Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4612

Search results for: interfaces of processes

4612 Hydration of Protein-RNA Recognition Sites

Authors: Amita Barik, Ranjit Prasad Bahadur


We investigate the role of water molecules in 89 protein-RNA complexes taken from the Protein Data Bank. Those with tRNA and single-stranded RNA are less hydrated than with duplex or ribosomal proteins. Protein-RNA interfaces are hydrated less than protein-DNA interfaces, but more than protein-protein interfaces. Majority of the waters at protein-RNA interfaces makes multiple H-bonds; however, a fraction does not make any. Those making Hbonds have preferences for the polar groups of RNA than its partner protein. The spatial distribution of waters makes interfaces with ribosomal proteins and single-stranded RNA relatively ‘dry’ than interfaces with tRNA and duplex RNA. In contrast to protein-DNA interfaces, mainly due to the presence of the 2’OH, the ribose in protein-RNA interfaces is hydrated more than the phosphate or the bases. The minor groove in protein-RNA interfaces is hydrated more than the major groove, while in protein-DNA interfaces it is reverse. The strands make the highest number of water-mediated H-bonds per unit interface area followed by the helices and the non-regular structures. The preserved waters at protein-RNA interfaces make higher number of H-bonds than the other waters. Preserved waters contribute toward the affinity in protein-RNA recognition and should be carefully treated while engineering protein-RNA interfaces.

Keywords: h-bonds, minor-major grooves, preserved water, protein-RNA interfaces

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4611 Investigation of Al/Si, Au/Si and Au/GaAs Interfaces by Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy

Authors: Abdulnasser S. Saleh


The importance of metal-semiconductor interfaces comes from the fact that most electronic devices are interconnected using metallic wiring that forms metal–semiconductor contacts. The properties of these contacts can vary considerably depending on the nature of the interface with the semiconductor. Variable-energy positron annihilation spectroscopy has been applied to study interfaces in Al/Si, Au/Si, and Au/GaAs structures. A computational modeling by ROYPROF program is used to analyze Doppler broadening results in order to determine kinds of regions that positrons are likely to sample. In all fittings, the interfaces are found 1 nm thick and act as an absorbing sink for positrons diffusing towards them and may be regarded as highly defective. Internal electric fields were found to influence positrons diffusing to the interfaces and unable to force them cross to the other side. The materials positron affinities are considered in understanding such motion. The results of these theoretical fittings have clearly demonstrated the sensitivity of interfaces in any fitting attempts of analyzing positron spectroscopy data and gave valuable information about metal-semiconductor interfaces.

Keywords: interfaces, semiconductor, positron, defects

Procedia PDF Downloads 186
4610 “Friction Surfaces” of Airport Emergency Plan

Authors: Jakub Kraus, Vladimír Plos, Peter Vittek


This article focuses on the issue of airport emergency plans, which are documents describing reactions to events with impact on aviation safety or aviation security. The article specifically focuses on the use and creation of emergency plans, where could be found a number of disagreements between different stakeholders, for which the airport emergency plan applies. Those are the friction surfaces of interfaces, which is necessary to identify and ensure them smooth process to avoid dangerous situations or delay.

Keywords: airport emergency plan, aviation safety, aviation security, comprehensive management system, friction surfaces of airport emergency plan, interfaces of processes

Procedia PDF Downloads 348
4609 Identification Algorithm of Critical Interface, Modelling Perils on Critical Infrastructure Subjects

Authors: Jiří. J. Urbánek, Hana Malachová, Josef Krahulec, Jitka Johanidisová


The paper deals with crisis situations investigation and modelling within the organizations of critical infrastructure. Every crisis situation has an origin in the emergency event occurrence in the organizations of energetic critical infrastructure especially. Here, the emergency events can be both the expected events, then crisis scenarios can be pre-prepared by pertinent organizational crisis management authorities towards their coping or the unexpected event (Black Swan effect) – without pre-prepared scenario, but it needs operational coping of crisis situations as well. The forms, characteristics, behaviour and utilization of crisis scenarios have various qualities, depending on real critical infrastructure organization prevention and training processes. An aim is always better organizational security and continuity obtainment. This paper objective is to find and investigate critical/ crisis zones and functions in critical situations models of critical infrastructure organization. The DYVELOP (Dynamic Vector Logistics of Processes) method is able to identify problematic critical zones and functions, displaying critical interfaces among actors of crisis situations on the DYVELOP maps named Blazons. Firstly, for realization of this ability is necessary to derive and create identification algorithm of critical interfaces. The locations of critical interfaces are the flags of crisis situation in real organization of critical infrastructure. Conclusive, the model of critical interface will be displayed at real organization of Czech energetic crisis infrastructure subject in Black Out peril environment. The Blazons need live power Point presentation for better comprehension of this paper mission.

Keywords: algorithm, crisis, DYVELOP, infrastructure

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4608 Toward a Measure of Appropriateness of User Interfaces Adaptations Solutions

Authors: Abderrahim Siam, Ramdane Maamri, Zaidi Sahnoun


The development of adaptive user interfaces (UI) presents for a long time an important research area in which researcher attempt to call upon the full resources and skills of several disciplines. The adaptive UI community holds a thorough knowledge regarding the adaptation of UIs with users and with contexts of use. Several solutions, models, formalisms, techniques, and mechanisms were proposed to develop adaptive UI. In this paper, we propose an approach based on the fuzzy set theory for modeling the concept of the appropriateness of different solutions of UI adaptation with different situations for which interactive systems have to adapt their UIs.

Keywords: adaptive user interfaces, adaptation solution’s appropriateness, fuzzy sets

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4607 Study of Buried Interfaces in Fe/Si Multilayer by Hard X-Ray Emission Spectroscopy

Authors: Hina Verma, Karine Le Guen, Renaud Dalaunay, Iyas Ismail, Vita Ilakovac, Jean Pascal Rueff, Yunlin Jacques Zheng, Philippe Jonnard


To the extent of our knowledge, X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) has been applied in the soft x-ray region (photon energy ≤ 2 keV) to study the buried layers and interfaces of stacks of nanometer-thin films. Now we extend the methodology to study the buried interfaces in the hard X-ray region (i.e., ≥ five keV). The emission spectra allow us to study the interactions between elements in the buried layers from the analysis of their valence states, thereby providing sensitive information about the physical-chemical environment of the emitting element in multilayers. We exploit the chemical sensitivity of XES to study the interfaces between Fe and Si layers in the Fe/Si multilayer from the Fe Kβ₂,₅ emission spectra (7108 eV). The Fe Kβ₅ emission line results from the electronic transition from occupied 3d to 1s levels (i.e., valence to core transition) and is hence sensitive to the chemical state of emitting Fe atoms. The comparison of emission spectra recorded for Fe/Si multilayer with Fe and FeSi₂ references reveal the formation of FeSi₂ at the Fe-Si interfaces inside the multilayer stack. The interfacial thickness was calculated to be 1.4 ± 0.2 nm by taking into consideration the intensity of Fe atoms emitted from the interface and the Fe layer. The formation of FeSi₂ at the interface was further confirmed by the X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy done on the Fe/Si multilayer. Hence, we can conclude that the XES in the hard X-ray range could be used to study multilayers and their interfaces and obtain information both qualitatively and quantitatively.

Keywords: buried interfaces, hard X-ray emission spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

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4606 Peril´s Environment of Energetic Infrastructure Complex System, Modelling by the Crisis Situation Algorithms

Authors: Jiří F. Urbánek, Alena Oulehlová, Hana Malachová, Jiří J. Urbánek Jr.


Crisis situations investigation and modelling are introduced and made within the complex system of energetic critical infrastructure, operating on peril´s environments. Every crisis situations and perils has an origin in the emergency/ crisis event occurrence and they need critical/ crisis interfaces assessment. Here, the emergency events can be expected - then crisis scenarios can be pre-prepared by pertinent organizational crisis management authorities towards their coping; or it may be unexpected - without pre-prepared scenario of event. But the both need operational coping by means of crisis management as well. The operation, forms, characteristics, behaviour and utilization of crisis management have various qualities, depending on real critical infrastructure organization perils, and prevention training processes. An aim is always - better security and continuity of the organization, which successful obtainment needs to find and investigate critical/ crisis zones and functions in critical infrastructure organization models, operating in pertinent perils environment. Our DYVELOP (Dynamic Vector Logistics of Processes) method is disposables for it. Here, it is necessary to derive and create identification algorithm of critical/ crisis interfaces. The locations of critical/ crisis interfaces are the flags of crisis situation in organization of critical infrastructure models. Then, the model of crisis situation will be displayed at real organization of Czech energetic crisis infrastructure subject in real peril environment. These efficient measures are necessary for the infrastructure protection. They will be derived for peril mitigation, crisis situation coping and for environmentally friendly organization survival, continuity and its sustainable development advanced possibilities.

Keywords: algorithms, energetic infrastructure complex system, modelling, peril´s environment

Procedia PDF Downloads 325
4605 Demand-Oriented Supplier Integration in Agile New Product Development Projects

Authors: Guenther Schuh, Stephan Schroeder, Marcel Faulhaber


Companies are facing an increasing pressure to innovate faster, cheaper and more radical in last years, due to shrinking product lifecycles and higher volatility of markets and customer demands. Especially established companies struggle meeting those demands. Thus, many producing companies are adapting their development processes to address this increasing pressure. One approach taken by many companies is the use of agile, highly iterative development processes to reduce development times and costs as well as to increase the fulfilled customer requirements and the realized level of innovation. At the same time decreasing depths of added value and increasing focus on core competencies as well as a growing product complexity result in a high dependency on suppliers and external development partners during the product development. Thus, a successful introduction of agile development methods into the development of physical products requires also a successful integration of the necessary external partners and suppliers into the new processes and procedures and an adaption of the organizational interfaces to external partners according to the new circumstances and requirements of agile development processes. For an effective and efficient product development, the design of customer-supplier-relationships should be demand-oriented. A significant influence on the required design has the characteristics of the procurement object. Examples therefore are the complexity of technical interfaces between supply object and final product or the importance of the supplied component for the major product functionalities. Thus, this paper presents an approach to derive general requirements on the design of supplier integration according to the characteristics of supply objects. First, therefore the most relevant evaluation criteria and characteristics have been identified based on a thorough literature review. Subsequently the resulting requirements on the design of the supplier integration were derived depending on the different possible values of these criteria.

Keywords: iterative development processes, agile new product development, procurement, supplier integration

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4604 Anthropomorphic Interfaces For User Trust in a Highly Automated Driving

Authors: Clarisse Lawson-Guidigbe, Nicolas Louveton, Kahina Amokrane-Ferka, Jean-Marc Andre


Trust in automated driving systems is receiving growing attention in the research community. Anthropomorphism has been identified by past research as a trust-building factor. In this paper, we consider three anthropomorphic interfaces integrating three versions of a virtual assistant. We attempt to measure the impact of each of these interfaces on trust in the automated driving system. An experiment following a between-subject design was conducted in a driving simulator (N = 36) to evaluate participants’ performance and experience in two handover situations (a simple one and a critical one). Perception of anthropomorphism and trust was measured using scales, while participants’ experience was measured during elicitation interviews. We found no significant difference between the three interfaces regarding the perception of anthropomorphism, trust levels, or experience. However, regarding participants’ performance, we found a significant difference between the three interfaces in the simple handover situations but not the critical one. Learnings from anthropomorphism and trust measurement scales are discussed and suggestions for further research are proposed.

Keywords: highly automated driving, trust, anthropomorphic design, mindful anthropomorphism, mindless anthropomorphism

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4603 Nanostructure and Adhesion of Cement/Polymer Fiber Interfaces

Authors: Faezeh Shalchy


Concrete is the most used materials in the world. It is also one of the most versatile while complex materials which human have used for construction. However, concrete is weak in tension, over the past thirty years many studies were accomplished to improve the tensile properties of concrete (cement-based materials) using a variety of methods. One of the most successful attempts is to use polymeric fibers in the structure of concrete to obtain a composite with high tensile strength and ductility. Understanding the mechanical behavior of fiber reinforced concrete requires the knowledge of the fiber/matrix interfaces at the small scale. In this study, a combination of numerical simulations and experimental techniques have been used to study the nano structure of fiber/matrix interfaces. A new model for calcium-silicate-hydrate (C-S-H)/fiber interfaces is proposed based on Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analysis. The adhesion energy between the C-S-H gel and 2 different polymeric fibers (polyvinyl alcohol and polypropylene) was numerically studied at the atomistic level since adhesion is one of the key factors in the design of fiber reinforced composites. The mechanisms of adhesion as a function of the nano structure of fiber/matrix interfaces are also studied and discussed.

Keywords: fiber-reinforced concrete, adhesion, molecular modeling

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4602 Standardized Description and Modeling Methods of Semiconductor IP Interfaces

Authors: Seongsoo Lee


IP reuse is an effective design methodology for modern SoC design to reduce effort and time. However, description and modeling methods of IP interfaces are different due to different IP designers. In this paper, standardized description and modeling methods of IP interfaces are proposed. It consists of 11 items such as IP information, model provision, data type, description level, interface information, port information, signal information, protocol information, modeling level, modeling information, and source file. The proposed description and modeling methods enables easy understanding, simulation, verification, and modification in IP reuse.

Keywords: interface, standardization, description, modeling, semiconductor IP

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4601 Multiple Pen and Touch Interaction on Interactive LCDs

Authors: Andreas Kunz, Ali Alavi


In this paper, we present a simple active stylus for interactive IR-based tabletop systems. Such tables offer a set of tags for realizing tangible user interfaces, which can only be applied to objects having a relatively big contacting area with the interactive surface. The stylus has a unique address and thus can be clearly distinguished from other styli, objects or finger touches that might simultaneously occur on the interactive surface.

Keywords: interactive screens, pen, tangibles, user interfaces

Procedia PDF Downloads 333
4600 Relating Interface Properties with Crack Propagation in Composite Laminates

Authors: Tao Qu, Chandra Prakash, Vikas Tomar


The interfaces between organic and inorganic phases in natural materials have been shown to be a key factor contributing to their high performance. This work analyzes crack propagation in a 2-ply laminate subjected to uniaxial tensile mode-I crack propagation loading that has laminate properties derived based on biological material constituents (marine exoskeleton- chitin and calcite). Interfaces in such laminates are explicitly modeled based on earlier molecular simulations performed by authors. Extended finite element method and cohesive zone modeling based simulations coupled with theoretical analysis are used to analyze crack propagation. Analyses explicitly quantify the effect that interface mechanical property variation has on the delamination as well as the transverse crack propagation in examined 2-ply laminates.

Keywords: chitin, composites, interfaces, fracture

Procedia PDF Downloads 283
4599 Graphic User Interface Design Principles for Designing Augmented Reality Applications

Authors: Afshan Ejaz, Syed Asim Ali


The reality is a combination of perception, reconstruction, and interaction. Augmented Reality is the advancement that layer over consistent everyday existence which includes content based interface, voice-based interfaces, voice-based interface and guide based or gesture-based interfaces, so designing augmented reality application interfaces is a difficult task for the maker. Designing a user interface which is not only easy to use and easy to learn but its more interactive and self-explanatory which have high perceived affordability, perceived usefulness, consistency and high discoverability so that the user could easily recognized and understand the design. For this purpose, a lot of interface design principles such as learnability, Affordance, Simplicity, Memorability, Feedback, Visibility, Flexibly and others are introduced but there no such principles which explain the most appropriate interface design principles for designing an Augmented Reality application interfaces. Therefore, the basic goal of introducing design principles for Augmented Reality application interfaces is to match the user efforts and the computer display (‘plot user input onto computer output’) using an appropriate interface action symbol (‘metaphors’) or to make that application easy to use, easy to understand and easy to discover. In this study by observing Augmented reality system and interfaces, few of well-known design principle related to GUI (‘user-centered design’) are identify and through them, few issues are shown which can be determined through the design principles. With the help of multiple studies, our study suggests different interface design principles which makes designing Augmented Reality application interface more easier and more helpful for the maker as these principles make the interface more interactive, learnable and more usable. To accomplish and test our finding, Pokémon Go an Augmented Reality game was selected and all the suggested principles are implement and test on its interface. From the results, our study concludes that our identified principles are most important principles while developing and testing any Augmented Reality application interface.

Keywords: GUI, augmented reality, metaphors, affordance, perception, satisfaction, cognitive burden

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4598 An Experimental Study of the Effectiveness of Lubricants in Reducing the Sidewall Friction

Authors: Jian Zheng, Li Li, Maxime Daviault


In several cases, one needs apply lubrication materials in laboratory tests to reduce the friction (shear strength) along the interfaces between a tested soil and the side walls of container. Several types of lubricants are available. Their effectiveness had been tested mostly through direct shear tests. These testing conditions are quite different than those when the tested soil is placed in the container. Thus, the shear strengths measured from direct shear tests may not be totally representative of those of interfaces between the tested soil and the sidewalls of container. In this paper, the effectiveness of different lubricants used to reduce the friction (shear strength) of soil-structure interfaces has been studied. Results show that the selected lubricants do not significantly reduce the sidewall friction (shear strength). Rather, the application of wax, graphite, grease or lubricant oil has effect to increase the sidewall shear strength due probably to the high viscosity of such materials. Subsequently, the application of lubricants between tested soil and sidewall and neglecting the friction (shear strength) along the sidewalls may lead to inaccurate test results.

Keywords: arching, friction, laboratory tests, lubricants

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4597 Modeling the Acquisition of Expertise in a Sequential Decision-Making Task

Authors: Cristóbal Moënne-Loccoz, Rodrigo C. Vergara, Vladimir López, Domingo Mery, Diego Cosmelli


Our daily interaction with computational interfaces is plagued of situations in which we go from inexperienced users to experts through self-motivated exploration of the same task. In many of these interactions, we must learn to find our way through a sequence of decisions and actions before obtaining the desired result. For instance, when drawing cash from an ATM machine, choices are presented in a step-by-step fashion so that a specific sequence of actions must be performed in order to produce the expected outcome. But, as they become experts in the use of such interfaces, do users adopt specific search and learning strategies? Moreover, if so, can we use this information to follow the process of expertise development and, eventually, predict future actions? This would be a critical step towards building truly adaptive interfaces that can facilitate interaction at different moments of the learning curve. Furthermore, it could provide a window into potential mechanisms underlying decision-making behavior in real world scenarios. Here we tackle this question using a simple game interface that instantiates a 4-level binary decision tree (BDT) sequential decision-making task. Participants have to explore the interface and discover an underlying concept-icon mapping in order to complete the game. We develop a Hidden Markov Model (HMM)-based approach whereby a set of stereotyped, hierarchically related search behaviors act as hidden states. Using this model, we are able to track the decision-making process as participants explore, learn and develop expertise in the use of the interface. Our results show that partitioning the problem space into such stereotyped strategies is sufficient to capture a host of exploratory and learning behaviors. Moreover, using the modular architecture of stereotyped strategies as a Mixture of Experts, we are able to simultaneously ask the experts about the user's most probable future actions. We show that for those participants that learn the task, it becomes possible to predict their next decision, above chance, approximately halfway through the game. Our long-term goal is, on the basis of a better understanding of real-world decision-making processes, to inform the construction of interfaces that can establish dynamic conversations with their users in order to facilitate the development of expertise.

Keywords: behavioral modeling, expertise acquisition, hidden markov models, sequential decision-making

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4596 Numerical Investigation of the Effects of Surfactant Concentrations on the Dynamics of Liquid-Liquid Interfaces

Authors: Bamikole J. Adeyemi, Prashant Jadhawar, Lateef Akanji


Theoretically, there exist two mathematical interfaces (fluid-solid and fluid-fluid) when a liquid film is present on solid surfaces. These interfaces overlap if the mineral surface is oil-wet or mixed wet, and therefore, the effects of disjoining pressure are significant on both boundaries. Hence, dewetting is a necessary process that could detach oil from the mineral surface. However, if the thickness of the thin water film directly in contact with the surface is large enough, disjoining pressure can be thought to be zero at the liquid-liquid interface. Recent studies show that the integration of fluid-fluid interactions with fluid-rock interactions is an important step towards a holistic approach to understanding smart water effects. Experiments have shown that the brine solution can alter the micro forces at oil-water interfaces, and these ion-specific interactions lead to oil emulsion formation. The natural emulsifiers present in crude oil behave as polyelectrolytes when the oil interfaces with low salinity water. Wettability alteration caused by low salinity waterflooding during Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) process results from the activities of divalent ions. However, polyelectrolytes are said to lose their viscoelastic property with increasing cation concentrations. In this work, the influence of cation concentrations on the dynamics of viscoelastic liquid-liquid interfaces is numerically investigated. The resultant ion concentrations at the crude oil/brine interfaces were estimated using a surface complexation model. Subsequently, the ion concentration parameter is integrated into a mathematical model to describe its effects on the dynamics of a viscoelastic interfacial thin film. The film growth, stability, and rupture were measured after different time steps for three types of fluids (Newtonian, purely elastic and viscoelastic fluids). The interfacial films respond to exposure time in a similar manner with an increasing growth rate, which resulted in the formation of more droplets with time. Increased surfactant accumulation at the interface results in a higher film growth rate which leads to instability and subsequent formation of more satellite droplets. Purely elastic and viscoelastic properties limit film growth rate and consequent film stability compared to the Newtonian fluid. Therefore, low salinity and reduced concentration of the potential determining ions in injection water will lead to improved interfacial viscoelasticity.

Keywords: liquid-liquid interfaces, surfactant concentrations, potential determining ions, residual oil mobilization

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4595 Defect Modes in Multilayered Piezoelectric Structures

Authors: D. G. Piliposyan


Propagation of electro-elastic waves in a piezoelectric waveguide with finite stacks and a defect layer is studied using a modified transfer matrix method. The dispersion equation for a periodic structure consisting of unit cells made up from two piezoelectric materials with metallized interfaces is obtained. An analytical expression, for the transmission coefficient for a waveguide with finite stacks and a defect layer, that is found can be used to accurately detect and control the position of the passband within a stopband. The result can be instrumental in constructing a tunable waveguide made of layers of different or identical piezoelectric crystals and separated by metallized interfaces.

Keywords: piezoelectric layered structure, periodic phononic crystal, bandgap, bloch waves

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4594 Electric Field-Induced Deformation of Particle-Laden Drops and Structuring of Surface Particles

Authors: Alexander Mikkelsen, Khobaib Khobaib, Zbigniew Rozynek


Drops covered by particles have found important uses in various fields, ranging from stabilization of emulsions to production of new advanced materials. Particles at drop interfaces can be interlocked to form solid capsules with properties tailored for a myriad of applications. Despite the huge potential of particle-laden drops and capsules, the knowledge of their deformation and stability are limited. In this regard, we contribute with experimental studies on the deformation and manipulation of silicone oil drops covered with micrometer-sized particles subjected to electric fields. A mixture of silicone oil and particles were immersed in castor oil using a mechanical pipette, forming millimeter sized drops. The particles moved and adsorbed at the drop interfaces by sedimentation, and were structured at the interface by electric field-induced electrohydrodynamic flows. When applying a direct current electric field, free charges accumulated at the drop interfaces, yielding electric stress that deformed the drops. In our experiments, we investigated how particle properties affected drop deformation, break-up, and particle structuring. We found that by increasing the size of weakly-conductive clay particles, the drop shape can go from compressed to stretched out in the direction of the electric field. Increasing the particle size and electrical properties were also found to weaken electrohydrodynamic flows, induce break-up of drops at weaker electric field strengths and structure particles in chains. These particle parameters determine the dipolar force between the interfacial particles, which can yield particle chaining. We conclude that the balance between particle chaining and electrohydrodynamic flows governs the observed drop mechanics.

Keywords: drop deformation, electric field induced stress, electrohydrodynamic flows, particle structuring at drop interfaces

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4593 Importance of Knowledge in the Interdisciplinary Production Processes of Innovative Medical Tools

Authors: Katarzyna Mleczko


Processes of production of innovative medical tools have interdisciplinary character. They consist of direct and indirect close cooperation of specialists of different scientific branches. The Knowledge they have seems to be important for undertaken design, construction and manufacturing processes. The Knowledge exchange between participants of these processes is therefore crucial for the final result, which are innovative medical products. The paper draws attention to the necessity of feedback from the end user to the designer / manufacturer of medical tools which will allow for more accurate understanding of user needs. The study describes prerequisites of production processes of innovative medical (surgical) tools including participants and category of knowledge resources occurring in these processes. They are the result of research in selected Polish organizations involved in the production of medical instruments and are the basis for further work on the development of knowledge sharing model in interdisciplinary teams geographically dispersed.

Keywords: interdisciplinary production processes, knowledge exchange, knowledge sharing, medical tools

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4592 A Geometric Interpolation Scheme in Overset Meshes for the Piecewise Linear Interface Calculation Volume of Fluid Method in Multiphase Flows

Authors: Yanni Chang, Dezhi Dai, Albert Y. Tong


Piecewise linear interface calculation (PLIC) schemes are widely used in the volume-of-fluid (VOF) method to capture interfaces in numerical simulations of multiphase flows. Dynamic overset meshes can be especially useful in applications involving component motions and complex geometric shapes. In the present study, the VOF value of an acceptor cell is evaluated in a geometric way that transfers the fraction field between the meshes precisely with reconstructed interfaces from the corresponding donor elements. The acceptor cell value is evaluated by using a weighted average of its donors for most of the overset interpolation schemes for continuous flow variables. The weighting factors are obtained by different algebraic methods. Unlike the continuous flow variables, the VOF equation is a step function near the interfaces, which ranges from zero to unity rapidly. A geometric interpolation scheme of the VOF field in overset meshes for the PLIC-VOF method has been proposed in the paper. It has been tested successfully in quadrilateral/hexahedral overset meshes by employing several VOF advection tests with imposed solenoidal velocity fields. The proposed algorithm has been shown to yield higher accuracy in mass conservation and interface reconstruction compared with three other algebraic ones.

Keywords: interpolation scheme, multiphase flows, overset meshes, PLIC-VOF method

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4591 Non Destructive Testing for Evaluation of Defects and Interfaces in Metal Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer Hybrids

Authors: H.-G. Herrmann, M. Schwarz, J. Summa, F. Grossmann


In this work, different non-destructive testing methods for the characterization of defects and interfaces are presented. It is shown that, by means of active thermography, defects in the interface and in the carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) itself can be detected and determined. The bonding of metal and thermoplastic can be characterized very well by ultrasonic testing with electromagnetic acoustic transducers (EMAT). Mechanical testing is combined with passive thermography to correlate mechanical values with the defect-size. There is also a comparison between active and passive thermography. Mechanical testing shows the influence of different defects. Furthermore, a correlation of defect-size and loading to rupture was performed.


Keywords: defect evaluation, EMAT, mechanical testing, thermography

Procedia PDF Downloads 336
4590 The Morphological Processes of Bura Verbs

Authors: Yakubu Bitrus Gali


Bura refers both to the kingdom, the people as well as to the language. It is a language spoken in North-Eastern Nigeria. It is also classified under the Chadic group of languages, subgroup of the Afro-Asiatic phylum. Three morphological processes were found to be operating in Bura language viz: affixation, reduplication and modification. Affixation could be prefixation, infixation and suffixation, while reduplication and modification are divided into complete and partial. Verbs as well, can be formed through various processes like affixation, reduplication and modification. The aim of this paper is to examine the morphological processes that are found in Bura language. In this study, research informants were selected by means of sampling technique. The study helps us to understand that Bura like other languages morphological processes of verbs is possible.

Keywords: Bura language, infixation, morphological processes, prefixation, suffixation

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4589 Preliminary Study of Human Reliability of Control in Case of Fire Based on the Decision Processes and Stress Model of Human in a Fire

Authors: Seung-Un Chae, Heung-Yul Kim, Sa-Kil Kim


This paper presents the findings of preliminary study on human control performance in case of fire. The relationship between human control and human decision is studied in decision processes and stress model of human in a fire. Human behavior aspects involved in the decision process during a fire incident. The decision processes appear that six of individual perceptual processes: recognition, validation, definition, evaluation, commitment, and reassessment. Then, human may be stressed in order to get an optimal decision for their activity. This paper explores problems in human control processes and stresses in a catastrophic situation. Thus, the future approach will be concerned to reduce stresses and ambiguous irrelevant information.

Keywords: human reliability, decision processes, stress model, fire

Procedia PDF Downloads 286
4588 Comparative Analysis of Spectral Estimation Methods for Brain-Computer Interfaces

Authors: Rafik Djemili, Hocine Bourouba, M. C. Amara Korba


In this paper, we present a method in order to classify EEG signals for Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCI). EEG signals are first processed by means of spectral estimation methods to derive reliable features before classification step. Spectral estimation methods used are standard periodogram and the periodogram calculated by the Welch method; both methods are compared with Logarithm of Band Power (logBP) features. In the method proposed, we apply Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) followed by Support Vector Machine (SVM). Classification accuracy reached could be as high as 85%, which proves the effectiveness of classification of EEG signals based BCI using spectral methods.

Keywords: brain-computer interface, motor imagery, electroencephalogram, linear discriminant analysis, support vector machine

Procedia PDF Downloads 398
4587 Research and Development of Methodology, Tools, Techniques and Methods to Analyze and Design Interface, Media, Pedagogy for Educational Topics to be Delivered via Mobile Technology

Authors: Shimaa Nagro, Russell Campion


Mobile devices are becoming ever more widely available, with growing functionality, and they are increasingly used as enabling technology to give students access to educational material anytime and anywhere. However, the design of educational material's user interfaces for mobile devices is beset by many unresolved research problems such as those arising from constraints associated with mobile devices or from issues linked to effective learning. The proposed research aims to produce: (i) a method framework for the design and evaluation of educational material’s interfaces to be delivered on mobile devices, in multimedia form based on Human Computer Interaction strategies; and (ii) a software tool implemented as a fast-track alternative to use the method framework in full. The investigation will combine qualitative and quantitative methods, including interviews and questionnaires for data collection and three case studies for validating the method framework. The method framework is a framework to enable an educational designer to effectively and efficiently create educational multimedia interfaces to be used on mobile devices by following a particular methodology that contains practical and usable tools and techniques. It is a method framework that accepts any educational material in its final lesson plan and deals with this plan as a static element, it will not suggest any changes in any information given in the lesson plan but it will help the instructor to design his final lesson plan in a multimedia format to be presented in mobile devices.

Keywords: mobile learning, M-Learn, HCI, educational multimedia, interface design

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4586 SeCloudBPMN: A Lightweight Extension for BPMN Considering Security Threats in the Cloud

Authors: Somayeh Sobati Moghadam


Business processes are crucial for organizations and help businesses to evaluate and optimize their performance and processes against current and future-state business goals. Outsourcing business processes to the cloud becomes popular due to a wide varsity of benefits and cost-saving. However, cloud outsourcing raises enterprise data security concerns, which must be incorporated in Business Process Model and Notation (BPMN). This paper, presents SeCloudBPMN, a lightweight extension for BPMN which extends the BPMN to explicitly support the security threats in the cloud as an outsourcing environment. SeCloudBPMN helps business’s security experts to outsource business processes to the cloud considering different threats from inside and outside the cloud. In this way, appropriate security countermeasures could be considered to preserve data security in business processes outsourcing to the cloud.

Keywords: BPMN, security threats, cloud computing, business processes outsourcing, privacy

Procedia PDF Downloads 95
4585 A Model-Driven Approach of User Interface for MVP Rich Internet Application

Authors: Sarra Roubi, Mohammed Erramdani, Samir Mbarki


This paper presents an approach for the model-driven generating of Rich Internet Application (RIA) focusing on the graphical aspect. We used well known Model-Driven Engineering (MDE) frameworks and technologies, such as Eclipse Modeling Framework (EMF), Graphical Modeling Framework (GMF), Query View Transformation (QVTo) and Acceleo to enable the design and the code automatic generation of the RIA. During the development of the approach, we focused on the graphical aspect of the application in terms of interfaces while opting for the Model View Presenter pattern that is designed for graphics interfaces. The paper describes the process followed to define the approach, the supporting tool and presents the results from a case study.

Keywords: metamodel, model-driven engineering, MVP, rich internet application, transformation, user interface

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4584 Technological Advancement in Fashion Online Retailing: A Comparative Study of Pakistan and UK Fashion E-Commerce

Authors: Sadia Idrees, Gianpaolo Vignali, Simeon Gill


The study aims to establish the virtual size and fit technology features to enhance fashion online retailing platforms, utilising digital human measurements to provide customised style and function to consumers. A few firms in the UK have launched advanced interactive fashion shopping domains for personalised shopping globally, aided by the latest internet technology. Virtual size and fit interfaces have a great potential to provide a personalised better-fitted garment to promote mass customisation globally. Made-to-measure clothing, consuming unstitched fabric is a common practice offered by fashion brands in Pakistan. This product is regarded as economical and sustainable to be utilised by consumers in Pakistan. Although the manual sizing system is practiced to sell garments online, virtual size and fit visualisation and recommendation technologies are uncommon in Pakistani fashion interfaces. A comparative assessment of Pakistani fashion brand websites and UK technology-driven fashion interfaces was conducted to highlight the vast potential of the virtual size and fit technology. The results indicated that web 2.0 technology adopted by Pakistani apparel brands has limited features, whereas companies practicing web 3.0 technology provide interactive online real-store shopping experience leading to enhanced customer satisfaction and globalisation of brands.

Keywords: e-commerce, mass customization, virtual size and fit, web 3.0 technology

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4583 The Observable Method for the Regularization of Shock-Interface Interactions

Authors: Teng Li, Kamran Mohseni


This paper presents an inviscid regularization technique that is capable of regularizing the shocks and sharp interfaces simultaneously in the shock-interface interaction simulations. The direct numerical simulation of flows involving shocks has been investigated for many years and a lot of numerical methods were developed to capture the shocks. However, most of these methods rely on the numerical dissipation to regularize the shocks. Moreover, in high Reynolds number flows, the nonlinear terms in hyperbolic Partial Differential Equations (PDE) dominates, constantly generating small scale features. This makes direct numerical simulation of shocks even harder. The same difficulty happens in two-phase flow with sharp interfaces where the nonlinear terms in the governing equations keep sharpening the interfaces to discontinuities. The main idea of the proposed technique is to average out the small scales that is below the resolution (observable scale) of the computational grid by filtering the convective velocity in the nonlinear terms in the governing PDE. This technique is named “observable method” and it results in a set of hyperbolic equations called observable equations, namely, observable Navier-Stokes or Euler equations. The observable method has been applied to the flow simulations involving shocks, turbulence, and two-phase flows, and the results are promising. In the current paper, the observable method is examined on the performance of regularizing shocks and interfaces at the same time in shock-interface interaction problems. Bubble-shock interactions and Richtmyer-Meshkov instability are particularly chosen to be studied. Observable Euler equations will be numerically solved with pseudo-spectral discretization in space and third order Total Variation Diminishing (TVD) Runge Kutta method in time. Results are presented and compared with existing publications. The interface acceleration and deformation and shock reflection are particularly examined.

Keywords: compressible flow simulation, inviscid regularization, Richtmyer-Meshkov instability, shock-bubble interactions.

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