Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 395

Search results for: aluminium foam

395 An Investigation on the Energy Absorption of Sandwich Panels With Aluminium Foam Core under Perforation Test

Authors: Minoo Tavakoli, Mojtaba Zebarjad, Golestanipour


Metallic sandwich structures with aluminum foam core are good energy absorbers. In this paper, perforation test were carried out on different samples to study energy absorption. In the experiments, effect of several parameters, i.e. skin thickness and thickness of foam core, on the energy absorption, delamination zone of back faces and deformation strain(φ) are discussed. Results show that increasing plates thickness will results in more absorbed energy and delamination. Moreover, thickening foam core has the same effect.

Keywords: sandwich panel, aluminium foam, perforation, energy absorption

Procedia PDF Downloads 312
394 Performance of CO₂/N₂ Foam in Enhanced Oil Recovery

Authors: Mohamed Hassan, Rahul Gajbhiye


The high mobility and gravity override of CO₂ gas can be minimized by generating the CO₂ foam with the aid of surfactant. However, CO₂ is unable to generate the foam/stable foam above its supercritical point (1100 psi, 31°C). These difficulties with CO₂ foam is overcome by adding N₂ in small fraction to enhance the foam generation of CO₂ at supercritical conditions. This study shows how the addition of small quantity of N₂ helps in generating the CO₂ foam and performance of the CO₂/N₂ mixture foam in enhanced oil recovery. To investigate the performance of CO₂/N₂ foam, core-flooding experiments were conducted at elevated pressure and temperature condition (higher than supercritical CO₂ - 50°C and 1500 psi) in sandstone cores. Fluorosurfactant (FS-51) was used as a foaming agent, and n-decane was used as model oil in all the experiments. The selection of foam quality and N₂ fraction was optimized based on foam generation and stability tests. Every gas or foam flooding was preceded by seawater injection to simulate the behavior in the reservoir. The results from the core-flood experiments showed that the CO₂ and CO₂/N₂ foam flooding recovered an additional 34-40% of Original Initial Oil in Place (OIIP) indicating that foam flooding succeeded in producing more oil than pure CO₂ gas injection processes. Additionally, the performance CO₂/N₂ foam injection was better than CO₂ foam injection.

Keywords: CO₂/N₂ foam, enhanced oil recovery (EOR), supercritical CO₂, sweep efficiency

Procedia PDF Downloads 178
393 Crushing Analysis of Foam-Filled Thin-Walled Aluminum Profiles Subjected to Axial Loading

Authors: Michał Rogala, Jakub Gajewski


As the automotive industry develops, passive safety is becoming an increasingly important aspect when designing motor vehicles. A commonly used solution is energy absorption by thin-walled construction. One such structure is a closed thin-walled profile fixed to the vehicle stringers. The article presents numerical tests of conical thin-walled profiles filled with aluminum foam. The columns were loaded axially with constant energy. On the basis of the results obtained, efficiency indicators were calculated. The efficiency of the foam filling was evaluated. Artificial neural networks were used for data analysis. The application of regression analysis was used as a tool to study the relationship between the quantities characteristic of the dynamic crush.

Keywords: aluminium foam, crashworthiness, neural networks, thin-walled structure

Procedia PDF Downloads 33
392 In-Situ Quasistatic Compression and Microstructural Characterization of Aluminium Foams of Different Cell Topology

Authors: M. A. Islam, P. J. Hazell, J. P. Escobedo, M. Saadatfar


Quasistatic compression and micro structural characterization of closed cell aluminium foams of different pore size and cell distributions has been carried out. Metallic foams have good potential for lightweight structures for impact and blast mitigation and therefore it is important to find out the optimized foam structure (i.e. cell size, shape, relative density, and distribution) to maximize energy absorption. In this paper, we present results for two different aluminium metal foams of density 0.5 g/cc and 0.7 g/cc respectively that have been tested in quasi-static compression. The influence of cell geometry and cell topology on quasistatic compression behavior has been investigated using computed tomography (micro-CT) analysis. The compression behavior and micro structural characterization will be presented.

Keywords: metal foams, micro-CT, cell topology, quasistatic compression

Procedia PDF Downloads 360
391 Light Weight Mortars Produced from Recycled Foam

Authors: Siwat Kamonkunanon


This paper presents results of an experimental study on the use of recycled foam with cement-based mixtures to produce light weight mortar. Several mortar grades were obtained by mixing cement with different amounts of recycled foam, aggregate and water. The physical and mechanical properties of the samples such as density, thermal conductivity, thermal resistivity and compressive strength were investigated. Results show that an increase in the amount of recycled foam affects the mortar, decreasing its density and mechanical properties while increasing its workability, permeability, and occluded air content. These results confirm that mortar produced with recycled foam is comparable to light weight mortar made with traditional materials.

Keywords: light weight, mortars, recycled foam, civil engineering

Procedia PDF Downloads 210
390 Microwave Assisted Foam-Mat Drying of Guava Pulp

Authors: Ovais S. Qadri, Abhaya K. Srivastava


Present experiments were carried to study the drying kinetics and quality of microwave foam-mat dried guava powder. Guava pulp was microwave foam mat dried using 8% egg albumin as foaming agent and then dried at microwave power 480W, 560W, 640W, 720W and 800W, foam thickness 3mm, 5mm and 7mm and inlet air temperature of 40˚C and 50˚C. Weight loss was used to estimate change in drying rate with respect to time. Powdered samples were analysed for various physicochemical quality parameters viz. acidity, pH, TSS, colour change and ascorbic acid content. Statistical analysis using three-way ANOVA revealed that sample of 5mm foam thickness dried at 800W and 50˚C was the best with 0.3584% total acid, 3.98 pH, 14min drying time, 8˚Brix TSS, 3.263 colour change and 154.762mg/100g ascorbic acid content.

Keywords: foam mat drying, foam mat guava, guava powder, microwave drying

Procedia PDF Downloads 227
389 Synthesis of Microporous Interconnected Polymeric Foam of Poly (Glycidyl Methacrylate-Co-Divinylbenzene-Co-Butyl Acrylate) by Using Aqueous Foam as a Template

Authors: A. A. Gadgeel, S. T. Mhaske


Hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (HTAB) modified nano silica were used as pore stabilizer for the preparation of interconnected macroporous copolymer foam of glycidyl methacrylate (GMA), divinylbenzene (DVB) and tert-butyl acrylate (BA). The polymerization of air infused aqueous foam is carried out through free radical thermal initiator. The porosity of the polymerized foam depends on the concentration of HTAB used to control the hydrophobic and hydrophilic behavior of silica nanoparticle. Modified silica particle results to form closed cell foam with 74% of porosity for 60% of air infusion during aqueous foaming. The preliminary structure of microfoam was observed through optical microscopy, whereas for a better understanding of morphology SEM was used. The proposed route is an eco-friendly route for synthesizing polymeric microporous polymer as compared to other chemical and additive-based routes available.

Keywords: air-infused, interconnected microporous, porosity, aqueous foam

Procedia PDF Downloads 37
388 Aluminum Matrix Composites Reinforced by Glassy Carbon-Titanium Spatial Structure

Authors: B. Hekner, J. Myalski, P. Wrzesniowski


This study presents aluminum matrix composites reinforced by glassy carbon (GC) and titanium (Ti). In the first step, the heterophase (GC+Ti), spatial form (similar to skeleton) of reinforcement was obtained via own method. The polyurethane foam (with spatial, open-cells structure) covered by suspension of Ti particles in phenolic resin was pyrolyzed. In the second step, the prepared heterogeneous foams were infiltrated by aluminium alloy. The manufactured composites are designated to industrial application, especially as a material used in tribological field. From this point of view, the glassy carbon was applied to stabilise a coefficient of friction on the required value 0.6 and reduce wear. Furthermore, the wear can be limited due to titanium phase application, which reveals high mechanical properties. Moreover, fabrication of thin titanium layer on the carbon skeleton leads to reduce contact between aluminium alloy and carbon and thus aluminium carbide phase creation. However, the main modification involves the manufacturing of reinforcement in the form of 3D, skeleton foam. This kind on reinforcement reveals a few important advantages compared to classical form of reinforcement-particles: possibility to control homogeneity of reinforcement phase in composite material; low-advanced technique of composite manufacturing- infiltration; possibility to application the reinforcement only in required places of material; strict control of phase composition; High quality of bonding between components of material. This research is founded by NCN in the UMO-2016/23/N/ST8/00994.

Keywords: metal matrix composites, MMC, glassy carbon, heterophase composites, tribological application

Procedia PDF Downloads 38
387 An Investigation of Foam Glass Production from Sheet Glass Waste and SiC Foaming Agent

Authors: Aylin Sahin, Recep Artir, Mustafa Kara


Foam glass is a remarkable material with having incomparable properties like low weight, rigidity, high thermal insulation capacity and porous structure. In this study, foam glass production was investigated with using glass powder from sheet glass waste and SiC powder as foaming agent. Effects of SiC powders and sintering temperatures on foaming process were examined. It was seen that volume expansions (%), cellular structures and pore diameters of obtained foam glass samples were highly depending on composition ratios and sintering temperature. The study showed that various foam glass samples having with homogenous closed porosity, low weight and low thermal conductivity were achieved by optimizing composition ratios and sintering temperatures.

Keywords: foam glass, foaming, waste glass, silicon carbide

Procedia PDF Downloads 193
386 Simulation of the Extensional Flow Mixing of Molten Aluminium and Fly Ash Nanoparticles

Authors: O. Ualibek, C. Spitas, V. Inglezakis, G. Itskos


This study presents simulations of an aluminium melt containing an initially non-dispersed fly ash nanoparticle phase. Mixing is affected predominantly by means of forced extensional flow via either straight or slanted orifices. The sensitivity to various process parameters is determined. The simulated process is used for the production of cast fly ash-aluminium nanocomposites. The possibilities for rod and plate stock grading in the context of a continuous casting process implementation are discussed.

Keywords: metal matrix composites, fly ash nanoparticles, aluminium 2024, agglomeration

Procedia PDF Downloads 104
385 Kinetic Study of Thermal Degradation of a Lignin Nanoparticle-Reinforced Phenolic Foam

Authors: Juan C. Domínguez, Belén Del Saz-Orozco, María V. Alonso, Mercedes Oliet, Francisco Rodríguez


In the present study, the kinetics of thermal degradation of a phenolic and lignin reinforced phenolic foams, and the lignin used as reinforcement were studied and the activation energies of their degradation processes were obtained by a DAEM model. The average values for five heating rates of the mean activation energies obtained were: 99.1, 128.2, and 144.0 kJ.mol-1 for the phenolic foam, 109.5, 113.3, and 153.0 kJ.mol-1 for the lignin reinforcement, and 82.1, 106.9, and 124.4 kJ. mol-1 for the lignin reinforced phenolic foam. The standard deviation ranges calculated for each sample were 1.27-8.85, 2.22-12.82, and 3.17-8.11 kJ.mol-1 for the phenolic foam, lignin and the reinforced foam, respectively. The DAEM model showed low mean square errors (< 1x10-5), proving that is a suitable model to study the kinetics of thermal degradation of the foams and the reinforcement.

Keywords: kinetics, lignin, phenolic foam, thermal degradation

Procedia PDF Downloads 358
384 Improved Structure and Performance by Shape Change of Foam Monitor

Authors: Tae Gwan Kim, Hyun Kyu Cho, Young Hoon Lee, Young Chul Park


Foam monitors are devices that are installed on cargo tank decks to suppress cargo area fires in oil tankers or hazardous chemical ship cargo ships. In general, the main design parameter of the foam monitor is the distance of the projection through the foam monitor. In this study, the relationship between flow characteristics and projection distance, depending on the shape was examined. Numerical techniques for fluid analysis of foam monitors have been developed for prediction. The flow pattern of the fluid varies depending on the shape of the flow path of the foam monitor, as the flow losses affecting projection distance were calculated through numerical analysis. The basic shape of the foam monitor was an L shape designed by N Company. The modified model increased the length of the flow path and used the S shape model. The calculation result shows that the L shape, which is the basic shape, has a problem that the force is directed to one side and the vibration and noise are generated there. In order to solve the problem, S-shaped model, which is a change model, was used. As a result, the problem is solved, and the projection distance from the nozzle is improved.

Keywords: CFD, foam monitor, projection distance, moment

Procedia PDF Downloads 255
383 Using of Cavitational Disperser for Porous Ceramic and Concrete Material Preparation

Authors: Andrei Shishkin, Aleksandrs Korjakins, Viktors Mironovs


Present paper describes method of obtaining clay ceramic foam (CCF) and foam concrete (FC), by direct foaming with high speed mixer-disperser (HSMD). Three foaming agents (FA) are compared for the FC and CCF production: SCHÄUMUNGSMITTEL W 53 FLÜSSIG (Zschimmer & Schwarz Gmbh, Germany), SCF-1245 (Sika, test sample, Latvia) and FAB-12 (Elade, Latvija). CCF were obtained at 950, 1000°C, 1150°C and 1150°C firing temperature and have mechanical compressive strength 1.2, 2.55, and 4.3 MPa and porosity 79.4, 75.1, 71.6%, respectively. Obtained FC has 6-14 MPa compressive strength and porosity 44-55%. The goal of this work was the development of a sustainable and durable ceramic cellular structures using HSMD.

Keywords: ceramic foam, foam concrete, clay foam, open cell, close cell, direct foaming

Procedia PDF Downloads 362
382 Heat Transfer Enhancement Using Copper Metallic Foam during Convective Boiling in a Plate Heat Exchanger

Authors: A.Kouidri, B.Madani


The present work deals with the study of the heat transfer in a rectangular channel equipped with a metallic foam. The tested metallic foam sample is made from copper with 20 PPI (Pore per Inch Linear) and 93% of porosity and the working fluid used is the n-pentane. In the present work the independent variables are the velocity in the range from 0.02 to 0.06 m/s and a boiling heat flux rate varying between 30 and 70 kW/m2. The heat transfer coefficient is presented versus boiling heat flux, vapor quality and superheat ΔTsat. The thermal results are compared to those found for a plain tube for the same conditions. The comparison with the plain tube shows that the insert of a metallic foam enhances the heat transfer coefficient by a factor between 1.3 and 3.

Keywords: boiling, metallic foam, heat transfer, plate heat exchanger

Procedia PDF Downloads 307
381 Influence of Milled Waste Glass to Clay Ceramic Foam Properties Made by Direct Foaming Route

Authors: A. Shishkin, V. Mironovs, D. Goljandin, A. Korjakins


The goal of this work is to develop sustainable and durable ceramic cellular structures using widely available natural resources- clay and milled waste glass. Present paper describes method of obtaining clay ceramic foam (CCF) with addition of milled waste glass in 5, 7 and 10 wt% by direct foaming with high speed mixer-disperser (HSMD). For more efficient clay and waste glass milling and mixing, the high velocity disintegrator was used. The CCF with 5, 7, and 10 wt% were obtained at 900, 950, 1000 and 1050 °C firing temperature and they have demonstrated mechanical compressive strength for all 12 samples ranging from 3.8 to 14.3 MPa and porosity 76-65%. Obtained CCF has compressive strength 14.3 MPa and porosity 65.3%.

Keywords: ceramic foam, waste glass, clay foam, glass foam, open cell, direct foaming

Procedia PDF Downloads 191
380 A Model of Foam Density Prediction for Expanded Perlite Composites

Authors: M. Arifuzzaman, H. S. Kim


Multiple sets of variables associated with expanded perlite particle consolidation in foam manufacturing were analyzed to develop a model for predicting perlite foam density. The consolidation of perlite particles based on the flotation method and compaction involves numerous variables leading to the final perlite foam density. The variables include binder content, compaction ratio, perlite particle size, various perlite particle densities and porosities, and various volumes of perlite at different stages of process. The developed model was found to be useful not only for prediction of foam density but also for optimization between compaction ratio and binder content to achieve a desired density. Experimental verification was conducted using a range of foam densities (0.15–0.5 g/cm3) produced with a range of compaction ratios (1.5-3.5), a range of sodium silicate contents (0.05–0.35 g/ml) in dilution, a range of expanded perlite particle sizes (1-4 mm), and various perlite densities (such as skeletal, material, bulk, and envelope densities). A close agreement between predictions and experimental results was found.

Keywords: expanded perlite, flotation method, foam density, model, prediction, sodium silicate

Procedia PDF Downloads 319
379 Exploration of Cone Foam Breaker Behavior Using Computational Fluid Dynamic

Authors: G. St-Pierre-Lemieux, E. Askari Mahvelati, D. Groleau, P. Proulx


Mathematical modeling has become an important tool for the study of foam behavior. Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) can be used to investigate the behavior of foam around foam breakers to better understand the mechanisms leading to the ‘destruction’ of foam. The focus of this investigation was the simple cone foam breaker, whose performance has been identified in numerous studies. While the optimal pumping angle is known from the literature, the contribution of pressure drop, shearing, and centrifugal forces to the foam syneresis are subject to speculation. This work provides a screening of those factors against changes in the cone angle and foam rheology. The CFD simulation was made with the open source OpenFOAM toolkits on a full three-dimensional model discretized using hexahedral cells. The geometry was generated using a python script then meshed with blockMesh. The OpenFOAM Volume Of Fluid (VOF) method was used (interFOAM) to obtain a detailed description of the interfacial forces, and the model k-omega SST was used to calculate the turbulence fields. The cone configuration allows the use of a rotating wall boundary condition. In each case, a pair of immiscible fluids, foam/air or water/air was used. The foam was modeled as a shear thinning (Herschel-Buckley) fluid. The results were compared to our measurements and to results found in the literature, first by computing the pumping rate of the cone, and second by the liquid break-up at the exit of the cone. A 3D printed version of the cones submerged in foam (shaving cream or soap solution) and water, at speeds varying between 400 RPM and 1500 RPM, was also used to validate the modeling results by calculating the torque exerted on the shaft. While most of the literature is focusing on cone behavior using Newtonian fluids, this works explore its behavior in shear thinning fluid which better reflects foam apparent rheology. Those simulations bring new light on the cone behavior within the foam and allow the computation of shearing, pressure, and velocity of the fluid, enabling to better evaluate the efficiency of the cones as foam breakers. This study contributes to clarify the mechanisms behind foam breaker performances, at least in part, using modern CFD techniques.

Keywords: bioreactor, CFD, foam breaker, foam mitigation, OpenFOAM

Procedia PDF Downloads 54
378 Functionalized PU Foam for Water Filtration

Authors: Nidal H. Abu-Zahra, Subhashini Gunashekar


Polyurethane foam is functionalized with Sulfonic acid groups to remove lead ions (Pb2+) from drinking water through a action exchange process. The synthesis is based on addition polymerization of the -NCO groups of an isocyanine with the –OH groups of a polio to form the urethane. Toluene-diisocyanateis reacted with Polypropylene glycol to form a linear pre-polymer, which is further polymerized using a chain extender, N, N-bis(2-hydorxyethyl)-2-aminoethane-sulfonic acid (BES). BES acts as a functional group site to exchange Pb2+ ions. A set of experiments was designed to study the effect of various processing parameters on the performance of the synthesized foam. The maximum Pb2+ ion exchange capacity of the foam was found to be 47ppb/g from a 100ppb Pb2+ solution over a period of 60 minutes. A multistage batch filtration process increased the lead removal to 50-54ppb/3g of foam over a period of 90 minutes.

Keywords: adsorption, functionalized, ion exchange, polyurethane, sulfonic

Procedia PDF Downloads 130
377 Utilization of Aluminium Dross as a Main Raw Material for Synthesize the Geopolymers via Mechanochemistry Method

Authors: Pimchanok Puksisuwan, Pitak Laorattanakul, Benya Cherdhirunkorn


The use of aluminium dross as a raw material for geopolymer synthesis via mechanochemistry method was studied. The geopolymers were prepared using aluminium dross from secondary aluminium industry, fly ash from a biomass power plant and liquid alkaline activators, which is a mixture of sodium silicate solution (Na2SiO3) and sodium hydroxide solution (NaOH) (Na2SiO3/NaOH ratio 4:1, 3:1 and 2:1). Aluminium dross consists mostly of alumina (Al2O3), silicon oxide (SiO2) and aluminium nitride (AlN). The raw materials were mixed and milled using the high energy ball milling method for 5, 10 and 15 minutes in order to reduce the particle size. The milled powders were uniaxially pressed into a cylinder die with the pressure of 2200 psi. The cylinder samples were cured in the sealed plastic bags for 3, 7 and 14 days at the room temperature and 60°C for 24 hour. The mechanical property of geopolymers was investigated. In addition, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis were carried out in order to study the microstructure and phase structures of the geopolymers, respectively. The results showed that aluminium dross could enhance the mechanical property of geopolymers product by mechanochemistry method and meet the TISI requirements.

Keywords: aluminium dross, fly ash, geopolymer, mechanochemistry

Procedia PDF Downloads 131
376 Magnetic Field Induced Mechanical Behavior of Fluid Filled Carbon Nanotube Foam

Authors: Siva Kumar Reddy, Anwesha Mukherjee, Abha Misra


Excellent energy absorption capability in carbon nanotubes (CNT) is shown in their bulk structure that behaves like super compressible foam. Furthermore, a tunable mechanical behavior of CNT foam is achieved using several methods like changing the concentration of precursors, polymer impregnation, non covalent functionalization of CNT microstructure etc. Influence of magnetic field on compressive behavior of magnetic CNT demonstrated an enhanced peak stress and energy absorption capability, which does not require any surface and structural modification of the foam. This presentation discusses the mechanical behavior of micro porous CNT foam that is impregnated in magnetic field responsive fluid. Magnetic particles are dispersed in a nonmagnetic fluid so that alignment of both particles and CNT could play a crucial role in controlling the stiffness of the overall structure. It is revealed that the compressive behavior of CNT foam critically depends on the fluid viscosity as well as magnetic field intensity. Both peak Stress and energy absorption in CNT foam followed a power law behavior with the increase in the magnetic field intensity. However, in the absence of magnetic field, both peak stress and energy absorption capability of CNT foam presented a linear dependence on the fluid viscosity. Hence, this work demonstrates the role magnetic filed in controlling the mechanical behavior of the foams prepared at nanoscale.

Keywords: carbon nanotubes, magnetic field, energy absorption capability and viscosity

Procedia PDF Downloads 213
375 Influence of Post Weld Heat Treatment on Mechanical and Metallurgical Properties of TIG Welded Aluminium Alloy Joints

Authors: Gurmeet Singh Cheema, Navjotinder Singh, Gurjinder Singh, Amardeep Singh


Aluminium and its alloys play have excellent corrosion resistant properties, ease of fabrication and high specific strength to weight ratio. In this investigation an attempt has been made to study the effect of different post weld heat treatment methods on the mechanical and metallurgical properties of TIG welded joints of the commercial aluminium alloy. Three different methods of post weld heat treatments are, solution heat treatment, artificial aged and combination of solution heat treatment and artificial aging are given to TIG welded aluminium joints. Mechanical and metallurgical properties of as welded and post weld treated joints of the aluminium alloys was examined.

Keywords: aluminium alloys, TIG welding, post weld heat treatment

Procedia PDF Downloads 331
374 Studying Projection Distance and Flow Properties by Shape Variations of Foam Monitor

Authors: Hyun-Kyu Cho, Jun-Su Kim, Choon-Geun Huh, Geon Lee Young-Chul Park


In this study, the relationship between flow properties and fluid projection distance look into connection for shape variations of foam monitor. A numerical analysis technique for fluid analysis of a foam monitor was developed for the prediction. Shape of foam monitor the flow path of fluid flow according to the shape, The fluid losses were calculated from flow analysis result.. The modified model used the length increase model of the flow path, and straight line of the model. Inlet pressure was 7 [bar] and external was atmosphere codition. am. The results showed that the length increase model of the flow path and straight line of the model was improved in the nozzle projection distance.

Keywords: injection performance, finite element method, foam monitor, Projection distance

Procedia PDF Downloads 241
373 Enhanced Dimensional Stability of Rigid PVC Foams Using Glass Fibers

Authors: Nidal H. Abu-Zahra, Murtatha M. Jamel, Parisa Khoshnoud, Subhashini Gunashekar


Two types of glass fibers having different lengths (1/16" and 1/32") were added into rigid PVC foams to enhance the dimensional stability of extruded rigid Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) foam at different concentrations (0-20 phr) using a single screw profile extruder. PVC foam-glass fiber composites (PVC-GF) were characterized for their dimensional stability, structural, thermal, and mechanical properties. Experimental results show that the dimensional stability, heat resistance, and storage modulus were enhanced without compromising the tensile and flexural strengths of the composites. Overall, foam composites which were prepared with longer glass fibers exhibit better mechanical and thermal properties than those prepared with shorter glass fibers due to higher interlocking between the fibers and the foam cells, which result in better load distribution in the matrix.

Keywords: polyvinyl chloride, PVC foam, PVC composites, polymer composites, glass fiber composites, reinforced polymers

Procedia PDF Downloads 317
372 Numerical and Experimental Study of Heat Transfer Enhancement with Metal Foams and Ultrasounds

Authors: L. Slimani, A. Bousri, A. Hamadouche, H. Ben Hamed


The aim of this experimental and numerical study is to analyze the effects of acoustic streaming generated by 40 kHz ultrasonic waves on heat transfer in forced convection, with and without 40 PPI aluminum metal foam. Preliminary dynamic and thermal studies were done with COMSOL Multiphase, to see heat transfer enhancement degree by inserting a 40PPI metal foam (10 × 2 × 3 cm) on a heat sink, after having determined experimentally its permeability and Forchheimer's coefficient. The results obtained numerically are in accordance with those obtained experimentally, with an enhancement factor of 205% for a velocity of 0.4 m/s compared to an empty channel. The influence of 40 kHz ultrasound on heat transfer was also tested with and without metallic foam. Results show a remarkable increase in Nusselt number in an empty channel with an enhancement factor of 37,5%, while no influence of ultrasound on heat transfer in metal foam presence.

Keywords: acoustic streaming, enhancing heat transfer, laminar flow, metal foam, ultrasound

Procedia PDF Downloads 46
371 An Evaluation of the Oxide Layers in Machining Swarfs to Improve Recycling

Authors: J. Uka, B. McKay, T. Minton, O. Adole, R. Lewis, S. J. Glanvill, L. Anguilano


Effective heat treatment conditions to obtain maximum aluminium swarf recycling are investigated in this work. Aluminium swarf briquettes underwent treatments at different temperatures and cooling times to investigate the improvements obtained in the recovery of aluminium metal. The main issue for the recovery of the metal from swarfs is to overcome the constraints due to the oxide layers present in high concentration in the swarfs since they have a high surface area. Briquettes supplied by Renishaw were heat treated at 650, 700, 750, 800 and 850 ℃ for 1-hour and then cooled at 2.3, 3.5 and 5 ℃/min. The resulting material was analysed using SEM EDX to observe the oxygen diffusion and aluminium coalescence at the boundary between adjacent swarfs. Preliminary results show that, swarf needs to be heat treated at a temperature of 850 ℃ and cooled down slowly at 2.3 ℃/min to have thin and discontinuous alumina layers between the adjacent swarf and consequently allowing aluminium coalescence. This has the potential to save energy and provide maximum financial profit in preparation of swarf briquettes for recycling.

Keywords: reuse, recycle, aluminium, swarf, oxide layers

Procedia PDF Downloads 35
370 Improving the Exploitation of Fluid in Elastomeric Polymeric Isolator

Authors: Haithem Elderrat, Huw Davies, Emmanuel Brousseau


Elastomeric polymer foam has been used widely in the automotive industry, especially for isolating unwanted vibrations. Such material is able to absorb unwanted vibration due to its combination of elastic and viscous properties. However, the ‘creep effect’, poor stress distribution and susceptibility to high temperatures are the main disadvantages of such a system. In this study, improvements in the performance of elastomeric foam as a vibration isolator were investigated using the concept of Foam Filled Fluid (FFFluid). In FFFluid devices, the foam takes the form of capsule shapes, and is mixed with viscous fluid, while the mixture is contained in a closed vessel. When the FFFluid isolator is affected by vibrations, energy is absorbed, due to the elastic strain of the foam. As the foam is compressed, there is also movement of the fluid, which contributes to further energy absorption as the fluid shears. Also, and dependent on the design adopted, the packaging could also attenuate vibration through energy absorption via friction and/or elastic strain. The present study focuses on the advantages of the FFFluid concept over the dry polymeric foam in the role of vibration isolation. This comparative study between the performance of dry foam and the FFFluid was made according to experimental procedures. The paper concludes by evaluating the performance of the FFFluid isolator in the suspension system of a light vehicle. One outcome of this research is that the FFFluid may preferable over elastomer isolators in certain applications, as it enables a reduction in the effects of high temperatures and of ‘creep effects’, thereby increasing the reliability and load distribution. The stiffness coefficient of the system has increased about 60% by using an FFFluid sample. The technology represented by the FFFluid is therefore considered by this research suitable for application in the suspension system of a light vehicle.

Keywords: FFFluid, dry foam, anti-vibration devices, elastomeric polymer foam

Procedia PDF Downloads 197
369 A Metallography Study of Secondary A226 Aluminium Alloy Used in Automotive Industries

Authors: Lenka Hurtalová, Eva Tillová, Mária Chalupová, Juraj Belan, Milan Uhríčik


The secondary alloy A226 is used for many automotive casting produced by mould casting and high pressure die-casting. This alloy has excellent castability, good mechanical properties and cost-effectiveness. Production of primary aluminium alloys belong to heavy source fouling of life environs. The European Union calls for the emission reduction and reduction in energy consumption, therefore, increase production of recycled (secondary) aluminium cast alloys. The contribution is deal with influence of recycling on the quality of the casting made from A226 in automotive industry. The properties of the casting made from secondary aluminium alloys were compared with the required properties of primary aluminium alloys. The effect of recycling on microstructure was observed using combination different analytical techniques (light microscopy upon black-white etching, scanning electron microscopy-SEM upon deep etching and energy dispersive X-ray analysis-EDX). These techniques were used for the identification of the various structure parameters, which was used to compare secondary alloy microstructure with primary alloy microstructure.

Keywords: A226 secondary aluminium alloy, deep etching, mechanical properties, recycling foundry aluminium alloy

Procedia PDF Downloads 433
368 Preparation and Properties of Chloroacetated Natural Rubber Rubber Foam Using Corn Starch as Curing Agent

Authors: Ploenpit Boochathum, Pitchayanad Kaolim, Phimjutha Srisangkaew


In general, rubber foam is produced based on the sulfur curing system. However, the remaining sulfur in the rubber product waste is burned to sulfur dioxide gas causing the environment pollution. To avoid using sulfur as curing agent in the rubber foam products, this research work proposes non-sulfur curing system by using corn starch as a curing agent. The ether crosslinks were proposed to be produced via the functional bonding between hydroxyl groups of the starch molecules and chloroacetate groups added on the natural rubber molecules. The chloroacetated natural rubber (CNR) latex was prepared via the epoxidation reaction of the concentrated natural rubber latex, subsequently, epoxy rings were attacked by chloroacetic acid to produce hydroxyl groups and chloroacetate groups on the rubber molecules. Foaming agent namely NaHCO3 was selected to add in the CNR latex due to the low decomposition temperature at about 50°C. The appropriate curing temperature was assigned to be 90°C that is above gelatinization temperature; 60-70°C, of starch. The effect of weight ratio of starch, i.e., 0 phr, 3 phr and 5 phr, on the physical properties of CNR rubber foam was investigated. It was found that density reduced from 0.81 g/cm3 for 0 phr to 0.75 g/cm3 for 3 phr and 0.79 g/cm3 for 5 phr. The ability to return to its original thickness after prolonged compressive stresses of CNR rubber foam cured with starch loading of 5 phr was found to be considerably better than that of CNR rubber foam cured with starch 3 phr and CNR rubber foam without addition of starch according to the compression set that was determined to decrease from 66.67% to 40% and 26.67% with the increase loading of starch. The mechanical properties including tensile strength and modulus of CNR rubber foams cured using starch were determined to increase except that the elongation at break was found to decrease. In addition, all mechanical properties of CNR rubber foams cured with the starch 3 phr and 5 phr were found to be slightly different and drastically higher than those of CNR rubber foam without the addition of starch. This research work indicates that starch can be applicable as a curing agent for CNR rubber. This is confirmed by the increase of the elastic modulus (G') of CNR rubber foams that was cured with the starch over the CNR rubber foam without curing agent. This type of rubber foam is believed to be one of the biodegradable and environment-friendly product that can be cured at low temperature of 90°C.

Keywords: chloroacetated natural rubber, corn starch, non-sulfur curing system, rubber foam

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367 Mechanochemical Behaviour of Aluminium–Boron Oxide–Melamine Ternary System

Authors: Ismail Seckin Cardakli, Mustafa Engin Kocadagistan, Ersin Arslan


In this study, mechanochemical behaviour of aluminium - boron oxide - melamine ternary system was investigated by high energy ball milling. According to the reaction Al + B₂O₃ = Al₂O₃ + B, stochiometric amount of aluminium and boron oxide with melamine up to ten percent of total weight was used in the experiments. The powder characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) after leaching of product by 1M HCl acid. Results show that mechanically induced self-sustaining reaction (MSR) between aluminium and boron oxide takes place after four hours high energy ball milling. Al₂O₃/h-BN composite powder is obtained as the product of aluminium - boron oxide - melamine ternary system.

Keywords: high energy ball milling, hexagonal boron nitride, mechanically induced self-sustaining reaction, melamine

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366 An Investigation of Raw Material Effects on Nano SiC Based Foam Glass Production

Authors: Aylin Sahin, Yasemin Kilic, Abdulkadir Sari, Burcu Duymaz, Mustafa Kara


Foam glass is an innovative material which composed of glass and carbon/carbonate based minerals; and has incomparable properties like light weight, high thermal insulation and cellular structure with sufficient rigidity. In the present study, the effects of the glass type and mineral addition on the foam glass properties were investigated. Nano sized SiC was fixed as foaming agent at the whole of the samples, mixed glass waste and sheet glass were selectively used as glass sources; finally Al₂O₃ was optionally used as mineral additive. These raw material powders were mixed homogenously, pressed at same pressure and sintered at same schedule. Finally, obtained samples were characterized based on the required properties of foam glass material, and optimum results were determined. At the end of the study, 0.049 W/mK thermal conductivity, 72 % porosity, and 0.21 kg/cm² apparent density with 2.41 MPa compressive strength values were achieved with using nano sized SiC, sheet glass and Al₂O₃ mineral additive. It can be said that the foam glass materials can be preferred as an alternative insulation material rather than polymeric based conventional insulation materials because of supplying high thermal insulation properties without containing unhealthy chemicals and burn risks.

Keywords: foam glass, foaming, silicon carbide, waste glass

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