Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 41

Search results for: Marek Balas

41 Numerical Calculation of Heat Transfer in Water Heater

Authors: Michal Spilacek, Martin Lisy, Marek Balas, Zdenek Skala

Abstract:

This article is trying to determine the status of flue gas that is entering the KWH heat exchanger from combustion chamber in order to calculate the heat transfer ratio of the heat exchanger. Combination of measurement, calculation, and computer simulation was used to create a useful way to approximate the heat transfer rate. The measurements were taken by a number of sensors that are mounted on the experimental device and by a thermal imaging camera. The results of the numerical calculation are in a good correspondence with the real power output of the experimental device. Results show that the research has a good direction and can be used to propose changes in the construction of the heat exchanger, but still needs enhancements.

Keywords: heat exchanger, heat transfer rate, numerical calculation, thermal images

Procedia PDF Downloads 463
40 Atmospheric Fluid Bed Gasification of Different Biomass Fuels

Authors: Martin Lisý, Marek Baláš, Michal Špiláček, Zdeněk Skála

Abstract:

This paper shortly describes biomass types and growing amount in the Czech Republic. The considerable part of this paper deals with energy parameters of the most frequent utilizing biomass types and results of their gasification testing. There was chosen sixteen the most exploited "Czech" woody plants and grasses. There were determinated raw, element and biochemical analysis, basic calorimetric values, ash composition and ash characteristic temperatures. After that, each biofuel was tested by fluid bed gasification. The essential part of this paper yields results of chosen biomass types gasification experiments. Partly, there are described an operating conditions in detail with accentuation of individual fuels particularities partly, there is summarized gas composition and impurities content. The essential difference was determined mainly between woody plants and grasses both from point of view of the operating conditions and gas quality. The woody plants was evaluated as more suitable fuels for fluid bed gasifiers. This results will be able to significantly help with decision which energy plants are suitable for growing or with optimal biomass-treatment technology selection.

Keywords: biomass growing, biomass types, gasification, biomass fuels

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39 Biomass Gasification and Microcogeneration Unit–EZOB Technology

Authors: Martin Lisý, Marek Baláš, Michal Špiláček, Zdeněk Skála

Abstract:

This paper deals with the issue of biomass and sorted municipal waste gasification and cogeneration using hot-air turbo-set. It brings description of designed pilot plant with electrical output 80 kWe. The generated gas is burned in secondary combustion chamber located beyond the gas generator. Flue gas flows through the heat exchanger where the compressed air is heated and consequently brought to a micro turbine. Except description, this paper brings our basic experiences from operating of pilot plant (operating parameters, contributions, problems during operating, etc.). The principal advantage of the given cycle is the fact that there is no contact between the generated gas and the turbine. So there is no need for costly and complicated gas cleaning which is the main source of operating problems in direct use in combustion engines because the content of impurities in the gas causes operation problems to the units due to clogging and tarring of working surfaces of engines and turbines, which may lead as far as serious damage to the equipment under operation. Another merit is the compact container package making installation of the facility easier or making it relatively more mobile. We imagine, this solution of cogeneration from biomass or waste can be suitable for small industrial or communal applications, for low output cogeneration.

Keywords: biomass, combustion, gasification, microcogeneration

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38 EZOB Technology, Biomass Gasification, and Microcogeneration Unit

Authors: Martin Lisý, Marek Baláš, Michal Špiláček, Zdeněk Skála

Abstract:

This paper deals with the issue of biomass and sorted municipal waste gasification and cogeneration using hot air turbo set. It brings description of designed pilot plant with electrical output 80 kWe. The generated gas is burned in secondary combustion chamber located beyond the gas generator. Flue gas flows through the heat exchanger where the compressed air is heated and consequently brought to a micro turbine. Except description, this paper brings our basic experiences from operating of pilot plant (operating parameters, contributions, problems during operating, etc.). The principal advantage of the given cycle is the fact that there is no contact between the generated gas and the turbine. So there is no need for costly and complicated gas cleaning which is the main source of operating problems in direct use in combustion engines because the content of impurities in the gas causes operation problems to the units due to clogging and tarring of working surfaces of engines and turbines, which may lead as far as serious damage to the equipment under operation. Another merit is the compact container package making installation of the facility easier or making it relatively more mobile. We imagine, this solution of cogeneration from biomass or waste can be suitable for small industrial or communal applications, for low output cogeneration.

Keywords: biomass, combustion, gasification, microcogeneration

Procedia PDF Downloads 234
37 Control Algorithm for Home Automation Systems

Authors: Marek Długosz, Paweł Skruch

Abstract:

One of purposes of home automation systems is to provide appropriate comfort to the users by suitable air temperature control and stabilization inside the rooms. The control of temperature level is not a simple task and the basic difficulty results from the fact that accurate parameters of the object of control, that is a building, remain unknown. Whereas the structure of the model is known, the identification of model parameters is a difficult task. In this paper, a control algorithm allowing the present temperature to be reached inside the building within the specified time without the need to know accurate parameters of the building itself is presented.

Keywords: control, home automation system, wireless networking, automation engineering

Procedia PDF Downloads 483
36 Optimization of Cutting Parameters during Machining of Fine Grained Cemented Carbides

Authors: Josef Brychta, Jiri Kratochvil, Marek Pagac

Abstract:

The group of progressive cutting materials can include non-traditional, emerging and less-used materials that can be an efficient use of cutting their lead to a quantum leap in the field of machining. This is essentially a “superhard” materials (STM) based on polycrystalline diamond (PCD) and polycrystalline cubic boron nitride (PCBN) cutting performance ceramics and development is constantly "perfecting" fine coated cemented carbides. The latter cutting materials are broken down by two parameters, toughness and hardness. A variation of alloying elements is always possible to improve only one of each parameter. Reducing the size of the core on the other hand doing achieves "contradictory" properties, namely to increase both hardness and toughness.

Keywords: grained cutting materials difficult to machine materials, optimum utilization, mechanic, manufacturing

Procedia PDF Downloads 175
35 Nanofibrous Ion Exchangers

Authors: Jaromír Marek, Jakub Wiener, Yan Wang

Abstract:

The main goal of this study was to find simple and industrially applicable production of ion exchangers based on nanofibrous polystyrene matrix and characterization of prepared material. Starting polystyrene nanofibers were sulfonated and crosslinked under appropriate conditions at the same time by sulfuric acid. Strongly acidic cation exchanger was obtained in such a way. The polymer matrix was made from polystyrene nanofibers prepared by Nanospider technology. Various types postpolymerization reactions and other methods of crosslinking were studied. Greatly different behavior between nano and microsize materials was observed. The final nanofibrous material was characterized and compared to common granular ion exchangers and available microfibrous ion exchangers. The sorption properties of nanofibrous ion exchangers were compared with the granular ion exchangers. For nanofibrous ion exchangers of comparable ion exchange capacity was observed considerably faster adsorption kinetics.

Keywords: electrospinning, ion exchangers, nanofibers, polystyrene

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34 Cutting Tool-Life Test of Ceramic Insert for Engine Sleeve

Authors: Adam Janásek, Marek Pagáč

Abstract:

The article is looking for an experimental determination of tool life tests for ceramic cutting inserts. Mentioned experimental determination should provide an added information about cutting process. The mechanism of tool wear, cutting temperature in machining, quality machined surface and machining process itself is the information, which are important for whole manufacturing process. Mainly, the roughness plays very important role in determining how a real object will interact with its environment. The main aim was to determine the number of machined inserts, tool life and micro-geometry, as well. On the basis of previous tests the tool-wear was measured at constant cutting parameter which is more typical for high volume manufacturing processes.

Keywords: ceramic, insert, machining, surface roughness, tool-life, tool-wear

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33 Plastic Deformation of Mg-Gd Solid Solutions between 4K and 298K

Authors: Anna Kula, Raja K. Mishra, Marek Niewczas

Abstract:

Deformation behavior of Mg-Gd solid solutions have been studied by a combination of measurements of mechanical response, texture and dislocation substructure. Increase in Gd content strongly influences the work-hardening behavior and flow characteristics in tension and compression. Adiabatic instabilities have been observed in all alloys at 4K under both tension and compression. The frequency and the amplitude of adiabatic stress oscillations increase with Gd content. Profuse mechanical twinning has been observed under compression, resulting in a texture dominated by basal component parallel to the compression axis. Under tension, twining is less active and the texture evolution is affected mostly by slip. Increasing Gd concentration leads to the reduction of the tension and compression asymmetry due to weakening of the texture and stabilizing more homogenous twinning and slip, involving basal and non-basal slip systems.

Keywords: Mg-Gd alloys, mechanical properties, work hardening, twinning

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32 Application of Terminal Sliding Mode Control to the Stabilization of the Indoor Temperature in Buildings

Authors: Pawel Skruch, Marek Dlugosz

Abstract:

The paper starts with a general model of the temperature dynamics in buildings. The modelling approach relies on thermodynamics, in particular heat transfer, principles. The model considers heat loses by conduction and ventilation and internal heat gains. The parameters of the model can be determined uniquely from the geometry of the building and from thermal properties of construction materials. The model is presented using state space notation and this form is used in the control design procedure. A sliding surface is defined by the system output and the desired trajectory. The control law is designed to force the trajectory of the system from any initial condition to the sliding surface in finite time. The trajectory of the system after reaching the sliding surface remains on it. A simulation example is included to verify the approach and to demonstrate the achievable performance improvement by the proposed solution in the temperature control in buildings.

Keywords: modelling, building, temperature dynamics, sliding-mode control, sliding surface

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31 Atmospheric Circulation Patterns Inducing Coastal Upwelling in the Baltic Sea

Authors: Ewa Bednorz, Marek Polrolniczak, Bartosz Czernecki, Arkadiusz Marek Tomczyk

Abstract:

This study is meant as a contribution to the research of the upwelling phenomenon, which is one of the most pronounced examples of the sea-atmosphere coupling. The aim is to confirm the atmospheric forcing of the sea waters circulation and sea surface temperature along the variously oriented Baltic Sea coasts and to find out macroscale and regional circulation patterns triggering upwelling along different sections of this relatively small and semi-closed sea basin. The mean daily sea surface temperature data from the summer seasons (June–August) of the years 1982–2017 made the basis for the detection of upwelling cases. For the atmospheric part of the analysis, monthly indices of the Northern Hemisphere macroscale circulation patterns were used. Besides, in order to identify the local direction of airflow, the daily zonal and meridional regional circulation indices were constructed and introduced to the analysis. Finally, daily regional circulation patterns over the Baltic Sea region were distinguished by applying the principal component analysis to the gridded mean daily sea level pressure data. Within the Baltic Sea, upwelling is the most frequent along the zonally oriented northern coast of the Gulf of Finland, southern coasts of Sweden, and along the middle part of the western Gulf of Bothnia coast. Among the macroscale circulation patterns, the Scandinavian type (SCAND), with a primary circulation center located over Scandinavia, has the strongest impact on the horizontal flow of surface sea waters in the Baltic Sea, which triggers upwelling. An anticyclone center over Scandinavia in the positive phase of SCAND enhances the eastern airflow, which increases upwelling frequency along southeastern Baltic coasts. It was proved in the study that the zonal circulation has a stronger impact on upwelling occurrence than the meridional one, and it could increase/decrease a chance of upwelling formation by more than 70% in some coastal sections. Positive and negative phases of six distinguished regional daily circulation patterns made 12 different synoptic situations which were analyzed in the terms of their influence on the upwelling formation. Each of them revealed some impact on the frequency of upwelling in some coastal section of the Baltic Sea; however, two kinds of synoptic situations seemed to have the strongest influence, namely, the first kind representing pressure patterns enhancing the zonal flow and the second kind representing synoptic patterns with a cyclone/anticyclone centers over southern Scandinavia. Upwelling occurrence appeared to be particularly strongly reliant on the atmospheric conditions in some specific coastal sections, namely: the Gulf of Finland, the south eastern Baltic coasts (Polish and Latvian-Lithuanian section), and the western part of the Gulf of Bothnia. Concluding, it can be stated that atmospheric conditions strongly control the occurrence of upwelling within the Baltic Sea basin. Both local and macroscale circulation patterns expressed by the location of the pressure centers influence the frequency of this phenomenon; however, the impact strength varies, depending on the coastal region. Acknowledgment: This research was funded by the National Science Centre, Poland, grant number 2016/21/B/ST10/01440.

Keywords: Baltic Sea, circulation patterns, coastal upwelling, synoptic conditions

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30 Analyzing the Use of Augmented Reality and Image Recognition in Cultural Education: Use Case of Sintra Palace Treasure Hunt Application

Authors: Marek Maruszczak

Abstract:

Gamified applications have been used successfully in education for years. The rapid development of technologies such as augmented reality and image recognition increases their availability and reduces their prices. Thus, there is an increasing possibility and need for a wide use of such applications in education. The main purpose of this article is to present the effects of work on a mobile application with augmented reality, the aim of which is to motivate tourists to pay more attention to the attractions and increase the likelihood of moving from one attraction to the next while visiting the Palácio Nacional de Sintra in Portugal. Work on the application was carried out together with the employees of Parques de Sintra from 2019 to 2021. Their effect was the preparation of a mobile application using augmented reality and image recognition. The application was tested on the palace premises by both Parques de Sintra employees and tourists visiting Palácio Nacional de Sintra. The collected conclusions allowed for the formulation of good practices and guidelines that can be used when designing gamified apps for the purpose of cultural education.

Keywords: augmented reality, cultural education, gamification, image recognition, mobile games

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29 Electronic Nose for Monitoring Fungal Deterioration of Stored Rapeseed

Authors: Robert Rusinek, Marek Gancarz, Jolanta Wawrzyniak, Marzena Gawrysiak-Witulska, Dariusz Wiącek, Agnieszka Nawrocka

Abstract:

Investigations were performed to examine the possibility of using an electronic nose to monitor the development of fungal microflora during the first eighteen days of rapeseed storage. The Cyranose 320 device with polymer-composite sensors was used. Each sample of infected material was divided into three parts, and the degree of spoilage was measured in three ways: analysis of colony forming units (CFU), determination of ergosterol content (ERG), and measurement with the eNose. Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed on the generated patterns of signals, and six groups of different spoilage levels were isolated. The electronic nose with polymer-composite sensors under laboratory conditions distinguished between species of spoiled and unspoiled seeds with 100% accuracy. Despite some minor differences in the CFU and ergosterol content, the electronic nose provided responses correctly corresponding to the level of spoilage with 85% accuracy. Therefore, the main conclusion from the study is that the electronic nose is a promising tool for quick and non-destructive detection of the level of oil seed spoilage. The research was supported by the National Centre for Research and Development (NCBR), Grant No. PBS2/A8/22/2013.

Keywords: colony forming units, electronic nose, ergosterol, rapeseed

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28 Response Evaluation of Electronic Nose with Polymer-Composite and Metal Oxide Semiconductor Sensor towards Microbiological Quality of Rapeseed

Authors: Marcin Tadla, Robert Rusinek, Jolanta Wawrzyniak, Marzena Gawrysiak-Witulska, Agnieszka Nawrocka, Marek Gancarz

Abstract:

Rapeseeds were evaluated and classified by the static-headspace sampling method using electronic noses during the 25 days spoilage period. The Cyranose 320 comprising 32 polymer-composite sensors and VCA (Volatile Compound Analyzer - made in Institute of Agrophysics) built of 8 metal-oxide semiconductor (MOS) sensors were used to obtain sensor response (∆R/R). Each sample of spoiled material was divided into three parts and the degree of spoilage was measured four ways: determination of ergosterol content (ERG), colony forming units (CFU) and measurement with both e-noses. The study showed that both devices responsive to changes in the fungal microflora. Cyranose and VCA registered the change of domination microflora of fungi. After 7 days of storage, typical fungi for soil disappeared and appeared typical for storeroom was observed. In both cases, response ∆R/R decreased to the end of experiment, while ERG and JTK increased. The research was supported by the National Centre for Research and Development (NCBR), Grant No. PBS2/A8/22/2013.

Keywords: electronic nose, fungal microflora, metal-oxide sensor, polymer-composite sensors

Procedia PDF Downloads 184
27 In vitro Effects of Viscum album on the Functionality of Rabbit Spermatozoa

Authors: Marek Halenár, Eva Tvrdá, Simona Baldovská, Ľubomír Ondruška, Peter Massányi, Adriana Kolesárová

Abstract:

This study aimed to assess the in vitro effects of different concentrations of the Viscum album extract on the motility, viability, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by rabbit spermatozoa during different time periods (0, 2, and 8h). Spermatozoa motility was assessed by using the CASA (Computer aided sperm analysis) system. Cell viability was evaluated by using the metabolic activity MTT assay, and the luminol-based luminometry was applied to quantify the ROS formation. The CASA analysis revealed that low Viscum concentrations were able to prevent a rapid decline of spermatozoa motility, especially in the case of concentrations ranging between 1 and 5 µg/mL (P<0.05 with respect to time 8h). At the same time, concentrations ranging between 1 and 100 µg/mL of the extract led to a significant preservation of the cell viability (P<0.05 in case of 5, 50 and 100 µg/mL; P<0.01 with respect to 1 and 10 µg/mL, time 8h). 1 and 5 µg/mL of the extract exhibited antioxidant characteristics, translated into a significant reduction of the ROS production, particularly notable at time 8h (P<0.01). The results indicate that the Viscum extract is capable of delaying the damage inflicted to the spermatozoon by the in vitro environment.

Keywords: CASA, mistletoe, mitochondrial activity, motility, reactive oxygen species, rabbits, spermatozoa, Viscum album

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26 Controller Design for Highly Maneuverable Aircraft Technology Using Structured Singular Value and Direct Search Method

Authors: Marek Dlapa

Abstract:

The algebraic approach is applied to the control of the HiMAT (Highly Maneuverable Aircraft Technology). The objective is to find a robust controller which guarantees robust stability and decoupled control of longitudinal model of a scaled remotely controlled vehicle version of the advanced fighter HiMAT. Control design is performed by decoupling the nominal MIMO (multi-input multi-output) system into two identical SISO (single-input single-output) plants which are approximated by a 4th order transfer function. The algebraic approach is then used for pole placement design, and the nominal closed-loop poles are tuned so that the peak of the µ-function is minimal. As an optimization tool, evolutionary algorithm Differential Migration is used in order to overcome the multimodality of the cost function yielding simple controller with decoupling for nominal plant which is compared with the D-K iteration through simulations of standard longitudinal manoeuvres documenting decoupled control obtained from algebraic approach for nominal plant as well as worst case perturbation.

Keywords: algebraic approach, evolutionary computation, genetic algorithms, HiMAT, robust control, structured singular value

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25 Towards Human-Interpretable, Automated Learning of Feedback Control for the Mixing Layer

Authors: Hao Li, Guy Y. Cornejo Maceda, Yiqing Li, Jianguo Tan, Marek Morzynski, Bernd R. Noack

Abstract:

We propose an automated analysis of the flow control behaviour from an ensemble of control laws and associated time-resolved flow snapshots. The input may be the rich database of machine learning control (MLC) optimizing a feedback law for a cost function in the plant. The proposed methodology provides (1) insights into the control landscape, which maps control laws to performance, including extrema and ridge-lines, (2) a catalogue of representative flow states and their contribution to cost function for investigated control laws and (3) visualization of the dynamics. Key enablers are classification and feature extraction methods of machine learning. The analysis is successfully applied to the stabilization of a mixing layer with sensor-based feedback driving an upstream actuator. The fluctuation energy is reduced by 26%. The control replaces unforced Kelvin-Helmholtz vortices with subsequent vortex pairing by higher-frequency Kelvin-Helmholtz structures of lower energy. These efforts target a human interpretable, fully automated analysis of MLC identifying qualitatively different actuation regimes, distilling corresponding coherent structures, and developing a digital twin of the plant.

Keywords: machine learning control, mixing layer, feedback control, model-free control

Procedia PDF Downloads 70
24 In vitro Effects of Amygdalin on the Functional Competence of Rabbit Spermatozoa

Authors: Marek Halenár, Eva Tvrdá, Tomáš Slanina, Ľubomír Ondruška, Eduard Kolesár, Peter Massányi, Adriana Kolesárová

Abstract:

The present in vitro study was designed to reveal whether amygdalin (AMG) is able to cause changes to the motility, viability and mitochondrial activity of rabbit spermatozoa. New Zealand White rabbits (n = 10) aged four months were used in the study. Semen samples were collected from each animal and used for the in vitro incubation. The samples were divided into five equal parts and diluted with saline supplemented with 0, 0.5, 1, 2.5 and 5 mg/mL AMG. At times 0h, 3h and 5h spermatozoa motion parameters were assessed using the SpermVision™ computer-aided sperm analysis (CASA) system, cell viability was examined with the metabolic activity (MTT) assay, and the eosin-nigrosin staining technique was used to evaluate the viability of rabbit spermatozoa. All AMG concentrations exhibited stimulating effects on the spermatozoa activity, as shown by a significant preservation of the motility (P<0.05 with respect to 0.5 mg/mL and 1 mg/mL AMG; Time 5 h) and mitochondrial activity (P< 0.05 in case of 0.5 mg/mL AMG; P< 0.01 in case of 1 mg/mL AMG; P < 0.001 with respect to 2.5 mg/mL and 5 mg/mL AMG; Time 5 h). None of the AMG doses supplemented had any significant impact of the spermatozoa viability. In conclusion, the data revealed that short-term co-incubation of spermatozoa with AMG may result in a higher preservation of the sperm structural integrity and functional activity.

Keywords: amygdalin, CASA, mitochondrial activity, motility, rabbits, spermatozoa, viability

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23 Association of Major Histocompatibility Complex Alleles with Antibody Response to Newcastle Vaccine in Chicken

Authors: Atefeh Esmailnejad, Gholam Reza Nikbakht Brujeni

Abstract:

The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is the best-characterized genetic region associated with susceptibility and/or resistance to a wide range of infectious diseases, autoimmune diseases and immune responses to vaccines. It has been demonstrated that there is an association between the MHC and resistance to Marek disease, Newcastle disease, Rous sarcoma tumor, Avian leucosis, Fowl cholera, Salmonellosis and Pasteurellosis in chicken. The present study evaluated the MHC polymorphism and its association with antibody response to Newcastle (ND) vaccine in Iranian native chickens. The MHC polymorphism was investigated using LEI0258 microsatellite locus by PCR-based fragment analysis. LEI0258 microsatellite marker is a genetic indicator for MHC, which is located on microchromosome 16 and strongly associated with serologically defined MHC haplotypes. Antibody titer against ND vaccine was measured by Haemaglutination Inhibition (HI) assay. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software (version 21). Total of 13 LEI0258 microsatellite alleles were identified in 72 samples which indicated a high genetic diversity in the population. The association study revealed a significant influence of MHC alleles on immune responses to Newcastle vaccine. 311 and 313 bp alleles were significantly associated with elevated immune responses to Newcastle vaccine (p<0.05). These results would be applicable in designing and improving the populations under selective breeding.

Keywords: chicken, LEI0258, MHC, Newcastle vaccine

Procedia PDF Downloads 329
22 Nutrition of Preschool Children in the Aspect of Nutritional Status

Authors: Klaudia Tomala, Elzbieta Grochowska-Niedworok, Katarzyna Brukalo, Marek Kardas, Beata Calyniuk, Renata Polaniak

Abstract:

Background. Nutrition plays an important role in the psychophysical growth of children and has effects on their health. Providing children with the appropriate supply of macro- and micro-nutrients requires dietary diversity across every food group. Meals in kindergartens should provide 70-75% of their daily food requirement. Aim. The aim of this study was to determine the vitamin content in the food rations of children attending kindergarten in the wider aspect of nutritional status. Material and Methods. Kindergarten menus from the spring and autumn seasons of 2015 were analyzed. In these meals, fat content and levels of water-soluble vitamins were estimated. The vitamin content was evaluated using the diet calculator “Aliant”. Statistical analysis was done in MS Office Excel 2007. Results. Vitamin content in the analyzed menus in many cases is too high with reference to dietary intake, with only vitamin D intake being insufficient. Vitamin E intake was closest to the dietary reference intake. Conclusion. The results show that vitamin intake is usually too high, and menus should, therefore, be modified. Also, nutrition education among kindergarten staff is needed. The identified errors in the composition of meals will affect the nutritional status of children and their proper composition in the body.

Keywords: children, nutrition status, vitamins, preschool

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21 Relationship between Response of the Resistive Sensors on the Chosen Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) and Their Concentration

Authors: Marek Gancarz, Agnieszka Nawrocka, Robert Rusinek, Marcin Tadla

Abstract:

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are the fungi metabolites in the gaseous form produced during improper storage of agricultural commodities (e.g. grain, food). The spoilt commodities produce a wide range of VOCs including alcohols, esters, aldehydes, ketones, alkanes, alkenes, furans, phenols etc. The characteristic VOCs and odours can be determined by using electronic nose (e-Nose) which contains a matrix of different kinds of sensors e.g. resistive sensors. The aim of the present studies was to determine relationship between response of the resistive sensors on the chosen volatiles and their concentration. According to the literature, it was chosen volatiles characteristic for the cereals: ethanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol and hexanal. Analysis of the sensor signals shows that a signal shape is different for the different substances. Moreover, each VOC signal gives information about a maximum of the normalized sensor response (R/Rmax), an impregnation time (tIM) and a cleaning time at half maximum of R/Rmax (tCL). These three parameters can be regarded as a ‘VOC fingerprint’. Seven resistive sensors (TGS2600-B00, TGS2602-B00, TGS2610-C00, TGS2611-C00, TGS2611-E00, TGS2612-D00, TGS2620-C00) produced by Figaro USA Inc., and one (AS-MLV-P2) produced by AMS AG, Austria were used. Two out of seven sensors (TGS2611-E00, TGS2612-D00) did not react to the chosen VOCs. The most responsive sensor was AS-MLV-P2. The research was supported by the National Centre for Research and Development (NCBR), Grant No. PBS2/A8/22/2013.

Keywords: agricultural commodities, organic compounds, resistive sensors, volatile

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20 Single Atom Manipulation with 4 Scanning Tunneling Microscope Technique

Authors: Jianshu Yang, Delphine Sordes, Marek Kolmer, Christian Joachim

Abstract:

Nanoelectronics, for example the calculating circuits integrating at molecule scale logic gates, atomic scale circuits, has been constructed and investigated recently. A major challenge is their functional properties characterization because of the connecting problem from atomic scale to micrometer scale. New experimental instruments and new processes have been proposed therefore. To satisfy a precisely measurement at atomic scale and then connecting micrometer scale electrical integration controller, the technique improvement is kept on going. Our new machine, a low temperature high vacuum four scanning tunneling microscope, as a customer required instrument constructed by Omicron GmbH, is expected to be scaling down to atomic scale characterization. Here, we will present our first testified results about the performance of this new instrument. The sample we selected is Au(111) surface. The measurements have been taken at 4.2 K. The atomic resolution surface structure was observed with each of four scanners with noise level better than 3 pm. With a tip-sample distance calibration by I-z spectra, the sample conductance has been derived from its atomic locally I-V spectra. Furthermore, the surface conductance measurement has been performed using two methods, (1) by landing two STM tips on the surface with sample floating; and (2) by sample floating and one of the landed tips turned to be grounding. In addition, single atom manipulation has been achieved with a modified tip design, which is comparable to a conventional LT-STM.

Keywords: low temperature ultra-high vacuum four scanning tunneling microscope, nanoelectronics, point contact, single atom manipulation, tunneling resistance

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19 The Effect of Curcumin on Cryopreserved Bovine Semen

Authors: Eva Tvrdá, Marek Halenár, Hana Greifová, Alica Mackovich, Faridullah Hashim, Norbert Lukáč

Abstract:

Oxidative stress associated with semen cryopreservation may result in lipid peroxidation (LPO), DNA damage and apoptosis, leading to decreased sperm motility and fertilization ability. Curcumin (CUR), a natural phenol isolated from Curcuma longa Linn. has been presented as a possible supplement for a more effective semen cryopreservation because of its antioxidant properties. This study focused to evaluate the effects of CUR on selected oxidative stress parameters in cryopreserved bovine semen. 20 bovine ejaculates were split into two aliquots and diluted with a commercial semen extender containing CUR (50 μmol/L) or no supplement (control), cooled to 4 °C, frozen and kept in liquid nitrogen. Frozen straws were thawed in a water bath for subsequent experiments. Computer assisted semen analysis was used to evaluate spermatozoa motility, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was quantified by using luminometry. Superoxide generation was evaluated with the NBT test, and LPO was assessed via the TBARS assay. CUR supplementation significantly (P<0.001) increased the spermatozoa motility and provided a significantly higher protection against ROS (P<0.001) or superoxide (P<0.01) overgeneration caused by semen freezing and thawing. Furthermore, CUR administration resulted in a significantly (P<0.01) lower LPO of the experimental semen samples. In conclusion, CUR exhibits significant ROS-scavenging activities which may prevent oxidative insults to cryopreserved spermatozoa and thus may enhance the post-thaw functional activity of male gametes.

Keywords: bulls, cryopreservation, curcumin, lipid peroxidation, reactive oxygen species, spermatozoa

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18 Stress-Strain Relation for Human Trabecular Bone Based on Nanoindentation Measurements

Authors: Marek Pawlikowski, Krzysztof Jankowski, Konstanty Skalski, Anna Makuch

Abstract:

Nanoindentation or depth-sensing indentation (DSI) technique has proven to be very useful to measure mechanical properties of various tissues at a micro-scale. Bone tissue, both trabecular and cortical one, is one of the most commonly tested tissues by means of DSI. Most often such tests on bone samples are carried out to compare the mechanical properties of lamellar and interlamellar bone, osteonal bone as well as compact and cancellous bone. In the paper, a relation between stress and strain for human trabecular bone is presented. The relation is based on the results of nanoindentation tests. The formulation of a constitutive model for human trabecular bone is based on nanoindentation tests. In the study, the approach proposed by Olivier-Pharr is adapted. The tests were carried out on samples of trabecular tissue extracted from human femoral heads. The heads were harvested during surgeries of artificial hip joint implantation. Before samples preparation, the heads were kept in 95% alcohol in temperature 4 Celsius degrees. The cubic samples cut out of the heads were stored in the same conditions. The dimensions of the specimens were 25 mm x 25 mm x 20 mm. The number of 20 samples have been tested. The age range of donors was between 56 and 83 years old. The tests were conducted with the indenter spherical tip of the diameter 0.200 mm. The maximum load was P = 500 mN and the loading rate 500 mN/min. The data obtained from the DSI tests allows one only to determine bone behoviour in terms of nanoindentation force vs. nanoindentation depth. However, it is more interesting and useful to know the characteristics of trabecular bone in the stress-strain domain. This allows one to simulate trabecular bone behaviour in a more realistic way. The stress-strain curves obtained in the study show relation between the age and the mechanical behaviour of trabecular bone. It was also observed that the bone matrix of trabecular tissue indicates an ability of energy absorption.

Keywords: constitutive model, mechanical behaviour, nanoindentation, trabecular bone

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17 Rare-Earth Ions Doped Zirconium Oxide Layers for Optical and Photovoltaic Applications

Authors: Sylwia Gieraltowska, Lukasz Wachnicki, Bartlomiej S. Witkowski, Marek Godlewski

Abstract:

Oxide layers doped with rare-earth (RE) ions in optimized way can absorb short (ultraviolet light), which will be converted to visible light by so-called down-conversion. Down-conversion mechanisms are usually exploited to modify the incident solar spectrum. In down conversion, multiple low-energy photons are generated to exploit the energy of one incident high-energy photon. These RE-doped oxide materials have attracted a great deal of attention from researchers because of their potential for optical manipulation in optical devices (detectors, temperature sensors, and compact solid-state lasers, light-emitting diodes), bio-analysis, medical therapy, display technologies, and light harvesting (such as in photovoltaic cells). The zirconium dioxide (ZrO2) doped RE ions (Eu, Tb, Ce) multilayer structures were tested as active layers, which can convert short wave emission to light in the visible range (the down-conversion mechanism). For these applications original approach of deposition ZrO2 layers using the Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) method and doping these layers with RE ions using the spin-coating technique was used. ALD films are deposited at relatively low temperature (well below 250°C). This can be an effective method to achieve the white-light emission and to improve on this way light conversion efficiency, by an extension of absorbed spectral range by a solar cell material. Photoluminescence (PL), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and atomic force microscope (AFM) measurement are analyzed. The research was financially supported by the National Science Centre (decision No. DEC-2012/06/A/ST7/00398 and DEC- 2013/09/N/ST5/00901).

Keywords: ALD, oxide layers, photovoltaics, thin films

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16 25 (OH)D3 Level and Obesity Type, and Its Effect on Renal Excretory Function in Patients with a Functioning Transplant

Authors: Magdalena Barbara Kaziuk, Waldemar Kosiba, Marek Jan Kuzniewski

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Introduction: Vitamin D3 has a proven pleiotropic effect, not only responsible for calcium and phosphate management, but also influencing normal functioning of the whole body. Aim: Evaluation of vitamin D3 resources and its effect on a nutritional status, obesity type and glomerular filtration in kidney transplant recipients. Methods: Group of 152 (81 women and 71 men, average age 47.8 ± 11.6 years) patients with a functioning renal transplant their body composition was assessed using the bioimpendance method (BIA) and anthropometric measurements more than 3 months after the transplant. The nutritional status and the obesity type were determined with the Waist to Height Ratio (WHtR) and the Waist to Hip Ratio (WHR). 25- Hydroxyvitamin D3 (25 (OH)D3) was determined, together with its correlation with the obesity type and the glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) calculated with the MDRD formula. Results: The mean 25 (OH)D3 level was 20.4 ng/ml. 30ng/ml was considered as a minimum correct level 22,7% of patients from the study group were classified to be a correct body weight, 56,7% of participants had an android type and 20,6% had a gynoid type. Significant correlation was observed between 25 (OH)D3 deficiency and abdominal obesity (p < 0.005) in patients. Furthermore, a statistically significant relationship was demonstrated between the 25 (OH)D3 levels and eGFR in patients after a kidney transplant. Patients with an android body type had lower eGFR versus those with the gynoid body type (p=0.004). Conclusions: Correct diet in patients after a kidney transplant determines minimum recommended serum levels of vitamin D3. Excessive fatty tissue, low levels of 25 (OH)D3), may be a predictor for android obesity and renal injury; therefore, correct diet and pharmacological management together with physical activities adapted to the physical fitness level of a patient are necessary.

Keywords: kidney transplantation, glomerular filtration rate, obesity, vitamin D3

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15 In vitro Effects of Salvia officinalis on Bovine Spermatozoa

Authors: Eva Tvrdá, Boris Botman, Marek Halenár, Tomáš Slanina, Norbert Lukáč

Abstract:

In vitro storage and processing of animal semen represents a risk factor to spermatozoa vitality, potentially leading to reduced fertility. A variety of substances isolated from natural sources may exhibit protective or antioxidant properties on the spermatozoon, thus extending the lifespan of stored ejaculates. This study compared the ability of different concentrations of the Salvia officinalis extract on the motility, mitochondrial activity, viability and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by bovine spermatozoa during different time periods (0, 2, 6 and 24 h) of in vitro culture. Spermatozoa motility was assessed using the Computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) system. Cell viability was examined using the metabolic activity MTT assay, the eosin-nigrosin staining technique was used to evaluate the sperm viability and ROS generation was quantified using luminometry. The CASA analysis revealed that the motility in the experimental groups supplemented with 0.5-2 µg/mL Salvia extract was significantly lower in comparison with the control (P<0.05; Time 24 h). At the same time, a long-term exposure of spermatozoa to concentrations ranging between 0.05 µg/mL and 2 µg/mL had a negative impact on the mitochondrial metabolism (P<0.05; Time 24 h). The viability staining revealed that 0.001-1 µg/mL Salvia extract had no effects on bovine male gametes, however 2 µg/mL Salvia had a persisting negative effect on spermatozoa (P<0.05). Furthermore 0.05-2 µg/mL Salvia exhibited an immediate ROS-promoting effect on the sperm culture (P>0.05; Time 0 h and 2 h), which remained significant throughout the entire in vitro culture (P<0.05; Time 24 h). Our results point out to the necessity to examine specific effects the biomolecules present in Salvia officinalis may have individually or collectively on the in vitro sperm vitality and oxidative profile.

Keywords: bulls, CASA, MTT test, reactive oxygen species, sage, Salvia officinalis, spermatozoa

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14 Microvesicles in Peripheral and Uterine Blood in Women with Atypical Hyperplasia and Endometrioid Endometrial Cancer

Authors: Barbara Zapala, Marek Dziechciowski, Olaf Chmura, Monika Piwowar, Katarzyna Gawlik, Dorota Pawlicka-Gosiewska, Krzysztof Skotniczny, Bogdan Solnica, Kazimierz Pitynski

Abstract:

BACKGROUND: Endometrial cancer is one of the most common gynecologic malignancy in developed countries.We hypothesized that amount of circulating micro-particles in blood may be connected with the development of endometrial hyperplasia and endometrial cancer. The aim of this study was to measure the micro-particles amount in uterine venous blood and in peripheral venous blood in women with atypical endometrial hyperplasia and endometrioid endometrial cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: By using flow cytometry (BD Canto II cytometer) we measured micro-particles amount in citrate plasma samples from peripheral and uterine venous blood of women with atypical hyperplasia of endometrium or endometrial cancer. We determined the amount of total (TF+), endothelial (CD144+) and monocytic (CD14+) micro- particles. RESULTS: Here we show statistically significant higher micro-particle levels in women with atypical hyperplasia of endometrium or endometrial cancer in comparison to healthy women. Performing measurements of the amounts of total, endothelial and monocytic microparticles allow for reliable differentiation between healthy, atypical hyperplasia and endometrial cancer groups. In blood samples from uterine veins the circulating micro-particle levels were significantly different from peripheral blood samples. The micro-particle levels in uterine blood samples were 7-fold higher than in those from peripheral blood of women with both atypical hyperplasia of endometrium and endometrial cancer when compared to the control group of healthy women. CONCLUSION: These results strongly suggested that the level of circulating micro-particles may be a sign of endometrial cancer development, however the detailed study is needed focusing on molecular processes passed through this small circulating molecules.

Keywords: endometrial cancer, endometrial hyperplasia, microvesicles, uterine blood

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13 Differences in Cognitive Functioning over the Course of Chemotherapy in Patients Suffering from Multiple Myeloma and the Possibility to Predict Their Cognitive State on the Basis of Biological Factors

Authors: Magdalena Bury-Kaminska, Aneta Szudy-Szczyrek, Aleksandra Nowaczynska, Olga Jankowska-Lecka, Marek Hus, Klaudia Kot

Abstract:

Introduction: The aim of the research was to determine the changes in cognitive functioning in patients with plasma cell myeloma by comparing patients’ state before the treatment and during chemotherapy as well as to determine the biological factors that can be used to predict patients’ cognitive state. Methods: The patients underwent the research procedure twice: before chemotherapy and after 4-6 treatment cycles. A psychological test and measurement of the following biological variables were carried out: TNF-α (tumor necrosis factor), IL-6 (interleukin 6), IL-10 (interleukin 10), BDNF (brain-derived neurotrophic factor). The following research methods were implemented: the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), Battery of Tests for Assessing Cognitive Functions PU1, experimental and clinical trials based on the Choynowski’s Memory Scale, Stroop Color-Word Interference Test (SCWT), depression measurement questionnaire. Results: The analysis of the research showed better cognitive functions of patients during chemotherapy in comparison to the phase before it. Moreover, neurotrophin BDNF allows to predict the level of selected cognitive functions (semantic fluency and execution control) already at the diagnosis stage. After 4-6 cycles, it is also possible to draw conclusions concerning the extent of working memory based on the level of BDNF. Cytokine TNF-α allows us to predict the level of letter fluency during anti-cancer treatment. Conclusions: It is possible to presume that BDNF has a protective influence on patients’ cognitive functions and working memory and that cytokine TNF-α co-occurs with a diminished execution control and better material grouping in terms of phonological fluency. Acknowledgment: This work was funded by the National Science Center in Poland [grant no. 2017/27/N/HS6/02057.

Keywords: chemobrain, cognitive impairment, non−central nervous system cancers, hematologic diseases

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12 Osteoprotegerin and Osteoprotegerin/TRAIL Ratio are Associated with Cardiovascular Dysfunction and Mortality among Patients with Renal Failure

Authors: Marek Kuźniewski, Magdalena B. Kaziuk , Danuta Fedak, Paulina Dumnicka, Ewa Stępień, Beata Kuśnierz-Cabala, Władysław Sułowicz

Abstract:

Background: The high prevalence of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is observed especially in those undergoing dialysis. Osteoprotegerin (OPG) and its ligands, receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) and tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) have been associated with cardiovascular complications. Our aim was to study their role as cardiovascular risk factors in stage 5 CKD patients. Methods: OPG, RANKL and TRAIL concentrations were measured in 69 hemodialyzed CKD patients and 35 healthy volunteers. In CKD patients, cardiovascular dysfunction was assessed with aortic pulse wave velocity (AoPWV), carotid artery intima-media thickness (CCA-IMT), coronary artery calcium score (CaSc) and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) serum concentration. Cardiovascular and overall mortality data were collected during a 7-years follow-up. Results: OPG plasma concentrations were higher in CKD patients comparing to controls. Total soluble RANKL was lower and OPG/RANKL ratio higher in patients. Soluble TRAIL concentrations did not differ between the groups and OPG/TRAIL ratio was higher in CKD patients. OPG and OPG/TRAIL positively predicted long-term mortality (all-cause and cardiovascular) in CKD patients. OPG positively correlated with AoPWV, CCA-IMT and NT-proBNP whereas OPG/TRAIL with AoPWV and NT-proBNP. Described relationships were independent of classical and non-classical cardiovascular risk factors, with exception of age. Conclusions: Our study confirmed the role of OPG as a biomarker of cardiovascular dysfunction and a predictor of mortality in stage 5 CKD. OPG/TRAIL ratio can be proposed as a predictor of cardiovascular dysfunction and mortality.

Keywords: osteoprotegerin, tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand, receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand, hemodialysis, chronic kidney disease, cardiovascular disease

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