Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 56

Search results for: Luisa Ochoa

56 Out of Pocket Costs for Patients with Tuberculosis in Colombia: Evidence from Three Metropolitan Areas

Authors: Gustavo Gonzalez, Jose Hernandez, Lina Martínez, Carlos Lázaro, Diana Castrillon, Jonathan Cardona, Laura Mejía, Yina Sanchez, Luisa Ochoa, Evert Jimenez

Abstract:

Objectives: Economic analyses of tuberculosis control interventions are usually focused on the payer’s perspective. To assess the overall economic impact of the disease, out-of-pocket and indirect costs are also required. This research is aimed to estimate overall economic impact under DOTS-strategy (Directly Observed Therapy Short Course). Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 91 adult tuberculosis patients in treatment for at least two months was conducted from the society perspective. A standardized questionnaire was used in three different cities of Colombia: Medellin (poverty is 17.7%), Monteria (poverty is 36.9%) and Quibdó (poverty is 51.2%). Costs were converted to 2013 USD and categorized into two periods: diagnostics phase and treatment. Results: The median cost during diagnostics was 13$ (±SD 9.5). The median monthly patient out-of-pocket costs during treatment were 32$ (±SD 6.8), equivalent to 17% of patient’s median monthly income, estimated in 186$ (±SD 23). Costs recorded in Medellin were 47$ in Monteria was 18$ and in Quibdó was 13$. Conclusion: Patient costs under DOTS strategy are high even when services are provided free of charge. The creation or strengthening of community-based treatment supervisors could greatly impact costs of tuberculosis and lower drop-outs.

Keywords: Health Promotion, Tuberculosis, Colombia, costs and cost analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 194
55 Online Electric Current Based Diagnosis of Stator Faults on Squirrel Cage Induction Motors

Authors: Alejandro Paz Parra, Jose Luis Oslinger Gutierrez, Javier Olaya Ochoa

Abstract:

In the present paper, five electric current based methods to analyze electric faults on the stator of induction motors (IM) are used and compared. The analysis tries to extend the application of the multiple reference frames diagnosis technique. An eccentricity indicator is presented to improve the application of the Park’s Vector Approach technique. Most of the fault indicators are validated and some others revised, agree with the technical literatures and published results. A tri-phase 3hp squirrel cage IM, especially modified to establish different fault levels, is used for validation purposes.

Keywords: Induction Motor, MCSA, ESA, motor fault diagnosis, Extended Park´s vector approach, multiparameter analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 172
54 The Role of the Returned Migration in the Regional Economic Growth

Authors: Francisco Ochoa, Jessica Ordoñez, Pascual García

Abstract:

The objective of this paper is to analyze the relationship between return migration in Ecuador and economic growth. The improvement of macroeconomic conditions in Latin America, starting in 2012, makes the region a new migratory destination, in both senses in north-south and south-south flows. Current studies highlight only the role of the entrepreneurial migrant in generating employment and economic growth in the region. Nevertheless, it has not been considered that not all migrants are entrepreneurs and that not all entrepreneurs contribute to economic growth. This research compares the socioeconomic and labor characteristics of migrant returnees working as freelancers in Ecuador. The principal aim is to demystify the role of migrant entrepreneurs in regional growth and to identify socioeconomic characteristics that can enhance growth. A panel econometric model was used, which is part of the information from labor and macroeconomic surveys.

Keywords: Migration, Economic growth, entrepreneur, returned migration

Procedia PDF Downloads 76
53 Coping Resource Triad, Experiences of Filipina Wives in Japan

Authors: Maria Luisa T. Uayan

Abstract:

This study aims to describe the lived experiences of Filipina migrants married to Japanese and to discuss coping strategies that facilitates positive migration events. It utilizes a qualitative study design with focus group discussion which allows clear details on insights and perspectives based on migration process. The grounding of the coping resource triad is the unique finding of this study. It defines coping resource triad as a set of complex factors that relieves Filipina migrants of the stresses associated in migration and cross-cultural marriage. The results of the stress-coping experiences of Filipina migrants in Japan serves as basis for future studies on cross-cultural marriages and other deeper concerns associated with migration as well as in the formulation of relevant programs on acculturation.

Keywords: Migration, coping resource triad, Filipina, cross-cultural marriage

Procedia PDF Downloads 336
52 Production of Bioethanol through Hydrolysis of Agro-Industrial Banana Crop Residues

Authors: Sánchez Acuña, Juan Camilo, Granados Gómez, Mildred Magaly, Navarrete Rodríguez, Luisa Fernanda

Abstract:

Nowadays, the main biofuels source production as bioethanol is food crops. This means a high competition between foods and energy production. For this reason, it is necessary to take into account the use of new raw materials friendly to the environment. The main objective of this paper is to evaluate the potential of the agro-industrial banana crop residues in the production of bioethanol. A factorial design of 24 was used, the design has variables such as pH, time and concentration of hydrolysis, another variable is the time of fermentation that is of 7 or 15 days. In the hydrolysis phase, the pH is acidic (H2SO4) or basic (NaOH), the time is 30 or 15 minutes and the concentration is 0.1 or 0.5 M. It was observed that basic media, low concentrations, fermentation, and higher pretreatment times produced better performance in terms of biofuel obtained.

Keywords: biofuels, Bioethanol, Hydrolysis, banana waste

Procedia PDF Downloads 185
51 Adaptive Filtering in Subbands for Supervised Source Separation

Authors: Bruna Luisa Ramos Prado Vasques, Mariane Rembold Petraglia, Antonio Petraglia

Abstract:

This paper investigates MIMO (Multiple-Input Multiple-Output) adaptive filtering techniques for the application of supervised source separation in the context of convolutive mixtures. From the observation that there is correlation among the signals of the different mixtures, an improvement in the NSAF (Normalized Subband Adaptive Filter) algorithm is proposed in order to accelerate its convergence rate. Simulation results with mixtures of speech signals in reverberant environments show the superior performance of the proposed algorithm with respect to the performances of the NLMS (Normalized Least-Mean-Square) and conventional NSAF, considering both the convergence speed and SIR (Signal-to-Interference Ratio) after convergence.

Keywords: Adaptive Filtering, Source Separation, multi-rate processing, normalized subband adaptive filter

Procedia PDF Downloads 145
50 Chromium Adsorption by Modified Wood

Authors: Luísa P. Cruz-Lopes, I. Domingos, B. Esteves, A. Figueirinha, J. Ferreira, H. Pereira

Abstract:

Chromium is one of the most common heavy metals which exist in very high concentrations in wastewater. The removal is very expensive due to the high cost of normal adsorbents. Lignocellulosic materials and mainly treated materials have proven to be a good solution for this problem. Adsorption tests were performed at different pH, different times and with varying concentrations. Results show that is at pH 3 that treated wood absorbs more chromium ranging from 70% (2h treatment) to almost 100% (12 h treatment) much more than untreated wood with less than 40%. Most of the adsorption is made in the first 2-3 hours for untreated and heat treated wood. Modified wood adsorbs more chromium throughout the time. For all the samples, adsorption fitted relatively well the Langmuir model with correlation coefficient ranging from 0.85 to 0.97. The results show that heat treated wood is a good adsorbent ant that this might be a good utilization for sawdust from treating companies.

Keywords: Heat Treatment, Adsorption, Chromium, wood modification

Procedia PDF Downloads 96
49 Model of Transhipment and Routing Applied to the Cargo Sector in Small and Medium Enterprises of Bogotá, Colombia

Authors: Oscar Javier Herrera Ochoa, Ivan Dario Romero Fonseca

Abstract:

This paper presents a design of a model for planning the distribution logistics operation. The significance of this work relies on the applicability of this fact to the analysis of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) of dry freight in Bogotá. Two stages constitute this implementation: the first one is the place where optimal planning is achieved through a hybrid model developed with mixed integer programming, which considers the transhipment operation based on a combined load allocation model as a classic transshipment model; the second one is the specific routing of that operation through the heuristics of Clark and Wright. As a result, an integral model is obtained to carry out the step by step planning of the distribution of dry freight for SMEs in Bogotá. In this manner, optimum assignments are established by utilizing transshipment centers with that purpose of determining the specific routing based on the shortest distance traveled.

Keywords: mixed integer programming, transshipment model, saving algorithm, dry freight transportation

Procedia PDF Downloads 55
48 Providing Emotional Support to Children under Long-Term Health Treatments

Authors: Sergio F. Ochoa, Ramón Cruzat, Ignacio Casas, Luis A. Guerrero, José Bravo

Abstract:

Patients under health treatments that involve long stays at a hospital or health centre (e.g. cancer, organ transplants and severe burns), tend to get bored or depressed because of the lack of social interaction with family and friends. Such a situation also affects the evolution and effectiveness of their treatments. In many cases, the solution to this problem involves extra challenges, since many patients need to rest quietly (or remain in bed) to their being contagious. Considering the weak health condition in which usually are these kinds, keeping them motivated and quiet represents an important challenge for nurses and caregivers. This article presents a mobile ubiquitous game called MagicRace, which allows hospitalized kinds to interact socially with one another without putting to risk their sensitive health conditions. The game does not require a communication infrastructure at the hospital, but instead, it uses a mobile ad hoc network composed of the handheld devices used by the kids to play. The usability and performance of this application was tested in two different sessions. The preliminary results show that users experienced positive feelings from this experience.

Keywords: ubiquitous game, children's emotional support, social isolation, mobile collaborative interactions

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47 Production of Polyurethane Foams from Bark Wastes

Authors: Bruno Esteves, Luísa P. Cruz-Lopes, Liliana Rodrigues, Idalina Domingos, José Ferreira, Luís Teixeira de Lemos

Abstract:

Currently, the polyurethanes industry is dependent on fossil resources to obtain their basic raw materials (polyols and isocyanate), as these are obtained from petroleum products. The aim of this work was to use biopolyols from liquefied Pseudotsuga (Pseudotsuga menziesii) and Turkey oak (Quercus cerris) barks for the production of polyurethane foams and optimize the process. Liquefaction was done with glycerol catalyzed by KOH. Foams were produced following different formulations and using biopolyols from both barks. Subsequently, the foams were characterized according to their mechanical properties and the reaction of the foam formation was monitored by FTIR-ATR. The results show that it is possible to produce polyurethane foams using bio-based polyols and the liquefaction conditions are very important because they influence the characteristics of biopolyols and, consequently the characteristics of the foams. However, the process has to be further optimized so that it can obtain better quality foams.

Keywords: Renewable Resources, polyurethane foam, Bio-based polyol, mechanical tests, Pseudotsuga bark, Turkey oak bark

Procedia PDF Downloads 169
46 Intelligent Tutor Using Adaptive Learning to Partial Discharges with Virtual Reality Systems

Authors: Hernández Yasmín, Ochoa Alberto, Hurtado Diego

Abstract:

The aim of this study is developing an intelligent tutoring system for electrical operators training with virtual reality systems at the laboratory center of partials discharges LAPEM. The electrical domain requires efficient and well trained personnel, due to the danger involved in the partials discharges field, qualified electricians are required. This paper presents an overview of the intelligent tutor adaptive learning design and user interface with VR. We propose the develop of constructing a model domain of a subset of partial discharges enables adaptive training through a trainee model which represents the affective and knowledge states of trainees. According to the success of the intelligent tutor system with VR, it is also hypothesized that the trainees will able to learn the electrical domain installations of partial discharges and gain knowledge more efficient and well trained than trainees using traditional methods of teaching without running any risk of being in danger, traditional methods makes training lengthily, costly and dangerously.

Keywords: Virtual Reality, Artificial Intelligence, Adaptive Learning, intelligent tutoring system, partials discharges

Procedia PDF Downloads 192
45 Ag-Cu and Bi-Cd Eutectics Ribbons under Superplastic Tensile Test Regime

Authors: Edgar Ochoa, G. Torres-Villasenor

Abstract:

Superplastic deformation is shown by materials with a fine grain size, usually less than 10 μm, when they are deformed within the strain rate range 10-5 10-1 s-1 at temperatures greater than 0.5Tm, where Tm is the melting point in Kelvin. According to the constitutive equation for superplastic flow, refinement of the grain size would be expected to increase the optimum strain rate and decrease the temperature required for superplastic flow. Ribbons of eutectic Ag-Cu and Bi-Cd alloys were manufactured by using a single roller melt-spinning technique to obtain a fine grain structure for later test in superplastic regime. The eutectics ribbons were examined by scanning electron microscopy and X-Ray diffraction, and the grain size was determined using the image analysis software ImageJ. The average grain size was less than 1 μm. Tensile tests were carried out from 10-4 to 10-1 s-1, at room temperature, to evaluate the superplastic behavior. The largest deformation was shown by the Bi-Cd eutectic ribbons, Ɛ=140 %, despite that these ribbons have a hexagonal unit cell. On the other hand, Ag-Cu eutectic ribbons have a minor grain size and cube unit cell, however they showed a lower deformation in tensile test under the same conditions than Bi-Cd ribbons. This is because the Ag-Cu grew in a strong cube-cube orientation relationship.

Keywords: eutectic ribbon, fine grain, superplastic deformation, cube-cube orientation

Procedia PDF Downloads 54
44 Ecotoxicological Safety of Wastewater Treated with Lignocellulosic Adsorbents

Authors: Isabel Brás, Artur Figueirinha, Bruno Esteves, Luísa P. Cruz-Lopes

Abstract:

Portugal is an important wine and olive oil producer, activities which generate a high quantity of residues commonly called grape stalks and olive cake, respectively. In this work grape stalks and olive cake were used as lignocellulosic adsorbents for wastewater containing lead treatment. To attain a better knowledge of the factors that could influence the quality of the treated wastewater, a chemical characterization of the materials used in the treatment was done. To access the ecotoxicological safety of the treated wastewater, several tests were performed. The results of the toxicity test show that the samples leachate has a mild effect on the living models tested. The tests performed in lemna and bacteria were the most sensible to toxicity effects of the samples. The results obtained in this work evidenced the importance of use of simple and fast toxicity tests to predict impacts in the environment.

Keywords: wastewater, Chemical Composition, lignocellulosic residues, ecotoxicological safety

Procedia PDF Downloads 153
43 Board of Directors Characteristics and Credit Union Financial Performance

Authors: Luisa Unda, Kamran Ahmed, Paul Mather

Abstract:

We examine the effect of board characteristics on the performance and asset quality of credit unions in Australia, using a large sample covering the period 2004-2012. Credit unions are unique in that they are customer-owned financial institutions and directors are democratically elected by members, which is distinctly different from other financial institutions, such as commercial banks. We find that board remuneration, board expertise, and attendance at board meetings have significantly positive impacts on credit union performance and asset quality, while board members who hold multiple directorships (busy directors), have a significant negative impact on credit union performance. Financial performance also improves with larger boards and long-tenured directors in credit unions. All of these relations hold after we control for alternative measures of performance, credit union characteristics and endogeneity problem.

Keywords: Corporate Governance, Australia, Financial Performance, board of directors, credit unions, asset quality

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42 Financial Inclusion from the Perspective of Social Innovation: The Case of Colombia

Authors: Maria Luisa Jaramillo, Alvaro Turriago Hoyos, Ulf Thoene

Abstract:

Financial inclusion has become a crucially important factor in debates on economic inequality posing challenges to the financial systems of countries around the world. Nowadays, governments and banks are concerned about creating products that allow access to wide sectors of the population. The creation of banking products by the financial sector for people with low incomes tends to lead to improvements in the quality of life of vulnerable parts of the population. In countries with notable social and economic inequalities financial inclusion is a key aspect for equitable economic growth. This study is based on the case of Colombia, which is a country with a strong record of economic growth over the past decade. Nevertheless, corruption, unemployment, and poverty contribute to uncertainty regarding the country’s future growth prospects. This study wants to explain the situation of financial exclusion and financial inclusion with respect to the Colombian case. Financial inclusion is going to be studied from the perspective of social innovation.

Keywords: Social innovation, Colombia, financial inclusion, financial exclusion

Procedia PDF Downloads 182
41 Sustainable Sewer Urban Systems Analysis as Management Mechanisms and Rain Water Control

Authors: Ezequiel Garcia-Rodriguez, Lenin Hernandez-Ferreyra, Luis Ochoa-Franco

Abstract:

The sustainable sewer urban systems (SSUS) are mechanisms integrated into the cities for manage rainwater, reducing its runoff volume and velocity, enhancing the rainwater quality and preventing flooding and other catastrophes associated to the rain, as well as improving the energy efficiency. The objective of SSUS is to mimic or to equal the runoff and infiltration natural conditions of the land before its urbanization, reducing runoff that may cause troubles within the houses, as well as flooding. At the same time, energy for warming homes and for pumping and treating water is reduced, contributing to the reduction of CO₂ emissions and therefore contributing to reduce climate change. This paper contains an evaluation of the advantages that SSUS may offer within a zone of Morelia City, Mexico, applying support tools for decision making. Different types of SSUS were used in this case study, assessing their effect on the rainwater flow behavior within the study area. SSUS usage, in this case, resulted in an important reduction of the magnitude and velocity of runoff, reducing, therefore, the risk of flooding. So that, it is recommended the implementation of SSUS in this case.

Keywords: Energy Efficiency, Urban Systems, Morelia, sustainable sewer

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40 A Parallel Approach for 3D-Variational Data Assimilation on GPUs in Ocean Circulation Models

Authors: Luisa D'amore, Giuseppe Scotti, Rossella Arcucci, Simone Celestino, Giuliano Laccetti

Abstract:

This work is the first dowel in a rather wide research activity in collaboration with Euro Mediterranean Center for Climate Changes, aimed at introducing scalable approaches in Ocean Circulation Models. We discuss designing and implementation of a parallel algorithm for solving the Variational Data Assimilation (DA) problem on Graphics Processing Units (GPUs). The algorithm is based on the fully scalable 3DVar DA model, previously proposed by the authors, which uses a Domain Decomposition approach (we refer to this model as the DD-DA model). We proceed with an incremental porting process consisting of 3 distinct stages: requirements and source code analysis, incremental development of CUDA kernels, testing and optimization. Experiments confirm the theoretic performance analysis based on the so-called scale up factor demonstrating that the DD-DA model can be suitably mapped on GPU architectures.

Keywords: Data Assimilation, GPU architectures, ocean models, parallel algorithm

Procedia PDF Downloads 245
39 The Other Dreamers: A Study of the Relationship between Returned Migration and Entrepreneurship

Authors: Pascual García, Francisco Ochoa, Jessica Ordoñez

Abstract:

The links between migration and development have been widely written and analyzed from different perspectives. However, the nexus between entrepreneurship and migration is of recent interest. The different studies related to this have focused on the ventures of ethnic enclaves, or on transnational businesses, which link the community of origin and destination. Beyond this perspective, this work analyzes the return migration, (a few studies until now, but forming part of a theoretical body of migration). As a result of the European crisis started between 2007-2008. Many Ecuadorians who lived in Europe, decided to return to their place of origin. The rise of the price of the oil and commodities presented a better panorama in Ecuador than in Europe. Faced with the magnitude of returnees, the opportunities for entrepreneurship in Ecuador increased (Accumulation of human capital, social capital, learned skills and capital). Thus there is an interest in the possibility of returned migrants in the country to start a business in their place of origin. The following study is the result of this. A survey of 110 returned migrants was carried out in the south of Ecuador and, using a Probit econometric model, we determined that the variables specified as geographic area, sex, education level are not significant, so they are not determinant when undertaking. However, time abroad and skills learned, if they were significant at the time of the decision to start a business.

Keywords: Entrepreneurship, Migration, Development, returned migration

Procedia PDF Downloads 62
38 A Framework for Systemically Understanding and Increasing Compliance with Water Regulation in Time Limited and Uncertain Contexts

Authors: Luisa Perez-Mujica

Abstract:

Traditionally, non-compliance in water regulation has been understood to be attributable to lack of information or knowledge of regulations. In other words, it is confusing behavioural change and education with communication or regulations. However, compliance is a complex response to water regulation factors including 1) knowledge and understanding of regulations; 2) perception that resources are overregulated; 3) presence of regulatory officers in the field; 4) accurate communication of what is being protected; 5) time lag between behavioral change projects and observation of outcomes and 6) how success of behavioral change is measured and evaluated. This paper presents a framework for designing education and behavioral change projects by understanding non-compliance in terms of the interaction of its factors, including a process for prioritizing projects, actions, evaluation and monitoring of outcomes. By taking a systemic approach to compliance, a more directed type of actions can be efficiently identified and prioritized, preventing the reactive nature of education and behavioral change projects.

Keywords: Compliance, Systems Thinking, Behaviour Change, water regulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 74
37 Ignition Interlock Device for Motorcycles

Authors: Luisito L. Lacatan, Zacha Valerie G. Ancheta, Michelangelo A. Dorado, Lester Joseph M. Ochoa, Anthony Mark G. Tayabas

Abstract:

Ignition Interlock Device or IID is a mechanism installed inside a vehicle which requires the driver to breathe into the device before starting the vehicle. If the IID detects that the alcohol level or blood alcohol content (BAC) is higher than the accepted value, the engine will not start. If the driver is not able to provide a clean breath sample, the IID will log the event, warn the driver, and then start up an alarm. The purpose of the IID is to prevent accidents due to driving under the influence (DUI). With the rise of the two-wheeled vehicle in the Philippines due to its mobility and purchasing power, IIDs are still mainly installed on four-wheeled vehicles. Even though riding the motorcycle when drunk is more dangerous, there are only a small number of installed devices on motorcycles and scooters. The general objective of this study was to develop a system with hardware and software components that would implement IID on motorcycles. The study employed a descriptive method of research. The study also concluded the following: the infrared must have a point-to-point communication, the breathalyzer on the helmet should react to ethanol, the microcontroller on the motorcycle should accept all IR signals from the helmet and interpret it and the GPS shield should have an unobstructed line-of-sight communication with the GPS satellites.

Keywords: Global Positioning System, global system for mobile communication, blood alcohol content, breathalyser, driving under the influence

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36 A 'German Europe' Emerged from the Euro Crisis: A Study through the Portuguese Quality Press

Authors: Ana Luísa Mouro

Abstract:

When the financial crisis exploded in 2008 in the United States, unleashed by the collapse of Lehman Brothers, and contaminated the economies of the European periphery, Germany appeared as the anchor of the stability of all European institutions and countries in difficulty. The solutions provided by the German government have triggered a deep political debate about the key position Germany has conquered at the heart of Europe - a new “German question” has been created. Some say Germany has achieved by peaceful means what was not able to get through military conquest - the domination of Europe – and many fear Germany’s economic power. This debate about the new role of Germany in Europe has received special attention in the European media and Portugal has not been the exception. The present study has been based on the survey, selection and critical analysis of news reporting, opinion articles, interviews and editorials, published in the weekly Expresso and in the daily Público, between 2008 and 2015 (year of the 25th anniversary of Germany’s unification). The findings of this study will show the paradox of German power and its relevance for Europe’s future.

Keywords: Euro crises, German Europe, intercultural hermeneutics, Portuguese quality press

Procedia PDF Downloads 109
35 Iterative Estimator-Based Nonlinear Backstepping Control of a Robotic Exoskeleton

Authors: Brahmi Brahim, Maarouf Saad, Mohammad Habibur Rahman, Cristóbal Ochoa Luna

Abstract:

A repetitive training movement is an efficient method to improve the ability and movement performance of stroke survivors and help them to recover their lost motor function and acquire new skills. The ETS-MARSE is seven degrees of freedom (DOF) exoskeleton robot developed to be worn on the lateral side of the right upper-extremity to assist and rehabilitate the patients with upper-extremity dysfunction resulting from stroke. Practically, rehabilitation activities are repetitive tasks, which make the assistive/robotic systems to suffer from repetitive/periodic uncertainties and external perturbations induced by the high-order dynamic model (seven DOF) and interaction with human muscle which impact on the tracking performance and even on the stability of the exoskeleton. To ensure the robustness and the stability of the robot, a new nonlinear backstepping control was implemented with designed tests performed by healthy subjects. In order to limit and to reject the periodic/repetitive disturbances, an iterative estimator was integrated into the control of the system. The estimator does not need the precise dynamic model of the exoskeleton. Experimental results confirm the robustness and accuracy of the controller performance to deal with the external perturbation, and the effectiveness of the iterative estimator to reject the repetitive/periodic disturbances.

Keywords: Rehabilitation, Backstepping control, iterative control, ETS-MARSE

Procedia PDF Downloads 159
34 Cultural Tourism in Mexico as a Strategy to Attract Chinese Tourists

Authors: Ruben Molina, Melissa Ochoa

Abstract:

The rapid expansion and facilities that the Chinese government has granted to its inhabitants to travel abroad has brought benefits to the economies of the countries where these tourists travel. Due to the great economic spill that these tourists make in their travels and the great potential they possess, they become one of the most attractive segments in the world, causing countries to seek to attract them for the profits. The Chinese tourist is a tourist who seeks to know the culture, culinary experiences, traditions and folklore of the place where they travel, more than seeking sun and beach. Mexico is a country that has a great mix of tourist products and services, which favors that the tourism offer focuses on the satisfaction of the needs and preferences of the different segments of international tourists who arrive in Mexico: sun and beach tourism and also cultural tourism. Mexico has 51 sites inscribed on the World Heritage List, of which 12 are natural, 37 are cultural and 2 are mixed. Despite the great tourist attraction of the country and the strategic importance of the sector for the economy, Mexico has not managed to have a large number of tourists or income from international tourism for 15 years. One way to increase the travel industry is to attract the Chinese tourist to Mexico, which is considered a priority by countries like the United States, France and Spain due to the advantages they entail. Therefore, this article will describe the tastes, preferences and habits of Chinese tourists coming to the most popular destinations in Mexico through a Likert scale and it will be described which are the most attractive cultural factors in Mexico for the Chinese tourists and will be proposing strategies of attraction for Mexico and its destinations.

Keywords: Strategic, Cultural tourism, Mexico, attraction, Chinese tourist

Procedia PDF Downloads 314
33 Physical Habitat Simulation and Comparison within a Lerma River Reach, with Respect to the Same but Modified Reach, to Create a Linear Park

Authors: Luis A. Ochoa-Franco, Adrian I. Cervantes-Servin, Garcia-Rodriguez Ezequiel

Abstract:

In this work, the Ictalurus punctatus species estimated available physical habitat is compared with the estimated physical habitat for the same but modified river reach, with the aim of creating a linear park, along a length of 5 500 m. To determine the effect of ecological park construction, on physical habitat of the Lerma river stretch of study, first, the available habitat for the Ictalurus punctatus species was estimated through the simulation of the physical habitat, by using surveying, hydraulics, and habitat information gotten at the river reach in its actual situation. Second, it was estimated the available habitat for the above species, upon the simulation of the physical habitat through the proposed modification for the ecological park creation. Third, it is presented a comparison between both scenarios in terms of available habitat estimated for Ictalurus punctatus species, concluding that in cases of adult and spawning life stages, changes in the channel to create an ecological park would produce a considerable loss of potentially usable habitat (PUH), while in the case of the juvenile life stage PUH remains virtually unchanged, and in the case of life stage fry the PUH would increase due to the presence of velocities and depths of lesser magnitude, due to the presence of minor flow rates and lower volume of the wet channel. It is expected that habitat modification for linear park construction may produce the lack of Ictalurus punktatus species conservation at the river reach of the study.

Keywords: Habitat modification, Ictalurus punctatus, Lerma, river, linear park

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32 Impact of Nurses' Migration to Nursing Management in Selected Health Institutions in the Philippines

Authors: Maria Luisa T. Uayan

Abstract:

The global need for qualified nurses to take care of the clients with various health needs is an incessant occurrence that persistently cause migration of nurses from developing to developed countries. The pull-push theory of migration greatly affects health care delivery systems of sending countries which is the same way affects nursing management. The exodus of nurses prepared to provide the much needed leadership at the bedside leaves the country in clusters giving health care institutions limited time to develop the next front-line managers that will assure quality patient care. This paper focuses on the extent and consequences of the massive recurring migration phenomena that is felt ONLY IN THE PHILIPPINE health care arena. It deals with the causes, problems, and effects of the cyclical loss of competent Filipina nurses in terms of emigration. Also, it will highlights the difficulties confronted by nursing service departments and health care teams when more experienced nurses set out for the “greener pastures” and patients are placed under the care of novice nurses. Fundamentally, it will emphasize the impact of suffering the loss of competent nurse managers in the Philippine health care institutions and provide contemporary recommendations on how to responsd accordingly to this very timely issue.

Keywords: Migration, Philippines, Nurse Manager

Procedia PDF Downloads 241
31 Medical Error: Concept and Description According to Brazilian Physicians

Authors: Vitor S. Mendonca, Maria Luisa S. Schmidt

Abstract:

The Brazilian medical profession is viewed as being error-free, so healthcare professionals who commit an error are condemned there. Medical errors occur frequently in the Brazilian healthcare system, so identifying better options for handling this issue has become of interest primarily for physicians. The purpose of this study is to better understand the tensions involved in the fear of making an error due to the harm and risk this would represent for those involved. A qualitative study was performed by means of the narratives of the lived experiences of ten acting physicians in the State of Sao Paulo. The concept and characterization of errors were discussed, together with the fear of making an error, the near misses or error in itself, how to deal with errors and what to do to avoid them. The analysis indicates an excessive pressure in the medical profession for error-free practices, with a well-established physician-patient relationship to facilitate the management of medical errors. The error occurs, but a lack of information and discussion often leads to its concealment due to fear or possible judgment by society or peers. The establishment of programs that encourage appropriate medical conduct in the event of an error requires coherent answers for humanization in Brazilian medical science. It is necessary to improve the discussion about medical errors and disseminate models of communication and notification of errors in Brazil.

Keywords: Qualitative Research, Narrative, medical error, physician-patient relationship

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30 Cultivation of Halophytes: Effect of Salinity on Nutritional and Functional Properties

Authors: Luisa Barreira, Viana Castaneda, Maria J. Rodrigues, Florinda Gama, Tamara Santos, Marta Oliveira, Catarina Pereira, Maribela Pestana, Pedro Correia, Miguel Salazar, Carla Nunes, Luisa Custodio, Joao Varela

Abstract:

In the last century, the world witnessed an exponential demographic increase that has put an enormous pressure on agriculture and food production. Associated also with climate changes, there has been a decrease in the amount of available freshwater and an increased salinization of soils which can affect the production of most food crops. Halophytes, however, are plants able to withstand high salinities while maintaining a good growth productivity. To cope with the excess salt, they produce secondary metabolites (e.g. vitamins and phenolic compounds) which, along with the natural presence of some minerals, makes them not only nutritionally rich but also functional foods. Some halophytes, as quinoa or salicornia, are already used in some countries, mostly as gourmet food. Hydroponic cultivation of halophytes using seawater or diluted seawater for watering can decrease the pressure on freshwater resources while producing a nutritional and functional food. The XtremeGourmet project funded by the EU aims to develop and optimize the production of different halophytes by hydroponics. One of the more specific objectives of this project is the study of halophytes’ productivity and chemical composition under different abiotic conditions, e.g. salt and nutrient concentration and light intensity. Three species of halophytes commonly occurring in saltmarshes of the South of Portugal (Inula chrithmoides, Salicornia ramosissima and Mesembryanthemum nodiflorum) were cultivated using hydroponics under different salinities, ranging from 5 to 45 dS/m. For each condition, several parameters were assessed namely: total and commercial productivity, electrical conductivity, total soluble solids, proximal composition, mineral profile, total phenolics, flavonoids and condensed tannins content and antioxidant activity. Results show that productivity was significantly reduced for all plants with increasing salinity up to salinity 29 dS/m and remained low onwards. Oppositely, the electrical conductivity and the total soluble solids content of the produced plants increased with salinity, reaching a plateau at 29 dS/m. It seems that plants reflect the salt concentration of the water up to some point, being able to regulate their salt content for higher salinities. The same tendency was observed for the ash content of these plants, which is related to the mineral uptake from the cultivating media and the plants’ capacity to both accumulate and regulate ions’ concentration in their tissues. Nonetheless, this comes with a metabolic cost which is observed by a decrease in productivity. The mineral profile of these plants shows high concentrations of sodium but also high amounts of potassium. In what concerns the microelements, these plants appear to be a good source of manganese and iron and the low amounts of toxic metals account for their safe consumption in moderate amounts. Concerning the phenolics composition, plants presented moderate concentrations of phenolics but high amounts of condensed tannins, particularly I. crithmoides which accounts for its characteristic sour and spicy taste. Contrary to some studies in which higher amounts of phenolics were found in plants cultivated under higher salinities, in this study, the highest amount of phenolic compounds were found in plants grown at the lowest or intermediate salinities. Nonetheless, there was a positive correlation between the concentration of these compounds and the antioxidant capacity of the plants’ extracts.

Keywords: Hydroponics, functional properties, halophytes, nutritional composition, salinity effect

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29 Representations of Germanophobia during the German Unification and the Euro Crisis: A Comparative Study in the Portuguese Press

Authors: Ana Luísa Mouro, Ana Maria Ramalheira

Abstract:

The Reunification of Germany, in 1990, was not received with great enthusiasm by other European countries. On the contrary, the union of the two German states was accompanied by great concern towards its possible political and economic consequences. The Europeans had not forgotten Germany’s responsibility in the outbreak of the Second World War, and many feared that this new nation would again long for a hegemonic role. During the following years, however, the notion of a threatening Germany faded away, giving place to a description of Germany as an economic giant but a political dwarf. Twenty years after the Reunification, with the outbreak of the financial crisis, Germany conquered a key and powerful position at the heart of Europe and Germanophobia started to gain ground again. The present study has been based on the survey, selection and critical analysis of news reporting, opinion articles, interviews and editorials, published in the weekly Expresso and the daily Público, during two historical moments: the Reunification of Germany in 1990 and the European Crisis, between 2008 and 2015. The findings of this study will show that Germany’s growing influence over the current European economic and political scene woke up old 'demons' that had been 'sleeping' since 1990.

Keywords: Media and Cultural Studies, Portuguese quality press, Euro crisis, German Unification, Germanophobia

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28 Identity Conflict between Social and Business Entrepreneurs: The Challenge of Constructing a Novel Social Identity

Authors: Rui G. Serôdio, Carina Martins, Alexandra Serra, José A. Lima, Luísa Catita, Paula Lopes

Abstract:

Building on social identity approach, we tested the impact of social categorization and comparison in the psychosocial process by which social entrepreneurs define their group identity. Specifically, we address how both differentiation and assimilation processes are set of in the context of constructing a novel, distinctive and socially salient – social entrepreneurs. As part of a larger research line, a quasi-experimental study with Social and Business Entrepreneurs, as well as “Lay People” provided evidence consistent with our predictions: (1) Social Entrepreneurs, in contrast with Lay People and Business Entrepreneurs, value more strongly social identity than personal identity, and the later is the only group that values Personal Differentiation; (2) unlike Entrepreneurs, Social Entrepreneurs display an ingroup bias across group evaluations; (3) Lay People, display a self-serving bias, although, overall, they allocate a more positive image to the target groups; (4) combining own vs. others evaluations across all groups, Social Entrepreneurs receive the more positive value. From the standpoint of social identity and self-categorization theories and their approach to group process, we discuss the processes of intergroup comparison and differentiation as core processes in the construction of a positive social identity. We illustrate it within the context of social entrepreneurship, a political and social “wave” that flows across Europe at this time.

Keywords: social entrepreneurship, Social identity, Group Processes, business entrepreneurs

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27 High-Accuracy Satellite Image Analysis and Rapid DSM Extraction for Urban Environment Evaluations (Tripoli-Libya)

Authors: Abdunaser Abduelmula, Maria Luisa M. Bastos, José A. Gonçalves

Abstract:

The modeling of the earth's surface and evaluation of urban environment, with 3D models, is an important research topic. New stereo capabilities of high-resolution optical satellites images, such as the tri-stereo mode of Pleiades, combined with new image matching algorithms, are now available and can be applied in urban area analysis. In addition, photogrammetry software packages gained new, more efficient matching algorithms, such as SGM, as well as improved filters to deal with shadow areas, can achieve denser and more precise results. This paper describes a comparison between 3D data extracted from tri-stereo and dual stereo satellite images, combined with pixel based matching and Wallis filter. The aim was to improve the accuracy of 3D models especially in urban areas, in order to assess if satellite images are appropriate for a rapid evaluation of urban environments. The results showed that 3D models achieved by Pleiades tri-stereo outperformed, both in terms of accuracy and detail, the result obtained from a Geo-eye pair. The assessment was made with reference digital surface models derived from high-resolution aerial photography. This could mean that tri-stereo images can be successfully used for the proposed urban change analyses.

Keywords: Environment, Matching, pleiades

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