Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6909

Search results for: Issues and challenges

6909 Qualitative Case Study Research in Accounting: Challenges and Prospects the Libyan Case Study

Authors: Bubaker F. Shareia

Abstract:

Much of the literature on research design has focussed on research conducted in developed, uni-cultural or primarily English speaking countries. Studies of qualitative case study research, the challenges and prospects have been embedded in Western/Euro-centric society and social theories. Although there have been some theoretical studies, few empirical studies have been conducted to explore the nature of the challenges of qualitative case study in developing countries. These challenges include accessibility to organizations, conducting interviews in developing countries, accessing documents and observing official meetings, language and cultural challenges, the use of consent forms, issues affecting access to companies, respondent issues and data analysis. The author, while conducting qualitative case study research in Libya, faced all these issues. The discussion in this paper examines these issues in order to make a contribution toward the literature in this area.

Keywords: accounting, challenges, prospects, developing countries, Libya, qualitative case study

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6908 Issues and Challenges in Social Work Field Education: The Field Coordinator's Perspective

Authors: Tracy B.E. Omorogiuwa

Abstract:

Understanding the role of social work in improving societal well-being cannot be separated from the place of field education, which is an integral aspect of social work education. Field learning provides students with knowledge and opportunities to experience solving issues in the field and giving them a clue of the practice situation. Despite being a crucial component in social work curriculum, field education occupies a large space in learning outcome, given the issues and challenges pertaining to its purpose and significance in the society. The drive of this paper is to provide insight on the specific ways in which field education has been conceived, realized and valued in the society. Emphasis is on the significance of field instruction; the link with classroom learning; and the structure of field experience in social work education. Given documented analysis and experience, this study intends to contribute to the development of social work curriculum, by analyzing the pattern, issues and challenges fronting the social work field education in the University of Benin, Nigeria.

Keywords: challenges, curriculum, field education, social work education

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6907 Embracing Inclusive Education: The Issues, Challenges, Dilemmas and Future Plans for Inclusive Secondary Schools in Jakarta, Indonesia

Authors: Rinda Kurnia

Abstract:

Despite the differences and additional needs in the learning process, every individual has the right to receive educational services in order to enhance her/his abilities and potentials. This notion underlies the principle of inclusive education system, something many countries in the world are striving for since the UNESCO Salamanca Statement in 1994. This paper will consider different views that many theorists have published of the term inclusive, the issues, challenges, and dilemmas encountered during the practice, as well as some possible ways forward. It is being described, criticized and analyzed using the standpoint of a shadow teacher in an inclusive secondary school in Jakarta, Indonesia.

Keywords: inclusive education, inclusive education challenges, inclusive education dilemmas, inclusive education future plans, inclusive education issues

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6906 Shari'ah Governance in Islamic Banking and Finance - A Comparison Between Malaysia and Other Selected Countries, Current Challenges and Potential Solution

Authors: Muhamad Badri Bin Othman

Abstract:

As a role model and leading country in the world that establishes and promotes Islamic banking and finance, Malaysia has set up and come up with a set of standards and frameworks to govern its Shari’ah function towards implementing the desired outcome of Islamic banking and finance as new source of wealth creation. This paper, examines and highlights, at the very minimum, the importance and application of Shari’ah governance in Islamic banking and finance in Malaysia as a leading country in Islamic banking and finance. This paper also, compares on Shari’ah governance, which is being adopted between Malaysia and other selected countries namely, Pakistan, Bahrain, Kuwait, United Arab Emirates (UAE) and Qatar. This paper also, aims at highlighting the current challenges and issues faced by the scholars in Shari’ah Supervisory Board (SSB) in deliberating their opinions and fatwa towards the implementation of new products in Islamic banking industry to promote innovation among the industry players. The author of this paper will highlight the major challenges and issues faced by the SSB members of Islamic banks in Malaysia, taking into account the complexity of the operation wise and products of Islamic banking, and how they overcome those challenges and issues identified. This will be done through a series of face-to-face interview sessions which will be conducted with a few prominent figures of Islamic banking and finance scholars in Malaysia to highlight the issues and challenges they are facing towards Islamic financial innovation and subsequently finding solutions for the identified issues and challenges.

Keywords: Shari’ah governance, Shari’ah supervisory board (SSB), Issues and challenges, Islamic financial innovation

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6905 Transit Network Design Problem Issues and Challenges

Authors: Mahmoud Owais

Abstract:

Public Transit (P.T) is very important means to reduce traffic congestion, to improve urban environmental conditions and consequently affects people social lives. Planning, designing and management of P.T are the key issues for offering a competitive mode that can compete with the private transportation. These transportation planning, designing and management issues are addressed in the Transit Network Design Problem (TNDP). It deals with a complete hierarchy of decision making process. It includes strategic, tactical and operational decisions. The main body of TNDP is two stages, namely; route design stage and frequency setting. The TNDP is extensively studied in the last five decades; however the research gate is still widely open due to its many practical and modeling challenges. In this paper, a comprehensive background is given to illustrate the issues and challenges related to the TNDP to help in directing the incoming researches towards the untouched areas of the problem.

Keywords: frequency setting, network design, transit planning, urban planning

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6904 Combating Domestic Violence in Malaysia: Issues and Challenges

Authors: Aspalella A. Rahman

Abstract:

Domestic violence is not an uncommon phenomenon throughout the world. Malaysia is no exception. However, the exact prevalence of domestic violence in Malaysia is difficult to capture due to cultural understanding and sensitivity of the issues existing in the society. This paper aims to examine the issues and problems with the law of domestic violence in Malaysia. As such, it will mainly rely on statutes as its primary sources of information. It will analyse the scope and provisions of the Penal Code as well as the Domestic Violence Act 1994. Any shortcomings and gaps in the laws will be highlighted. It is submitted that domestic violence remains a problem in Malaysia. Although many strategies and plans have been implemented in attempting to combat this social problem, it remains unresolved. This is due to the inefficient implementation of the law. Although much has been done, there is still more to be done by the Malaysian government to combat domestic violence more effectively. For this reason, significant cooperation between the law enforcement authorities, NGOs, and the community must be established.

Keywords: challenges, domestic violence, issues, Malaysia

Procedia PDF Downloads 207
6903 Science Education in Nigeria: Issues and Challenges

Authors: Ogbeta I. Joseph, Habiba B. A. Awwalu, Otokiti Jimoh

Abstract:

This paper entitled science education in Nigeria issues and challenges highlighted the role of science education to the development of science and technology in Nigeria. Science embraces every attempt of human to explore and manage the natural world, the contribution of science education to the technological development of the nation, the role of science education in ICT development, the importance of mathematics in the development of science education, the paper also analyzed the challenges facing the development of science education to include corruption, insecurity, and political instability, the paper concluded by encouraging the government and other stakeholders in educational sector to pay more attention to the teaching and learning of science in our schools. Therefore recommended the development that emphasizes should be on the teaching and learning of science base subjects in the school.

Keywords: education, science, technology and national development, challenges

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6902 Enforcement against Illegal Logging: Issues and Challenges

Authors: Muhammad Nur Haniff Mohd Noor, Rokiah Kadir, Suriyani Muhamad

Abstract:

Sustainable forest management and forest protection can be hampered by illegal logging. Illegal logging is not uncommon in many wood-producing countries. Hence, law enforcement, especially in timber-producing countries, is crucial in ensuring compliance with forestry related regulations, as well as confirming that all parties obey the rules and regulations prescribed by the authorities. However, enforcement officers are encountering various challenges and difficulties which have undermined the enforcement capacity and efficiency. The appropriate policy responses for these issues are important to resolve the problems in the long term and empowering enforcement capacity to meet future challenges of forest law enforcement. This paper is written according to extensive review of the articles and publications by The International Criminal Police Organization (INTERPOL), The International Tropical Timber Organization (ITTO), Chatham House and The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). Subsequently, various books and journal articles are reviewed to gain further insight towards enforcement issues and challenges. This paper identifies several issues which consist of (1) insufficient enforcement capacity and resources (2) lack of coordination between various enforcement agencies, (3) corruption in the government and private sectors and (4) unclear legal frameworks related to the forestry sector. Next, this paper discusses appropriate policy responses to address each enforcement challenges according to various publications. This includes specific reports concerning forest law enforcement published by international forestry-related organizations. Therefore, lack of resources, inadequate synchronization between agencies, corruption, and legal issues present challenges to enforcement officers in their daily routines. Recommendations regarding proper policy responses to overcome the issues are of great importance in assisting forest authorities in prioritizing their resources appropriately.

Keywords: corruption, enforcement challenges, enforcement capacity, forest law enforcement, insufficient agency coordination, legislative ambiguity

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6901 From Homeless to Resident: Issues and Challenges of Housing Continuity in Klang Valley, Malaysia

Authors: Zafirah Al Sadat Zyed, Peter Aning Tedong, Ainoriza Mohd Aini, Zairul Nisham Musa, Abdul Ghani Sarip

Abstract:

Housing affordability and affordable housing are the highlights of issues and problems in housing policy for many countries. This issue of providing affordable housing in tandem with increasing housing affordability problems among low-income households and middle-income households is constantly at the centre of the attention of policymakers. However, there is little study on housing continuity in homeless households in Klang Valley (KV), Malaysia. The main aim of the paper is to discuss the issues and challenges of housing continuity from homeless to securing a place to live in KV. In-depth interviews were conducted with stakeholders that assist homeless households to attain shelters as well as public housing. The stakeholders interviewed include representatives from federal, state, and local government as well as non-government organisation. The discussion from the findings revealed that there had been many programs conducted to assist homeless households with short-term shelter and to integrate with society. However, one of the main challenges is the behavioural direction of the homeless households whereby they are prone to live as a homeless person again due to several factors. In conclusion, collaborative efforts from all stakeholders will aid in closing the gap of issues and challenges of housing continuity in KV.

Keywords: housing continuum, housing policy, homeless, housing affordability

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6900 Contemporary Issues in Teacher Education in Nigeria

Authors: Salisu Abdu Bagga

Abstract:

This paper attempts to discuss contemporary issues in teacher education and address challenges therein within the context of the Nigeria society. Teacher education is an educational programme aimed at producing the right crop of people (teachers) who will teach at various levels of schooling i.e. primary, secondary and tertiary. The programme targets to inculcate desirable knowledge, skills, attitudes, values and competencies in teachers with the prime motive of keeping them fully abreast with contemporary challenges such as overcrowded classrooms, inadequate instructional materials, ineffective teaching methodology in the teaching industry in Nigeria. Nigeria needs competent, skilful, knowledgeable and innovative classroom teachers for better teaching and learning.

Keywords: teacher education, contemporary issues, competencies, higher education

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6899 Vocational and Technical Education in Nigeria: Issues and Challenges

Authors: Maikudi Umar

Abstract:

This paper conceived Vocational and Technical Education as those aspects of educational process, in addition to general education leading to acquisition of practical skills, attitudes as well as basic scientific knowledge as it relates to occupations in various sectors of the economic and social life. The paper therefore viewed Vocational and Technical education as those aspects of educational training designed to provide the recipient with the skills abilities and understanding needed for efficient performance in chosen occupational carrier for self reliance. The paper also examined some major inhibitions to the attainment of self reliance through VTE. The paper also recommended a change of attitudes by governments in Nigeria by providing adequate equipment so as to meet up with the challenges.

Keywords: vocational education, technical education, skills and self reliance, issues and challenges

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6898 Women Entrepreneurs’ in Nigeria: Issues and Challenges

Authors: Mohammed Mainoma, Abubakar Tijanni, Mohammed Aliyu

Abstract:

Globalization has brought a structural change in industry. It is the breaking of artificial boundaries and given way to new product, new service, new market, and new technology among others. It leads to the realization that men entrepreneurs’ alone cannot meet the demand of the teeming population. Therefore there is a need for the participation, involvement, and engagement of females in the production and distribution of goods and services. This will enhance growth and development of a nation. It is in line with the above that this paper attempt to discuss meaning of women entrepreneurs, roles, types, problems, and prospects. Also, on the basis of conclusion the paper recommended that entrepreneurship education should be introduced in all Tertiary Institutions in Nigeria.

Keywords: women, entrepreneurs, issues, challenges

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6897 Security Threats on Wireless Sensor Network Protocols

Authors: H. Gorine, M. Ramadan Elmezughi

Abstract:

In this paper, we investigate security issues and challenges facing researchers in wireless sensor networks and countermeasures to resolve them. The broadcast nature of wireless communication makes Wireless Sensor Networks prone to various attacks. Due to resources limitation constraint in terms of limited energy, computation power and memory, security in wireless sensor networks creates different challenges than wired network security. We will discuss several attempts at addressing the issues of security in wireless sensor networks in an attempt to encourage more research into this area.

Keywords: wireless sensor networks, network security, light weight encryption, threats

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6896 Cartagena Protocol and Beyond: Issues and Challenges in the Nigeria's Response to Biosafety

Authors: Dalhat Binta Dan - Ali

Abstract:

The reality of the new world economic order and the ever increasing importance of biotechnology in the global economy have necessitated the ratification of the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety and the recent promulgation of Biosafety Act in Nigeria 2015. The legal regimes are anchored on the need to create an enabling environment for the flourishing of bio-trade and also to ensure the safety of the environment and human health. This paper critically examines the legal framework on biosafety by taking a cursory look at its philosophical foundation, key issues and milestones. The paper argues that the extant laws, though a giant leap in the establishment of a legal framework on biosafety, it posits that the legal framework raises debate and controversy on the difficulties of risk assessment on biodiversity and human health, other challenges includes lack of sound institutional capacity and the regimes direction of a hybrid approach between environmental conservation and trade issues. The paper recommend the need for the country to do more in the area of stimulating awareness and establishment of a sound institutional capacity to enable the law ensure adequate level of protection in the field of safe transfer, handling, and use of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in Nigeria.

Keywords: Cartagena protocol, biosafety, issues, challenges, biotrade, genetically modified organism (GMOs), environment

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6895 The Opportunities and Challenges for Universities in Africa in Addressing Climate Change: A Qualitative Comparative Case Study of Makerere University, Uganda and University of Dar Es Salaam,Tanzania

Authors: David Ssekamate

Abstract:

The study which is work in progress examines the opportunities and challenges for universities in Africa in addressing climate change issues in their programmes. Specifically, the study attempts to examine the current academic, research and community engagement programmes on climate change implemented by the Universities; the key challenges faced by the implementing units in carrying out these programmes and; the success factors that would support universities to adequately address climate change issues in their programmes. The researcher adopted a qualitative comparative case study design with Makerere University (Uganda) and University of Dar es Salaam (Tanzania) as comparative cases. Data will be collected using semi-structured in-depth interviews, Focus Group Discussions (FDGs) and Document review. A total of 12 semi-structured in-depth interviews and 4 Focus Group Discussions will be undertaken, collecting data from 36 respondents in both Uganda and Tanzania. The data will be analyzed using content and thematic analysis methods with the help of Nvivo software. The findings are envisaged to make a significant contribution to scholarly literature on climate change education and the role of higher education in addressing climate change issues, inform policy making in the sector and development planning to strengthen the academic, research and community engagement programmes on climate change by universities in Africa. The implications of the findings may go beyond the focus on climate change but also other related sustainable development issues incorporated in academic and research programmes of universities in Africa. The results may enable universities to re-think their approaches and practices and also deal with challenges effectively in addressing climate change related issues in their programmes.

Keywords: climate change, climate change education, African universities, challenges

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6894 Blockchain Solutions for IoT Challenges: Overview

Authors: Amir Ali Fatoorchi

Abstract:

Regardless of the advantage of LoT devices, they have limitations like storage, compute, and security problems. In recent years, a lot of Blockchain-based research in IoT published and presented. In this paper, we present the Security issues of LoT. IoT has three levels of security issues: Low-level, Intermediate-level, and High-level. We survey and compare blockchain-based solutions for high-level security issues and show how the underlying technology of bitcoin and Ethereum could solve IoT problems.

Keywords: Blockchain, security, data security, IoT

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6893 Implementation of ISO 26262: Issues and Challenges

Authors: Won Jung, Azianti Ismail

Abstract:

Functional safety is about electrical, electronics, and programmable electronic safety-related system focuses on the potential risk of malfunction which may have a significant impact on the safety of humans and/or the environment based on IEC 61508. In November 2011, the automotive industry has been introduced to automotive functional safety ISO 26262 which addresses the complete safety installation from sensor to actuator with its technical as well as management issues. Nowadays, most of the modern automobiles are equipped with embedded electronic systems which include many Electronic Controller Units (ECUs), electronic sensors, signals, bus systems and coding. Due to upcoming more sophisticated systems installed in automobiles, the need to carry out detailed safety is very crucial. Assimilation of existing practices with this new standard is a major challenge for the automotive industry in reducing redundancy, time and resources. Therefore, this paper will analyze the research trends on pre and post introduction of ISO 26262 through publications as well as to take a glimpse in the activities for implementing this standard by the automotive manufacturers around the world. It is going to highlight issues and challenges which have been discussed among the experts in this field. Even though it will take some time for this standard to be fully implemented, the benefits from this implementation will raise the competitiveness in the global automotive market.

Keywords: ISO 26262, automotive, functional safety, implementation, standard, challenges

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6892 21st Century Islam: Global Challenges of Islamic Representation and Knowledge Acquisition

Authors: M. M. Muhammed, O. Khuzaima

Abstract:

This research examined and outlined some of the challenges facing Islam and Muslims in the 21st century, considering global Islamic representation and knowledge acquisition as key objectives. It was observed that the Western media misrepresentation of Islam and the Western ethos embodied by the acquisition of western civilisation are major challenges faced by Islam and Muslims today. The problem of sectarianism, decline in the socio-economic power of Muslim communities and the archaic nature of the Islamic creed were recorded as major actors to the evolving global Islamic issues. It was therefore concluded that Islam is not the reason for these challenges, rather the action of some Muslims and non-Muslims were the contributing factors to the pandemics faced by Islam and Muslims. Some relevant recommendations were made to the Islamic world that could serve as effectual solutions to these lingering problems.

Keywords: Islam, challenges, representation, knowledge, century, global, twenty-first

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6891 Security of Internet of Things: Challenges, Requirements and Future Directions

Authors: Amjad F. Alharbi, Bashayer A. Alotaibi, Fahd S. Alotaibi

Abstract:

The emergence of Internet of Things (IoT) technology provides capabilities for a huge number of smart devices, services and people to be communicate with each other for exchanging data and information over existing network. While as IoT is progressing, it provides many opportunities for new ways of communications as well it introduces many security and privacy threats and challenges which need to be considered for the future of IoT development. In this survey paper, an IoT security issues as threats and current challenges are summarized. The security architecture for IoT are presented from four main layers. Based on these layers, the IoT security requirements are presented to insure security in the whole system. Furthermore, some researches initiatives related to IoT security are discussed as well as the future direction for IoT security are highlighted.

Keywords: Internet of Things (IoT), IoT security challenges, IoT security requirements, IoT security architecture

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6890 Challenges of Cryogenic Fluid Metering by Coriolis Flowmeter

Authors: Evgeniia Shavrina, Yan Zeng, Boo Cheong Khoo, Vinh-Tan Nguyen

Abstract:

The present paper is aimed at providing a review of error sources in cryogenic metering by Coriolis flowmeters (CFMs). Whereas these flowmeters allow accurate water metering, high uncertainty and low repeatability are commonly observed at cryogenic fluid metering, which is often necessary for effective renewable energy production and storage. The sources of these issues might be classified as general and cryogenic specific challenges. A conducted analysis of experimental and theoretical studies shows that material behaviour at cryogenic temperatures, composition variety, and multiphase presence are the most significant cryogenic challenges. At the same time, pipeline diameter limitation, ambient vibration impact, and drawbacks of the installation may be highlighted as the most important general challenges of cryogenic metering by CFM. Finally, the techniques, which mitigate the impact of these challenges are reviewed, and future development direction is indicated.

Keywords: Coriolis flowmeter, cryogenic, multicomponent flow, multiphase flow

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6889 Reculturing: The Key to Sustainability of Private Universities

Authors: Yu Sing Ong

Abstract:

This article explores the key issues and challenges facing private university leaders today. Universities are reculturing their operational processes, academic content and interactions with stakeholders. Many challenges centred around the need for university leaders to reculture the institutions and the redesigning of the teaching profession. It recommends a framework for university leaders to deal with the challenges they face. Only through reculturing, private universities can maintain the sustainability of its workforce and student population. The article has both theoretical and practical significance for private university leaders to follow.

Keywords: university leadership, reculturing, improvement, teacher education, motivation, private education

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6888 Study of the Environment Problems of Flowers in the World

Authors: Esmaeil Khodadad

Abstract:

The environment is one of the hotbeds of global politics. It is only necessary to emphasize the human being on this word, and to take it as a serious political-social debate, so as to prevent the collapse of the harmony of the system of nature governing the earth, the landlord and its creatures. Earth, water and humans are three interconnected arms that should be kept in balance and harmony. The collapse of one of these arms disrupts the entire framework of the philosophy of life on earth. Environmental issues were found worldwide in the late 20th century and were given serious attention by experts. At the same time, international environmental issues have brought to the forefront the challenges of international relations. These ideas have introduced environmental issues and some of the main features of the causes and consequences of global environmental change, as well as ways to deal with this change Has been discussed. The objectives of this study are environmental issues in the world and in Iran, and it shows what factors contribute to the formation of spatial systems and its supporting systems, and finally what the goals should be about the ideal state of the future of the global environment and its issues. The information required for this research is a combination of documentary, descriptive-analytical and library methods.

Keywords: environment, environmental issues, flower, oeacen

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6887 Reflections on Opportunities and Challenges for Systems Engineering

Authors: Ali E. Abbas

Abstract:

This paper summarizes some of the discussions that occurred in a workshop in West Virginia, U.S.A which was sponsored by the National Science Foundation (NSF) in February 2016. The goal of the workshop was to explore the opportunities and challenges for applying systems engineering in large enterprises, and some of the issues that still persist. The main topics of the discussion included challenges with elaboration and abstraction in large systems, interfacing physical and social systems, and the need for axiomatic frameworks for large enterprises. We summarize these main points of discussion drawing parallels with decision making in organizations to instigate research in these discussion areas.

Keywords: decision analysis, systems engineering, framing, value creation

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6886 Women Entrepreneurs in Haryana, India: Issues and Challenges

Authors: Neerja Ahlawat

Abstract:

In Indian society, women have always been an active part of the production process. Be it agriculture, dairy, or other home-based industries, Indian women have been competent and enterprising engaged in multiple economic activities. In recent times, women across the country have started establishing business enterprise and managing and working very hard. Despite their skills and capabilities, however, women are faced with varied problems and challenges. Women entrepreneurs in Haryana face a double challenge – a gender bias against women denies them the education and the opportunities available to their male counterparts and the lack of such learning and skills development inhibits any entrepreneurial ambitions. In many parts of the state, women venturing out of the household domain face much opposition and criticism. The present paper highlights the various problems and challenges faced by the women entrepreneurs while running the enterprises in the present competitive world in Haryana. An attempt has been made to investigate women entrepreneurs about the specific issues such as working capital, distribution channel, sales promotion, electricity, human resources and competition with other industries. The present empirical study was carried out in Rohtak city of Haryana using Interview schedule and Case study method. The study revealed the nature of problems women entrepreneurs face while dealing with issues of labour, market, and bureaucracy. The study categorically pointed out the difficulties women are confronted with while keeping a balance between domestic responsibilities and workplace challenges. The study concluded that women entrepreneurs are redefining their identities and priorities in the male dominant society.

Keywords: entrepreneur, gender bias, capital, human resource

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6885 Management Strategies for Risk Events in Construction Industries during Economic Situation and COVID-19 Pandemic in Nigeria

Authors: Ezeabasili Chibuike Patrick

Abstract:

The complex situation of construction industries in Nigeria and the risk of failures involved includes cost overrun, time overrun, Corruption, Government influence, Subcontractor challenges, Political influence and Instability, Cultural differences, Human resources deficiencies, cash flow Challenges, foreign exchange issues, inadequate design, Safety, low productivity, late payment, Quality control issues, project management issues, Environmental issues, Force majeure Competition amongst others has made the industry prone to risk and failures. Good project management remains effective in improving decision-making, which minimizes these risk events. This study was done to address these project risks and good decision-making to avert them. A mixed-method approach to research was used to do this study. Data collected by questionnaires and interviews on thirty-two (32) construction professionals was used in analyses to aid the knowledge and management of risks that were identified. The study revealed that there is no good risk management expertise in Nigeria. Also, that the economic/political situation and the recent COVID-19 pandemic has added to the risk and poor management strategies. The contingency theory and cost has therefore surfaced to be the most strategic management method used to reduce these risk issues and they seem to be very effective.

Keywords: strategies, risk management, contingency theory, Nigeria

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6884 Comparison of Security Challenges and Issues of Mobile Computing and Internet of Things

Authors: Aabiah Nayeem, Fariha Shafiq, Mustabshra Aftab, Rabia Saman Pirzada, Samia Ghazala

Abstract:

In this modern era of technology, the concept of Internet of Things is very popular in every domain. It is a widely distributed system of things in which the data collected from sensory devices is transmitted, analyzed locally/collectively then broadcasted to network where action can be taken remotely via mobile/web apps. Today’s mobile computing is also gaining importance as the services are provided during mobility. Through mobile computing, data are transmitted via computer without physically connected to a fixed point. The challenge is to provide services with high speed and security. Also, the data gathered from the mobiles must be processed in a secured way. Mobile computing is strongly influenced by internet of things. In this paper, we have discussed security issues and challenges of internet of things and mobile computing and we have compared both of them on the basis of similarities and dissimilarities.

Keywords: embedded computing, internet of things, mobile computing, wireless technologies

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6883 Human Security through Human Rights in the Contemporary World

Authors: Shilpa Bagade Poharkar

Abstract:

The basis for traditional notion of security was the use of force to preserve vital interest which based on either realism or power politics. The modern approach to security extends beyond the traditional notions of security which focus on issues as development and respect for human rights. In global politics, the issue of human security plays a vital role in most of the policy matter. In modern era, the protection of human rights is now recognized as one of the main functions of any legitimate modern state. The research paper will explore the relationship between human rights and security. United Nations is facing major challenges like rampant poverty, refugee outflows, human trafficking, displacement, conflicts, terrorism, intra-inter ethnic conflicts, proliferation of small arms, genocide, piracy, climate change, health issues and so on. The methodology is observed in this paper is doctrinaire which includes analytical and descriptive comparative method. The hypothesis of the paper is the relationship between human rights and a goal of United Nations to attain peace and security. Although previous research has been done in this field but this research paper will try to find out the challenges in the human security through human rights in the contemporary world and will provide measures for it. The study will focus on the following research questions: What are the issues and challenges United Nations facing while advancing human security through human rights? What measures the international community would take for ensuring the protection of human rights while protecting state security and contribute in the attainment of goals of United Nations?

Keywords: human rights, human security, peace, security, United Nations

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6882 Challenges of Good Government in Enhancing Food Security for Sustainable National Development in Nigeria

Authors: Egboja Simon, Agi Sunday

Abstract:

One of the most important key to success of a nation is to ensure steady development and national economic self - sufficiency and independence. There have been challenges in food security related issues in many developing nations. The problems may be as a result of rise in food price across the globe diminishing global food reserve and erratic weather patterns among other factors. In Nigeria several Agricultural politics have been formulated to curtail food security challenges. Unfortunately, these policies have not yielded the deserved results of increase food production. This paper is designed to identify the various challenges confronting food security in Nigeria with a view of highlighting the reasons that accounting for these problems. This paper also suggests ways of addressing these challenges and concludes by saying that subsidization of the process of farm inputs like fertilizer, improved seed and agro chemicals education of the farmers on modern methods of farming through extension services, improvisation of villages based food storage mechanism and provision of infrastructural facilities in rural areas to facilitate the preservation and easy evacuation of farm produce should be encouraged.

Keywords: governance, security, food, development, conflict, hunger, society, sustainability

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6881 From the Himalayas to Australia: A Review of the Literature on Teaching and Learning with Nepalese Students in the Higher Education Sector

Authors: Sangeeta Rai

Abstract:

International education is Australia’s third largest export with significant revenue flowing to the economy in all state and territory jurisdictions. International students make significant economic, social and cultural contributions to all communities in which they are studying and often working. Among these international students are those from Nepal, who continue to seek Australian higher education in increasing numbers. This paper reports on findings from a literature review that highlights the gap in knowledge of the pedagogical issues that may need addressing in teaching Nepalese students in the higher education sector in Australia. Nepalese students bring to their studies a rich culture shaped by their country’s turbulent political and poor economic conditions. These factors may further contribute to their endeavors to seek education abroad to better themselves and their situation. This cohort of students faces various challenges undertaking their studies in Australia that may be due to factors including language, learning styles and engagement with peers. Hence, this paper highlights the importance of these students on Australian shores and forms the basis for further study on the issues and challenges that they face and those that need to be addressed by Australian educators.

Keywords: Nepalese students in Australia, challenges and coping mechanisms of Nepalese students, international students in Australia, socio-cultural background of Nepalese students

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6880 Smart Grids Cyber Security Issues and Challenges

Authors: Imen Aouini, Lamia Ben Azzouz

Abstract:

The energy need is growing rapidly due to the population growth and the large new usage of power. Several works put considerable efforts to make the electricity grid more intelligent to reduce essentially energy consumption and provide efficiency and reliability of power systems. The Smart Grid is a complex architecture that covers critical devices and systems vulnerable to significant attacks. Hence, security is a crucial factor for the success and the wide deployment of Smart Grids. In this paper, we present security issues of the Smart Grid architecture and we highlight open issues that will make the Smart Grid security a challenging research area in the future.

Keywords: smart grids, smart meters, home area network, neighbor area network

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