Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3708

Search results for: international adoption

3708 Outcomes from a Qualitative Research: Ethnic Prejudice and Identity Difficulties in Experiences of Young People of Foreign Origin Adopted in Italy

Authors: Stefania Lorenzini

Abstract:

Italy is a country where the phenomenon of international adoption is very considerable: indeed, it is second in the world only to the United States. This contribution deals with issues related to the development of children's identities in international and interethnic adoption. Process of identity construction can be complex in adopted children born and, often, lived for some years of their young life, in geographical, human, social and cultural contexts very different from those they live after adoption. The results of a qualitative research conducted by interviewing young people adopted in Italy make it possible to grasp the different facets of discrimination episodes related to somatic traits, and in particular to the color of the skin, that refer to these young people foreign origin. Outcomes from the research show difficulties in identy construction but also highlight how that evolution of an "intercultural identity" during international and interethnic adoption is possible.

Keywords: discrimination, identity, intercultural education, international adoption

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3707 An Institutional Analysis of IFRS Adoption in Poor Jurisdictions

Authors: Catalina Florentina Pricope

Abstract:

The last two decades witnessed a movement towards harmonization of international financial reporting standards (IFRS) throughout the global economy. This investigation seeks to identify the factors that could explain the adoption of IFRS by poor jurisdictions. While there has been a considerable amount, of literature published on the effects and key drivers of IFRS adoption in both developed and developing countries, little attention has been paid to jurisdictions with less developed capital markets and low-income levels exclusively. Drawing upon the Institutional Isomorphism theory and analyzing a sample of 45 poor jurisdictions between 2008 and 2013, the study empirically shows that poor jurisdictions are driven by legitimacy concerns rather than by economic reasoning to adopt an international accounting perspective. This in turn has implications for the IASB, as it should seek to influence institutional pressures within a particular jurisdiction in order to promote IFRS adoption.

Keywords: IFRS adoption, isomorphism, poor jurisdictions, accounting harmonization

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3706 Child Trafficking for Adoption Purposes: A Study into the Criminogenic Factors of the German Intercountry Adoption System

Authors: Elvira Loibl

Abstract:

In Western countries, the demand for adoptable children, especially healthy babies, has been considerably high for several years. Rising infertility rates, liberal abortion politics, the widespread use of contraception, and the increasing acceptance of unmarried motherhood are factors that have decreased the number of infants available for domestic adoption in the U.S. and Europe. As a consequence, many involuntarily childless couples turn to intercountry adoption as a viable alternative to have a child of their own. However, the demand for children far outpaces the supply of orphans with the desired characteristics. The imbalance between the number of prospective adopters and the children available for intercountry adoption results in long waiting lists and high prices. The inordinate sums of money involved in the international adoption system have created a commercial ‘underbelly’ where unethical and illicit practices are employed to provide the adoption market with adoptable children. Children are being purchased or abducted from their families, hospitals or child care institutions and then trafficked to receiving countries as ‘orphans’. This paper aims to uncover and explain the factors of the German adoption system that are conducive to child trafficking for adoption purposes. It explains that the tension between money and integrity as experienced by German adoption agencies, blind trust in the authorities in the sending countries as well as a lenient control system encourage and facilitate the trafficking in children to Germany.

Keywords: child trafficking, intercountry adoption, market in adoptable babies, German adoption system

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3705 Accounting Quality and The Adoption of IFRS: Evidence from China

Authors: Khaldoon G. Albitar, Hassan Y. Kikhia, Jin P. Zhang

Abstract:

Since 2007, all companies listed on both Shanghai Stock Exchange and Shenzhen Stock Exchange are required to prepare their consolidated financial statements in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS). This study investigates the impact of adopting IFRS on accounting quality for a sample of listed on Chinese companies during the period 2003-2013 with sample of 10846 observations over a four-year period before and a five-year period after the adoption of IFRS. This study tests whether the level of earnings management is significantly lower after the adoption of IFRS, and reported earnings is more value relevant during the IFRS period by using the Ohlson model and Jones model, as modified by Dechow. The empirical results show that accounting quality improved with lower earnings management and higher value relevant after the adoption of IFRS in China. The current study contributes to the literature on IFRS adoption and earning quality in two ways. First, As most of the existing studies on earnings quality and IFRS have been conducted on data from the U.S and European countries, this study fills a gap in the existing literature by studying the effect of adoption of IFRS on earnings quality in an emerging market. Second, the findings of our study have important implications for policymakers, auditors, multinational firms, and users of financial reports. As the rapid growth of China's economy gains global recognition, the Chinese stock market is capturing the attention of international investor.

Keywords: international financial reporting standards (ifrs), accounting quality, earnings management, value relevance, china

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3704 The Adoption of Process Management for Accounting Information Systems in Thailand

Authors: Manirath Wongsim

Abstract:

Information Quality (IQ) has become a critical, strategic issue in Accounting Information Systems (AIS) adoption. In order to implement AIS adoption successfully, it is important to consider the quality of information use throughout the adoption process, which seriously impacts the effectiveness of AIS adoption practice and the optimization of AIS adoption decisions. There is a growing need for research to provide insights into issues and solutions related to IQ in AIS adoption. The need for an integrated approach to improve IQ in AIS adoption, as well as the unique characteristics of accounting data, demands an AIS adoption specific IQ framework. This research aims to explore ways of managing information quality and AIS adoption to investigate the relationship between the IQ issues and AIS adoption process. This study has led to the development of a framework for understanding IQ management in AIS adoption. This research was done on 44 respondents as ten organisations from manufacturing firms in Thailand. The findings of the research’s empirical evidence suggest that IQ dimensions in AIS adoption to provide assistance in all process of decision making. This research provides empirical evidence that information quality of AIS adoption affect decision making and suggests that these variables should be considered in adopting AIS in order to improve the effectiveness of AIS.

Keywords: information quality, information quality dimensions, accounting information systems, accounting information system adoption

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3703 The Adoption of Technological Innovations in a B2C Context: An Empirical Study on the Higher Education Industry in Egypt

Authors: Maha Mourad, Rania Samir

Abstract:

This paper seeks to explain the adoption of technological innovations in a business to consumer context. Specifically, the use of web based technology (WEBCT/blackboard) in the delivery of educational material and communication with students at universities in Egypt is the focus of this study. The analysis draws on existing research in a B2C context which highlights the importance of internal organization characteristics, perceived attributes of the innovation as well as consumer based factors as the main drivers of adoption. A distinctive B2C model is developed drawing on Roger’s innovation adoption model, as well as theoretical and empirical foundations in previous innovation adoption literature to study the adoption of technological innovations in higher education in Egypt. The model proposes that the adoption decision is dependent on a combination of perceived attributes of the innovation, inter-organization factors and consumer factors. The model is testified drawing on the results of empirical work in the form of a large survey conducted on students in three different universities in Egypt (one public, one private and one international). In addition to the attributes of the innovation, specific organization factors (such as university resources) as well as consumer factors were identified as likely to have an important influence on the adoption of technological innovations in higher education.

Keywords: innovation, WEBCT, higher education, adoption, Egypt

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3702 International Financial Reporting Standard Adoption and Value Relevance of Earnings in Listed Consumer Goods Companies in Nigerian

Authors: Muktar Haruna

Abstract:

This research work examines the International Financial Reporting Standard (IFRS) adoption and value relevance of earnings of listed consumer goods companies in the Nigerian. The population of the study comprises 22 listed consumer goods companies, out of which 15 were selected as sample size of the study. The scope of the study is a 12-year period covering from 2006 to 2018. Secondary data from the annual report of sampled companies were used, which consists of earnings per share (EPS), the book value of equity per share (BVE) as independent variables; firm size (FSZ) as a control variable, and market share price of sampled companies from Nigerian stock exchange as dependent variable. Multiple regressions were used to analyze the data. The results of the study showed that IFRS did not improve the value relevance of earnings after the adoption, which translates to a decrease in value relevance of accounting numbers in the post-adoption period. The major recommendation is that the Nigerian Reporting Council should ensure full compliance to all provisions of IFRS and provide uniformity in the presentation of non-current assets in the statement of financial position, where some present only net current assets leaving individual figures for current assets and liabilities invisible.

Keywords: IFRS, adoption, value relevance, earning per share, book value of equity per share

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3701 The Comparative Analysis of International Financial Reporting Standart Adoption through Earnings Response Coefficient and Conservatism Principle: Case Study in Jakarta Islamic Index 2010 – 2014

Authors: Dwi Wijiastutik, Tarjo, Yuni Rimawati

Abstract:

The purpose of this empirical study is to analyse how to the market reaction and the conservative degree changes on the adoption of International Financial Reporting Standart (IFRS) through Jakarta Islamic Index. The study also has given others additional analysis on the profitability, capital structure and size company toward IFRS adoption. The data collection methods used in this study reveals as secondary data and deep analysis to the company’s annual report and daily price stock at yahoo finance. We analyse 40 companies listed on Jakarta Islamic Index from 2010 to 2014. The result of the study concluded that IFRS has given a different on the depth analysis to the two of variance analysis: Moderated Regression Analysis and Wilcoxon Signed Rank to test developed hypotheses. Our result on the regression analysis shows that market response and conservatism principle is not significantly after IFRS Adoption in Jakarta Islamic Index. Furthermore, in addition, analysis on profitability, capital structure, and company size show that significantly after IFRS adoption. The findings of our study help investor by showing the impact of IFRS for making decided investment.

Keywords: IFRS, earnings response coefficient, conservatism principle

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3700 Drivers of Adoption Intensity of Certified Maize Varieties in Northern Guinea Savannah of Nigeria: A Triple Hurdle Model Approach

Authors: Kalat P. Duniya

Abstract:

A number of technologies expected to increase maize productivity have been introduced by several research programs at national and international level. To this end, the study sought to identify the factors influencing adoption intensity of certified maize varieties. The data used were obtained from a sample household survey of 406 maize farmers, conducted in the northern guinea savannah of Nigeria through multistage stratified sampling, structured questionnaire. A triple hurdle model was adopted to estimate the determinants of adoption intensity; considering awareness, adoption, and intensity as three separate stages. The result showed that the drivers of farmers’ awareness, adoption, and intensity of usage may not necessarily be the same, and where they are, not of the same magnitude and direction. However, factors which were found to be statistically significant were age, education, membership of association and frequency of extension advice. In addition, awareness and adoption of the technologies were likely to be increased with male respondents. Farmers that were members of either community organizations or cooperative organizations had a higher tendency of being aware and adopting certified maize seed varieties. It was also discovered that though some of the farmers were fully aware of the existence of some certified maize varieties, majority lacked detailed knowledge and technical know-how. There is a need for creation of awareness through an excellent trained extension and restructuring of the educational sector to improve on the adoption process as well as improve maize productivity in the country.

Keywords: adoption, awareness, maize farmers, Nigeria, regression

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3699 Fair Value Accounting and Evolution of the Ohlson Model

Authors: Mohamed Zaher Bouaziz

Abstract:

Our study examines the Ohlson Model, which links a company's market value to its equity and net earnings, in the context of the evolution of the Canadian accounting model, characterized by more extensive use of fair value and a broader measure of performance after IFRS adoption. Our hypothesis is that if equity is reported at its fair value, this valuation is closely linked to market capitalization, so the weight of earnings weakens or even disappears in the Ohlson Model. Drawing on Canada's adoption of the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS), our results support our hypothesis that equity appears to include most of the relevant information for investors, while earnings have become less important. However, the predictive power of earnings does not disappear.

Keywords: fair value accounting, Ohlson model, IFRS adoption, value-relevance of equity and earnings

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3698 Assessment of the Level of Awareness and Adoption of International Public Sector Accounting Standards (IPSAS) in the Curriculum of Accounting Education in Selected Tertiary Institutions in Ondo and Ekiti States Nigeria

Authors: Olurankinse Felix, Fatukasi Bayo

Abstract:

Over the years, the medium through which government financial statements are prepared has been on cash basis of accounting. This basis was characterised with some shortcomings ranging from non- disclosure of quality and detail information relating to government financial transactions, ill informed assessment of government resource allocation, weak internal control system that inhibits accountability and transparency and non- standardisation of reporting ethics for the purpose of comparability. The emergence of international public sector accounting standards (IPSAS) is therefore seen as leverage as it aims at improving the quality of general purpose financial reporting by public sector entities thereby increasing transparency and accountability. IPSAS is a new concept that all institutions must fully adopts. The crux of this paper is to find out to what extent is the awareness and adoption of IPSAS to both students and lecturers interms of teaching, learning and inclusion in the curriculum of accounting education. The methodology involved the use of well designed questionnaires to obtain information from some selected institutions and the analysis was done with the use of maximum likelihood ordered probit regression. The result of the analysis shows that despite a high level of sensitisation/awareness of IPSAS, the degree of adoption is still low due to low level of desirability by students and lecturers. The paper recommend the need for the government to enact an enabling law to back up the adoption and more importantly to institute appropriate sanctions to ensure full compliance.

Keywords: assessment, awareness, adoption, IPSAS, cash basis

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3697 Accounting Policies in Polish and International Legal Regulations

Authors: Piotr Prewysz-Kwinto, Grazyna Voss

Abstract:

Accounting policies are a set of solutions compliant with legal regulations that an entity selects and adopts, and which guarantee a proper quality of financial statements. Those solutions may differ depending on whether the entity adopts national or international accounting standards. The aim of this article is to present accounting principles (policies) in Polish and international legal regulations and their adoption in selected Polish companies listed on the Warsaw Stock Exchange. The research method adopted in this work is the analysis and evaluation of legal conditions in Polish companies.

Keywords: accounting policies, international financial reporting standards, financial statement, method of measuring

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3696 E-Commerce in Jordan: Conceptual Model

Authors: Muneer Abbad

Abstract:

This study comes with a comprehensive analysis of specific factors affecting the adoption of e-commerce in Jordan. From the theoretical perspective, this study will make a contribution to the e-commerce by providing insights on the factors that seem to affect e-commerce’s adoption. The current study will provide managers information about the planning and formulating appropriate strategies to ensure rapid adoption of e-commerce in Jordan. It will offer marketing implications, conclusions, and suggestions for future research.

Keywords: e-commerce, Jordan, adoption, conceptual model

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3695 An Empirical Investigation of Mobile Banking Services Adoption in Pakistan

Authors: Aijaz A. Shaikh, Richard Glavee-Geo, Heikki Karjaluoto

Abstract:

Adoption of Information Systems (IS) is receiving increasing attention such that its implications have been closely monitored and studied by the IS management community, industry and professional gatekeepers. Building on previous research regarding the adoption of technology, this paper develops and validates an integrated model of the adoption of mobile banking. The model originates from the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) and the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB). This paper intends to offer a preliminary scrutiny of the antecedents of the adoption of mobile banking services in the context of a developing country. Data was collected from Pakistan. The findings showed that an integrated TAM and TPB model greatly explains the adoption intention of mobile banking; and perceived behavioural control and its antecedents play a significant role in predicting adoption Theoretical and managerial implications of findings are presented and discussed.

Keywords: developing country, mobile banking service adoption, technology acceptance model, theory of planned behavior

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3694 A Framework for Information Quality in Accounting Information Systems Adoption

Authors: Wongsim Manirath

Abstract:

In order to implement AIS adoption successfully, it is important to consider the quality of information management and understand Information Quality (IQ) factors influencing AIS adoption. This research aims to explore ways of managing AIS adoption to investigate the adoption of accounting information systems within organisations. The study has led to the development of a framework for understanding the AIS adoption process in an organisation. This research used qualitative, interpretive evidence. This framework was developed from case studies and by collecting qualitative data (interviews). This research has conducted 10 case studies to study how IQ is managed through the accounting information system adoption process. A special focus is placed on determining how organisation size influences the information quality practices. The finding is especially useful to SMEs as many SMEs have the desire to grow bigger. By better dealing with IQ issues, there could be a successful future.

Keywords: data quality, information quality, accounting information system, information management

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3693 The Effect of Mandatory International Financial Reporting Standards Reporting on Investors' Herding Practice: Evidence from Eu Equity Markets

Authors: Mohammed Lawal Danrimi, Ervina Alfan, Mazni Abdullah

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to investigate whether the adoption of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) encourages information-based trading and mitigates investors’ herding practice in emerging EU equity markets. Utilizing a modified non-linear model of cross-sectional absolute deviation (CSAD), we find that the hypothesis that mandatory IFRS adoption improves the information set of investors and reduces irrational investment behavior may in some cases be incorrect, and the reverse may be true. For instance, with regard to herding concerns, the new reporting benchmark has rather aggravated investors’ herding practice. However, we also find that mandatory IFRS adoption does not appear to be the only instigator of the observed herding practice; national institutional factors, particularly regulatory quality, political stability and control of corruption, also significantly contribute to investors’ herd formation around the new reporting regime. The findings would be of interest to academics, regulators and policymakers in performing a cost-benefit analysis of the so-called better reporting regime, as well as financial statement users who make decisions based on firms’ fundamental variables, treating them as significant indicators of future market movement.

Keywords: equity markets, herding, IFRS, CSAD

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3692 The Level of Adoption of IFRS by SMEs in Developing Countries: Case Study Uganda

Authors: Ssempijja Mark

Abstract:

The adoption of the use of IFRSis very paramount in quality financial reporting for SMEs, both internationally and locally. The adoption of IFRS helps to guide SMEs in better treatment of transactions which in the long run improves the financial performance of an entity. Despite the presence of professional training and regulatory bodies such as ICPAU that prescribe and regulate accounting and financial reporting practices in relation to IFRS in the country, key information regarding the level of adoption of IFRS by SMEs in Uganda has inadequately been available. This formed the main purpose of the study in order to bridge the information gap. This study assessed the extent of adoption of IFRS by SMEs, the influencers for the adoption level, both impeders, and enablers. The study employed a documentary research model. The collected data was from different sources such as; related research studies, journals, and related articles. The written studies greatly revealed that there was a low level of adoption of IFRS by SMEs in Uganda. It was also revealed that full adoption of IFRS was greatly hampered by hindrances such as; quality of Accountants, low level of knowledge by the individuals in accounting positions for SMEs.Furthermore, there was a strong correlation between adoption and impedersof IFRS for SMEson the adoption level. It was also found that there was a correlation effect between adoption hindrances and the level of adoption. It should be noted and several efforts should be made in the different capacities of the major players so as to curb the impeders affecting the level of adoption of IFRS’s in SMEs. This can include recruitment of professional Accountants, Continuous Professional Trainings to the Accountants, and putting up stringent measures by the policy makers so as to ensure SMEs adhere to reporting in reference to IFRS. The adoption of IFRS by SMEs will help to improve on better accounting purposes which will attract more investors, accessing credit facilities from financial institutions, improved tax planning, and profitability maximization of SME businesses.

Keywords: adoption, IFRS, Influencers, SMEs

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3691 A Framework Factors Influencing Accounting Information Systems Adoption Success

Authors: Manirath Wongsim

Abstract:

AIS plays an important role in business management, strategic and can provide assistance in all phases of decision making. Thus, many organisations needs to be seen as well adopting AIS, which is critical to a company in order to organise, manage and operate process in all sections. In order to implement AIS successfully, it is important to understand the underlying factors that influence the AIS adoption. Therefore, this research intends to study this perspective of factors influence and impact on AIS adoption’s success. The model has been designed to illustrate factors influences in AIS adoption. It also attempts to identify the critical success factors that organisations should focus on, to ensure the adoption on accounting process. This framework will be developed from case studies by collecting qualitative and quantitative data. Case study and survey methodology were adopted for this research. Case studies in two Thai- organisations were carried out. The results of the two main case studies suggested 9 factors that may have impact on in AIS adoption. Survey instrument was developed based on the findings from case studies. Two large-scale surveys were sent to selected members of Thailand Accountant, and Thailand Computer Society to further develop and test the research framework. The top three critical factors for ensuring AIS adoption were: top management commitment, steering committees, and Technical capability of AIS personnel. That is, it is now clear which factors impact in AIS adoption, and which of those factors are critical success factors for ensuring AIS adoption successes

Keywords: accounting information system, accounting information systems adoption, and inflecting AIS adoption

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3690 Hidden Critical Risk in the Construction Industry’s Technological Adoption: Cybercrime

Authors: Nuruddeen Usman, Usman Mohammed Gidado, Muhammad Ahmad Ibrahim

Abstract:

Construction industry is one of the sectors that are eyeing adoption of ICT for its development due to the advancement in technology. Though, many manufacturing sectors had been using it, but construction industry was left behind, especially in the developing nation like Nigeria. On account of that, the objective of this study is to conceptually and quantitatively synthesise whether the slow adoption of ICT by the construction industries can be attributable to cybercrime threats. The result of the investigation found that, the risk of cybercrime, and lack of adequate cyber security policies that can enforce and punish defaulters are among the things that hinder ICT adoption of the Nigerian construction industries. Therefore, there is need for the nations to educate their citizens on cybercrime risk, and to establish cybercrime police units that can be monitoring and controlling all online communications.

Keywords: construction industry, cybercrime, information and communication technology adoption, risk

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3689 The Implementation of Child Adoption as Legal Protection of Children

Authors: Sonny Dewi Judiasih

Abstract:

The principle of a marriage is to achieve a happy and eternity family based on the willing of the God. The family has a fundamental role in the society as a social individual and as a nuclear family consists of father, mother, and children. Thus, each family always would like to have children who will continue the family. However, not all family will be blessed with children and consequently, there is family without children. Therefore, the said the certain family will do any effort to fulfill the wish to have children. One of the ways is to adopt children. The implementation of child adoption is conducted by the family who does not have children but sometimes child adoption is conducted by a family who has already children. The implementation of child adoption is based on the interest of the welfare and the intellectual of the said child. Moreover, it should be based on the social liability of the individual in accordance with the developing of the traditional values as part of the nation culture. The child adoption is conducted for the welfare of the child demonstrates that a change on the basic motive (value) whereby in the past the child adoption is to fulfill the wish of foster parent (to have children in the family). Nowadays the purpose of child adoption is not merely for the interest of foster parent but in particular for the interest, welfare and the future of the child. The development of the society has caused the occurrence of changes of perspective in the society which lead to a need for new law. The court of justice has an impact of such changes. It is evidenced by the court order for child adoption in the legal framework of certainty of law. The changes of motives (value) of the child adoption in the society can be fully understood in the event that the society fully understand that the ultimate purpose of Indonesia nation is to achieve a justice and prosperity society, i.e., social welfare for all Indonesian people.

Keywords: child adoption, family law, legal protection, children

Procedia PDF Downloads 358
3688 Factors Influencing Agricultural Systems Adoption Success: Evidence from Thailand

Authors: Manirath Wongsim, Ekkachai Naenudorn, Nipotepat Muangkote

Abstract:

Information Technology (IT), play an important role in business management strategies and can provide assistance in all phases of decision making. Thus, many organizations need to be seen as adopting IT, which is critical for a company to organize, manage and operate its processes. In order to implement IT successfully, it is important to understand the underlying factors that influence agricultural system's adoption success. Therefore, this research intends to study this perspective of factors that influence and impact successful IT adoption and related agricultural performance. Case study and survey methodology were adopted for this research. Case studies in two Thai- organizations were carried out. The results of the two main case studies suggested 21 factors that may have an impact on IT adoption in agriculture in Thailand, which led to the development of the preliminary framework. Next, a survey instrument was developed based on the findings from case studies. Survey questionnaires were gathered from 217 respondents from two large-scale surveys were sent to selected members of Thailand farmer, and Thailand computer to test the research framework. The results indicate that the top five critical factors for ensuring IT adoption in agricultural were: 1) network and communication facilities; 2) software; 3) hardware; 4) farmer’s IT knowledge, and; 5) training and education. Therefore, it is now clear which factors are influencing IT adoption and which of those factors are critical success factors for ensuring IT adoption in agricultural organization.

Keywords: agricultural systems adoption, factors influencing IT adoption, factors affecting in agricultural adoption

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3687 The Applicability of International Humanitarian Law to Non-State Actors

Authors: Yin Cheung Lam

Abstract:

In 1949, the ratification of the Geneva Conventions heralded the international community’s adoption of a new universal and non-discriminatory approach to human rights in situations of conflict. However, with the proliferation of international terrorism after the 9/11 attacks on the United States (U.S.), the international community’s uneven and contradictory implementations of international humanitarian law (IHL) questioned its agenda of universal human rights. Specifically, the derogation from IHL has never been so pronounced in the U.S. led ‘War on Terror’. While an extensive literature has ‘assessed the impact’ of the implementation of the Geneva Conventions, limited attention has been paid to interrogating the ways in which the Geneva Conventions and its resulting implementation have functioned to discursively reproduce certain understandings of human rights between states and non-state actors. Through a discursive analysis of the Geneva Conventions and the conceptualization of human rights in relation to terrorism, this thesis problematises the way in which the U.S. has understood and reproduced understandings of human rights. Using the U.S. ‘War on Terror’ as an example, it seeks to extend previous analyses of the U.S.’ practice of IHL through a qualitative discursive analysis of the human rights content that appears in the Geneva Conventions in addition to the speeches and policy documents on the ‘War on Terror’.

Keywords: discursive analysis, human rights, non-state actors, war on terror

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3686 The Analysis of the Blockchain Technology and Challenges Hampering Its Adoption

Authors: Sthembile Mthethwa

Abstract:

With the rise in the usage of internet in the past decades, this presented an opportunity for users to transact with each other over the use of internet. Cryptocurrencies have been introduced, which allows users to transact with each other without the involvement of a third party i.e. the bank. These systems are widely known as cryptocurrencies or digital currencies and the first system to be introduced was Bitcoin which has been receiving a lot of attention. Bitcoin introduced a new technology known as the blockchain technology. In the past years, blockchain has been getting attention; whereby new applications are introduced that utilize blockchain. Yet, most people are still hesitant about the adoption of blockchain and the adoption of cryptocurrencies at large. Some people still do not understand the technology. Thus, it leads to the slow adoption of this technology. In this paper, a review of the blockchain is provided, whereby the different types of blockchain are discussed in details. Details of the things that contribute to the hindrance of the process of adoption are discussed.

Keywords: bitcoin, blockchain, cryptocurrency, payment system

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3685 International Financial Reporting Standards and the Quality of Banks Financial Statement Information: Evidence from an Emerging Market-Nigeria

Authors: Ugbede Onalo, Mohd Lizam, Ahmad Kaseri, Otache Innocent

Abstract:

Giving the paucity of studies on IFRS adoption and quality of banks accounting quality, particularly in emerging economies, this study is motivated to investigate whether the Nigeria decision to adopt IFRS beginning from 1 January 2012 is associated with high quality accounting measures. Consistent with prior literatures, this study measure quality of financial statement information using earnings measurement, timeliness of loss recognition and value relevance. A total of twenty Nigeria banks covering a period of six years (2008-2013) divided equally into three years each (2008, 2009, 2010) pre adoption period and (2011, 2012, 2013) post adoption period were investigated. Following prior studies eight models were in all employed to investigate earnings management, timeliness of loss recognition and value relevance of Nigeria bank accounting quality for the different reporting regimes. Results suggest that IFRS adoption is associated with minimal earnings management, timely recognition of losses and high value relevance of accounting information. Summarily, IFRS adoption engenders higher quality of banks financial statement information compared to local GAAP. Hence, this study recommends the global adoption of IFRS and that Nigeria banks should embrace good corporate governance practices.

Keywords: IFRS, SAS, quality of accounting information, earnings measurement, discretionary accruals, non-discretionary accruals, total accruals, Jones model, timeliness of loss recognition, value relevance

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3684 The Role of Language Strategy on International Survival of Firm: A Conceptual Framework from Resource Dependence Perspective

Authors: Sazzad Hossain Talukder

Abstract:

Survival in the competitive international market with unforeseen environmental contingencies has always been a concern of the firms that led to adopting different strategies to deal with different situations. Language strategy is considered to enhance the international performance of a firm by organizing language diversity and fostering communications within and outside the firm. Yet there is a lack of theoretical attention or model development on the role of language strategy on firm international survival. From resource dependence perspective, the adoption of language strategy and its relationship with firm survival are determined by the firm´s capability to prevent dependency concentration and/or increase relative power on the external environment. However, the impact of language strategy on firm survival is complex and multifaceted as the strategy influence firm performance indirectly through communication, coordination, learning and value creation. The evidence of various types of language strategies and different forms of firm survival also bring in complexities to understand the effects of a language strategy on the international survival of a firm. Based on language literatures and resource dependence logic, certain propositions are developed to conceptualize the relationship between language strategy and firm international survival in this conceptual paper. For the purpose of this paper, a conceptual model is proposed to examine how different kinds of language strategy foster reduction of resource dependency that lead to firm international survival in respond to local responsiveness and global integration. In this proposed model, it is theorized that language strategy has a positive relationship with the international survival of the firm, as the strategy is likely to reduce external resource dependency and increase the ability to continue independent operations both in short and long term.

Keywords: language strategy, language diversity, firm international survival, resource dependence logic

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3683 An Assessment of the Factors Affecting Green Building Technology (GBT) Adoption

Authors: Nuruddeen Usman, Usman Mohammed Gidado

Abstract:

A construction and post construction activity in buildings contributes to environmental degradation, because of the generation of solid waste during construction to the production of carbon dioxide by the occupants during utilization. These problems were caused as a result of lack of adopting green building technology during and after construction. However, this study aims at conceptualizing the factors that are affecting the adoption of green building technology with a view to suggest better ways for its successful adoption in the construction industry through developing a green building technology model. Thus, the research findings show that: Economic, social, cultural, and technological progresses are the factors affecting Green Building Technology Adoption. Therefore, identifying these factors and developing the model might help in the successful adoption of green building technology.

Keywords: green building technology, construction, post construction, degradation

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3682 Challenges of e-Service Adoption and Implementation in Nigeria: Lessons from Asia

Authors: Kazeem Oluwakemi Oseni, Kate Dingley

Abstract:

E-Service has moved from the usual manual and traditional way of rendering services to electronic service provision for the public and there are several reasons for implementing these services, Airline ticketing have gone from its manual traditional way to an intelligent web-driven service of purchasing. Many companies have seen their profits doubled through the use of online services in their operation and a typical example is Hewlett Packard (HP) which is rapidly transforming their after sales business into a profit generating e-service business unit. This paper will examine the various challenges confronting e-Service adoption and implementation in Nigeria and also analyse lessons learnt from e-Service adoption and implementation in Asia to see how it could be useful in Nigeria which is a lower middle income country. Based on the analysis of the online survey data. It has been identified that the public in Nigeria are much aware of e-Services but successful adoption and implementation have been the problems faced.

Keywords: e-government service, adoption, implementation, Nigeria, Asia

Procedia PDF Downloads 358
3681 Technology, Organizational and Environmental Determinants of Business Intelligence Systems Adoption in Croatian SME: A Case Study of Medium-Sized Enterprise

Authors: Ana-Marija Stjepić, Luka Sušac, Dalia Suša Vugec

Abstract:

In the last few years, examples from scientific literature and business practices show that the adoption of technological innovations increases enterprises' performance. Recently, when it comes to the field of information technology innovation, business intelligence systems (BISs) have drawn a significant amount of attention of the scientific circles. BISs can be understood as a form of technological innovation which can bring certain benefits to the organizations that are adopting it. Therefore, the aim of this paper is twofold: (1) to define determinants of successful BISs adoption in small and medium enterprises and thus contribute to this neglected research area and (2) to present the current state of BISs adoption in small and medium-sized companies. In order to do so, determinants are defined and classified into three dimensions, according to the Technology – Organization – Environment (TOE) theoretical framework that describes the impact of each dimension on technological innovations adoption. Moreover, paper brings a case study presenting the adoption of BISs in practice within an organization from tertiary (service) industry sector. Based on the results of the study, guidelines for more efficient, faster and easier BISs adoption are presented.

Keywords: adoption, business intelligence, business intelligence systems, case study, TOE framework

Procedia PDF Downloads 61
3680 Demystifying the Legitimacy of the International Court of Justice

Authors: Roger-Claude Liwanga

Abstract:

Over the last seven decades, there has been a proliferation of international tribunals. Yet, they have not received unanimous approval, raising a question about their legitimacy. A legitimate international tribunal is one whose authority to adjudicate international disputes is perceived as justified. Using the case study of the International Court of Justice (ICJ), this article highlights the three criteria that should be considered in assessing the legitimacy of an international tribunal, which include legal, sociological, and moral elements. It also contends that the ICJ cannot claim 'full' legitimacy if any of these components of legitimacy is missing in its decisions. The article further suggests that the legitimacy of the ICJ has a dynamic nature, as litigating parties may constantly change their perception of the court’s authority at any time before, during, or after the judicial process. The article equally describes other factors that can contribute to maintaining the international court’s legitimacy, including fairness and unbiasedness, sound interpretation of international legal norms, and transparency.

Keywords: international tribunals, legitimacy, human rights, international law

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3679 Adoption of Inorganic Insecticides and Resistant Varieties among Cowpea Producers in Mubi Zone, Nigeria

Authors: Sabo Elizabeth

Abstract:

Cowpea production is presently mainly done with inorganic insecticides, but the growing environmental problems linked with their use and the rising costs of the chemicals are stimulating all categories of stakeholders towards the adoption of less impacting practices. 611 respondents were interviewed between 2008 and 2009. Respondents are young adults and are fairly educated. Awareness is high about insecticide use, but is low for bio-pesticides and resistant varieties. Adoption of inorganic insecticides is related to age, educational level, and contacts with dealers. Low adoption rate for resistant varieties is associated with inadequate information and poor extension service. To adopt IPM techniques with limited health hazards and compatible with the environment, a properly designed extension program is consequently needed.

Keywords: Vigna unguiculata, IPM, bio-pesticides, resistant varieties, extension

Procedia PDF Downloads 247