Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 59

Search results for: Kenneth Uzochukwu Ezugwu

59 Teacher Education and Curriculum Innovation in Nigeria: Issues and Perspectives

Authors: Kenneth Uzochukwu Ezugwu

Abstract:

The quest for adequate teacher education is a serious task for the educational system in Nigeria because teachers are the major translators of education programmes in the classroom. The production of well trained teachers will enhance quality of the products of the school system. It is in this respect that the national policy on education posited that no educational system can rise above the quality of teachers. It is in the light of the above that this paper discusses and brought to the fore certain issues as the re-introduction of teacher training colleges, competitive entry requirement into teacher education and continuous on-the-job training as areas of needed innovation.

Keywords: curriculum innovation, issues, perspectives, teacher education

Procedia PDF Downloads 493
58 Effect of Carbon Nanotubes on Thermophysical Properties of Photothermal Fluid and Enhancement of Photothermal Deflection Signal

Authors: Muhammad Shafiq Ahmed, Sabastine Ezugwu

Abstract:

Thermophysical properties of Carbon Tetrachloride (CCl₄), a photothermal fluid used frequently in Photothermal Deflection Spectroscopy (PDS), containing different volume fractions of single walled carbon nanotube (SWCNTs) and their effect on the amplitude of PDS signal are investigated. It is found that the presence of highly thermally conducting SWCNTs in CCl₄ enhances the heat transfer from heated sample to the adjoining photothermal fluid, resulting in an increase in the intensity of amplitude of PDS signal. With the increasing volume fraction of SWCNTs in CCl₄, the amplitude of PDS signal is nearly doubled for volume fraction fopt =3.7X10⁻³ %., after that the signal drops with a further increase in the fraction of SWCNTs. It is shown that the use of highly thermally conducting carbon nanotubes enhances the heat exchange coefficient between the heated sample surface and adjoining fluid, resulting to an enhancement of PDS signal and consequently the improvement in the sensitivity of PDS technique.

Keywords: carbon nanotubes, heat transfer, nanofluid, photothermal deflection spectroscopy, thermophysical properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 92
57 Identification of Autism Spectrum Disorders in Day-Care Centres

Authors: Kenneth Larsen, Astrid Aasland, Synnve Schjølberg, Trond Diseth

Abstract:

Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are neurodevelopmental disorders emerging in early development characterized by impairment in social communication skills and a restricted, repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behavior and interests. Early identification and interventions potentially improve development and quality of life of children with ASD. Symptoms of ASD are apparent through the second year of life, yet diagnostic age are still around 4 years of age. This study explored whether symptoms associated with ASD are possible to identify in typical Norwegian day-care centers in the second year of life. Results of this study clearly indicates that most described symptoms also are identifiable by day-care staff, and that a short observation list of 5 symptoms clearly identify children with ASD from a sample of normal developing peers.

Keywords: autism, early identification, day-care, screening

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56 Egg Yolk and Serum Cholesterol Reducing Effect of Garlic and Natural Cocoa Powder Using Laying Birds as Model

Authors: Onyimonyi Anselm Ego, Obi-Keguna Christy, Dim Emmanuel Chinonso, Ugwuanyi Evelyn, Uzochukwu Ifeanyi Emmanuel

Abstract:

A total of 144 Shaver Brown Layers in their sixteenth week of lay were used in a twelve weeks study to evaluate the egg yolk and serum cholesterol of the birds when fed varying dietary combinations of garlic and natural cocoa powder. The birds were randomly assigned into nine dietary treatments with 16 birds per treatment. Each bird was housed separately in a cage measuring 45 cm x 35 cm in an open sided battery cage house typical of the tropics. A standard poultry mash diet with 16.5% CP and 2800 KcalME/kg was formulated as the basal ration which also served as the control diet. Garlic and natural cocoa powder were incorporated in varying combinations (50 g or 100 g/100 kg of feed) in the remaining eight treatments. Weekly data of egg weight, egg length, egg diameter, yolk weight, albumen weight and hen day egg production were kept. Egg yolk and serum cholesterol levels were determined using a Randox kit. Results showed that birds receiving garlic and natural cocoa powder had significantly (P<0.05) reduced egg and albumen weight as compared to control birds. Hen day production of the birds was also significantly higher than control birds. Egg yolk and serum cholesterol of birds receiving the garlic and natural cocoa powder were significantly (P<0.05) lower than the control. Serum cholesterol levels showed decline in the birds receiving garlic and natural cocoa powder. The least yolk cholesterol level of 160 mg/dl was observed in birds receiving 50g garlic and 50 g natural cocoa powder (Treatment 5). Control birds had an egg cholesterol level of 245.45 mg/dl. It was concluded that incorporating garlic and natural cocoa powder in the diets of laying hens can result in a significant reduction in the egg and serum cholesterol levels.

Keywords: egg, serum, cholesterol, garlic

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55 Quality and Coverage Assessment in Software Integration Based On Mutation Testing

Authors: Iyad Alazzam, Kenneth Magel, Izzat Alsmadi

Abstract:

The different activities and approaches in software testing try to find the most possible number of errors or failures with the least amount of possible effort. Mutation is a testing approach that is used to discover possible errors in tested applications. This is accomplished through changing one aspect of the software from its original and writes test cases to detect such change or mutation. In this paper, we present a mutation approach for testing software components integration aspects. Several mutation operations related to components integration are described and evaluated. A test case study of several open source code projects is collected. Proposed mutation operators are applied and evaluated. Results showed some insights and information that can help testing activities in detecting errors and improving coverage.

Keywords: software testing, integration testing, mutation, coverage, software design

Procedia PDF Downloads 339
54 A Method for Quantifying Arsenolipids in Sea Water by HPLC-High Resolution Mass Spectrometry

Authors: Muslim Khan, Kenneth B. Jensen, Kevin A. Francesconi

Abstract:

Trace amounts (ca 1 µg/L, 13 nM) of arsenic are present in sea water mostly as the oxyanion arsenate. In contrast, arsenic is present in marine biota (animals and algae) at very high levels (up to100,000 µg/kg) a significant portion of which is present as lipid-soluble compounds collectively termed arsenolipids. The complex nature of sea water presents an analytical challenge to detect trace compounds and monitor their environmental path. We developed a simple method using liquid-liquid extraction combined with HPLC-High Resolution Mass Spectrometer capable of detecting trace of arsenolipids (99 % of the sample matrix while recovering > 80 % of the six target arsenolipids with limit of detection of 0.003 µg/L.)

Keywords: arsenolipids, sea water, HPLC-high resolution mass spectrometry

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53 The Nature of Intelligence and Its Forms: An Ontological-Modeling Approach

Authors: Husam El-Asfour, Fateh Adhnouss, Kenneth McIsaac, Abdul Mutalib Wahaishi, Raafat Aburukba, Idris El-Feghia

Abstract:

Although intelligence is commonly referred to as the observable behavior in various fields and domains, it must also be shown how it develops by exhibiting multiple forms and without observing the inherent behavior. There have been several official and informal definitions of intelligence in various areas; however, no scientific agreement on a definition has been agreed upon. There must be a single definition, structure, and precise modeling for articulating how intelligence is perceived by people and machines in order to comprehend intelligence. Another key challenge is defining the different environment types based on the integral elements (agents) and their possible interactions. On the basis of conceptualization, this paper proposes a formal model for defining and developing intelligence. Forms of intelligence are derived from an ontological view, and thus intelligence is defined, described, and modeled based on the various types of environments.

Keywords: intelligence, forms, transformation, conceptualization, ontological view

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52 Bacteriological Quality of Commercially Prepared Fermented Ogi (AKAMU) Sold in Some Parts of South Eastern Nigeria

Authors: Alloysius C. Ogodo, Ositadinma C. Ugbogu, Uzochukwu G. Ekeleme

Abstract:

Food poisoning and infection by bacteria are of public health significance to both developing and developed countries. Samples of ogi (akamu) prepared from white and yellow variety of maize sold in Uturu and Okigwe were analyzed together with the laboratory prepared ogi for microbial quality using the standard microbiological methods. The analyses showed that both white and yellow variety had total bacterial counts (cfu/g) of 4.0 ×107 and 3.9 x 107 for the laboratory prepared ogi while the commercial ogi had 5.2 x 107 and 4.9 x107, 4.9 x107 and 4.5 x107, 5.4 x107 and 5.0 x107 for Eke-Okigwe, Up-gate and Nkwo-Achara market respectively. The Staphylococcal counts ranged from 2.0 x 102 to 5.0 x102 and 1.0 x 102 to 4.0 x102 for the white and yellow variety from the different markets while Staphylococcal growth was not recorded on the laboratory prepared ogi. The laboratory prepared ogi had no Coliform growth while the commercially prepared ogi had counts of 0.5 x103 to 1.6 x 103 for white variety and 0.3 x 103 to 1.1 x103 for yellow variety respectively. The Lactic acid bacterial count of 3.5x106 and 3.0x106 was recorded for the laboratory ogi while the commercially prepared ogi ranged from 3.2x106 to 4.2x106 (white variety) and 3.0 x106 to 3.9 x106 (yellow). The presence of bacteria isolates from the commercial and laboratory fermented ogi showed that Lactobacillus sp, Leuconostoc sp and Citrobacter sp were present in all the samples, Micrococcus sp and Klebsiella sp were isolated from Eke-Okigwe and ABSU-up-gate markets varieties respectively, E. coli and Staphylococcus sp were present in Eke-Okigwe and Nkwo-Achara markets while Salmonella sp were isolated from the three markets. Hence, there are chances of contracting food borne diseases from commercially prepared ogi. Therefore, there is the need for sanitary measures in the production of fermented cereals so as to minimize the rate of food borne pathogens during processing and storage.

Keywords: ogi, fermentation, bacterial quality, lactic acid bacteria, maize

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51 Identifying Families in C-SPAN’s: U.S. Presidential Ratings: 2000, 2009, and 2017

Authors: Alexander Cramer, Kenneth Cramer

Abstract:

Since the inauguration of President George Washington in 1789, the United States of America has seen the governance of some 44 individual presidents. Although such presidents share a variety of attributes, they still differ from one another on many others. Significantly, these traits may be used to construct distinct sets of 'families' of presidents throughout American history. By comparatively analyzing data from experts on the U.S. presidency – in this case, the C-SPAN Presidential Historians Surveys from 2000, 2009, and 2017 – this article identifies a consistent set of six presidential families: the All Stars; the Conservative Visionaries; the Postwar Progressives; the Average Joes; the Forgettables; and the Regrettables. In situating these categories in history, this article argues that U.S. presidents can be accurately organized into cohesive, like-performing families whose constituents share a common set of criteria.

Keywords: C-SPAN, POTUS presidential performance, presidential ranking, presidential studies, presidential surveys, United States

Procedia PDF Downloads 66
50 Creating a Virtual Perception for Upper Limb Rehabilitation

Authors: Nina Robson, Kenneth John Faller II, Vishalkumar Ahir, Arthur Ricardo Deps Miguel Ferreira, John Buchanan, Amarnath Banerjee

Abstract:

This paper describes the development of a virtual-reality system ARWED, which will be used in physical rehabilitation of patients with reduced upper extremity mobility to increase limb Active Range of Motion (AROM). The ARWED system performs a symmetric reflection and real-time mapping of the patient’s healthy limb on to their most affected limb, tapping into the mirror neuron system and facilitating the initial learning phase. Using the ARWED, future experiments will test the extension of the action-observation priming effect linked to the mirror-neuron system on healthy subjects and then stroke patients.

Keywords: physical rehabilitation, mirror neuron, virtual reality, stroke therapy

Procedia PDF Downloads 322
49 The Labor Participation–Fertility Trade-off: The Case of the Philippines

Authors: Daphne Ashley Sze, Kenneth Santos, Ariane Gabrielle Lim

Abstract:

As women are now given more freedom and choice to pursue employment, the world’s over-all fertility has been decreasing mainly due to the shift in time allocation between working and child rearing. As such, we study the case of the Philippines, where there exists a decreasing fertility rate and increasing openness for women labor participation. We focused on the distinction between fertility and fecundity, the former being the manifestation of the latter and aim to trace and compare the effects of both fecundity and fertility to women’s employment status through the estimation of the reproduction function and multinomial logistic function. Findings suggest that the perception of women regarding employment opportunities in the Philippines links the negative relationship observed between fertility, fecundity and women’s employment status. Today, there has been a convergence in the traditional family roles of men and women, as both genders now have identical employment opportunities that continue to shape their preferences.

Keywords: multinomial logistic function, tobit, fertility, women employment status, fecundity

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48 The Labor Participation-Fertility Trade-Off: Exploring Fecundity and Its Consequences to Women's Employment in the Philippines

Authors: Ariane C. Lim, Daphne Ashley L. Sze, Kenneth S. Santos

Abstract:

As women are now given more freedom and choice to pursue employment, the world’s over-all fertility has been decreasing mainly due to the shift in time allocation between working and child-rearing. As such, we study the case of the Philippines, where there exists a decreasing fertility rate and increasing openness for women labor participation. We focused on the distinction between fertility and fecundity, the former being the manifestation of the latter and aim to trace and compare the effects of both fecundity and fertility to women’s employment status through the estimation of the reproduction function and multinomial logistic function. Findings suggest that the perception of women regarding employment opportunities in the Philippines links the negative relationship observed between fertility, fecundity and women’s employment status. Today, there has been a convergence in the traditional family roles of men and women, as both genders now have identical employment opportunities that continue to shape their preferences.

Keywords: multinomial logistic function, tobit, fertility, women employment status, fecundity

Procedia PDF Downloads 537
47 Developing Models for Predicting Physiologically Impaired Arm Reaching Paths

Authors: Nina Robson, Kenneth John Faller II, Vishalkumar Ahir, Mustafa Mhawesh, Reza Langari

Abstract:

This paper describes the development of a model of an impaired human arm performing a reaching motion, which will be used to predict hand path trajectories for people with reduced arm joint mobility. Assuming that the arm was in contact with a surface during the entire movement, the contact conditions at the initial and final task locations were determined and used to generate the entire trajectory. The model was validated by comparing it to experimental data, which simulated an arm joint impairment by physically constraining the joint motion with a brace. Future research will include using the model in the development of physical training protocols that avoid early recruitment of “healthy” Degrees-Of-Freedom (DOF) for reaching motions, thus facilitating an Active Range-Of-Motion Recovery (AROM) for a particular impaired joint.

Keywords: higher order kinematic specifications, human motor coordination, impaired movement, kinematic synthesis

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46 Text Similarity in Vector Space Models: A Comparative Study

Authors: Omid Shahmirzadi, Adam Lugowski, Kenneth Younge

Abstract:

Automatic measurement of semantic text similarity is an important task in natural language processing. In this paper, we evaluate the performance of different vector space models to perform this task. We address the real-world problem of modeling patent-to-patent similarity and compare TFIDF (and related extensions), topic models (e.g., latent semantic indexing), and neural models (e.g., paragraph vectors). Contrary to expectations, the added computational cost of text embedding methods is justified only when: 1) the target text is condensed; and 2) the similarity comparison is trivial. Otherwise, TFIDF performs surprisingly well in other cases: in particular for longer and more technical texts or for making finer-grained distinctions between nearest neighbors. Unexpectedly, extensions to the TFIDF method, such as adding noun phrases or calculating term weights incrementally, were not helpful in our context.

Keywords: big data, patent, text embedding, text similarity, vector space model

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45 The Effect of Spatial Variability on Axial Pile Design of Closed Ended Piles in Sand

Authors: Cormac Reale, Luke J. Prendergast, Kenneth Gavin

Abstract:

While significant improvements have been made in axial pile design methods over recent years, the influence of soils natural variability has not been adequately accounted for within them. Soil variability is a crucial parameter to consider as it can account for large variations in pile capacity across the same site. This paper seeks to address this knowledge deficit, by demonstrating how soil spatial variability can be accommodated into existing cone penetration test (CPT) based pile design methods, in the form of layered non-homogeneous random fields. These random fields model the scope of a given property’s variance and define how it varies spatially. A Monte Carlo analysis of the pile will be performed taking into account parameter uncertainty and spatial variability, described using the measured scales of fluctuation. The results will be discussed in light of Eurocode 7 and the effect of spatial averaging on design capacities will be analysed.

Keywords: pile axial design, reliability, spatial variability, CPT

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44 Fighting for Equality in Early Buddhism

Authors: Kenneth Lee

Abstract:

During Buddha’s time in the 5th century BCE, the Indian society was organized by a social stratification system called “the caste system” (Skt. varna), which still exists today. The origination of the caste system can be traced back to 1500 BCE within the ancient Vedic texts of the Aryans, the Indo-European nomadic people who migrated and settled in the Indus Valley region. However, the four-tiered hierarchical nature of the caste system created inequality, privilege, and discrimination based on hereditary transmission. After renouncing his royal status as a prince, Siddhartha Gautama spent six years in the forest, practiced austerities, mastered meditation, and eventually realized enlightenment. Thereupon, now referred to as “Shakyamuni Buddha” or “sage from the tribe of Shakya who has become awake,” the Buddha founded the Sangha, a community of monks, nuns, and lay followers, where everyone was equal and treated equally. After providing a brief overview of Buddha’s time, this talk will examine Buddha’s Dharma or teachings on equality and his creation of the Sangha as “society within a society, which had a dissolving effect on society.

Keywords: equality, women, buddhism, discrimination

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43 An Intensional Conceptualization Model for Ontology-Based Semantic Integration

Authors: Fateh Adhnouss, Husam El-Asfour, Kenneth McIsaac, AbdulMutalib Wahaishi, Idris El-Feghia

Abstract:

Conceptualization is an essential component of semantic ontology-based approaches. There have been several approaches that rely on extensional structure and extensional reduction structure in order to construct conceptualization. In this paper, several limitations are highlighted relating to their applicability to the construction of conceptualizations in dynamic and open environments. These limitations arise from a number of strong assumptions that do not apply to such environments. An intensional structure is strongly argued to be a natural and adequate modeling approach. This paper presents a conceptualization structure based on property relations and propositions theory (PRP) to the model ontology that is suitable for open environments. The model extends the First-order Logic (FOL) notation and defines the formal representation that enables the interoperability between software systems and supports semantic integration for software systems in open, dynamic environments.

Keywords: conceptualization, ontology, extensional structure, intensional structure

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42 The Development of Educational Video Games Aimed at Enhancing Academic Motivation and Learning Among African American Males

Authors: Kenneth Philip Jones

Abstract:

This dissertation investigates the potential of developing educational-based video games to motivate and engage African American males. The study employed a qualitative methodological approach by investigating African American males who are avid video game players and are currently enrolled at a college or university. The participants were individually and collectively video and audio recorded during the interviews and observations. Situated Learning theory analyzed how motivation and engagement can transfer from a video game to an educational context. The research aims to address the disparities in our educational systems when it comes to providing a culture, climate, and atmosphere that will enable the academic development of African American males. The primary objective of the findings is based on the participants’ responses and the data collected to provide recommendations to educators and scholars on how to address the issues that have demoralized African American males in education and provide a platform that will allow for equality in educational development and advancement.

Keywords: video games, motivation, behavioral, learning transfer

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41 A Phishing Email Detection Approach Using Machine Learning Techniques

Authors: Kenneth Fon Mbah, Arash Habibi Lashkari, Ali A. Ghorbani

Abstract:

Phishing e-mails are a security issue that not only annoys online users, but has also resulted in significant financial losses for businesses. Phishing advertisements and pornographic e-mails are difficult to detect as attackers have been becoming increasingly intelligent and professional. Attackers track users and adjust their attacks based on users’ attractions and hot topics that can be extracted from community news and journals. This research focuses on deceptive Phishing attacks and their variants such as attacks through advertisements and pornographic e-mails. We propose a framework called Phishing Alerting System (PHAS) to accurately classify e-mails as Phishing, advertisements or as pornographic. PHAS has the ability to detect and alert users for all types of deceptive e-mails to help users in decision making. A well-known email dataset has been used for these experiments and based on previously extracted features, 93.11% detection accuracy is obtainable by using J48 and KNN machine learning techniques. Our proposed framework achieved approximately the same accuracy as the benchmark while using this dataset.

Keywords: phishing e-mail, phishing detection, anti phishing, alarm system, machine learning

Procedia PDF Downloads 255
40 Differential Item Functioning in the Vocabulary Test of Grade 7 Students in Public and Private Schools

Authors: Dave Kenneth Tayao Cayado, Carlo P. Magno

Abstract:

The most common source of bias detected are those of gender and socioeconomic status. The present study investigated the Differential Item Functioning (DIF) or item bias between public and private school students in a vocabulary test. Studies on DIF were expanded by using the type of school as a source of bias. There were 200 participants in this study. 100 came from a public secondary school and 100 came from a private secondary school. The vocabulary skills of students were measured using a standardized vocabulary test for grade 7 students. Using DIF, specifically the Rasch-Welch approach, it was found that out of 24 items, 12 were biased for a specific group. The vocabulary skills on the use of slang, idiomatic expression, personification, collocations, and partitive relations were biased for private schools while the use of slang and homonymous words were biased for public school students. The analysis debunked the trend that private school students are outperforming public school students in terms of academic achievement. It was revealed that there are some competencies that private school students are having difficulty and vice versa.

Keywords: differential item functioning, item bias, public school students, private school students, vocabulary

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39 Self-Regulation in Composition Writing: The Case of Variation of Self-Regulation Dispositions in Opinion Essay and Technical Writing

Authors: Dave Kenneth Tayao Cayado, Carlo P. Magno, Venice Cristine Dangaran

Abstract:

The present study determines whether there will be differences in the self-regulation dispositions that learners utilize when writing different types of composition. There were 7 self-regulation factors that were used to develop a scale in this study such as memory strategy, goal setting, self-evaluation, seeking assistance, learning responsibility, environmental structuring, and organizing. The scale was made specific for writing a composition. The researcher-made scale was administered to 150 participants who all came from a university in the Philippines. The participants were asked to write two compositions namely opinion essay and research introduction/review of related literature. The zero-order correlation revealed that all the factors of self-regulation are correlated with one another. However, only seeking assistance and self-evaluation are correlated with opinion essay and technical writing is not correlated to any of the self-regulation factors. However, when path analysis was used, it was shown that seeking assistance can predict opinion essay scores whereas memory strategy, self-evaluation, and organizing can predict technical writing scores.

Keywords: opinion essay, self-regulation, technical writing, writing skills

Procedia PDF Downloads 80
38 Factors Motivating Experienced Secondary Teachers to Remain in the Teaching Profession

Authors: Joselito Castro Gutierrez, Herbert Orteza, Jervie Boligon, Kenneth Esteves, Edrick Kevin Ferrer, Mark Kevin Torres, Patrick Vergara

Abstract:

Teaching is a noble profession that involves an effective imparting of holistic learning. Consequently, it requires a driving force called motivation. This research aims to determine the motivating factors, problems encountered, solutions made by experienced secondary school teachers to remain in the teaching profession. A mixed unstructured/structured questionnaire was used for gathering data among public secondary school teachers. The researchers have arrived to a conclusion that the dominant motivating factors of teachers to stay in the profession are altruism, extrinsic factors, and self-efficacy. Meanwhile, the prevalent problems these experienced secondary teachers experienced are mutual dilemma, work overload, and personal issues. Teachers have varied methods on solving the problem which are: a) Direct Solution; b) Indirect Solution; and c) Pseudo-Solutions. Lastly, the factors, problems, and solutions, have influential effects on how long a teacher would sustain in teaching which would manifest as positive, negative and neutral effects.

Keywords: motivation, common problems of teachers, strategies in solving problems, teaching profession

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37 Quantification of Leachate Potential of the Quezon City Controlled Dumping Facility Using Help Model

Authors: Paul Kenneth D. Luzon, Maria Antonia N. Tanchuling

Abstract:

The Quezon City Controlled Dumping facility also known as Payatas produces leachate which can contaminate soil and water environment in the area. The goal of this study is to quantify the leachate produced by the QCCDF using the Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP) model. Results could be used as input for groundwater contaminant transport studies. The HELP model is based on a simple water budget and is an essential “model requirement” used by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Annual waste profile of the QCCDF was calculated. Based on topographical maps and estimation of settlement due to overburden pressure and degradation, a total of 10M m^3 of waste is contained in the landfill. The input necessary for the HELP model are weather data, soil properties, and landfill design. Results showed that from 1988 to 2011, an average of 50% of the total precipitation percolates through the bottom layer. Validation of the results is still needed due to the assumptions made in the study. The decrease in porosity of the top soil cover showed the best mitigation for minimizing percolation rate. This study concludes that there is a need for better leachate management system in the QCCDF.

Keywords: help model, landfill, payatas trash slide, quezon city controlled dumping facility

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36 From Arab Spring to Arabian Nightmare: State Failure and Identity in the Middle East

Authors: Kenneth Christie

Abstract:

Syria and Iraq are Arabian nightmares at the local, the regional and global levels in terms of human security and the protection of the vulnerable. Wracked by civil war, ethnic and political violence in the last 5 years in the case of Syria and 13 years in the case of Iraq, the body count now is staggering; the humanitarian crisis continues and there appears no end to this. A crisis that has claimed the lives of 200,000 people so far in Syria, sparked a humanitarian catastrophe fuelled violent Islamic extremism and exposed serious splits in the international community who appear to have no consensus. The international community’s failure to act is simply another sign of the desperate situation which has developed over conflicts that appears unsolvable in the immediate future and may be intractable in the long range. Three things are really at stake I’m going to argue in these continuing crises and how it will affect the human security dimensions of the conflict. Firstly, the protection of vulnerable individuals and civilians in the war, 2ndly, the dire consequences for regional instability as a result and thirdly the risks for minority and ethnic identities who are caught up in this, within and across these volatile borders. This paper will examine these elements and the consequences of the conflict in terms of human security, migration and development.

Keywords: human security, migration, Syria and Iraq, conflict and development

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35 Psycho-Social Issues: Drug Use and Abuse as a Social Problem among Secondary School Youths in Urban Centres of Benue State, Nigeria

Authors: Ode Kenneth Ogbu

Abstract:

This study was designed as a survey to investigate the incidence of use and abuse of drug as a social problem among the Nigeria youths in the secondary schools in urban centres of Benue state. 500 SS 3 and fresh secondary school graduates in remedial science class of Benue State University Makurdi with mean age of 16.8 were randomly sampled for the study. An instrument called drug use and abuse perception questionnaire (DAPQ) with a reliability coefficient of 74 were administered to the students. Only 337 copies of the questionnaire were properly completed and returned which reduced the sample size of 337. The data were subjected to factor analysis. X2 statistic and frequency distribution using split half method. The result of the analysis showed that: the DAPQ yield seven baseline factors responsible for drug use and abuse; there was appreciable evidence that the study subjects used drugs (42.1%); alcohol topped the list of the drugs consumed; most students use their pocket money to buy drugs; drugs were purchased from unconventional, hidden places and 13 out of the 20 items of DAPQ were perceived as significant factors in drug use and abuse. The paper recommends proper intervention of government, parents and NGO’S among students to reduce cases of drug abuse.

Keywords: drug abuse, psychology, psychiatry, students

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34 Multivariate Output-Associative RVM for Multi-Dimensional Affect Predictions

Authors: Achut Manandhar, Kenneth D. Morton, Peter A. Torrione, Leslie M. Collins

Abstract:

The current trends in affect recognition research are to consider continuous observations from spontaneous natural interactions in people using multiple feature modalities, and to represent affect in terms of continuous dimensions, incorporate spatio-temporal correlation among affect dimensions, and provide fast affect predictions. These research efforts have been propelled by a growing effort to develop affect recognition system that can be implemented to enable seamless real-time human-computer interaction in a wide variety of applications. Motivated by these desired attributes of an affect recognition system, in this work a multi-dimensional affect prediction approach is proposed by integrating multivariate Relevance Vector Machine (MVRVM) with a recently developed Output-associative Relevance Vector Machine (OARVM) approach. The resulting approach can provide fast continuous affect predictions by jointly modeling the multiple affect dimensions and their correlations. Experiments on the RECOLA database show that the proposed approach performs competitively with the OARVM while providing faster predictions during testing.

Keywords: dimensional affect prediction, output-associative RVM, multivariate regression, fast testing

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33 Africa as Endemically a War Continent: Explaining the Changing Pattern of Armed Conflicts in Africa

Authors: Kenneth Azaigba

Abstract:

The history of post-colonial African States has been dubbed a history of endemic warfare in existing literature. Indeed, Africa political environment is characterized by a multiplicity of threats to peace and security. Africa's leading drivers of conflict include abundant (especially mineral) resources, personal rule and attendant political authoritarianism, manipulation of identity politics across ethnicity, marginalization of communities, as well as electoral mal-practices resulting in contested legitimacy and resultant violence. However, the character of armed conflicts in Africa is changing. This paper attempts to reconstruct the trajectory of armed conflicts in Africa and explain the changing pattern of armed conflict. The paper contends that large scale political violence in Africa is on the decline rendering the endemic thesis an inappropriate paradigm in explaining political conflicts in Africa. The paper also posits that though small scale conflicts are springing up and exhibiting trans-border dimensions, these patterns of armed conflicts are not peculiar to Africa but emerging waves of global conflicts. The paper explains that the shift in the scale of warfare in Africa is a function of a multiplicity of post-cold war global contradictions. Inclusive governance, social justice and economic security are articulated as workable panaceas for mitigating warfare in Africa.

Keywords: Africa, conflicts, pattern, war

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32 A Randomised, Single-Dose, Two-Period, Cross-Over Phase I Pharmacokinetic Study to Compare TDS®-Diazepam with Rectal Diazepam in Healthy Adult Subjects

Authors: Faisal O. Al-Otaibi, Arthur T. Tucker, Richard M. Langford, Stuart Ratcliffe, Atholl Johnston, Terry D. Lee, Kenneth B. Kirby, Chandan A. Alam

Abstract:

The Transdermal Delivery System (TDS®) is a proprietary liquid formulation that can be applied to intact skin via a metered pump spray to facilitate drug delivery to the circulation. The aim of this study was to assess the ability of the TDS preparation to deliver diazepam systemically, and to characterize the pharmacokinetic profile of the drug in healthy adult subjects. We conducted a randomized, single-dose, two-period, crossover phase I (pharmacokinetic) comparative study in twelve healthy volunteers. All volunteers received both 10 mg TDS-diazepam topically to the upper chest and 10 mg of the rectal diazepam preparation (Diastat®, 10 mg diazepam gel), with a minimum washout of 14 days between dosing episodes. Both formulations were well tolerated in all volunteers. Following topical application of TDS-diazepam, the mean AUC0-72h was 1241 ng/mL.h and the Cmax 34 ng/mL. The values for rectal Diastat were 4109 ng/mL.h and 300 ng/mL respectively. This proof of concept study demonstrates that the TDS preparation successfully delivered diazepam systemically to adults. As expected, the concentration of diazepam following the TDS application was lower and not bioequivalent to rectal gel. Future development of this unique system is required.

Keywords: transdermal delivery system, diazepam, seizure, bioequivalence, pharmacokinetic

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31 The Impact of Misogyny on Women's Leadership in the Local Sphere of Government: The Case of Dr. Kenneth Kaunda District Municipality

Authors: Josephine Eghonghon Ahiante, Barry Hanyane

Abstract:

To give effect to the constitutional rights of gender equality, the South African government instituted various legislative policy frameworks and legislations to equalise the public service. Nonetheless, gender inequality in senior management positions remains a rift in government institutions, particularly the local sphere of government. The methodology for gathering and analysing data for this study was based on both primary and secondary data sources, namely literature review, qualitative and quantitative data collection and analysis, triangulation, and inductive and deductive thematic analysis. The study found that misogynist tendencies which are manifest in organisational culture suffocate the good intentions of government in ensuring social justices, leadership diversity, and women equality. It also demonstrates that traditional gender role expectation still informs the ground in which senior management positions are allocated, men perceive women as non-leadership fit and discriminate against them during recruitment, selection, and promotion into high positions. The analyses from the study portray that, while government legislation and framework has been instrumental in the leadership acceleration of women, much more has to be done to deconstruct internalised leadership stereotypes on women's gender roles and leadership requirements. The study recommends that gender bias training intervention is needed to teach public employees on management excellence.

Keywords: gender, leadership, misogyny, orgnisational cultural, patriachy

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30 Concepts in the Design of Lateral-Load Systems in High Rise Buildings to Reduce Operational Energy Consumption

Authors: Mohamed Ali MiladKrem Salem, Sergio F.Breña, Sanjay R. Arwade, Simi T. Hoque

Abstract:

The location of the main lateral‐load resisting system in high-rise buildings may have positive impacts on sustainability through a reduction in operational energy consumption, and this paper describes an assessment of the accompanying effects on structural performance. It is found that there is a strong influence of design for environmental performance on the structural performance the building, and that systems selected primarily with an eye towards energy use reduction may require substantial additional structural stiffening to meet safety and serviceability limits under lateral load cases. We present a framework for incorporating the environmental costs of meeting structural design requirements through the embodied energy of the core structural materials and also address the issue of economic cost brought on by incorporation of environmental concerns into the selection of the structural system. We address these issues through four case study high-rise buildings with differing structural morphologies (floor plan and core arrangement) and assess each of these building models for cost and embodied energy when the base structural system, which has been suggested by architect Kenneth Yeang based on environmental concerns, is augmented to meet lateral drift requirements under the wind loads prescribed by ASCE 7-10.

Keywords: sustainable, embodied, Outrigger, skyscraper, morphology, efficiency

Procedia PDF Downloads 397