Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 32

Search results for: Fahd S. Alotaibi

32 Security of Internet of Things: Challenges, Requirements and Future Directions

Authors: Amjad F. Alharbi, Bashayer A. Alotaibi, Fahd S. Alotaibi

Abstract:

The emergence of Internet of Things (IoT) technology provides capabilities for a huge number of smart devices, services and people to be communicate with each other for exchanging data and information over existing network. While as IoT is progressing, it provides many opportunities for new ways of communications as well it introduces many security and privacy threats and challenges which need to be considered for the future of IoT development. In this survey paper, an IoT security issues as threats and current challenges are summarized. The security architecture for IoT are presented from four main layers. Based on these layers, the IoT security requirements are presented to insure security in the whole system. Furthermore, some researches initiatives related to IoT security are discussed as well as the future direction for IoT security are highlighted.

Keywords: Internet of Things (IoT), IoT security challenges, IoT security requirements, IoT security architecture

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31 A Variable Stiffness Approach to Vibration Control

Authors: S. A. Alotaibi, M. A. Al-Ajmi

Abstract:

This work introduces a new concept for controlling the mechanical vibrations via variable stiffness coil spring. The concept relies on fitting a screw though the spring to change the number of active spring coils. A prototype has been built and tested with promising results toward an innovation in the field of vibration control.

Keywords: Computer Science, Vibration Control, variable stiffness, coil spring

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30 Requirements Gathering for Improved Software Usability and the Potential for Usage-Centred Design

Authors: Kholod J. Alotaibi, Andrew M. Gravell

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Usability is an important software quality that is often neglected at the design stage. Although methods exist to incorporate elements of usability engineering, there is a need for more balanced usability focused methods that can enhance the experience of software usability for users. In this regard, the potential for Usage-Centered Design is explored with respect to requirements gathering and is shown to lead to high software usability besides other benefits. It achieves this through its focus on usage, defining essential use cases, by conducting task modeling, encouraging user collaboration, refining requirements, and so on. The requirements gathering process in UgCD is described in detail.

Keywords: Computer Science, Usability, requirements gathering, usage-centred design

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29 An Expert System for Assessment of Learning Outcomes for ABET Accreditation

Authors: M. H. Imam, Imran A. Tasadduq, Abdul-Rahim Ahmad, Fahd M. Aldosari

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Learning outcomes of a course (CLOs) and the abilities at the time of graduation referred to as Student Outcomes (SOs) are required to be assessed for ABET accreditation. A question in an assessment must target a CLO as well as an SO and must represent a required level of competence. This paper presents the idea of an Expert System (ES) to select a proper question to satisfy ABET accreditation requirements. For ES implementation, seven attributes of a question are considered including the learning outcomes and Bloom’s Taxonomy level. A database contains all the data about a course including course content topics, course learning outcomes and the CLO-SO relationship matrix. The knowledge base of the presented ES contains a pool of questions each with tags of the specified attributes. Questions and the attributes represent expert opinions. With implicit rule base the inference engine finds the best possible question satisfying the required attributes. It is shown that the novel idea of such an ES can be implemented and applied to a course with success. An application example is presented to demonstrate the working of the proposed ES.

Keywords: Expert System, student outcomes, course learning outcomes, question attributes

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28 Internal Factors that Prevent Using Assessment for Learning Strategies: A Case Study of Saudi Arabia

Authors: Khalid A. Alotaibi

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To assess the students, there are different strategies adopted by teachers and all are important while taking their scope into consideration. Teachers may face some obstacles that prevent them using the assessment for learning. These obstacles can be internal or external. The present study has been collected from two regions (Riyadh and Hotat Bani Tamim) of Saudi Arabia, with sample size of 174 teachers. The results of the study have shown that the significant factors that can prevent teachers using assessment for learning are; the way of introducing the new form of assessment, lack of teachers' training, clarity of the regulations and size of students in the class. Additionally, other elements have also shown in this paper.

Keywords: Assessment, Teachers, Assessment for learning, internal factors and external factors

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27 Predication Model for Leukemia Diseases Based on Data Mining Classification Algorithms with Best Accuracy

Authors: Fahd Sabry Esmail, M. Badr Senousy, Mohamed Ragaie

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In recent years, there has been an explosion in the rate of using technology that help discovering the diseases. For example, DNA microarrays allow us for the first time to obtain a "global" view of the cell. It has great potential to provide accurate medical diagnosis, to help in finding the right treatment and cure for many diseases. Various classification algorithms can be applied on such micro-array datasets to devise methods that can predict the occurrence of Leukemia disease. In this study, we compared the classification accuracy and response time among eleven decision tree methods and six rule classifier methods using five performance criteria. The experiment results show that the performance of Random Tree is producing better result. Also it takes lowest time to build model in tree classifier. The classification rules algorithms such as nearest- neighbor-like algorithm (NNge) is the best algorithm due to the high accuracy and it takes lowest time to build model in classification.

Keywords: Data Mining, microarray data, Decision Tree, classification techniques, classification rule, leukemia diseases

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26 Using Focus Group Method to Identify Citizen Requirements to Saudi Mobile Government Services

Authors: S. Alotaibi, D. Roussinov

Abstract:

Mobile government services implementation faces several challenges in developing countries. This paper studies some of those challenges in the context of Saudi Arabia. The study aims to investigate factors affecting m-government acceptance in Saudi Arabia, including ease of use, usefulness, service quality, trust, intention to use and users’ satisfaction. Our investigation will help in integrating the m-government services in citizens’ everyday life. We collected and analyzed our data from focus groups. These focus groups are from King Saud University and Imam Muhammed Bin Saud University, so the samples size are five and seven participants, respectively. We found that there are some factors to identifying citizen requirements to Saudi mobile government services. These services should be easy to use and not require too much effort. Also, these services must be fully trusted.

Keywords: e-Government, m-government, focus group, Saudi mobile government services

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25 Perspectives of Saudi Students on Reasons for Seeking Private Tutors in English

Authors: Ghazi Alotaibi

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The current study examined and described the views of secondary school students and their parents on their reasons for seeking private tutors in English. These views were obtained through two group interviews with the students and parents separately. Several causes were brought up during the two interviews. These causes included difficulty of the English language, weak teacher performance, the need to pass exams with high marks, lack of parents’ follow-up of student school performance, social pressure, variability in student comprehension levels at school, weak English foundation in previous school years, repeated student absence from school, large classes, as well as English teachers’ heavy teaching loads. The study started with a description of the EFL educational system in Saudi Arabia and concluded with recommendations for the improvement of the school learning environment.

Keywords: English, Learning Environment, teaching practices, Saudi, learning difficulty, private tutoring

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24 Human Motion Capture: New Innovations in the Field of Computer Vision

Authors: Najm Alotaibi

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Human motion capture has become one of the major area of interest in the field of computer vision. Some of the major application areas that have been rapidly evolving include the advanced human interfaces, virtual reality and security/surveillance systems. This study provides a brief overview of the techniques and applications used for the markerless human motion capture, which deals with analyzing the human motion in the form of mathematical formulations. The major contribution of this research is that it classifies the computer vision based techniques of human motion capture based on the taxonomy, and then breaks its down into four systematically different categories of tracking, initialization, pose estimation and recognition. The detailed descriptions and the relationships descriptions are given for the techniques of tracking and pose estimation. The subcategories of each process are further described. Various hypotheses have been used by the researchers in this domain are surveyed and the evolution of these techniques have been explained. It has been concluded in the survey that most researchers have focused on using the mathematical body models for the markerless motion capture.

Keywords: Computer Vision, Tracking, human motion capture, vision-based

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23 Teachers’ Perceptions of the Efficacy of Social Stories in the Development of Social Skills for Students with Autism in Saudi Arabia

Authors: Faihan Alotaibi

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This study explores Saudi teachers’ perceptions of the efficacy of social stories in the development of social skills in students with autism in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia in two phases. Data were collected in sequential quantitative and qualitative phases. Participants in this study were 100 teachers in the quantitative phase and 15 teachers were interviewed. In this poster, the researcher will present the data result in the qualitative second phase in which an understanding of teachers’ experiences was deepened by conducting semi-structured interviews with a purposeful sample of fifteen teachers of diverse experience, covering six initial themes: the social story concept, sources of social stories, the effectiveness of social stories in improving social skills in students with autism, barriers to using social stories for students with autism, cultural consideration and context of social stories, and factors which contribute to the best use of social stories to developing of social skills for students with autism.

Keywords: autism, Intervention, Social Skills, social storyteachers’ perceptions

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22 Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury in King Fahd Medical City: An Epidemiological Study

Authors: Saeed Alshahri

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Introduction: Our study aims to estimate the characteristics & causes of TSCI at King Fahad Medical City (KFMC) in Riyadh city in order to hypothesize strategy for primary prevention of traumatic spinal cord injury. Method: Cross-sectional, retrospective study was conducted on all TSCI patients who aged 14 and above and who were admitted to rehabilitation center of King Fahad Medical City from January 2012 to December 2015. Furthermore, a descriptive analysis was conducted while considering factors including age, gender, marital status, educational level and causes of injury and characteristics of injury. Results: Total of 216 patients were admitted during this period, mean age was 28.94, majority of patients were male (86.5%), 71.7% of total patients were high school level of education or less, 68% were single, RTA was the main cause with 90.7% and the main result of TSCI was complete paraplegia 37%. Furthermore, statistically, we found that males are at a low risk of having incomplete paraplegia compared to female (p = 0.035, RRR=0.35). Conclusion: The rate of TSCI related to RTA has increased in Saudi Arabia in previous years despite the government’s efforts to decrease RTA. It’s clear that we need TSCI registry data developed on the basis of international data standards to have a clear idea about the exact etiology of TSCI in Saudi Arabia. This will assist in planning for primary prevention.

Keywords: Spinal Cord Injury, Saudi Arabia, road traffic accident, traumatic spinal cord injury

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21 Perceptions of Corporate Governance and Business Ethics Practices in Kuwaiti Islamic and Conventional Banks

Authors: Khaled Alotaibi, Salah Alhamadi, Ibraheem Almubarak

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The study attempts to explore both corporate governance (GC) and business ethics (BE) practices in Kuwaiti banks and the relationship between CG and BE, using an accountability framework. By examining the perceptions of key stakeholder groups, this study investigates the practices of BE and CG in Islamic banks (IBs) compared to conventional banks (CBs). We contribute to the scarce studies concerned with relations between CG and BE. We have employed a questionnaire survey method for a random sample of crucial relevant stakeholder groups. The empirical analysis of the participants’ perceptions highlights the importance of applying CG regulations and BE for Kuwaiti banks and the clear link between the two concepts. We find that the main concern is not the absence of CG and BE codes, but the lack of consistent enforcement of the regulations. Such a system needs to be strictly and effectively implemented in Kuwaiti banks to protect all stakeholders’ wealth, not only that of stockholders. There are significant patterns in the CG and BE expectations among different stakeholder groups. Most interestingly, banks’ client groups illustrate high expectations concerning CG and BE practices.

Keywords: Corporate Governance, Business Ethics, Accountability, Islamic banks, conventional banks, IBs, CBs

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20 Challenges in Promoting Software Usability and Applying Principles of Usage-Centred Design in Saudi Arabia

Authors: Kholod J. Alotaibi, Andrew M. Gravell

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A study was conducted in which 212 software developers in higher education institutions in Saudi Arabia were surveyed to gather an indication of their understanding of the concept of usability, their acceptance of its importance, and to see how well its principles are applied. Interviews were then held with 20 of these developers, and a demonstration of Usage-Centred Design was attempted, a highly usability focused software development methodology, at one select institution for its redesign of an e-learning exam system interface during the requirements gathering phase. The study confirms the need to raise awareness of usability and its importance, and for Usage-Centred Design to be applied in its entirety, also need to encourage greater consultation with potential end-users of software and collaborative practices. The demonstration of Usage-Centred Design confirmed its ability to capture usability requirements more completely and precisely than would otherwise be the case, and hence its usefulness for developers concerned with improving software usability. The concluding discussion delves on the challenges for promoting usability and Usage-Centred Design in light of the research results and findings and recommendations are made for the same.

Keywords: Saudi Arabia, Usability, usage-centred, applying principles of usage-centred

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19 The New Educators: The Reasons for Saudi Arabia to Invest More in Student Counseling Programs

Authors: Turki Alotaibi

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Student counseling programs can provide many benefits to students in schools all around the world. In theory, the government of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (Saudi Arabia) has committed itself to school counseling programs in educational institutions throughout the country. Student counselors face a number of burdens and obstacles that impact student counseling programs. It is also widely known that Saudi Arabia has extremely high prevalence rates for overweight and obesity, anxiety and depression, and diabetes in children. It has also been demonstrated that teachers and staff are inadequately prepared when dealing with health issues relating to diabetes in schools in Saudi Arabia. This study will clearly demonstrate how student counselors in Saudi Arabia could become 'New Educators' in Saudi schools in relation to these health issues. This would allow them to leverage their position as student counselor to improve the management of these health issues in Saudi schools, to improve the quality of care provided to school children, and to overcome burdens and obstacles that are currently negatively affecting student counseling in Saudi schools.

Keywords: Diabetes, Anxiety and Depression, overweight and obesity, policy recommendations, student counseling, The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

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18 Active Learning Role on Strategic I-Map Thinking in Developing Reasoning Thinking and the Intrinsic-Motivation Orientation

Authors: Khaled Alotaibi

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This paper deals with developing reasoning thinking and the intrinsic-extrinsic motivation for learning, and enhancing the academic achievement of a sample of students at Teachers' College in King Saud University. The study sample included 58 students who were divided randomly into two groups; one was an experimental group with 20 students and the other was a control group with 22 students. The following tools were used: e-courses by using I-map, Reasoning Thinking Tes, questionnaire to measure the intrinsic-extrinsic motivation for learning and an academic achievement test. Experimental group was taught using e-courses by using I-map, while the control group was taught by using traditional education. The results showed that: - There were no statistically significant differences between the experimental group and the control group in Reasoning thinking skills. - There were statistically significant differences between the experimental group and the control group in the intrinsic-extrinsic motivation for learning in favor of the experimental group. - There were statistically significant differences between the experimental group and the control group in academic achievement in favor of the experimental group.

Keywords: Active Learning, Reasoning, Thinking, intrinsic motivation

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17 The Applicability of Western Environmental Criminology Theories to the Arabic Context

Authors: Nawaf Alotaibi, Andy Evans, Alison Heppenstall, Nick Malleson

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Throughout the last two decades, motor vehicle theft (MVT) has accounted for the largest proportion of property crime incidents in Saudi Arabia (SA). However, to date, few studies have investigated SA’s MVT problem. Those that have are primarily focused on the characteristics of car thieves, and most have overlooked any spatial-temporal distribution of MVT incidents and the characteristics of victims. This paper represents the first step in understanding this problem by reviewing the existing MVT studies contextualised within the theoretical frameworks developed in environmental criminology theories – originating in the West – and exploring to what extent they are relevant to the SA context. To achieve this, the paper has identified a range of key features in SA that are different from typical Western contexts, that could limit the appropriateness and capability of applying existing environmental criminology theories. Furthermore, despite these Western studies reviewed so far having introduced a number of explanatory variables for MVT rates, a range of significant elements are apparently absent in the current literature and this requires further analysis. For example, almost no attempts have been made to quantify the associations between the locations of vehicle theft, recovery of stolen vehicles, joyriding and traffic volume.

Keywords: Saudi Arabia, Spatial analysis, environmental criminology theories, motor vehicle theft

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16 Public-Private Partnership in Tourism Development: Kuwait Experience within 2035 Vision

Authors: Obaid AlOtaibi

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Tourism and recreation have become one of the important and influential sectors in most of the modern economies. This sector has been accepted as one of the alternative sources of national income, employment, and foreign exchange. Kuwait has many potentialities in tourism and recreation, and exploitation of this leads to more diversification of the economy besides augmenting its contribution to the GDP. It is an import-oriented economy; it requires hard currencies (foreign exchange) to meet the import costs as well as to maintain stability in the international market. To compensate for the revenue fall stemmed from fluctuations in oil prices -where the agriculture, fisheries, and industrial sectors are too immune and inelastic- the only alternative solution is the regeneration of the tourism and recreation to surface. This study envisages the characteristics of tourism and recreation, the economic and social importance for the society, the physical and human endowments, as well as the tourist pattern and plans for promoting and sustaining tourism in the country. The study summarizes many recommendations, including the necessity of establishing authority or a council for tourism, linking the planning of tourism development with the comprehensive planning for economic and social development in Kuwait in the shadow of 2035 vision, and to encourage the investors to develop new tourist and recreation projects.

Keywords: Tourism, Partnership, Kuwait, public-private

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15 Developing and Validating an Instrument for Measuring Mobile Government Adoption in Saudi Arabia

Authors: Sultan Alotaibi, Dmitri Roussinov

Abstract:

Many governments recently started to change the ways of providing their services by allowing their citizens to access services from anywhere without the need of visiting the location of the service provider. Mobile government (M-government) is one of the techniques that fulfill that goal. It has been adopted by many governments. M-government can be defined as an implementation of Electronic Government (E-Government) by using mobile technology with the aim of improving service delivery to citizens, businesses and all government agencies. There have been several research projects developing models to understand the behavior of individuals towards the adoption of m-government. This paper proposes a model for adoption of m-government services in Saudi Arabia by extending Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) by introducing external factors. This paper also reports on the development of a survey instrument designed to measure user perception of mobile government acceptance. A survey instrument has been developed by using existing scales from prior instruments and a pilot study has been conducted by distributing the survey to 33 participants. As a result, a survey instrument has been refined to retain 43 items. The results also showed that the reliabilities of all the scales in the survey instrument are above the levels acceptable in current academic research, thus the instruments developed by us are capable of analyzing the factors in M-government adoption.

Keywords: Mobile Government, e-Government, model, acceptance, m-government, TAM

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14 The Impact of Green Building Envelopes on the Urban Microclimate of the Urban Canopy-Case Study: Fawzy Moaz Street, Alexandria, Egypt

Authors: Amany Haridy, Ahmed Elseragy, Fahd Omar

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The issue of temperature increase in the urban microclimate has been at the center of attention recently, especially in dense urban areas, such as the City of Alexandria in Egypt, where building surfaces have become the dominant element (more than green areas and streets). Temperatures have been rising during daytime as well as nighttime, however, the research focused on the rise of air temperature at night, a phenomenon known as the urban heat island. This phenomenon has many effects on ecological life, as well as human health. This study provided evidence of the possibility of reducing the urban heat island by using a green building envelope (green wall and green roof) in Alexandria, Egypt. This City has witnessed a boom in growth in its urban fabric and population. A simulation analysis using the Envi-met software to find the ratio of air temperature reduction was performed. The simulation depended on the orientation of the green areas and their density, which was defined through a process of climatic analysis made by the Diva plugin using the Grasshopper software. Results showed that the reduction in air temperature varies from 0.8–2.0 °C, increasing with the increasing density of green areas. Many systems of green wall and green roof can be found in the local market. However, treating an existing building requires a careful choice of system to fit the building construction load and the surrounding nature. Among the systems of choice, there was the ‘geometric system’ of vertical greening that can be fixed on a light aluminum structure for walls and the extensive green system for roofs. Finally, native plants were the best choice in the long term because they fare well in the local climate.

Keywords: Urban Heat Island, ENVI-met, urban microclimate, green building envelope

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13 Pregnancy Rhinitis Prevalence among Saudi Women

Authors: Mohammed G. Alotaibi, Sameer Albahkaly, Salwa M. Bahkali, Abdullah M. Alghamdi, Raseel S. Alswidan, Maha Bin Shafi, Sarah Almaiman

Abstract:

Introduction: Rhinitis is common in Saudi Arabia. Therefore, our study was designed to evaluate the prevalence, triggering factors, severity and progression of rhinitis during pregnancy. Methods: Prospective cross-sectional study was conducted in eight governmental and private medical centers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, during June and July 2014. Validated Arabic language self-administered questionnaire was used. Sample size of 260 Saudi pregnant women was calculated by Raosoft sample size calculator. Random sampling was achieved by choosing one and skipping every five patients in the clinic list. Data were coded and entered manually into spreadsheets then transferred to SPSS statistical package version 16.0 for Windows. Consent, Privacy and confidentiality of information were assured. Results: Pregnancy rhinitis was reported 31.2% (CI 25.6 - 37.2%). Symptoms arising in first trimester appeared in 79.2% of PR cases and mostly worsen. The most prevalent symptoms were nasal pruritis (67.5%), followed by sneezing (57.1%), congestion (50.6%), and post nasal drip (46.7%). The major triggering factor was dust (71.4%), followed by Tobacco/Shisha smoke (57.6%) and perfume(47%). Preexisting allergic diseases were markedly associated with developing pregnancy rhinitis. Conclusion: Rhinitis during pregnancy manifested in one third of Saudi pregnant ladies. Nasal pruritus was the most common symptom and dust was the widespread triggering factor.

Keywords: Allergy, pregnancy, Rhinitis, sneezing

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12 Identification of Social Responsibility Factors within Mega Construction Projects

Authors: Francis Edum-Fotwe, Ali Alotaibi, Andrew Price /

Abstract:

Mega construction projects create buildings and major infrastructure to respond to work and life requirements while playing a vital role in promoting any nation’s economy. However, the industry is often criticised for not balancing economic, environmental and social dimensions of their projects, with emphasis typically on one aspect to the detriment of the others. This has resulted in many negative impacts including environmental pollution, waste throughout the project lifecycle, low productivity, and avoidable accidents. The identification of comprehensive Social Responsibility (SR) indicators, which combine social, environmental and economic aspects, is urgently needed. This is particularly the case in the context of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), which often has mega public construction projects. The aim of this paper is to develop a set of wide-ranging SR indicators which encompass social, economic and environmental aspects unique to the KSA. A qualitative approach was applied to explore relevant indicators through a review of the existing literature, international standards and reports. A list of appropriate indicators was developed, and its comprehensiveness was corroborated by interviews with experts on mega construction projects working with SR concepts in the KSA. The findings present 39 indicators and their metrics, covering 10 economic, 12 environmental and 17 social aspects of SR mapped against their references. These indicators are a valuable reference for decision-makers and academics in the KSA to understand factors related to SR in mega construction projects. The indicators are related to mega construction projects within the KSA and require validation in a real case scenario or within a different industry to demonstrate their generalisability.

Keywords: Economic, Social Responsibility, Social, Environmental, indicators, Construction Projects

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11 The Impact of Water Resources on Economic and Social Development in Kuwait

Authors: Obaid AlOtaibi

Abstract:

The geographical location of the State of Kuwait contributed significantly to the suffering of Kuwait in the past, due to the scarcity of natural water resources and the inability of the State's financial resources to provide other water resources to meet the needs of the population. The problem of water scarcity in Kuwait remained until the beginning of the second half of the twentieth century, as the country's economic conditions revived with the emergence and export of oil; which was clearly reflected in the steady growth of the population. To cope with this population, increase, it was necessary to expand the various development programs to include all sectors of the state. The process of development and urbanization could not start without finding solutions to the problem of water shortage in Kuwait. The only option for officials to meet the needs of the population and the different sectors of water development is the desalination of seawater. This process necessitated the establishment of six desalination plants along the coast of Kuwait and extended freshwater arteries to reach everywhere on the land. However, this does not mean that the problem of water shortage has been completely solved. The desalination plants are not meeting the country's future water needs, especially considering the increasing population growth. These stations are nearing completion and they need to be replaced, renovation and maintenance, require significant expenses. Therefore, it was necessary for scientific research to address the issue of water in Kuwait, whether in the field of development of existing resources or in the field of rationalization of consumption and protection of available resources. The study focused on how to address the increasing demand for water resulting from population increase, the impact of water on economic and social development, the prospects of water resources in Kuwait and its ability to meet the needs of the country by 2030.

Keywords: Development, Water Resources, Economic, Social, Kuwait

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10 Influence of Machine Resistance Training on Selected Strength Variables among Two Categories of Body Composition

Authors: Hassan Almoslim

Abstract:

Background: The machine resistance training is an exercise that uses the equipment as loads to strengthen and condition the musculoskeletal system and improving muscle tone. The machine resistance training is easy to use, allow the individual to train with heavier weights without assistance, useful for beginners and elderly populations and specific muscle groups. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of nine weeks of machine resistance training on maximum strength among lean and normal weight male college students. Method: Thirty-six male college students aged between 19 and 21 years from King Fahd University of petroleum & minerals participated in the study. The subjects were divided into two an equal groups called Lean Group (LG, n = 18) and Normal Weight Group (NWG, n = 18). The subjects whose body mass index (BMI) is less than 18.5 kg / m2 is considered lean and who is between 18.5 to 24.9 kg / m2 is normal weight. Both groups performed machine resistance training nine weeks, twice per week for 40 min per training session. The strength measurements, chest press, leg press and abdomen exercises were performed before and after the training period. 1RM test was used to determine the maximum strength of all subjects. The training program consisted of several resistance machines such as leg press, abdomen, chest press, pulldown, seated row, calf raises, leg extension, leg curls and back extension. The data were analyzed using independent t-test (to compare mean differences) and paired t-test. The level of significance was set at 0.05. Results: No change was (P ˃ 0.05) observed in all body composition variables between groups after training. In chest press, the NWG recorded a significantly greater mean different value than the LG (19.33 ± 7.78 vs. 13.88 ± 5.77 kg, respectively, P ˂ 0.023). In leg press and abdomen exercises, both groups revealed similar mean different values (P ˃ 0.05). When the post-test was compared with the pre-test, the NWG showed significant increases in the chest press by 47% (from 41.16 ± 12.41 to 60.49 ± 11.58 kg, P ˂ 001), abdomen by 34% (from 45.46 ± 6.97 to 61.06 ± 6.45 kg, P ˂ 0.001) and leg press by 23.6% (from 85.27 ± 15.94 to 105.48 ± 21.59 kg, P ˂ 0.001). The LG also illustrated significant increases by 42.6% in the chest press (from 32.58 ± 7.36 to 46.47 ± 8.93 kg, P ˂ 0.001), the abdomen by 28.5% (from 38.50 ± 7.84 to 49.50 ± 7.88 kg, P ˂ 0.001) and the leg press by 30.8% (from 70.2 ± 20.57 to 92.01 ± 22.83 kg, P ˂ 0.001). Conclusion: It was concluded that the lean and the normal weight male college students can benefit from the machine resistance-training program remarkably.

Keywords: Body Composition, Lean, machine resistance training, normal weight

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9 Effect of Summer Training Volunteering Practices in Healthcare on Self-Confidence of Nursing Students in Riyadh

Authors: Samah Mohamed, Alyaa Farouk Abdelfattah Ibrahim, Huda Jrady, Mashail Alrashidi, Alaa Mohammad, Fatimah Alotaibi, Maram Almutiri

Abstract:

Participation in volunteering was associated with better mental and physical health, self-esteem, and life satisfaction. The main motivator for students in particular is the chance to gain work-related experiences, improve skills, and build on qualifications that may help them achieve their educational goals and further their careers. This study aimed to assess the effect of summer training volunteering practices in healthcare on self-confidence of nursing students in Riyadh. In a crossectional study design, 150 nursing students at King Saud bin Abdul-Aziz University for health sciences in Riyadh were included in the study. Bio-socio-demographic, self-confidence, patients’ care and skills questionnaires were used for data collection. Results: Participants’ age ranged between 20 and 26 years. The majority were from the educational level seven (80%). 40.7 % of them reported volunteering in summer training programs; 70.37% of them volunteered at least once and for a duration of at least one month. Nursing students from level 6 were less likely to have self-confidence in their patients’ care skills than those in level 7. Students who volunteered were more likely to be more interested in becoming social, professional, and independent healthcare workers. There was no difference regarding experience in clinical skills and education by volunteering status. Clinical skills improved by a level of education in this group. Conclusion: Professional self-confidence and clinical performance are related in this group of nursing students. Monitoring, arranging, and encouraging volunteering activities for nursing students are important to help them broaden their interests, their self-confidence in their capabilities, and advancement in their chosen profession. Mostly, volunteering enhanced knowledge in patient safety and quality of care and attempts to secure volunteering opportunities should be a priority on the nursing education agenda.

Keywords: nursing students, volunteering, health care volunteering, summer training

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8 Assessment of Maternal Satisfaction Regarding Quality of Care during Labor

Authors: Farida Habib, Haya Alfozan, Eman Miligi, Najla Alotaibi

Abstract:

Background: Women’s satisfaction with maternity services, especially care during labor and birth, has become highly significant to healthcare providers, administrators, and policymakers. Purpose: The aims of this study were to assess maternal satisfaction regarding the quality of care during labor and to compare the level of maternal satisfaction between women who delivered by physicians and those delivered by midwives. Methodology: A descriptive, cross-sectional, correlational design was used. A convenient sample of 180 low-risk cases of immediate postpartum women who delivered at King Abdul-Aziz medical city was recruited. Women whose babies were diagnosed with serious health problems were excluded from the study. Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire. The validity and reliability of the questionnaire were ensured. The questionnaire included three parts, namely: demographics data, medical history, and obstetrical history, and the last part is the satisfaction assessment tool. Ethical confederations were ensured. Maternal satisfaction during labor was classified in terms of health care, health workers' communication, and the environment. Results: Regarding health care, women were highly satisfied with care received from nurse (M = 4.21 + 0.88), medical care received (M = 4.17 + 0.79), and comfort techniques (M = 4.04 + 0.91). Regarding health workers' communication, women were highly satisfied with the provider to treat with dignity and respect (M = 4.03 + 0.91) and orientation to the toilet, bathroom, washing area (M = 4.00 + 0.93). Regarding the environment, women were highly satisfied with the experience of their baby's birth (M = 4.18 + 0.98) and supplies with drugs and supplies (M = 4.09 + 0.97). There was no statistically significant difference in maternal satisfaction between women who delivered by physicians and those delivered by midwives. Conclusion: Women were generally satisfied with their labor and delivery experience. There was no difference in maternal satisfaction on the labor process between women who delivered by physicians and those delivered by midwives.

Keywords: Labor, Maternity, delivery, satisfaction

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7 The Role of Non-Governmental Organizations in Promoting Humanitarian Development: A Case Study in Saudi Arabia

Authors: Muamar Salameh, Rania Sinno

Abstract:

Non-governmental organizations in Saudi Arabia play a vital role in promoting humanitarian development. Though this paper will emphasize this role and will provide a specific case study on the role of Prince Mohammad Bin Fahd Foundation for Humanitarian Development, yet many organizations do not provide transparent information for the accomplishments of the NGOs. This study will provide answers to the main research question regarding this role that NGOs play in promoting humanitarian development. The recent law regulating associations and foundations in Saudi Arabia was issued in December 2015 and went into effect March 2016. Any new association or foundation will need to follow these regulations. Though the registration, implementation, and workflow of the organizations still need major improvement and development, yet, the currently-registered organizations have several notable achievements. Most of these organizations adopt a centralized administration approach which in many cases still hinders progress and may be an obstacle in achieving and reaching a larger population of beneficiaries. A large portion of the existing organizations are charities, some of which have some sort of government affiliation. The laws and regulations limit registration of new organizations. Any violations to Islamic Sharia, contradictions to public order, breach to national unity, foreign and foreign-affiliation organizations prohibits any organization from registration. The lack of transparency in the operations and inner-working of NGOs in Saudi Arabia is apparent for the public. However, the regulations invoke full transparency with the governing ministry. This transparency should be available to the public and in specific to the target population that are eligible to benefit from the NGOs services. In this study, we will provide an extensive review of all related laws, regulations, policies and procedures related to all NGOs in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. This review will include some examples of current NGOs, services and target population. The study will determine the main accomplishments of reputable NGOs that have impacted positively the Saudi communities. The results will highlight and concentrate on actions, services and accomplishments that achieve sustainable assistance in promoting humanitarian development and advance living conditions of target populations of the Saudi community. In particular, we will concentrate on a case study related to PMFHD; one of the largest foundations in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. The authors have access to the data related to this foundation and have access to the foundation administration to gather, analyze and conclude the findings of this group. The study will also analyze whether the practices, budgets, services and annual accomplishments of the foundation have fulfilled the humanitarian role of the foundation while meeting the governmental requirements, with an analysis in the light of the new laws. The findings of the study show that great accomplishments for advancing and promoting humanitarian development in Saudi community and international communities have been achieved. Several examples will be included from several NGOs, with specific examples from PMFHD.

Keywords: Development, Saudi Arabia, Humanitarian, foundation, non-governmental organization

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6 Improved Thermal Comfort and Sensation with Occupant Control of Ceiling Personalized Ventilation System: A Lab Study

Authors: Sorour Alotaibi, Walid Chakroun, Nesreen Ghaddar, Kamel Ghali

Abstract:

This study aims at determining the extent to which occupant control of microenvironment influences, improves thermal sensation and comfort, and saves energy in spaces equipped with ceiling personalized ventilation (CPV) system assisted by chair fans (CF) or desk fan (DF). Sixteen subjects participated in 2 experiments in a climatic chamber equipped with two-station CPV systems, one that allows control of fan flow rate and the other is set at fixed fan speed to provide occupant comfort. Each experiment included two participants each entering the cooled space from transitional environment at a conventional mixed ventilation (MV) at 24 ◦C. For CPV diffuser, fresh air was delivered at a rate of 20 CFM and a temperature of 16 ◦C while the recirculated air was delivered at the same temperature but at a flow rate 150 CFM. The macroclimate air of the space was at 26 ◦C. The 20 CFM was considered the minimum fresh airflow air of the CPV and could be changed to 25 or 30 CFM through fan control system. A third experiment where the fresh airflow rate was changed was conducted be eight participants in the same CPV testing chamber. The full speed flow rates for both the CFs and DFs were at 5 CFM and 20 CFM, respectively. Occupant 1 was allowed to operate the CFs or the DFs at (1/3 of the full speed, 2/3 of the full speed, and the full speed) while occupant 2 had no control on the fans. In a separate experiment, occupant 1 controlled the CPV fresh airflow rate while occupant 2 did not control CPV flow rate. Occupants recorded their subjective votes of thermal sensation (TS) and overall thermal comfort (TC) over a period of one hour. The results showed that most participants who controlled the CFs did feel comfortable within the first 12 minutes. Nonetheless, all occupants who did control the CFs did feel comfortable or neutral within the first 30 minutes. The participants, who did not control the CF speeds, did feel comfortable faster than the ones who did. For the DF speed control experiments, most participants who had to control the DFs felt comfortable within the first 12 minutes. Unlike with CF, the participants who did not control the DF speeds, felt comfortable at the same rate as the ones who did not. More participants found that the CPV testing chamber was more comfortable than the conventional MV system, in fact, 87.5% of participants found the CPV+CF and CPV+DF more comfortable, while a range of 60-75% of participants found the MV system comfortable. Most participants in the experiment in which CPV control was considered felt warm or neutral at the beginning, and they reach a point of comfort, or slightly cool when the fresh cool air fan is turned on to 20 CFM. However, when the fresh airflow rate is increased, the up to 50% participants do start feeling cold, and uncomfortable.

Keywords: Thermal comfort, thermal environment, PMV, thermal sensation

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5 Prevalence of Anxiety among End Stage Renal Disease Patients and Its Association with Patient Compliance to Hemodialysis and Physician Instructions

Authors: Mohammed Asiri, Saleh Alsuwayt, Mohammed Bin Mugren, Abdulmalik Almufarrih, Tariq Alotaibi, Saad Almodameg

Abstract:

Background: End-stage renal disease is a major public health concern with high incidence and mortality rate. Most of ESRD patients are on hemodialysis therapy which is a long-term treatment that disturbs patients’ lifestyle. As a result, he will be susceptible to develop psychiatric disorders like anxiety that may direct him to non-compliance on physician instructions and hemodialysis therapy. Although there are studies conducted on psychiatric issues in hemodialysis patients, but few studies focused on the effect of anxiety disorder and the patient’s compliance. Hence, we are interested in determining the prevalence of anxiety disorder among hemodialysis patients in Saudi Arabia, as well as in defining the correlation between anxiety disorder and compliance on physician instructions and hemodialysis therapy. We hypothesize that our study will show a higher prevalence of anxiety in hemodialysis patients than in general population. Also, we expect the anxiety to have a negative impact on their compliance. Methodology: We used a cross-sectional study design carried out at dialysis unit of four major hospitals in Riyadh, KSA. We interviewed 235 End Stage Renal Disease male and female patients who are on hemodialysis. We divided the patients into two categories according to their compliance. we used modified general questionnaire to get their demographic data, then we used a psychometric response scale called visual analog scale (VAS) to assess patient’s compliance to hemodialysis and physician’s instructions. Also, we used the Arabic validated version of the hospital anxiety and depression scale (HAD scale) used mainly for anxiety assessment. Results: The overall response rate was 54%. Respondents included 147 (62.6%) males and 88 (37.4%) females. The prevalence of anxiety among hemodialysis patients is 13.3%. According to visual analog scale, we found that 189 compliant patients and 45 non-compliant patients. For HAD scale, the mean ± standard deviation of the total score for females was (4.44 ± 4.7) and it’s higher than males which was 2.65 ± 3.08 (P-value= 0.002). The mean ± standard deviation of HAD score in the non-compliant group was (5.88  4.88) and it was higher than the compliant group (2.7  3.32) (P-value= 0.004). Among non-complaint group, 33.3% of anxious patients were males and 66.6% were females. There was a negative correlation between HAD score of anxiety and visual analog scale (R= - 0.285). Conclusion: We conclude that there is a high prevalence of anxiety among patients with End Stage Renal Disease that was higher in females with association of non-compliance to physician’s instructions and hemodialysis therapy.

Keywords: Renal Failure, Anxiety, end-stage renal disease, anxiety disorder

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4 Parents and Stakeholders’ Perspectives on Early Reading Intervention Implemented as a Curriculum for Children with Learning Disabilities

Authors: Bander Mohayya Alotaibi

Abstract:

The valuable partnerships between parents and teachers may develop positive and effective interactions between home and school. This will help these stakeholders share information and resources regarding student academics during ongoing interactions. Thus, partnerships will build a solid foundation for both families and schools to help children succeed in school. Parental involvement can be seen as an effective tool that can change homes and communities and not just schools’ systems. Seeking parents and stakeholders’ attitudes toward learning and learners can help schools design a curriculum. Subsequently, this information can be used to find ways to help improve the academic performance of students, especially in low performing schools. There may be some conflicts when designing curriculum. In addition, designing curriculum might bring more educational expectations to all the sides. There is a lack of research that targets the specific attitude of parents toward specific concepts on curriculum contents. More research is needed to study the perspective that parents of children with learning disabilities (LD) have regarding early reading curriculum. Parents and stakeholders’ perspectives on early reading intervention implemented as a curriculum for children with LD was studied through an advanced quantitative research. The purpose of this study seeks to understand stakeholders and parents’ perspectives of key concepts and essential early reading skills that impact the design of curriculum that will serve as an intervention for early struggler readers who have LD. Those concepts or stages include phonics, phonological awareness, and reading fluency as well as strategies used in house by parents. A survey instrument was used to gather the data. Participants were recruited through 29 schools and districts of the metropolitan area of the northern part of Saudi Arabia. Participants were stakeholders including parents of children with learning disability. Data were collected using distribution of paper and pen survey to schools. Psychometric properties of the instrument were evaluated for the validity and reliability of the survey; face validity, content validity, and construct validity including an Exploratory Factor Analysis were used to shape and reevaluate the structure of the instrument. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) used to find differences between the variables. The study reported the results of the perspectives of stakeholders toward reading strategies, phonics, phonological awareness, and reading fluency. Also, suggestions and limitations are discussed.

Keywords: Curriculum, Intervention, Perspectives, Learning disability, Stakeholders, Parents, early reading

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3 A Geographical Spatial Analysis on the Benefits of Using Wind Energy in Kuwait

Authors: Obaid AlOtaibi, Salman Hussain

Abstract:

Wind energy is associated with many geographical factors including wind speed, climate change, surface topography, environmental impacts, and several economic factors, most notably the advancement of wind technology and energy prices. It is the fastest-growing and least economically expensive method for generating electricity. Wind energy generation is directly related to the characteristics of spatial wind. Therefore, the feasibility study for the wind energy conversion system is based on the value of the energy obtained relative to the initial investment and the cost of operation and maintenance. In Kuwait, wind energy is an appropriate choice as a source of energy generation. It can be used in groundwater extraction in agricultural areas such as Al-Abdali in the north and Al-Wafra in the south, or in fresh and brackish groundwater fields or remote and isolated locations such as border areas and projects away from conventional power electricity services, to take advantage of alternative energy, reduce pollutants, and reduce energy production costs. The study covers the State of Kuwait with an exception of metropolitan area. Climatic data were attained through the readings of eight distributed monitoring stations affiliated with Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research (KISR). The data were used to assess the daily, monthly, quarterly, and annual available wind energy accessible for utilization. The researchers applied the Suitability Model to analyze the study by using the ArcGIS program. It is a model of spatial analysis that compares more than one location based on grading weights to choose the most suitable one. The study criteria are: the average annual wind speed, land use, topography of land, distance from the main road networks, urban areas. According to the previous criteria, the four proposed locations to establish wind farm projects are selected based on the weights of the degree of suitability (excellent, good, average, and poor). The percentage of areas that represents the most suitable locations with an excellent rank (4) is 8% of Kuwait’s area. It is relatively distributed as follows: Al-Shqaya, Al-Dabdeba, Al-Salmi (5.22%), Al-Abdali (1.22%), Umm al-Hayman (0.70%), North Wafra and Al-Shaqeeq (0.86%). The study recommends to decision-makers to consider the proposed location (No.1), (Al-Shqaya, Al-Dabdaba, and Al-Salmi) as the most suitable location for future development of wind farms in Kuwait, this location is economically feasible.

Keywords: Renewable Energy, Wind energy, Spatial analysis, Kuwait

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