

Authors: Calvin Rong, Regina Agassian, Joel Hernandez, Mindy Engle-Friedman

Abstract:

This study assessed strategies to stimulate engagement with future environmental needs. 32 participants were randomly assigned to one of three conditions which involved imagining and drawing: 1) a generic person in current life, 2) one’s self in current life or 3) one’s self in the future. Participants before and after the intervention indicated connectedness to their selves 50 years in the future on an adapted Future Self-Continuity Scale. A significant interaction (p = .03) showed no difference in connectedness into one’s future self in the control group, a decrease in connectedness in those who imagined themselves in the present and an increase in connectedness in those who imagined themselves in the future. Results suggest attention to one’s present life circumstances may interfere with one’s connection with future environmental issues but imagining one’s future life may stimulate actions that result in future environmental protection.

Keywords: Climate Change, Global Warming, Environmental Psychology, future priming

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37 Transport Infrastructure and Economic Growth in South Africa

Authors: Abigail Mosetsanagape Mooketsi, Itumeleng Pleasure Mongale, Joel Hinaunye Eita

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to analyse the impact of transport infrastructure on economic growth in South Africa through Engle Granger two step approach using the data from 1970 to 2013. GDP is used as a proxy for economic growth whilst rail transport (rail lines, rail goods transported) and air transport(air passengers carried, air freight) are used as proxies for transport infrastructure. The results showed that there is a positive long-run relationship between transport infrastructure and economic growth. The results show that South Africa’s economic growth can be boosted by providing transport infrastructure. The estimated models were simulated and the results that the model is a good fit. The findings of this research will be beneficial to policy makers, academics and it will also enhance the ability of the investors to make informed decisions about investing in South Africa.

Keywords: Transport, Infrastructure, Economic growth, South Africa

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36 Characterization of Bacteriophage for Biocontrol of Pseudomonas syringae, Causative Agent of Canker in Prunus spp.

Authors: Mojgan Rabiey, Shyamali Roy, Billy Quilty, Ryan Creeth, George Sundin, Robert W. Jackson

Abstract:

Bacterial canker is a major disease of Prunus species such as cherry (Prunus avium). It is caused by Pseudomonas syringae species including P. syringae pv. syringae (Pss) and P. syringae pv. morsprunorum race 1 (Psm1) and race 2 (Psm2). Concerns over the environmental impact of, and developing resistance to, copper controls call for alternative approaches to disease management. One method of control could be achieved using naturally occurring bacteriophage (phage) infective to the bacterial pathogens. Phages were isolated from soil, leaf, and bark of cherry trees in five locations in the South East of England. The phages were assessed for their host range against strains of Pss, Psm1, and Psm2. The phages exhibited a differential ability to infect and lyse different Pss and Psm isolates as well as some other P. syringae pathovars. However, the phages were unable to infect beneficial bacteria such as Pseudomonas fluorescens. A subset of 18 of these phages were further characterised genetically (Random Amplification of Polymorphic DNA-PCR fingerprinting and sequencing) and using electron microscopy. The phages are tentatively identified as belonging to the order Caudovirales and the families Myoviridae, Podoviridae, and Siphoviridae, with genetic material being dsDNA. Future research will fully sequence the phage genomes. The efficacy of the phage, both individually and in cocktails, to reduce disease progression in vivo will be investigated to understand the potential for practical use of these phages as biocontrol agents.

Keywords: Pseudomonas, Biological Control, bacteriophage, bacterial cancker

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35 Obesity, Leptin Levels and Leptin Receptor Gene Polymorphisms in Afro-Caribbean Subjects

Authors: Lydia Foucan, Christine Rambhojan, Rachel Billy, Christophe Armand, Carl-Thony Michel, Jean-Marc Lacorte, Laurent Larifla

Abstract:

Leptin, an adipocyte-derived hormone, modulates insulin secretion and action via the leptin receptor (LEPR) that is expressed in pancreatic beta cells, adipose tissue, and muscle. Several polymorphisms have been described in the human LEPR gene including p.K109R (rs1137100), p.Q223R (rs1137101) and p.K656N (rs1805094) polymorphisms. The role of these polymorphisms is not yet studied in Guadeloupian population. Our aim was to explore the association of LEPR polymorphisms (K109R, Q223R and K656N) with leptin levels and obesity in non-diabetic Afro-Caribbean subjects. Genotypic analysis of the three polymorphisms was performed in 425 subjects using TaqMan and KASPar Assays. Serum leptin was measured with ELISA kits Biovendor® (RD191001100). Logistic regressions were used for assessment of statistical associations. Mean age was 47.6 ± 12.7 years. Among the participants, 238 (56 %) were women, 124 (30%) were obese and 155 (36.5%) had abdominal obesity. Carriers of LEPR K656N rs1805094 rare allele had significant higher frequencies of obesity (P = 0.007), abdominal obesity (P = 0.004) and metabolic syndrome (P = 0.021) but mean leptin level was not significantly different between both groups (P = 0.075). Odds ratios, adjusted for age and sex associated with presence of rs1805094 rare allele were 1.8 (1.1-2.9), P = 0.012 for obesity, 2.0 (1.2-3.3), P = 0.008 for abdominal obesity and 1.8 (1.1-3.0), P = 0.031 for MetS. No significant association was found with K109R, Q223R. These findings suggest that the K656N polymorphism (but not the K109R or Q223R polymorphism) of LEPR is associated with obesity, abdominal obesity and metabolic syndrome in this Afro-Caribbean non-diabetic population.

Keywords: Obesity, Afro-Caribbean, leptin levels, leptin receptor gene polymorphisms

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34 Criteria Analysis of Residential Location Preferences: An Urban Dwellers’ Perspective

Authors: Joel E. M. Macwan, Arati Siddharth Petkar

Abstract:

Preferences for residential location are of a diverse nature. Primarily they are based on the socio-economic, socio-cultural, socio-demographic characteristics of the household. It also depends on character, and the growth potential of different areas in a city. In the present study, various criteria affecting residential location preferences from the Urban Dwellers’ perspective have been analyzed. The household survey has been conducted in two parts: Existing Buyers’ survey and Future Buyers’ survey. The analysis reveals that workplace location is the most governing criterion in deciding residential location from the majority of the urban dwellers perspective. For analyzing the importance of varied criteria, Analytical Hierarchy Process approach has been explored. The suggested approach will be helpful for urban planners, decision makers and developers, while designating a new residential area or redeveloping an existing one.

Keywords: Preferences, analytical hierarchy process (AHP), household, residential location preferences, residential land use, urban dwellers

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33 Diffraction-Based Immunosensor for Dengue NS1 Virus

Authors: Harriet Jane R. Caleja, Joel I. Ballesteros, Florian R. Del Mundo

Abstract:

The dengue fever belongs to the world’s major cause of death, especially in the tropical areas. In the Philippines, the number of dengue cases during the first half of 2015 amounted to more than 50,000. In 2012, the total number of cases of dengue infection reached 132,046 of which 701 patients died. Dengue Nonstructural 1 virus (Dengue NS1 virus) is a recently discovered biomarker for the early detection of dengue virus. It is present in the serum of the dengue virus infected patients even during the earliest stages prior to the formation of dengue virus antibodies. A biosensor for the dengue detection using NS1 virus was developed for faster and accurate diagnostic tool. Biotinylated anti-dengue virus NS1 was used as the receptor for dengue virus NS1. Using the Diffractive Optics Technology (dotTM) technique, real time binding of the NS1 virus to the biotinylated anti-NS1 antibody is observed. The dot®-Avidin sensor recognizes the biotinylated anti-NS1 and this served as the capture molecule to the analyte, NS1 virus. The increase in the signal of the diffractive intensity signifies the binding of the capture and the analyte. The LOD was found to be 3.87 ng/mL while the LOQ is 12.9 ng/mL. The developed biosensor was also found to be specific for the NS1 virus.

Keywords: avidin-biotin, diffractive optics technology, immunosensor, NS1

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32 An Improved Image Steganography Technique Based on Least Significant Bit Insertion

Authors: Olaiya Folorunsho, Comfort Y. Daramola, Joel N. Ugwu, Lawrence B. Adewole, Olufisayo S. Ekundayo

Abstract:

In today world, there is a tremendous rise in the usage of internet due to the fact that almost all the communication and information sharing is done over the web. Conversely, there is a continuous growth of unauthorized access to confidential data. This has posed a challenge to information security expertise whose major goal is to curtail the menace. One of the approaches to secure the safety delivery of data/information to the rightful destination without any modification is steganography. Steganography is the art of hiding information inside an embedded information. This research paper aimed at designing a secured algorithm with the use of image steganographic technique that makes use of Least Significant Bit (LSB) algorithm for embedding the data into the bit map image (bmp) in order to enhance security and reliability. In the LSB approach, the basic idea is to replace the LSB of the pixels of the cover image with the Bits of the messages to be hidden without destroying the property of the cover image significantly. The system was implemented using C# programming language of Microsoft.NET framework. The performance evaluation of the proposed system was experimented by conducting a benchmarking test for analyzing the parameters like Mean Squared Error (MSE) and Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR). The result showed that image steganography performed considerably in securing data hiding and information transmission over the networks.

Keywords: Steganography, least significant bits, image steganography, bit map image

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31 Strength Properties of Concrete Paving Blocks with Fly Ash and Glass Powder

Authors: Joel Santhosh, N. Bhavani Shankar Rao

Abstract:

Problems associated with construction site have been known for many years. Construction industry has to support a world of continuing population growth and economic development. The rising costs of construction materials and the need to adhere to sustainability, alternative construction techniques and materials are being sought. To increase the applications of concrete paving blocks, greater understanding of products produced with locally available materials and indigenously produced mineral admixtures is essential. In the present investigation, concrete paving blocks may be produced with locally available aggregates, cement, fly ash and waste glass powder as the mineral admixture. The ultimate aim of this work is to ascertain the performance of concrete paving blocks containing fly ash and glass powder and compare it with the performance of conventional concrete paving blocks. Mix design is carried out to form M40 grade of concrete by using IS: 10262: 2009 and specification given by IRC: SP: 63: 2004. The paving blocks are tested in accordance to IS: 15658: 2006. It showed that the partial replacement of cement by fly ash and waste glass powder satisfies the minimum requirement as specified by the Indian standard IS: 15658: 2006 for concrete paving blocks to be used in non traffic, light traffic and medium-heavy traffic areas. The study indicated that fly ash and waste glass powder can effectively be used as cement replacement without substantial change in strength.

Keywords: Durability, fly ash, Strength, paving block, glass powder, abrasion resistance

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30 Ionometallurgy for Recycling Silver in Silicon Solar Panel

Authors: Emmanuel Billy

Abstract:

This work is in the CABRISS project (H2020 projects) which aims at developing innovative cost-effective methods for the extraction of materials from the different sources of PV waste: Si based panels, thin film panels or Si water diluted slurries. Aluminum, silicon, indium, and silver will especially be extracted from these wastes in order to constitute materials feedstock which can be used later in a closed-loop process. The extraction of metals from silicon solar cells is often an energy-intensive process. It requires either smelting or leaching at elevated temperature, or the use of large quantities of strong acids or bases that require energy to produce. The energy input equates to a significant cost and an associated CO2 footprint, both of which it would be desirable to reduce. Thus there is a need to develop more energy-efficient and environmentally-compatible processes. Thus, ‘ionometallurgy’ could offer a new set of environmentally-benign process for metallurgy. This work demonstrates that ionic liquids provide one such method since they can be used to dissolve and recover silver. The overall process associates leaching, recovery and the possibility to re-use the solution in closed-loop process. This study aims to evaluate and compare different ionic liquids to leach and recover silver. An electrochemical analysis is first implemented to define the best system for the Ag dissolution. Effects of temperature, concentration and oxidizing agent are evaluated by this approach. Further, a comparative study between conventional approach (nitric acid, thiourea) and the ionic liquids (Cu and Al) focused on the leaching efficiency is conducted. A specific attention has been paid to the selection of the Ionic Liquids. Electrolytes composed of chelating anions are used to facilitate the lixiviation (Cl, Br, I,), avoid problems dealing with solubility issues of metallic species and of classical additional ligands. This approach reduces the cost of the process and facilitates the re-use of the leaching medium. To define the most suitable ionic liquids, electrochemical experiments have been carried out to evaluate the oxidation potential of silver include in the crystalline solar cells. Then, chemical dissolution of metals for crystalline solar cells have been performed for the most promising ionic liquids. After the chemical dissolution, electrodeposition has been performed to recover silver under a metallic form.

Keywords: Recycling, Leaching, Silver, electrodeposition, ionometallurgy

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29 Using SMS Mobile Technology to Assess the Mastery of Subject Content Knowledge of Science and Mathematics Teachers of Secondary Schools in Tanzania

Authors: Joel S. Mtebe, Aron Kondoro, Mussa M. Kissaka, Elia Kibga

Abstract:

Sub-Saharan Africa is described as the second fastest growing mobile phone penetration in the world more than in the United States or the European Union. Mobile phones have been used to provide a lot of opportunities to improve people’s lives in the region such as in banking, marketing, entertainment, and paying various bills such as water, TV, and electricity. However, the potential of using mobile phones to enhance teaching and learning has not been explored. This study presents an experience of developing and delivering SMS quizzes questions that were used to assess mastery of the subject content knowledge of science and mathematics secondary school teachers in Tanzania. The SMS quizzes were used as a follow up support mechanism to 500 teachers who participated in a project to upgrade subject content knowledge of science and mathematics subjects. Quizzes of 10-15 questions were sent to teachers each week for 8 weeks and the results were analyzed using SPSS. The results showed that chemistry and biology had better performance compared to mathematics and physics. Teachers reported some challenges that led to poor performance, invalid answers, and non-responses and they are presented. This research has several practical implications for those who are implementing or planning to use mobile phones for teaching and learning especially in rural secondary schools in sub-Saharan Africa.

Keywords: Mobile Learning, Assessment, secondary education, eLearning, SMS, educational technolgies

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28 Suicide Intervention Experiences and Practices of School Counselors: Basis for Development of Practice Guidelines

Authors: Joel C. Navarez

Abstract:

The current study investigated the Filipino school counselor’s knowledge, attitudes, and competencies in suicide intervention as well as their experiences and practices in suicide intervention. The study also aimed to develop and standardize suicide intervention guidelines. The study has two (2) phases. Phase 1 utilized the descriptive and generic qualitative inquiry methods of research. Purposive and convenience sampling was applied, and participants were college counselors from the National Capital Region (NCR), Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao. Results revealed that counselors do not have high level of knowledge on suicidal behaviors, have some negative attitudes toward suicidal behavior, and need to acquire better intervention skills. The findings also showed that the trainings received by counselors are not enough to advance their suicide intervention skills, which would help enhance positive attitudes towards suicide risk assessment and management. Some common experiences of the counselors in suicide intervention were focused on the areas of accountability, stigmatizing attitudes of parents, and confidentiality issues. Phase 2 of the study was the development of suicide intervention practice guidelines using the Delphi process. The tentative guideline was based on the content analysis of interventions taken from literature and from the actual intervention practices of counselors, as seen from the findings of the qualitative study of Phase 1. After three (3) Delphi rounds and the consensus from sixteen (16) mental health experts, 145 recommended actions can be implemented by school counselors in suicide.

Keywords: Suicide, counselor competencies, counselor development, suicide intervention

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27 Selective Laser Melting (SLM) Process and Its Influence on the Machinability of TA6V Alloy

Authors: Rafał Kamiński, Joel Rech, Philippe Bertrand, Christophe Desrayaud

Abstract:

Titanium alloys are among the most important material in the aircraft industry, due to its low density, high strength, and corrosion resistance. However, these alloys are considered as difficult to machine because they have poor thermal properties and high reactivity with cutting tools. The Selective Laser Melting (SLM) process becomes even more popular through industry since it enables the design of new complex components, that cannot be manufactured by standard processes. However, the high temperature reached during the melting phase as well as the several rapid heating and cooling phases, due to the movement of the laser, induce complex microstructures. These microstructures differ from conventional equiaxed ones obtained by casting+forging. Parts obtained by SLM have to be machined in order calibrate the dimensions and the surface roughness of functional surfaces. The ball milling technique is widely applied to finish complex shapes. However, the machinability of titanium is strongly influenced by the microstructure. So the objective of this work is to investigate the influence of the SLM process, i.e. microstructure, on the machinability of titanium, compared to conventional forming processes. The machinability is analyzed by measuring surface roughness, cutting forces, cutting tool wear for a range of cutting conditions (depth of cut ap, feed per tooth fz, spindle speed N) in accordance with industrial practices.

Keywords: Microstructure, Titanium, surface roughness, ball milling

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26 Influence of Information Technology on Financial Management Practices in Secondary School: For National Transormation in Zone C Senatorional District of Benue State

Authors: Eru Ihie Joel

Abstract:

This study was carried out to investigate the influence of information technology on financial management practice in secondary schools for transformation. In Zone C Senatorial District of Benue state. The study answered four research questions and tested four hypotheses. Related literature was reviewed to show the gap to be filled in the study. The population was 196 respondents made up of principals and finance clerks of secondary schools. The descriptive survey was adopted for the study. A structured 20 item questionnaire (IITFMPSQ) was constructed and used to collect date for the study. Data obtained were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistic. Mean and standard deviation were used to analyze the research question while the chi- square (x2) test of goodness of fit was used to test the hypothesis. The major findings revealed that the use of computer system significantly influences budgeting in secondary schools in zone senatorial district of Benue State for transformation. It was also established that the use of internet facilities influences the funding of secondary schools for transformation in the zone. Based on the findings of the study, it was recommended among other things that administrators and teachers in schools should be trained to make effective use of the computer in budgeting so as to facilitate delegations, control, evaluation, accountability for transformation. It was further suggested that the study be replicated on the effective use of information communication teaching (ITC) in teaching and learning in secondary school for transformation.

Keywords: Finance, Management, Technology, influence

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25 Social Responsibility in Reducing Gap between High School and 1st Year University Maths: SMU Case, South Africa

Authors: Solly M. Seeletse, Joel L. Thabane

Abstract:

Students enrolling at the Sefako Makgatho Health Sciences University (SMU) come mostly from the previously disadvantaged communities of South Africa. Their backgrounds are deprived in resources and modern technologies of education. Most of those admitted in the basic sciences were rejected in medicine and health related study programmes in SMU. Mathematics (maths) is the main subject for admission into SMU study programmes. However, maths results are usually low. In an attempt to help to prepare the students in the neighbourhood schools of SMU, some Maths educators partnered with local schools to communicate the needs and investigate the causes of poor maths results. They embarked on an action research to determine the level of educators’ maths education. The general aim of the research was to investigate the causes of deficiencies in maths teaching and results in the local secondary schools, focusing on teachers and learners. Asking the teachers about their education and learners about maths concepts of most difficulty, these were identified. The researchers assisted in teaching the difficult concepts. The study highlighted the most difficult concepts and the teachers’ lack of training in some content. Intervention of the researchers showed to be effective only for the very poor performing schools. Those with descent pass rates of over 50% did not benefit from it. This was the sign of lack of optimality in the methods used. The research recommendations suggested that intervention methods should be improved to be effective in all schools, and extension of the endeavours to more schools.

Keywords: Social Responsibility, Intervention, action research, support

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24 Compositional Dependence of Hydroxylated Indium-Oxide on the Reaction Rate of CO2/H2 Reduction

Authors: Joel Y. Y. Loh, Geoffrey A. Ozin, Charles A. Mims, Nazir P. Kherani

Abstract:

A major goal in the emerging field of solar fuels is to realize an ‘artificial leaf’ – a material that converts light energy in the form of solar photons into chemical energy – using CO2 as a feedstock to generate useful chemical species. Enabling this technology will allow the greenhouse gas, CO2, emitted from energy and manufacturing production exhaust streams to be converted into valuable solar fuels or chemical products. Indium Oxide (In2O3) with surface hydroxyl (OH) groups have been shown to reduce CO2 in the presence of H2 to CO with a reaction rate of 15 μmol gcat−1 h−1. The likely mechanism is via a Frustrated Lewis Pair sites heterolytically splitting H2 to be absorbed and form protonic and hydric sites that can dissociate CO2. In this study, we investigate the dependence of oxygen composition of In2O3 on the CO2 reduction rate. In2O3-x films on quartz fiber paper were DC sputtered with an Indium target and varying O2/Ar plasma mixture. OH surface groups were then introduced by immersing the In2O3-x samples in KOH. We show that hydroxylated In2O3-x reduces more CO2 than non-hydroxylated groups and that a hydroxylated and higher O2/Ar ratio sputtered In2O3-x has a higher reaction rate of 45 μmol gcat-1 h-1. We show by electrical resistivity-temperature curves that H2 is adsorbed onto the surface of In2O3 whereas CO2 itself does not affect the indium oxide surface. We also present activation and ionization energy levels of the hydroxylated In2O3-x under vacuum, CO2 and H2 atmosphere conditions.

Keywords: photocatalysis, Carbon Dioxide, Solar Fuels, indium oxide nanoparticles

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23 Analysis of Rainfall and Malaria Trends in Limpopo Province, South Africa

Authors: Abiodun M. Adeola, Hannes Rautenbach, Gbenga J. Abiodun, Thabo E. Makgoale, Joel O. Botai, Omolola M. Adisa, Christina M. Botai

Abstract:

There was a surge in malaria morbidity as well as mortality in 2016/2017 malaria season in malaria-endemic regions of South Africa. Rainfall is a major climatic driver of malaria transmission and has potential use for predicting malaria. Annual and seasonal trends and cross-correlation analyses were performed on time series of monthly total rainfall (derived from interpolated weather station data) and monthly malaria cases in five districts of Limpopo Province for the period of 1998 to 2017. The time series analysis indicated that an average of 629.5mm of rainfall was received over the period of study. The rainfall has an annual variation of about 0.46%. Rainfall amount varies among the five districts, with the north-eastern part receiving more rainfall. Spearman’s correlation analysis indicated that total monthly rainfall with one to two months lagged effect is significant in malaria transmission in all the five districts. The strongest correlation is noticed in Mopani (r=0.54; p-value = < 0.001), Vhembe (r=0.53; p-value = < 0.001), Waterberg (r=0.40; p-value = < 0.001), Capricorn (r=0.37; p-value = < 0.001) and lowest in Sekhukhune (r=0.36; p-value = < 0.001). More particularly, malaria morbidity showed a strong relationship with an episode of rainfall above 5-year running means of rainfall of 400 mm. Both annual and seasonal analyses showed that the effect of rainfall on malaria varied across the districts and it is seasonally dependent. Adequate understanding of climatic variables dynamics annually and seasonally is imperative in seeking answers to malaria morbidity among other factors, particularly in the wake of the sudden spike of the disease in the province.

Keywords: correlation, Trends, Malaria, Rainfall, seasonal

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22 Effect of Chilling on Soundness, Micro Hardness, Ultimate Tensile Strength, and Corrosion Behavior of Nickel Alloy-Fused Silica Metal Matrix Composite

Authors: G. Purushotham, Joel Hemanth

Abstract:

An investigation has been carried out to fabricate and evaluate the strength and soundness of chilled composites consisting of nickel matrix and fused silica particles (size 40–150 μm) in the matrix. The dispersoid added ranged from 3 to 12 wt. % in steps of 3%. The resulting composites cast in moulds containing metallic and non-metallic chill blocks (MS, SiC, and Cu) were tested for their microstructure and mechanical properties. The main objective of the present research is to obtain fine grain Ni/SiO2 chilled sound composite having very good mechanical properties. Results of the investigation reveal the following: (1) Strength of the composite developed is highly dependent on the location of the casting from where the test specimens are taken and also on the dispersoid content of the composite. (2) Chill thickness and chill material, however, does significantly affect the strength and soundness of the composite. (3) Soundness of the composite developed is highly dependent on the chilling rate as well as the dispersoid content. An introduction of chilling and increase in the dispersoid content of the material both result in an increase in the ultimate tensile strength (UTS) of the material. The temperature gradient developed during solidification and volumetric heat capacity (VHC) of the chill used is the important parameters controlling the soundness of the composite. (4) Thermal properties of the end chills are used to determine the magnitude of the temperature gradient developed along the length of the casting solidifying under the influence of chills.

Keywords: Mechanical Properties, metal matrix composite, corrosion behavior, nickel alloy, fused silica, chills

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21 Development of a Direct Immunoassay for Human Ferritin Using Diffraction-Based Sensing Method

Authors: Joel Ballesteros, Harriet Jane Caleja, Florian Del Mundo, Cherrie Pascual

Abstract:

Diffraction-based sensing was utilized in the quantification of human ferritin in blood serum to provide an alternative to label-based immunoassays currently used in clinical diagnostics and researches. The diffraction intensity was measured by the diffractive optics technology or dotLab™ system. Two methods were evaluated in this study: direct immunoassay and direct sandwich immunoassay. In the direct immunoassay, human ferritin was captured by human ferritin antibodies immobilized on an avidin-coated sensor while the direct sandwich immunoassay had an additional step for the binding of a detector human ferritin antibody on the analyte complex. Both methods were repeatable with coefficient of variation values below 15%. The direct sandwich immunoassay had a linear response from 10 to 500 ng/mL which is wider than the 100-500 ng/mL of the direct immunoassay. The direct sandwich immunoassay also has a higher calibration sensitivity with value 0.002 Diffractive Intensity (ng mL-1)-1) compared to the 0.004 Diffractive Intensity (ng mL-1)-1 of the direct immunoassay. The limit of detection and limit of quantification values of the direct immunoassay were found to be 29 ng/mL and 98 ng/mL, respectively, while the direct sandwich immunoassay has a limit of detection (LOD) of 2.5 ng/mL and a limit of quantification (LOQ) of 8.2 ng/mL. In terms of accuracy, the direct immunoassay had a percent recovery of 88.8-93.0% in PBS while the direct sandwich immunoassay had 94.1 to 97.2%. Based on the results, the direct sandwich immunoassay is a better diffraction-based immunoassay in terms of accuracy, LOD, LOQ, linear range, and sensitivity. The direct sandwich immunoassay was utilized in the determination of human ferritin in blood serum and the results are validated by Chemiluminescent Magnetic Immunoassay (CMIA). The calculated Pearson correlation coefficient was 0.995 and the p-values of the paired-sample t-test were less than 0.5 which show that the results of the direct sandwich immunoassay was comparable to that of CMIA and could be utilized as an alternative analytical method.

Keywords: Biosensor, Immunoassay, ferritin, diffraction

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20 TA6V Selective Laser Melting as an Innovative Method Produce Complex Shapes

Authors: Rafał Kamiński, Joel Rech, Philippe Bertrand, Christophe Desrayaud

Abstract:

Additive manufacturing is a hot topic for industry. Among the additive techniques, Selective Laser Melting (SLM) becomes even more popular, especially for making parts for aerospace applications, thanks to its design freedom (customized and light structures) and its reduced time to market. However, some functional surfaces have to be machined to achieve small tolerances and low surface roughness to fulfill industry specifications. The complex shapes designed for SLM (ex: titanium turbine blades) necessitate the use of ball end milling operations like in the conventional process after forging. However, the metallurgical state of TA6V is very different from the one obtained usually from forging, because of the laser sintering layer by layer. So this paper aims to investigate the influence of new TA6V metallurgies produced by SLM on the machinability in ball end milling. Machinability is considered as the property of a material to obtain easily and by a cheap way a functional surface. This means, for instance, the property to limit cutting tool wear rate and to get smooth surfaces. So as to reach this objective, SLM parts have been produced and heat treated with various conditions leading to various metallurgies that are compared with a standard equiaxed α+β wrought microstructure. The machinability is analyzed by measuring surface roughness, tool wear and cutting forces for a range of cutting conditions (depth of cut 'ap', feed per tooth 'fz', spindle speed 'N') in accordance with industrial practices. This work has revealed that TA6V produced by SLM can lead to a better machinability that standard wrought alloys.

Keywords: Titanium, Wear, Selective Laser Melting, surface roughness, ball milling

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19 GIS Model for Sanitary Landfill Site Selection Based on Geotechnical Parameters

Authors: Hecson Christian, Joel Macwan

Abstract:

Landfill site selection in an urban area is a critical issue in the planning process. With the growth of the urbanization, it has a mammoth impact on the economy, ecology, and environmental health of the region. Outsized amount of wastes are produced and the problem gets soared every day. Hence, selection of ideal site for sanitary landfill is a challenge for urban planners and solid waste managers. Disposal site is a function of many parameters. Among all, Geotechnical parameters are very vital as the same is related to surrounding open land. Moreover, the accessible safe and acceptable land is also scarce. Therefore, in this paper geotechnical parameters are used to develop a GIS model to identify an ideal location for landfill purpose. Metropolitan city of Surat is highly populated and fastest growing urban area in India. The research objectives are to conduct field experiments to collect data and to transfer the facts in GIS platform to evolve a model, to find ideal location. Planners’ preferences were obtained to use analytical hierarchical process (AHP) to find weights of each parameter. Integration of GIS and Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) techniques are applied to improve decision-making. It augments an environment for transformation and combination of geographical data and planners’ preferences. GIS performs deterministic overlay and buffer operations. MCDA methods evaluate alternatives based on the decision makers’ subjective values and priorities. Research results have shown many alternative locations. Economic analysis of selected site from actual operations point of view is not included in this research.

Keywords: GIS, AHP, MCDA, Geo-technical

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18 High Resolution Sandstone Connectivity Modelling: Implications for Outcrop Geological and Its Analog Studies

Authors: Numair Ahmed Siddiqui, Abdul Hadi bin Abd Rahman, Chow Weng Sum, Wan Ismail Wan Yousif, Asif Zameer, Joel Ben-Awal

Abstract:

Advances in data capturing from outcrop studies have made possible the acquisition of high-resolution digital data, offering improved and economical reservoir modelling methods. Terrestrial laser scanning utilizing LiDAR (Light detection and ranging) provides a new method to build outcrop based reservoir models, which provide a crucial piece of information to understand heterogeneities in sandstone facies with high-resolution images and data set. This study presents the detailed application of outcrop based sandstone facies connectivity model by acquiring information gathered from traditional fieldwork and processing detailed digital point-cloud data from LiDAR to develop an intermediate small-scale reservoir sandstone facies model of the Miocene Sandakan Formation, Sabah, East Malaysia. The software RiScan pro (v1.8.0) was used in digital data collection and post-processing with an accuracy of 0.01 m and point acquisition rate of up to 10,000 points per second. We provide an accurate and descriptive workflow to triangulate point-clouds of different sets of sandstone facies with well-marked top and bottom boundaries in conjunction with field sedimentology. This will provide highly accurate qualitative sandstone facies connectivity model which is a challenge to obtain from subsurface datasets (i.e., seismic and well data). Finally, by applying this workflow, we can build an outcrop based static connectivity model, which can be an analogue to subsurface reservoir studies.

Keywords: Lidar, high resolution, outcrop, sandstone faceis, connectivity model

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17 Effects of Audit Quality and Corporate Governance on Earnings Management of Quoted Deposit Money Banks in Nigeria

Authors: Joel S. Akintayo, Ramat T. Salman

Abstract:

The stakeholders’ pressure on corporate managers to maintain firm’s profitability has created economic incentives for management to engage in earnings management practices. Therefore, this study examines the effects of audit quality and corporate governance on earnings management of quoted deposit money banks (DMBs) in Nigeria. This study specifically investigates the influence of audit tenure, audit fee, board independence, and board size on earnings management of DMBs. Explanatory research design was employed in carrying out the study while secondary data were sourced from the annual reports and accounts of all the 15 quoted DMBs in Nigerian Stock Exchange as at December 31, 2015 for a period of 10 years covering from 2006 to 2015. The data obtained for the study were analyzed using panel regression analysis approach. The findings reveal that board independence has a negative significant effect on earnings management at a 5% level of significance (p=0.002), while audit fee has a positive significant effect on earnings management at a 5% level of significance (p=0.013) and audit tenure has a negative significant effect on earnings management of DMBs at a 5% level of significance (p=0.003). Surprisingly, board size was statistically not significant at a 5% level of significance (p=0.086). The study concludes that high audit quality and sound corporate governance could improve the earnings quality of DMBs. Hence, the study recommends that the authorities saddled with the responsibility of banking supervision in Nigeria such the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) and CBN to advise the National Assembly in Nigeria to pass into law the three years professional requirement for audit tenure.

Keywords: Corporate Governance, Earnings Management, audit quality, board independence, audit tenure, audit fee

Procedia PDF Downloads 38