Search results for: Ibrahim Aliyu Isah
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 766

Search results for: Ibrahim Aliyu Isah

766 Phytochemical Screening, Anti-Microbial and Mineral Determination of Stachtarpheta indica Extract

Authors: Ibrahim Isah Lakan, Nasiru Ibrahim


These Phytochemical screening, Antimicrobial activities and mineral Determination of aqueous extract of Stachtarpheta indica were assessed. The result reveals the presence of flavonoids, tannins, saponins, alkaloids, glycosides and anthraquinones. The disc diffusion of aqueous extract showed Escherichia coli, 13 and antibiotic, 19 mm; Bacillus subtilis, 10 and anti –biotic, 17 mm; Klebsiller pnemuoniae , 14 and antibiotic, 24mm and Pseudmonas aeruginosa, 24 and antibiotic, 36 mm which are all comparable with the standard antibiotic cyprotomycin. The mineral content determination by flame photometer revealed that 1.25 (Na+), 0.85 (K +), 1.75 (Ca 2+) % which is a clear indication of the safety of the extract for the hypertensive patients and could be used to lower blood pressure.

Keywords: microbials, mineral, phytochemicals, stachtarpheta indica extracts

Procedia PDF Downloads 541
765 In Vivo Maltase and Sucrase Inhibitory Activities of Five Underutilized Nigerian Edible Fruits

Authors: Mohammed Auwal Ibrahim, Isa Yunusa, Nafisa Kabir, Shazali Ali Baba, Amina Muhammad Yushau, Suraj Suraj Ibrahim, Zaharaddeen Idris Bello, Suleiman Haruna Suleiman, Murtala Bindawa Isah


Background: Inhibition of intestinal maltase and sucrase prevents postprandial blood glucose excursions which are beneficial in ameliorating diabetes-associated complications. Objective: In this study, the inhibitory effects of fruit extracts of Parinari macrophylla, Detarium microcarpum, Ziziphus spina-christi, Z. mairei and Parkia biglobosa were investigated against intestinal maltase and sucrase. Methods: Rats were given co-administration of the fruit extracts with maltose or sucrose and blood glucose levels were measured at 0, 30, 90 and 120 min. Results: The glucose-time curves indicated that all the fruits had the most potent inhibitory effects on both maltase and sucrase within the first 30 min. The computed Area Under the Curves (AUC0-120)for all the fruits indicated more potent inhibitory effects against intestinal maltase than sucrase.The ED50 range for the fruits extract against maltase and sucrase were 647.15-1118.35 and 942.44-1851.94 mg/kg bw respectively. Conclusion: The data suggests that the fruits could prevent postprandial hyperglycemia via inhibition of intestinal maltase and sucrase.

Keywords: diabetes mellitus, fruits, α-glucosidases, maltase, sucrase

Procedia PDF Downloads 363
764 Impacts of Extension Services on Stingless Bee Production and its Profitability and Sustainability in Malaysia

Authors: Ibrahim Aliyu Isah, Mohd Mansor Ismail, Salim Hassan, Norsida Bint Man


Global and National contributions of Extension Agents in income derive through stingless beekeeping production as acknowledged globally as a new source of wealth creation, which contributes significantly to the positive, sustainable economic growth of Malaysia. A common specie, Trigona itama, production through effective utilization of highly competent agents of extension services led to high increase of output that guaranteed high income and sustainability to farmers throughout the study areas. A study on impacts of extension services on stingless bee production and its profitability and sustainability in both Peninsular Malaysia and East (Sarawak) Malaysia was conducted with the following objectives: (i) to examined various impacts of extension services on sustainability as variables in enhancing stingless beekeeping production for positive profitability. (ii) to determine the profitability and sustainability of stingless beekeeping production in the study area through transfer of technology and human resources development. The study covers a sample of beekeepers in ten states of Peninsular Malaysia and Sarawak. The sample size of 87 respondents were selected out of the population and 54 of filled questionnaires were retrieved. Capital budgeting analysis was carried out and economic performance was evaluated. Data collected was analysed using SPSS version 23.0. Correlation and Regression analyses were used. The capital budgeting analysis and government incentive schemes was incorporated in the applied projection of stingless bee farms. The result of Net Present Value (NPV) is determined as an accepted projection to the financial appraisal. The NPV in the study indicated positive outcome of production that can generate positive income and indicated efficient yield of investment and Profitability index (PI). In summary, it is possible for the extension services to increase output and hence increase profit which is sustainable for growth and development of agricultural sector in Malaysia.

Keywords: extension services, impacts, profitability and sustainability, Sarawak and peninsular Malaysia, trigona itama production

Procedia PDF Downloads 69
763 User Guidance for Effective Query Interpretation in Natural Language Interfaces to Ontologies

Authors: Aliyu Isah Agaie, Masrah Azrifah Azmi Murad, Nurfadhlina Mohd Sharef, Aida Mustapha


Natural Language Interfaces typically support a restricted language and also have scopes and limitations that naïve users are unaware of, resulting in errors when the users attempt to retrieve information from ontologies. To overcome this challenge, an auto-suggest feature is introduced into the querying process where users are guided through the querying process using interactive query construction system. Guiding users to formulate their queries, while providing them with an unconstrained (or almost unconstrained) way to query the ontology results in better interpretation of the query and ultimately lead to an effective search. The approach described in this paper is unobtrusive and subtly guides the users, so that they have a choice of either selecting from the suggestion list or typing in full. The user is not coerced into accepting system suggestions and can express himself using fragments or full sentences.

Keywords: auto-suggest, expressiveness, habitability, natural language interface, query interpretation, user guidance

Procedia PDF Downloads 464
762 Enhancing Sustainable Stingless Beekeeping Production through Technology Transfer and Human Resource Development in Relationship with Extension Agents Work Performance among Malaysian Beekeepers

Authors: Ibrahim Aliyu Isah, Mohd Mansor Ismail, Salim Hassan, Norsida Man, Oluwatoyin Olagunju


Stingless beekeeping is not only a profitable activity for Malaysian beekeepers but also for the Malaysian economy. However, natural honey has faced some difficulties, which resulted in low production due to a lack of information on improved technology as well as the capacity and potential building of stingless beekeeping farmers, which depend mostly on information received from the extension agents. Hence, it is the responsibility of the extension agents to give useful information on the available technology and develop the capacity of the farmers to make the right decision that will improve their level of production. This study assessed how technology transfer and human resource development skills influence the work performance of the extension agents toward sustainable beekeeping production among beekeepers. The study sought to establish the role of relevant technology transfer and human resource development skills in effective performance. The research design was a descriptive and quantitative survey of stingless beekeepers on technology transfer and human resource development by the extension agent. Data was obtained from 54 beekeeping farmers and was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The results revealed that technology skill, technology dissemination skill, technology evaluation skill, Decision-making process skill, Leadership development skill and work performance were rated moderate by stingless beekeeping farmers, while Social skill was rated high. A significant and positive correlation (P<0.01) existed between all variables and performance. Regression results showed that leadership development skills, Decision-making process skills, and social skills are significant (P=.05), while technology skills, technology dissemination skills, and technology evaluation skills are not significant. The highest contributing factor is social skill (β=.446). Beekeeping is a profitable project in Malaysia and can be sustained if the extension services and programs are well carried out by competent extension agents and relevant agricultural government agencies.

Keywords: beekeeping, extension agents, human resource development, sustainable, technology transfer, work performance

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761 Experiences of Online Opportunities and Risks: Examining Internet Use and Digital Literacy of Young People in Nigeria

Authors: Isah Yahaya Aliyu


Research on Internet use has often approached beneficial uses (online opportunities) of the Internet as separate from the risky encounters (online risks) of young people online. However, empirical evidence from diverse contexts appears to increasingly support the fusion of the two sets of online activities. Hence, the current research investigates the correlation between Internet use (IU) and digital literacy (DL) with online opportunities (OP) and risks (OR), using data from a Nigerian context, where there appears a paucity of research and literature on integrating opportunities and risks in the same study. A web-based data collection method was used to administer a survey to 335 undergraduate students in Northeastern Nigeria. Underpinned to Livingstone and Helsper model, findings are largely consistent with existing literature; IU and DL influence OP (R2 = 0.791, SE = 0.265, F-Stats = 626.566, P-value <.001), equally IU and DL influence OR as well (R2 = 0.343, SE = 0.465, F-Stats = 86.671, P-value <.001). OP and OR were found to strongly correlate positively (r = .667, n = 335, p < 0.01). This study has provided buttressing evidence from a Nigerian context of the fusion of benefits and risks of the Internet among young people. It has also upheld the argument for improved literacy as strategy for minimizing risks/harm rather than restricting use. Other theoretical and policy implications of the findings have been discussed in line with local and global debates about the Internet and its attendant effects.

Keywords: digital, internet, literacy, opportunities, risks

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760 E-Service and the Nigerian Banking Sector: A Review of ATM Architecture and Operations

Authors: Bashir Aliyu Yauri, Rufai Aliyu Yauri


With the introduction of cash-less society policy by the Central Bank of Nigeria, the concept of e-banking services has experienced a significant improvement over the years. Today quite a number of people are embracing e-banking activities especially ATM, thereby moving away from the conventional banking system. This paper presents a review of the underlying Architectural Layout of Intra-Bank and Inter-Bank ATM connectivity in Nigeria. The paper further investigates and discusses factors affecting the Intra-Bank and Inter-Bank ATM connectivity in Nigeria. And as well possible solutions to these factors affecting ATM Connectivity and Operations are proposed.

Keywords: architectural layout, automated teller machine, e-services, postilion

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759 Application of Facilities Management Practice in High Rise Commercial Properties: Jos in Perpective

Authors: Aliyu Ahmad Aliyu, Abubakar Ahmad, Muhammad Umar Bello, Rozilah Kasim, David Martin


The article studied the application of facilities management practice in high rise commercial properties. Convenience sampling technique was used in administering questionnaires to the 60 respondents who responded to the survey. It was found out that the extent of application of facilities management in the subject properties is better described as below average. Similarly, the most frequently tools of facilities management in use and employed in the properties were outsourcing and in-house sourcing. This was influenced by the level of their familiarity with the tools. Planned and Preventive maintenance should be taken regularly in other to enhance the effectiveness of the facilities management and to satisfy both the owner and customers of the organization.

Keywords: commercial properties, facilities management, high-rise buildings, Jos metropolis and outsourcing

Procedia PDF Downloads 515
758 Slugging Frequency Correlation for High Viscosity Oil-Gas Flow in Horizontal Pipeline

Authors: B. Y. Danjuma, A. Archibong-Eso, Aliyu M. Aliyu, H. Yeung


In this experimental investigation, a new data for slugging frequency for high viscosity oil-gas flow are reported. Scale experiments were carried out using a mixture of air and mineral oil as the liquid phase in a 17 m long horizontal pipe with 0.0762 ID. The data set was acquired using two high-speed Gamma Densitometers at a data acquisition frequency of 250 Hz over a time interval of 30 seconds. For the range of flow conditions investigated, increase in liquid oil viscosity was observed to strongly influence the slug frequency. A comparison of the present data with prediction models available in the literature revealed huge discrepancies. A new correlation incorporating the effect of viscosity on slug frequency has been proposed for the horizontal flow, which represents the main contribution of this work.

Keywords: gamma densitometer, flow pattern, pressure gradient, slug frequency

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757 Hybrid Concrete Construction (HCC) for Sustainable Infrastructure Development in Nigeria

Authors: Muhammad Bello Ibrahim, M. Auwal Zakari, Aliyu Usman


Hybrid concrete construction (HCC) combines all the benefits of pre-casting with the advantages of cast in-situ construction. Merging the two, as a hybrid structure, results in even greater construction speed, value, and the overall economy. Its variety of uses has gained popularity in the United States and in Europe due to its distinctive benefits. However, the increase of its application in some countries (including Nigeria) has been relatively slow. Several researches have shown that hybrid construction offers an ultra-high performance concrete that offers superior strength, durability and aesthetics with design flexibility and within sustainability credentials, based on the available and economically visible technologies. This paper examines and documents the criterion that will help inform the process of deciding whether or not to adopt hybrid concrete construction (HCC) technology rather than more traditional alternatives. It also the present situation of design, construction and research on hybrid structures.

Keywords: hybrid concrete construction, Nigeria, sustainable infrastructure development, design flexibility

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756 Study of Low Loading Heavier Phase in Horizontal Oil-Water Liquid-Liquid Pipe Flow

Authors: Aminu J. A. Koguna, Aliyu M. Aliyu, Olawale T. Fajemidupe, Yahaya D. Baba


Production fluids are transported from the platform to tankers or process facilities through transfer pipelines. Water being one of the heavier phases tends to settle at the bottom of pipelines especially at low flow velocities and this has adverse consequences for pipeline integrity. On restart after a shutdown this could result in corrosion and issues for process equipment, thus the need to have the heavier liquid dispersed into the flowing lighter fluid. This study looked at the flow regime of low water cut and low flow velocity oil and water flow using conductive film thickness probes in a large diameter 4-inch pipe to obtain oil and water interface height and the interface structural velocity. A wide range of 0.1–1.0 m/s oil and water mixture velocities was investigated for 0.5–5% water cut. Two fluid model predictions were used to compare with the experimental results.

Keywords: interface height, liquid, velocity, flow regime, dispersed, water cut

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755 The Works of Ibrahim Eissa: A Controversy

Authors: Malak Khaled Hosny


The paper inspects Ibrahim Eissa, a famous Egyptian writer and TV persona, and his literary and film works. Having faced threats of persecution and assassination, Eissa is a controversial figure in Egyptian media, and his works always pose a trigger of outrage and conversation. His book The Preacher, his movie The Guest, and his TV show Faten Amal Harby all led to some controversy unfolding in Egyptian society, and all led to conversations erupting in Egyptian households and on social media platforms. Through a close reading of his written work and an analytic watch of his work on-screen, the paper delves into the details of the intentions behind and the repercussions of Ibrahim Eissa's work.

Keywords: censorship, film, literature, religion

Procedia PDF Downloads 87
754 Benefits and Drawbacks of Robotic Firefighting

Authors: Mukhtar Ibrahim Bello, Ibrahim U. Aikawa, Abubakar Sadiq Muhammad, Muhammad Baballe Ahmad


These vital signs can be tracked by wearable sensors, which can also be used to assess patients' health. As a result, they can be very beneficial to patients and healthcare professionals in the diagnosis of diseases, particularly when it comes to taking a patient's body temperature in infectious disorders.

Keywords: fire out-break, robots, saving, dangerous environments, impacts

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753 On a Transient Magnetohydrodynamics Heat Transfer Within Radiative Porous Channel Due to Convective Boundary Condition

Authors: Bashiru Abdullahi, Isah Bala Yabo, Ibrahim Yakubu Seini


In this paper, the steady/transient MHD heat transfer within radiative porous channel due to convective boundary conditions is considered. The solution of the steady-state and that of the transient version were conveyed by Perturbation and Finite difference methods respectively. The heat transfer mechanism of the present work ascertains the influence of Biot number〖(B〗_i1), magnetizing parameter (M), radiation parameter(R), temperature difference, suction/injection(S) Grashof number (Gr) and time (t) on velocity (u), temperature(θ), skin friction(τ), and Nusselt number (Nu). The results established were discussed with the help of a line graph. It was found that the velocity, temperature, and skin friction decay with increasing suction/injection and magnetizing parameters while the Nusselt number upsurges with suction/injection at y = 0 and falls at y =1. The steady-state solution was in perfect agreement with the transient version for a significant value of time t. It is interesting to report that the Biot number has a cogent influence consequently, as its values upsurge the result of the present work slant the extended literature.

Keywords: heat transfer, thermal radiation, porous channel, MHD, transient, convective boundary condition

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752 Extension Services Impact On Stingless Bee Production And Profitability In Malaysia

Authors: Ibrahim Aliyu Isaha, Mohd Mansor Ismailb , Salim Hassanc, Norsida Bint Man


The Global and National income derive from a stingless beekeeping project is a new source of wealth to Malaysia. A common stingless bee species, Trigona itama, potential production through effective utilization of highly competent agents of extension services will lead to higher output that guaranteed maximum income. The study covers a sample beekeepers in ten states and it was designed to examine various impacts of extension services as variables in enhancing sustainable stingless beekeeping production. In addition, the study also determined the profitability of stingless beekeeping production through technology transfer and human resource development. Correlation and Regression analyses were used on a sample size of 87 stingless beekeepers representing 72% of filled questionnaires. The cost-benefit analysis showed participants received lucrative monthly income of more than rm3500. The results indicated positive outcome from extension services that increased production, and hence, generated better additional income to participants. In summary, it is possible for the extension services to increase output of stingless beekeeping through technology transfer

Keywords: extension services, malaysia, profitability, stingless bee, trigona itama production

Procedia PDF Downloads 47
751 Solid Biofuel Production by Hydrothermal Carbonization of Wood Shavings: Effect of Carbonization Temperature and Biomass-to-Water Ratio on Hydrochar’s Properties

Authors: Mohammed Aliyu, Kazunori Iwabuchi, Ibrahim Shaba Mohammed, Abubakar Sadeeq Mohammed, Solomon Musa Dauda, Zinash Delebo Osunde


Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is recognised as a low temperature and effective technique for the conversion of biomass to solid biofuel. In this study, the effect of process temperature and biomass-to-water ratio (B/W) on the fuel properties of hydrochar produced from wood shavings was investigated. HTC was conducted in an autoclave using reaction temperature of 230 °C and 260 °C for 20 minutes with B/W ratio of 0.11 to 0.43. The produced hydrochars were characterised by the mass yield (MY), higher heating value (HHV), proximate and ultimate properties. The results showed that the properties of the hydrochars improved with increasing process temperature and B/W ratio. The higher heating value (HHV) increased to 26.74 MJ/kg as the severity of the reaction was increased to the process temperature of 260 °C. Also, the atomic H/C and O/C ratios of hydrochars produced at 230 °C and 260 °C were closed to the regions of a peat and lignite on the plotted van Krevelen diagram. Hence, the produced hydrochar has a promising potential as a sustainable solid biofuel for energy application.

Keywords: wood shavings, biomass/water ratio, thermochemical conversion, hydrothermal carbonization, hydrochar

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750 Some Factors Affecting Reproductive Traits in Nigerian Indigenous Chickens under Intensive Management System

Authors: J. Aliyu, A. O. Raji, A. A. Ibrahim


The study was carried out to assess the fertility, early and late embryonic mortalities as well as hatchability by strain, season and hen’s weight in Nigerian indigenous chickens reared on deep litter. Four strains (normal feathered, naked neck, frizzle and dwarf) of hens maintained at a mating ratio of 1 cock to 4 hens, fed breeders mash and water ad libitum were used in a three year experiment. The data generated were subjected to analysis of variance using the SAS package and the means, where significant, were separated using the least significant difference (LSD). There were significant effects (P < 0.05) of strain on all the traits studied. Fertility was generally high (84.29 %) in all the strains. Early embryonic mortality was significantly lowest (P < 0.01) in naked neck which had the highest late embryonic mortality (P < 0.001). Hatchability was significantly highest (P < 0.01) in normal feathered (80.23 %) and slightly depressed in frizzle (74.95 %) and dwarf (72.27 %) while naked neck had the lowest (60.80 %). Season of the year had significant effects on early embryonic mortality. Dry hot season significantly (P < 0.05) depressed fertility while early embryonic mortality was depressed in the wet season (15.33 %). Early and late embryonic mortalities significantly increased (P < 0.05) with increasing weight of hen. Dwarf, frizzle and normal feathered hens could be used to improve hatchability as well as reduce early and late embryonic mortalities in Nigerian indigenous chickens.

Keywords: chicken, fertility, hatchability, indigenous, strain

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749 A Hybrid Block Multistep Method for Direct Numerical Integration of Fourth Order Initial Value Problems

Authors: Adamu S. Salawu, Ibrahim O. Isah


Direct solution to several forms of fourth-order ordinary differential equations is not easily obtained without first reducing them to a system of first-order equations. Thus, numerical methods are being developed with the underlying techniques in the literature, which seeks to approximate some classes of fourth-order initial value problems with admissible error bounds. Multistep methods present a great advantage of the ease of implementation but with a setback of several functions evaluation for every stage of implementation. However, hybrid methods conventionally show a slightly higher order of truncation for any k-step linear multistep method, with the possibility of obtaining solutions at off mesh points within the interval of solution. In the light of the foregoing, we propose the continuous form of a hybrid multistep method with Chebyshev polynomial as a basis function for the numerical integration of fourth-order initial value problems of ordinary differential equations. The basis function is interpolated and collocated at some points on the interval [0, 2] to yield a system of equations, which is solved to obtain the unknowns of the approximating polynomial. The continuous form obtained, its first and second derivatives are evaluated at carefully chosen points to obtain the proposed block method needed to directly approximate fourth-order initial value problems. The method is analyzed for convergence. Implementation of the method is done by conducting numerical experiments on some test problems. The outcome of the implementation of the method suggests that the method performs well on problems with oscillatory or trigonometric terms since the approximations at several points on the solution domain did not deviate too far from the theoretical solutions. The method also shows better performance compared with an existing hybrid method when implemented on a larger interval of solution.

Keywords: Chebyshev polynomial, collocation, hybrid multistep method, initial value problems, interpolation

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748 Challenges of Solid Waste Management: Insights into the Management and Disposal Behaviour in Bauchi Metropolis of Northeast Nigeria

Authors: Salisu Abdullahi Dalhat, Ibrahim Aliyu Adamu, Abubakar Magaji, Ridwan Adebola Adedigba


The paper examined the municipal solid waste disposal methods and the environmental issues associated with the management of solid waste in Bauchi Metropolis, Nigeria. Data were obtained through the administration of structured questionnaires, oral interviews, and field observations, as well as the desk review method. The research identifies how the city was composed of both biodegradable and non-biodegradable materials, which are mostly paper waste, polythene, and plastic materials. Most of the solid wastes are left unattended for a long period. Poor design of dump sites, ineffective management of urban development plans, and poor enforcement of environmental laws were observed to be the major causes of poor waste management, and in a few areas where large waste containers are provided, they are hardly used by the community. The major environmental issues resulting from improper disposal and poor management of solid waste in the Bauchi metropolis are a nuisance of the waste to the environment, emitting of methane gas which contributes to climate change, blockage of drainages during rainstorms causing flooding within the metropolis as well as the decomposition of such waste leading to contamination of groundwater thereby leading to the cholera outbreak. Relevant stakeholders should, without compromise, design enforceable short, workable bye-laws; local supervisors should be stationed at the designated dump sites across the city as well as public enlightenment/sensitization campaigns could be the way out.

Keywords: biodegradable, contamination, cholera outbreak, solid waste, solid waste management, urban development

Procedia PDF Downloads 104
747 Multi-Stage Classification for Lung Lesion Detection on CT Scan Images Applying Medical Image Processing Technique

Authors: Behnaz Sohani, Sahand Shahalinezhad, Amir Rahmani, Aliyu Aliyu


Recently, medical imaging and specifically medical image processing is becoming one of the most dynamically developing areas of medical science. It has led to the emergence of new approaches in terms of the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of various diseases. In the process of diagnosis of lung cancer, medical professionals rely on computed tomography (CT) scans, in which failure to correctly identify masses can lead to incorrect diagnosis or sampling of lung tissue. Identification and demarcation of masses in terms of detecting cancer within lung tissue are critical challenges in diagnosis. In this work, a segmentation system in image processing techniques has been applied for detection purposes. Particularly, the use and validation of a novel lung cancer detection algorithm have been presented through simulation. This has been performed employing CT images based on multilevel thresholding. The proposed technique consists of segmentation, feature extraction, and feature selection and classification. More in detail, the features with useful information are selected after featuring extraction. Eventually, the output image of lung cancer is obtained with 96.3% accuracy and 87.25%. The purpose of feature extraction applying the proposed approach is to transform the raw data into a more usable form for subsequent statistical processing. Future steps will involve employing the current feature extraction method to achieve more accurate resulting images, including further details available to machine vision systems to recognise objects in lung CT scan images.

Keywords: lung cancer detection, image segmentation, lung computed tomography (CT) images, medical image processing

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746 Investigating the Effect of Using Amorphous Silica Ash Obtained from Rice Husk as a Partial Replacement of Ordinary Portland Cement on the Mechanical and Microstructure Properties of Cement Paste and Mortar

Authors: Aliyu Usman, Muhaammed Bello Ibrahim, Yusuf D. Amartey, Jibrin M. Kaura


This research is aimed at investigating the effect of using amorphous silica ash (ASA) obtained from rice husk as a partial replacement of ordinary Portland cement (OPC) on the mechanical and microstructure properties of cement paste and mortar. ASA was used in partial replacement of ordinary Portland cement in the following percentages 3 percent, 5 percent, 8 percent and 10 percent. These partial replacements were used to produce Cement-ASA paste and Cement-ASA mortar. ASA was found to contain all the major chemical compounds found in cement with the exception of alumina, which are SiO2 (91.5%), CaO (2.84%), Fe2O3 (1.96%), and loss on ignition (LOI) was found to be 9.18%. It also contains other minor oxides found in cement. Consistency of Cement-ASA paste was found to increase with increase in ASA replacement. Likewise, the setting time and soundness of the Cement-ASA paste also increases with increase in ASA replacements. The test on hardened mortar were destructive in nature which include flexural strength test on prismatic beam (40mm x 40mm x 160mm) at 2, 7, 14 and 28 days curing and compressive strength test on the cube size (40mm x 40mm, by using the auxiliary steel platens) at 2,7,14 and 28 days curing. The Cement-ASA mortar flexural and compressive strengths were found to be increasing with curing time and decreases with cement replacement by ASA. It was observed that 5 percent replacement of cement with ASA attained the highest strength for all the curing ages and all the percentage replacements attained the targeted compressive strength of 6N/mm2 for 28 days. There is an increase in the drying shrinkage of Cement-ASA mortar with curing time, it was also observed that the drying shrinkages for all the curing ages were greater than the control specimen all of which were greater than the code recommendation of less than 0.03%. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to study the Cement-ASA mortar microstructure and to also look for hydration product and morphology.

Keywords: amorphous silica ash, cement mortar, cement paste, scanning electron microscope

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745 Preliminary Design Considerations for Achieving Stabilized Orbit, Telemetary, Command, and Ranging for HTS Communication Satellite

Authors: Ibrahim Isa Ali (Pantami), Abdu Jaafaru Bambale, Abimbola Alale, Danjuma Ibrahim Ndihgihdah, Muhammad Alkali, Adamu Idris Umar, Samson Olufunmilayo Abodunrin, Muhammad Dokko Zubairu, Moshood Kareem


This paper discusses the consideration and trade-offs used for the implementation of robust systems for orbit stability; Telemetry, Command and Ranging (TC& R) for Nigcomsat-1R and applicability for planned NigComSat-2 satellites. NigComSat-1R satellite was built by China Academy of Space Technology (CAST). The Satellite designed with quad-band payload (L, C, Ku, and Ka) was launched on the 20th of December 2011. The functionality of all satellite is driven by robust systems including Attitude & Orbit Control System (AOCS) and TC&R. The planned Nigcomsat-2 is a high throughput Satellite expected to function with better AOCS and TC&R.

Keywords: AOCS, CAST, Nigcomsat-1R, TC&R

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744 A Multistep Broyden’s-Type Method for Solving Systems of Nonlinear Equations

Authors: M. Y. Waziri, M. A. Aliyu


The paper proposes an approach to improve the performance of Broyden’s method for solving systems of nonlinear equations. In this work, we consider the information from two preceding iterates rather than a single preceding iterate to update the Broyden’s matrix that will produce a better approximation of the Jacobian matrix in each iteration. The numerical results verify that the proposed method has clearly enhanced the numerical performance of Broyden’s Method.

Keywords: mulit-step Broyden, nonlinear systems of equations, computational efficiency, iterate

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743 Influence of Thickness on Optical Properties of ZnO Thin Films Prepared by Radio Frequency (RF) Sputtering Technique

Authors: S. Abdullahi, M. Momoh, K. U. Isah


Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films of 75.5 nm and 130.5 nm were deposited at room temperature onto chemically and ultrasonically cleaned corning glass substrate by radio frequency technique and annealed at 150°C under nitrogen atmosphere for 60 minutes. The optical properties of the films were ascertained by UV-VIS-NIR spectrophotometry. Influence of the thickness of the films on the optical properties was studied keeping other deposition parameters constant. The optical transmittance spectra reveal a maximum transmittance of 81.49% and 84.26% respectively. The band gap of the films is found to be direct allowed transition and decreases with the increase in thickness of the films. The band gap energy (Eg) is in the range of 3.28 eV to 3.31 eV, respectively. These thin films are suitable for solar cell applications.

Keywords: optical constants, RF sputtering, Urbach energy, zinc oxide thin film

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742 Women Entrepreneurs’ in Nigeria: Issues and Challenges

Authors: Mohammed Mainoma, Abubakar Tijanni, Mohammed Aliyu


Globalization has brought a structural change in industry. It is the breaking of artificial boundaries and given way to new product, new service, new market, and new technology among others. It leads to the realization that men entrepreneurs’ alone cannot meet the demand of the teeming population. Therefore there is a need for the participation, involvement, and engagement of females in the production and distribution of goods and services. This will enhance growth and development of a nation. It is in line with the above that this paper attempt to discuss meaning of women entrepreneurs, roles, types, problems, and prospects. Also, on the basis of conclusion the paper recommended that entrepreneurship education should be introduced in all Tertiary Institutions in Nigeria.

Keywords: women, entrepreneurs, issues, challenges

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741 Environment Problems of Energy Exploitation and Utilization in Nigeria

Authors: Aliyu Mohammed Lawal


The problems placed on the environment as a result of energy generation and usage in Nigeria is: potential damage to the environment health by CO, CO2, SOx, and NOx, effluent gas emissions and global warming. For instance in the year 2004 in Nigeria energy consumption was 58% oil and 34% natural gas but about 94 million metric tons of CO2 was emitted out of which 64% came from fossil fuels while about 35% came from fuel wood. The findings from this research on how to alleviate these problems are that long term sustainable development solutions should be enhanced globally; energy should be used more rationally renewable energy resources should be exploited and the existing emissions should be controlled to tolerate limits because the increase in energy demand in Nigeria places enormous strain on current energy facilities.

Keywords: effluent gas, emissions, NOx, SOx

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740 A Study on the Vegetative and Osmolyte Accumulation of Capsicum frutescens L. under Zinc Metal Stress

Authors: Ja’afar Umar, Adamu Aliyu Aliero


Plant growth, biochemical parameters, zinc metal concentrations were determined for Capsicum frutescens L. in response to varied concentration of zinc metal. The plant exhibited a decline in the vegetative parameters measured. Free proline and glycine betaine content increases with increasing concentration of zinc metal and differ significantly (P<0.05). It can be concluded that the osmolyte (pro and GB) accumulations, and high length of stem and wide leaf expansion are possible indicator of tolerance to heavy metals (Zinc) in Capsicum frutescens.

Keywords: zinc metal, osmolyte, Capsicum frutescens, stress

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739 Environmental Sustainability and Energy Consumption: The Role of Financial Development in OPEC-1 Countries

Authors: Isah Wada


The current research investigates the role of financial development in an environmental sustainability-energy consumption nexus for OPEC-1 member countries. The empirical findings suggest that financial development increases environmental sustainability but energy consumption and real output expansion diminishes environmental sustainability, generally. Thus, whilst real output and financial development accelerates energy consumption, environmental sustainability quality diminishes clean energy initiatives. Even more so, energy consumption and financial development stimulates real output growth. The result empirically demonstrates that policy advocates must address broader issues relating to financial development whilst seeking to achieve environmental sustainability due largely to energy consumption.

Keywords: energy consumption, environmental sustainability, financial development, OPEC, real output

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738 Nigcomsat-1r and Planned HTS Communication Satellite Critical Pillars for Nigeria’s National Digital Economy Policy and Strategy

Authors: Ibrahim Isa Ali (Pantami), Abdu Jaafaru Bambale, Abimbola Alale, Danjuma Ibrahim Ndihgihdah, Muhammad Alkali, Adamu Idris Umar, Moshood Kareem, Samson Olufunmilayo Abodunrin, Muhammad Dokko Zubairu


The National Digital Economy Policy and Strategy, NDEPS document developed by Nigeria’s Federal Ministry of Communications & Digital Economy (FMoCDE) is anchored on 8 pillars for the acceleration of the National Digital Economy for a Digital Nigeria. NIGCOMSAT-1R and the planned HTS communication Satellite are critical assets for supporting the pillars in the drive for sustainable growth and development. This paper discusses on the gains and contribution of the strategy as a solid infrastructure. The paper also highlights these assets’ contribution as platform for Indigenous Content Development & Adoption, Digital Literacy & Skills, and Digital Services Development & Promotion.

Keywords: FMoCDE, HTS, NDEPS, nigcomsat!R, pillars

Procedia PDF Downloads 91
737 Modelling and Control of Electrohydraulic System Using Fuzzy Logic Algorithm

Authors: Hajara Abdulkarim Aliyu, Abdulbasid Ismail Isa


This research paper studies electrohydraulic system for its role in position and motion control system and develops as mathematical model describing the behaviour of the system. The research further proposes Fuzzy logic and conventional PID controllers in order to achieve both accurate positioning of the payload and overall improvement of the system performance. The simulation result shows Fuzzy logic controller has a superior tracking performance and high disturbance rejection efficiency for its shorter settling time, less overshoot, smaller values of integral of absolute and deviation errors over the conventional PID controller at all the testing conditions.

Keywords: electrohydraulic, fuzzy logic, modelling, NZ-PID

Procedia PDF Downloads 445