Search results for: extension services
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4600

Search results for: extension services

4600 Perception of Agricultural Extension Agents of Private Sector Participation in Extension Services in Ogun State, Nigeria

Authors: E. O. Fakoya, B. G. Abiona, J. O. Soetan

Abstract:

The study determined Perception of Agricultural Extension Agents of Private Sector Participation in Extension Services in Ogun State, Nigeria. Data were collected from 80 respondents with a well-structured questionnaire. The result of the findings showed that there is need for private sector participation in extension services (=4.313), private extension services has facilities than public extension services (=4.97). Private sector participated in extension services by: giving of loans and credits to farmers (=4.50). Major constraints identified by the respondents were: Transportation problem (=2.88) and lack of fund (=2.77) A significant relationship (P<0.05) exists between factors affecting public extension services(r = 0.641, p = 0.00) and private sector participation in extension services. It was concluded from the study that there is need for private sector to participate in extension service in order to improve productivity of the farmers.

Keywords: agricultural extension, extension agent, private sector, perception

Procedia PDF Downloads 564
4599 Extension Services Impact On Stingless Bee Production And Profitability In Malaysia

Authors: Ibrahim Aliyu Isaha, Mohd Mansor Ismailb , Salim Hassanc, Norsida Bint Man

Abstract:

The Global and National income derive from a stingless beekeeping project is a new source of wealth to Malaysia. A common stingless bee species, Trigona itama, potential production through effective utilization of highly competent agents of extension services will lead to higher output that guaranteed maximum income. The study covers a sample beekeepers in ten states and it was designed to examine various impacts of extension services as variables in enhancing sustainable stingless beekeeping production. In addition, the study also determined the profitability of stingless beekeeping production through technology transfer and human resource development. Correlation and Regression analyses were used on a sample size of 87 stingless beekeepers representing 72% of filled questionnaires. The cost-benefit analysis showed participants received lucrative monthly income of more than rm3500. The results indicated positive outcome from extension services that increased production, and hence, generated better additional income to participants. In summary, it is possible for the extension services to increase output of stingless beekeeping through technology transfer

Keywords: extension services, malaysia, profitability, stingless bee, trigona itama production

Procedia PDF Downloads 47
4598 Farmers’ Access to Agricultural Extension Services Delivery Systems: Evidence from a Field Study in India

Authors: Ankit Nagar, Dinesh Kumar Nauriyal, Sukhpal Singh

Abstract:

This paper examines the key determinants of farmers’ access to agricultural extension services, sources of agricultural extension services preferred and accessed by the farmers. An ordered logistic regression model was used to analyse the data of the 360 sample households based on a primary survey conducted in western Uttar Pradesh, India. The study finds that farmers' decision to engage in the agricultural extension programme is significantly influenced by factors such as education level, gender, farming experience, social group, group membership, farm size, credit access, awareness about the extension scheme, farmers' perception, and distance from extension sources. The most intriguing finding of this study is that the progressive farmers, which have long been regarded as a major source of knowledge diffusion, are the most distrusted sources of information as they are suspected of withholding vital information from potential beneficiaries. The positive relationship between farm size and ‘Access’ underlines that the extension services should revisit their strategies for targeting more marginal and small farmers constituting over 85 percent of the agricultural households by incorporating their priorities in their outreach programs. The study suggests that marginal and small farmers' productive potential could still be greatly augmented by the appropriate technology, advisory services, guidance, and improved market access. Also, the perception of poor quality of the public extension services can be corrected by initiatives aimed at building up extension workers' capacity.

Keywords: agriculture, access, extension services, ordered logistic regression

Procedia PDF Downloads 189
4597 Analysis of Farmer's Involvement in Public and Private Extension Services in Southwestern Nigeria

Authors: S. O. Ayansina, R. A. Oyeyinka, K. K. Bolarinwa

Abstract:

There is an increasing demand for a functional extension delivery services in Nigeria with a view to meet up with the food and fiber needs of the ever growing population of human and animal respectively. This study was designed to examine farmers’ involvement in public and private extension services in southwestern Nigeria, specifically to explore the farmers’ participation in the two types of organizations involved. It also evaluates the performances of personnel in the organizations. A multi-stage random sampling technique was used to select 30 respondents from each of the three selected organizations in Ogun, Osun and Oyo states in Southwestern Nigeria. Data was collected with interview schedule and analyzed both at descriptive and inferential levels. Kruskal Wallis one-way Analysis of variance was used to test the differences between the participation of beneficiaries who are farmers under the public and private extension services and the level of benefit accrued to them from the various extension organizations involved in the study. Results revealed that private extension organizations were performing better and were more preferred by the beneficiaries. Results of the tested hypotheses as shown by Kruskal Wallis test of difference (x2 = 0.709) S no significant difference between farmers’ participation in the extension services of public and private organizations but however showed significant difference (X2 =12.074) in the benefits achieved by respondents in the two organizations. These include: increased quantity of crop produced, farm income, skill acquisition, and improved education in private extension organizations. Based on this result, it could be inferred that beneficiaries generally preferred private extension organizations because of their effectiveness and vibrancy in programme administration. Public extension is therefore recommended for general overhauling and possibly privatization in order to cater for teeming population of farmers demanding for efficient and functional extension services to better their lots in production, processing and marketing of agricultural produce.

Keywords: public and private involvement, extension services, farmers' participation

Procedia PDF Downloads 385
4596 Extension Services' Needs of Small Farmers in Biliran Province, Philippines

Authors: Mario C. Nierras

Abstract:

This study aimed to determine the extension services’ needs of small farmers in Biliran province, Philippines. It also sought to find out other issues/concerns of the small farmers. Extension services’ needs of small farmers were gathered through personal interviewing and observational analysis of randomly-selected small farmers in Biliran, Philippines. Biliran small farmers extension services’ needs include: raising fruits, raising legumes, raising vegetables, raising swine, raising cattle, and raising chicken (as priority broad skills). For the specific skills, diagnosing symptoms on fertilizer deficiencies, controlling plant pests and diseases, diagnosing signs on specific pest and disease damage, controlling animal pests and diseases, and doing artificial insemination were the priority skills. They considered an on-farm trial of new technology as most needed to be coupled with industry and quality-orientedness, as positive behaviors needed in farming success. The farmers still adhere to the so-called wait-and-see attitude, thus they are more convinced to follow a particular technology if they see a concrete result of the introduced changes. Technical needs prioritization of Biliran small farmers showed that they have a real need for crop and animal production skills to include the other issues/concerns. Extension service program planning for small farmers should be patterned after their technical needs giving due attention to some issues/concerns so that extension work could deliver the right skills for the right needs of the farmers.

Keywords: extension, extension service, extension service needs, extension service program, farmers, small farmers, marginal farmers

Procedia PDF Downloads 422
4595 Public and Private Involvement in Agricultural Extension Services: Factors of Farmers’ Preference in Southwestern Nigeria

Authors: S. O. Ayansina, O. A. Adekunle

Abstract:

There is an increasing demand for a functional extension delivery services in Nigeria with a view to meet up with the food and fiber needs of the ever growing population of human and animal respectively. The study was therefore designed to examine the farmers’ preference for public and private extension services in Southwestern Nigeria, specifically to determine the farmers’ level of participation in the two types of organizations involved and also to evaluate the Performance level of personnel in the two organizations in order to ascertain the beneficiaries’ satisfaction. A multi-stage random sampling technique was used to samples 30 respondents from each of the three selected organizations in each of the three states sampled in Southwestern Nigeria. Hence, 270 respondents were sampled for the study. Data collected were analyzed with Kruskal Wallis one-way Analysis of variance to test the difference between the participation of beneficiaries in the public and private extension services and the level of benefit accrued from the two organizations involved in the study. Results generally revealed that private organizations were performing better and were more preferred by the beneficiaries. Results of the tested hypotheses as shown by Kruskal Wallis test of difference (x2=0.709) indicates no significant difference between farmers’ participation in the extension services of public and private organizations but however shows significant difference (X2=12.074) in the benefits achieved by respondents in the two organizations, such benefits include: increased quantity of Crop produced, farm income, skill acquisition, and improved Education in private extension organizations. Based on this result, it could be inferred that beneficiaries generally preferred private extension organizations because of their effectiveness and vibrancy in programme administration. Public extension is therefore recommended for general overhauling and possibly “merging” of public and private sectors in order to cater for teeming population of farmers demanding for efficient and functional extension services to better their lots both in production and processing.

Keywords: public and private involvement, extension services, farmers’ preferences, Kruskal Wallis Test

Procedia PDF Downloads 313
4594 Comparative Analysis of Yield before and after Access to Extension Services among Crop Farmers in Bauchi Local Government Area of Bauchi State, Nigeria

Authors: U. S. Babuga, A. H. Danwanka, A. Garba

Abstract:

The research was carried out to compare the yield of respondents before and after access to extension services on crop production technologies in the study area. Data were collected from the study area through questionnaires administered to seventy-five randomly selected respondents. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, t-test and regression models. The result disclosed that majority (97%) of the respondent attended one form of school or the other. The majority (78.67%) of the respondents had farm size ranging between 1-3 hectares. The majority of the respondent adopt improved variety of crops, plant spacing, herbicide, fertilizer application, land preparation, crop protection, crop processing and storage of farm produce. The result of the t-test between the yield of respondents before and after access to extension services shows that there was a significant (p<0.001) difference in yield before and after access to extension. It also indicated that farm size was significant (p<0.001) while household size, years of farming experience and extension contact were significant at (p<0.005). The major constraint to adoption of crop production technologies were shortage of extension agents, high cost of technology and lack of access to credit facility. The major pre-requisite for the improvement of extension service are employment of more extension agents or workers and adequate training. Adequate agricultural credit to farmers at low interest rates will enhance their adoption of crop production technologies.

Keywords: comparative, analysis, yield, access, extension

Procedia PDF Downloads 340
4593 Farmers’ Perceptions of Extension Personnel’s Technical Capabilities: Evidence from India

Authors: Ankit Nagar, Dinesh Kumar Nauriyal, S. P. Singh

Abstract:

This paper examines farmers' perceptions of the efficacy of extension services in equipping them with the necessary information and skills required to maximise agricultural productivity. It is based on primary data collected through an interview schedule in India's Western Uttar Pradesh region. It uses descriptive statistics, factor analysis, and MANOVA to determine the typical farmer's view of an extension worker's technical prowess and behavioural traits, as well as the key factors associated with farmers' perception and the demographic characteristics that affect farmer's perception variations. The vast majority of farmers appear to consider extension personnel's efficiency and accessibility unfavourably. Farmers feel that extension personnel are well-trained notwithstanding their disagreements on the viability of their technical advice. Small and marginal farmers view the effectiveness, objectivity, and cooperativeness of extension agents less favourably than large farmers. This study proposes strategies such as routine follow-ups, practical demonstrations, and regular extension professional training camps as part of a holistic plan to increase farmer trust in the agricultural extension system. In addition, it proposes ensuring their accountability.

Keywords: agriculture extension, farmers’ perception, extension agents, factor analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 93
4592 Impacts of Extension Services on Stingless Bee Production and its Profitability and Sustainability in Malaysia

Authors: Ibrahim Aliyu Isah, Mohd Mansor Ismail, Salim Hassan, Norsida Bint Man

Abstract:

Global and National contributions of Extension Agents in income derive through stingless beekeeping production as acknowledged globally as a new source of wealth creation, which contributes significantly to the positive, sustainable economic growth of Malaysia. A common specie, Trigona itama, production through effective utilization of highly competent agents of extension services led to high increase of output that guaranteed high income and sustainability to farmers throughout the study areas. A study on impacts of extension services on stingless bee production and its profitability and sustainability in both Peninsular Malaysia and East (Sarawak) Malaysia was conducted with the following objectives: (i) to examined various impacts of extension services on sustainability as variables in enhancing stingless beekeeping production for positive profitability. (ii) to determine the profitability and sustainability of stingless beekeeping production in the study area through transfer of technology and human resources development. The study covers a sample of beekeepers in ten states of Peninsular Malaysia and Sarawak. The sample size of 87 respondents were selected out of the population and 54 of filled questionnaires were retrieved. Capital budgeting analysis was carried out and economic performance was evaluated. Data collected was analysed using SPSS version 23.0. Correlation and Regression analyses were used. The capital budgeting analysis and government incentive schemes was incorporated in the applied projection of stingless bee farms. The result of Net Present Value (NPV) is determined as an accepted projection to the financial appraisal. The NPV in the study indicated positive outcome of production that can generate positive income and indicated efficient yield of investment and Profitability index (PI). In summary, it is possible for the extension services to increase output and hence increase profit which is sustainable for growth and development of agricultural sector in Malaysia.

Keywords: extension services, impacts, profitability and sustainability, Sarawak and peninsular Malaysia, trigona itama production

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4591 Effect of Agricultural Extension Services on Technical Efficiency of Smallholder Cassava Farmers in Ghana: A Stochastic Meta-Frontier Analysis

Authors: Arnold Missiame

Abstract:

In Ghana, rural dwellers who depend primarily on agriculture for their livelihood constitute about 60% of the country’s population. This shows the critical role and potentials of the agricultural sector in helping to achieve Ghana’s vision 2030. With the current threat of climate change and advancements in technology, agricultural extension is not just about technology transfer and improvements in productivity, but it is also about improving the managerial and technical skills of farmers. In Ghana, the government of Ghana as well as other players in the sector like; non-governmental organizations, NGOs, local and international funding agencies, for decades now, have made capacity-building-investments in smallholder farmers by way of extension services delivery. This study sought to compare the technical efficiency of farmers who have access to agricultural extension and farmers who do not in Ghana. The study employed the stochastic meta-frontier model to analyze household survey data comprising 300 smallholder cassava farmers from the Fanteakwa district of Ghana. The farmers were selected through a two-stage sampling technique where 5 communities were purposively selected in the first stage and then 60 smallholder cassava farmers were randomly selected from each of the 5 communities. Semi-structured questionnaires were used to collect data on farmers’ socioeconomic and farm-level characteristics. The results showed that farmers who have access to agricultural extensions services have higher technical efficiencies (TE) and produce much closer to their meta-production frontiers (higher technology gap ratios (TGR) than farmers who do not have access to such extension services. Furthermore, experience in cassava cultivation and formal education significantly improves the technical efficiencies of farmers. The study recommends that the mode and scope of agricultural extension service delivery in the country should be enhanced to ensure that smallholder farmers have easy access to extension agents.

Keywords: agricultural extension, Ghana, smallholder farmers, stochastic meta-frontier model, technical efficiency

Procedia PDF Downloads 92
4590 Capacity Building of Extension Agents for Sustainable Dissemination of Agricultural Information and Technologies in Developing Countries

Authors: Michael T. Ajayi, Oluwakemi E. Fapojuwo

Abstract:

Farmers are in need of regular and relevant information relating to new technologies. Production of extension materials has been found to be useful in facilitating the process. Extension materials help to provide information to reach large numbers of farmers quickly and economically. However, as good as extension materials are, previous materials produced are not used by farmers. The reasons for this include lack of involvement of farmers in the production of the extension materials, most of the extension materials are not relevant to the farmers’ environments, the agricultural extension agents lack capacity to prepare the materials, and many extension agents lack commitment. These problems led to this innovative capacity building of extension agents. This innovative approach involves five stages. The first stage is the diagnostic survey of farmers’ environment to collect useful information. The second stage is the development and production of draft extension materials. The third stage is the field testing and evaluation of draft materials by the same farmers that were involved at the diagnostic stage. The fourth stage is the revision of the draft extension materials by incorporating suggestions from farmers. The fifth stage is the action plans. This process improves the capacity of agricultural extension agents in the preparation of extension materials and also promotes engagement of farmers and beneficiaries in the process. The process also makes farmers assume some level of ownership of the exercise and the extension materials.

Keywords: capacity building, extension agents, dissemination, information/technologies

Procedia PDF Downloads 346
4589 The Faithful Extension of Constant Height and Constant Width Between Finite Posets

Authors: Walied Hazim Sharif

Abstract:

The problem of faithful extension with the condition of keeping constant height h and constant width w, i.e. for h w -inextensibility, seems more interesting than the brute extension of finite poset (partially ordered set). We shall investigate some theorems of hw-inextensive and hw-exrensive posets that can be used to formulate the faithful extension problem. A theorem in its general form of hw-inextensive posets is given to implement the presented theorems.

Keywords: faithful extension, poset, extension, inextension, height, width, hw-extensive, hw-inextensive

Procedia PDF Downloads 374
4588 Faithful Extension of Constant Height and Constant Width between Finite Posets

Authors: Walied Hazim Sharif

Abstract:

The problem of faithful extension with the condition of keeping constant height h and constant width w, i.e. for hw-inextensibility, seems more interesting than the brute extension of finite poset (partially ordered set). We shall investigate some theorems of hw-inextensive and hw-extensive posets that can be used to formulate the faithful extension problem. A theorem in its general form of hw-inextensive posets are given to implement the presented theorems.

Keywords: faithful extension, poset, extension, inextension, height, width, hw-extensive, hw-inextensive

Procedia PDF Downloads 245
4587 The Effect of Multi-Stakeholder Extension Services towards Crop Choice and Farmer's Income, the Case of the Arc High Value Crop Programme

Authors: Joseph Sello Kau, Elias Mashayamombe, Brian Washington Madinkana, Cynthia Ngwane

Abstract:

This paper presents the results for the statistical (stepwise linear regression and multiple regression) analyses, carried out on a number of crops in order to evaluate how the decision for crop choice affect the level of farm income generated by the farmers participating in the High Value Crop production (referred to as the HVC). The goal of the HVC is to encourage farmers cultivate fruit crops. The farmers received planting material from different extension agencies, together with other complementary packages such as fertilizer, garden tools, water tanks etc. During the surveys, it was discovered that a significant number of farmers were cultivating traditional crops even when their plot sizes were small. Traditional crops are competing for resources with high value crops. The results of the analyses show that farmers cultivating fruit crops, maize and potatoes were generating high income than those cultivating spinach and cabbage. High farm income is associated with plot size, access to social grants and gender. Choice for a crop is influenced by the availability of planting material and the market potential for the crop. Extension agencies providing the planting materials stand a good chance of having farmers follow their directives. As a recommendation, for the farmers to cultivate more of the HVCs, the ARC must intensify provision of fruit trees.

Keywords: farm income, nature of extension services, type of crops cultivated, fruit crops, cabbage, maize, potato and spinach

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4586 Event Monitoring Based On Web Services for Heterogeneous Event Sources

Authors: Arne Koschel

Abstract:

This article discusses event monitoring options for heterogeneous event sources as they are given in nowadays heterogeneous distributed information systems. It follows the central assumption, that a fully generic event monitoring solution cannot provide complete support for event monitoring; instead, event source specific semantics such as certain event types or support for certain event monitoring techniques have to be taken into account. Following from this, the core result of the work presented here is the extension of a configurable event monitoring (Web) service for a variety of event sources. A service approach allows us to trade genericity for the exploitation of source specific characteristics. It thus delivers results for the areas of SOA, Web services, CEP and EDA.

Keywords: event monitoring, ECA, CEP, SOA, web services

Procedia PDF Downloads 721
4585 Factors Affecting Households' Decision to Allocate Credit for Livestock Production: Evidence from Ethiopia

Authors: Kaleb Shiferaw, Berhanu Geberemedhin, Dereje Legesse

Abstract:

Access to credit is often viewed as a key to transform semi-subsistence smallholders into market oriented producers. However, only a few studies have examined factors that affect farmers’ decision to allocate credit on farm activities in general and livestock production in particular. A trivariate probit model with double selection is employed to identify factors that affect farmers’ decision to allocate credit on livestock production using data collected from smallholder farmers in Ethiopia. After controlling for two sample selection bias – taking credit for the production season and decision to allocate credit on farm activities – land ownership and access to a livestock centered extension service are found to have a significant (p<0.001) effect on farmers decision to use credit for livestock production. The result showed farmers with large land holding, and access to a livestock centered extension services are more likely to utilize credit for livestock production. However since the effect of land ownership squared is negative the effect of land ownership for those who own a large plot of land lessens. The study highlights the fact that improving access to credit does not automatically translate into more productive households. Improving farmers’ access to credit should be followed by a focused extension services.

Keywords: livestock production, credit access, credit allocation, household decision, double sample selection

Procedia PDF Downloads 310
4584 Impact of Social Networks on Agricultural Technology Adoption: A Case Study of Ongoing Extension Programs for Paddy Cultivation in Matara District in Sri Lanka

Authors: Paulu Saramge Shalika Nirupani Seram

Abstract:

The study delves into the complex dynamics of social networks and how they affect paddy farmers’ adoption of agricultural technologies, which are included in Yaya Development program, Weedy rice program and Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) program in Matara district. Identify the social networks among the farmers of ongoing Extension Programs in Matara district, examine the farmers’ adoption level to the ongoing extension programs in Matara district, analyze the impacts of social networks for the adoption to the technologies of ongoing extension programs and give suggestions and recommendations to improve the social network of paddy farmers in Matara District for ongoing extension programs are the objectives of this research. A structured questionnaire survey was conducted with 25 farmers from Matara-North (Wilpita), 25 farmers from Matara-Central (Kamburupitiya), and 25 farmers from Matara-South (Malimbada). UCINET (Version -6.771) software was used for social network analysis, and other than that, descriptive statistics and inferential statistics were used to analyze the findings. Matara-North has the highest social network density, and Matara-South has the lowest social network density according to the social network analysis. Dissemination of intensive technologies requires the most prominent actors of the social network, and in Matara district, agricultural instructors have the highest ability to disseminate technologies. The influence of actors in the social network, the trustworthiness of AI officers, and the trust of indigenous knowledge about paddy cultivation have a significant effect on the technology adoption of farmers. The research endeavors to contribute a nuanced understanding of the social networks and agricultural technology adoption in Matara District, offering practical insights for stakeholders involved in agricultural extension services.

Keywords: agricultural extension, paddy cultivation, social network, technology adoption

Procedia PDF Downloads 45
4583 Bridgeless Boost Power Factor Correction Rectifier with Hold-Up Time Extension Circuit

Authors: Chih-Chiang Hua, Yi-Hsiung Fang, Yuan-Jhen Siao

Abstract:

A bridgeless boost (BLB) power factor correction (PFC) rectifier with hold-up time extension circuit is proposed in this paper. A full bridge rectifier is widely used in the front end of the ac/dc converter. Since the shortcomings of the full bridge rectifier, the bridgeless rectifier is developed. A BLB rectifier topology is utilized with the hold-up time extension circuit. Unlike the traditional hold-up time extension circuit, the proposed extension scheme uses fewer active switches to achieve a longer hold-up time. Simulation results are presented to verify the converter performance.

Keywords: bridgeless boost (BLB), boost converter, power factor correction (PFC), hold-up time

Procedia PDF Downloads 396
4582 Some Issues with Extension of an HPC Cluster

Authors: Pil Seong Park

Abstract:

Homemade HPC clusters are widely used in many small labs, because they are easy to build and cost-effective. Even though incremental growth is an advantage of clusters, it results in heterogeneous systems anyhow. Instead of adding new nodes to the cluster, we can extend clusters to include some other Internet servers working independently on the same LAN, so that we can make use of their idle times, especially during the night. However extension across a firewall raises some security problems with NFS. In this paper, we propose a method to solve such a problem using SSH tunneling, and suggest a modified structure of the cluster that implements it.

Keywords: extension of HPC clusters, security, NFS, SSH tunneling

Procedia PDF Downloads 407
4581 Enhancing Sustainable Stingless Beekeeping Production through Technology Transfer and Human Resource Development in Relationship with Extension Agents Work Performance among Malaysian Beekeepers

Authors: Ibrahim Aliyu Isah, Mohd Mansor Ismail, Salim Hassan, Norsida Man, Oluwatoyin Olagunju

Abstract:

Stingless beekeeping is not only a profitable activity for Malaysian beekeepers but also for the Malaysian economy. However, natural honey has faced some difficulties, which resulted in low production due to a lack of information on improved technology as well as the capacity and potential building of stingless beekeeping farmers, which depend mostly on information received from the extension agents. Hence, it is the responsibility of the extension agents to give useful information on the available technology and develop the capacity of the farmers to make the right decision that will improve their level of production. This study assessed how technology transfer and human resource development skills influence the work performance of the extension agents toward sustainable beekeeping production among beekeepers. The study sought to establish the role of relevant technology transfer and human resource development skills in effective performance. The research design was a descriptive and quantitative survey of stingless beekeepers on technology transfer and human resource development by the extension agent. Data was obtained from 54 beekeeping farmers and was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The results revealed that technology skill, technology dissemination skill, technology evaluation skill, Decision-making process skill, Leadership development skill and work performance were rated moderate by stingless beekeeping farmers, while Social skill was rated high. A significant and positive correlation (P<0.01) existed between all variables and performance. Regression results showed that leadership development skills, Decision-making process skills, and social skills are significant (P=.05), while technology skills, technology dissemination skills, and technology evaluation skills are not significant. The highest contributing factor is social skill (β=.446). Beekeeping is a profitable project in Malaysia and can be sustained if the extension services and programs are well carried out by competent extension agents and relevant agricultural government agencies.

Keywords: beekeeping, extension agents, human resource development, sustainable, technology transfer, work performance

Procedia PDF Downloads 45
4580 Extension of Positive Linear Operator

Authors: Manal Azzidani

Abstract:

This research consideres the extension of special functions called Positive Linear Operators. the bounded linear operator which defined from normed space to Banach space will extend to the closure of the its domain, And extend identified linear functional on a vector subspace by Hana-Banach theorem which could be generalized to the positive linear operators.

Keywords: extension, positive operator, Riesz space, sublinear function

Procedia PDF Downloads 507
4579 Brand Extension and Customer WOM: Evidence from the Sports Industry

Authors: Jim Shih-Chiao Chin, Yu Ting Yeh, Shui Lien Chen, Yi-Fen Tsai

Abstract:

his study is taking Adidas Company as the object, explored the brand awareness directly or indirectly affects brand affect and word of mouth. First, explored the brand awareness on category fit and image fit, and examined the influence of category fit and image fit on extension attitude. This study then designates the effect of extension attitude on brand affect and word-of-mouth. The relationship of brand awareness on brand affect and word-of-mouth was also explored. The study participants are people who have purchased Adidas extension products. A total of 700 valid questionnaires were collected and statistical software AMOS 20.0 was used to examine the research hypotheses by using structural equation modeling (SEM). Finally, theoretical implications and research directions are provided for future studies.

Keywords: brand extension, brand awareness, product category fit, brand image fit, brand affect, word-of-mouth (WOM)

Procedia PDF Downloads 313
4578 Experiences of Extension Officers on the Provision of Agricultural Facilities to Rural Farmers towards Improving Agricultural Practice in South Africa

Authors: Mfaniseni Wiseman Mbatha

Abstract:

The extension officers are regarded as the key role players in the provision of agricultural facilities to farmers across the world. The government of South Africa has shown a commitment to provide extensive support to farmers by the means of disseminating information and other agricultural facilities. This qualitative study on the experiences of extension officers on the provision of agricultural facilities to rural farmers towards improving agricultural practice was conducted in Msinga Local Municipality. The data was collected through the use of semi-structured interviews with extension officers who were sampled using the purposive sampling method. The qualitative data was analysed through the use of content analysis. The critical part of the findings reveals that the availability of arable land for agricultural practice, availability of agricultural schemes and availability of proper functioning community gardens were indicators of the high level of agricultural practice in the Msinga area. Therefore, the extension officers from the municipality department have shown to provide the agricultural budget to support rural farmers. Whereas, the department of agriculture provides well knowledgeable staff to train farmers about the process of farming and how they can address issues of livestock and crop diseases and also adapting to issues of climate change. The rural farmers, however, find it very difficult to learn and put into practice things that were thought by extension officers during training. There is, therefore, a need for recruitment of more extension staff and the involvement of Non-Government Organizations to increase access to extension facilities to the farmers.

Keywords: agricultural facilities, agricultural practice, extension officers, rural farmers

Procedia PDF Downloads 124
4577 Factors Contributing to Farmers’ Attitude Towards Climate Adaptation Farming Practices: A Farm Level Study in Bangladesh

Authors: Md Rezaul Karim, Farha Taznin

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to assess and describe the individual and household characteristics of farmers, to measure the attitude of farmers towards climate adaptation farming practices and to explore the individual and household factors contributing in predicting their attitude towards climate adaptation farming practices. Data were collected through personal interviews using a pre-tested interview schedule. The data collection was done at Biral Upazila under Dinajpur district in Bangladesh from 1st November to 15 December 2018. Besides descriptive statistical parameters, Pearson’s Product Moment Correlation Coefficient (r), multiple regression and step-wise multiple regression analysis were used for the statistical analysis. Findings indicated that the highest proportion (77.6 percent) of the farmers had moderately favorable attitudes, followed by only 11.2 percent with highly favorable attitudes and 11.2 percent with slightly favorable attitudes towards climate adaptation farming practices. According to the computed correlation coefficients (r), among the 10 selected factors, five of them, such as education of household head, farm size, annual household income, organizational participation, and information access by extension services, had a significant relationship with the attitude of farmers towards climate-smart practices. The step-wise multiple regression results showed that two characteristics as education of household head and information access by extension services, contributed 26.2% and 5.1%, respectively, in predicting farmers' attitudes towards climate adaptation farming practices. In addition, more than two-thirds of farmers cited their opinion to the problems in response to ‘price of vermi species is high and it is not easily available’ as 1st ranked problem, followed by ‘lack of information for innovative climate-smart technologies’. This study suggests that policy implications are necessary to promote extension education and information services and overcome the obstacles to climate adaptation farming practices. It further recommends that research study should be conducted in diverse contexts of nationally or globally.

Keywords: factors, attitude, climate adaptation, farming practices, Bangladesh

Procedia PDF Downloads 69
4576 Agricultural Extension Workers’ Education in Indonesia - Roles of Distance Education

Authors: Adhi Susilo

Abstract:

This paper addresses the roles of distance education in the agricultural extension workers’ education. Agriculture plays an important role in both poverty reduction and economic growth. The technology of agriculture in the developing world should change continuously to keep pace with rising populations and rapidly changing social, economic, and environmental conditions. Therefore, agricultural extension workers should have several competencies in order to carry out their duties properly. One of the essential competencies that they must possess is the professional competency that is directly related to their duties in carrying out extension activities. Such competency can be acquired through studying at Universitas Terbuka (UT). With its distance learning system, agricultural extension workers can study at UT without leaving their duties. This paper presenting sociological analysis and lessons learnt from the specific context of Indonesia. Diversities in geographic, demographic, social cultural and economic conditions of the country provide specific challenges for its distance education practice and the process of social transformation to which distance education can contribute. Extension officers used distance education for personal benefits and increased professional productivity. An increase in awareness is important for the further adoption of distance learning for extension purposes. Organizations in both the public and private sector must work to increase knowledge of ICTs for the benefit of stakeholders. The use of ICTs can increase productivity for extensions officers and expand educational opportunities for learners. The use of distance education by extension to disseminate educational materials around the world is widespread. Increasing awareness and use of distance learning can lead to more productive relationships between extension officers and agricultural stakeholders.

Keywords: agricultural extension, demographic and geographic condition, distance education, ICTs

Procedia PDF Downloads 501
4575 A Multi-Tenant Problem Oriented Medical Record System for Representing Patient Care Cases using SOAP (Subjective-Objective-Assessment-Plan) Note

Authors: Sabah Mohammed, Jinan Fiaidhi, Darien Sawyer

Abstract:

Describing clinical cases according to a clinical charting standard that enforces interoperability and enables connected care services can save lives in the event of a medical emergency or provide efficient and effective interventions for the benefit of the patients through the integration of bedside and bench side clinical research. This article presented a multi-tenant extension to the problem-oriented medical record that we have prototyped previously upon using the GraphQL Application Programming Interface to represent the notion of a problem list. Our implemented extension enables physicians and patients to collaboratively describe the patient case via using multi chatbots to collaboratively describe the patient case using the SOAP charting standard. Our extension also connects the described SOAP patient case with the HL7 FHIR (Health Interoperability Resources) medical record for connecting the patient case to the bench data.

Keywords: problem-oriented medical record, graphQL, chatbots, SOAP

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4574 Determinants of Rural Household Effective Demand for Biogas Technology in Southern Ethiopia

Authors: Mesfin Nigussie

Abstract:

The objectives of the study were to identify factors affecting rural households’ willingness to install biogas plant and amount willingness to pay in order to examine determinants of effective demand for biogas technology. A multistage sampling technique was employed to select 120 respondents for the study. The binary probit regression model was employed to identify factors affecting rural households’ decision to install biogas technology. The probit model result revealed that household size, total household income, access to extension services related to biogas, access to credit service, proximity to water sources, perception of households about the quality of biogas, perception index about attributes of biogas, perception of households about installation cost of biogas and availability of energy source were statistically significant in determining household’s decision to install biogas. Tobit model was employed to examine determinants of rural household’s amount of willingness to pay. Based on the model result, age of the household head, total annual income of the household, access to extension service and availability of other energy source were significant variables that influence willingness to pay. Providing due considerations for extension services, availability of credit or subsidy, improving the quality of biogas technology design and minimizing cost of installation by using locally available materials are the main suggestions of this research that help to create effective demand for biogas technology.

Keywords: biogas technology, effective demand, probit model, tobit model, willingnes to pay

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4573 Climate Adaptations to Traditional Milpa Farming Practices in Mayan Communities of Southern Belize: A Socio-Ecological Systems Approach

Authors: Kristin Drexler

Abstract:

Climate change has exacerbated food and livelihood insecurity for Mayan milpa farmers in Central America. For centuries, milpa farming has been sustainable for subsistence; however, in the last 50 years, milpas have become less reliable due to accelerating climate change, resource degradation, declining markets, poverty, and other factors. Using interviews with extension leaders and milpa farmers in Belize, this qualitative study examines the capacity for increasing climate-smart agriculture (CSA) aspects of existing traditional milpa practices, specifically no-burn mulching, soil enrichment, and the use of cover plants. Applying community capitals and socio-ecological systems frameworks, this study finds four key capitals were perceived by farmers and agriculture extension leaders as barriers for increasing CSA practices: (1) human-capacity, (2) financial, (3) infrastructure, and (4) governance-justice capitals. The key barriers include a lack of CSA technology and pest management knowledge-sharing (human-capacity), unreliable roads and utility services (infrastructure), the closure of small markets and crop-buying programs in Belize (financial), and constraints on extension services and exacerbating a sense of marginalization in Maya communities (governance-justice). Recommendations are presented for government action to reduce barriers and facilitate an increase in milpa crop productivity, promote food and livelihood security, and enable climate resilience of Mayan milpa communities in Belize.

Keywords: socio-ecological systems, community capitals, climate-smart agriculture, food security, milpa, Belize

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4572 Cryptography Over Sextic Extension with Cubic Subfield

Authors: A. Chillali, M. Sahmoudi

Abstract:

In this paper we will give a method for encoding the elements of the ring of integers of sextic extension, namely L = Q(a,b) which is a rational quadratic over cubic field K =Q(a ) where a^{2} is a rational square free integer and b is a root of irreducible polynomiale of degree 3.

Keywords: coding, integral bases, sextic, quadratic

Procedia PDF Downloads 278
4571 Comparison of Isokinetic Powers (Flexion and Knee Extension) of Basketball and Football Players (Age 17–20)

Authors: Ugur Senturk, Ibrahım Erdemır, Faruk Guven, Cuma Ece

Abstract:

The objective of this study is to compare flexion and extension movements in knee-joint group by measuring isokinetic knee power of amateur basketball and football players. For this purpose, total 21 players were included, which consist of football players (n=12) and basketball players (n=9), within the age range of 17–20. After receiving the age, length, body weight, vertical jump, and BMI measurements of all subjects, the measurement of lower extremity knee-joint movement (Flexion-Extension) was made with isokinetic dynamometer (isomed 2000) at 60 o/sec. and 240 o/sec. angular velocity. After arrangement and grouping of collected information forms and knee flexion and extension parameters, all data were analyzed with SPSS for Windows. Descriptive analyses of the parameters were made. Non-parametric t test and Mann-Whitney U test were used to compare the parameters of football players and basketball players and to find the inter-group differences. The comparisons and relations in the range p<0.05 and p<0.01 between the groups were surveyed. As a conclusion, no statistical differences were found between isokinetic knee flexion and extension parameters of football and basketball players. However, it was found that the football players were older than the basketball players. In addition to this, the average values of the basketball players in the highest torque and the highest torque average curve were found higher than football players in comparisons of left knee extension. However, it was found that fat levels of the basketball players were found to be higher than the football players.

Keywords: isokinetic contraction, isokinetic dynamometer, peak torque, flexion, extension, football, basketball

Procedia PDF Downloads 516