Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 64

Search results for: Hameed Rukayat Opeyemi

64 Multi-Objective Optimization in Carbon Abatement Technology Cycles (CAT) and Related Areas: Survey, Developments and Prospects

Authors: Hameed Rukayat Opeyemi, Pericles Pilidis, Pagone Emanuele

Abstract:

An infinitesimal increase in performance can have immense reduction in operating and capital expenses in a power generation system. Therefore, constant studies are being carried out to improve both conventional and novel power cycles. Globally, power producers are constantly researching on ways to minimize emission and to collectively downsize the total cost rate of power plants. A substantial spurt of developmental technologies of low carbon cycles have been suggested and studied, however they all have their limitations and financial implication. In the area of carbon abatement in power plants, three major objectives conflict: The cost rate of the plant, Power output and Environmental impact. Since, an increase in one of this parameter directly affects the other. This poses a multi-objective problem. It is paramount to be able to discern the point where improving one objective affects the other. Hence, the need for a Pareto-based optimization algorithm. Pareto-based optimization algorithm helps to find those points where improving one objective influences another objective negatively and stops there. The application of Pareto-based optimization algorithm helps the user/operator/designer make an informed decision. This paper sheds more light on areas that multi-objective optimization has been applied in carbon abatement technologies in the last five years, developments and prospects.

Keywords: gas turbine, low carbon technology, pareto optimal, multi-objective optimization

Procedia PDF Downloads 682
63 Economic Analysis of a Carbon Abatement Technology

Authors: Hameed Rukayat Opeyemi, Pericles Pilidis Pagone Emmanuele, Agbadede Roupa, Allison Isaiah

Abstract:

Climate change represents one of the single most challenging problems facing the world today. According to the National Oceanic and Administrative Association, Atmospheric temperature rose almost 25% since 1958, Artic sea ice has shrunk 40% since 1959 and global sea levels have risen more than 5.5cm since 1990. Power plants are the major culprits of GHG emission to the atmosphere. Several technologies have been proposed to reduce the amount of GHG emitted to the atmosphere from power plant, one of which is the less researched Advanced zero-emission power plant. The advanced zero emission power plants make use of mixed conductive membrane (MCM) reactor also known as oxygen transfer membrane (OTM) for oxygen transfer. The MCM employs membrane separation process. The membrane separation process was first introduced in 1899 when Walter Hermann Nernst investigated electric current between metals and solutions. He found that when a dense ceramic is heated, the current of oxygen molecules move through it. In the bid to curb the amount of GHG emitted to the atmosphere, the membrane separation process was applied to the field of power engineering in the low carbon cycle known as the Advanced zero emission power plant (AZEP cycle). The AZEP cycle was originally invented by Norsk Hydro, Norway and ABB Alstom power (now known as Demag Delaval Industrial turbomachinery AB), Sweden. The AZEP drew a lot of attention because its ability to capture ~100% CO2 and also boasts of about 30-50% cost reduction compared to other carbon abatement technologies, the penalty in efficiency is also not as much as its counterparts and crowns it with almost zero NOx emissions due to very low nitrogen concentrations in the working fluid. The advanced zero emission power plants differ from a conventional gas turbine in the sense that its combustor is substituted with the mixed conductive membrane (MCM-reactor). The MCM-reactor is made up of the combustor, low-temperature heat exchanger LTHX (referred to by some authors as air preheater the mixed conductive membrane responsible for oxygen transfer and the high-temperature heat exchanger and in some layouts, the bleed gas heat exchanger. Air is taken in by the compressor and compressed to a temperature of about 723 Kelvin and pressure of 2 Mega-Pascals. The membrane area needed for oxygen transfer is reduced by increasing the temperature of 90% of the air using the LTHX; the temperature is also increased to facilitate oxygen transfer through the membrane. The air stream enters the LTHX through the transition duct leading to inlet of the LTHX. The temperature of the air stream is then increased to about 1150 K depending on the design point specification of the plant and the efficiency of the heat exchanging system. The amount of oxygen transported through the membrane is directly proportional to the temperature of air going through the membrane. The AZEP cycle was developed using the Fortran software and economic analysis was conducted using excel and Matlab followed by optimization case study. The Simple bleed gas heat exchange layout (100 % CO2 capture), Bleed gas heat exchanger layout with flue gas turbine (100 % CO2 capture), Pre-expansion reheating layout (Sequential burning layout)–AZEP 85% (85% CO2 capture) and Pre-expansion reheating layout (Sequential burning layout) with flue gas turbine–AZEP 85% (85% CO2 capture). This paper discusses monte carlo risk analysis of four possible layouts of the AZEP cycle.

Keywords: gas turbine, global warming, green house gas, fossil fuel power plants

Procedia PDF Downloads 294
62 Monte Carlo Risk Analysis of a Carbon Abatement Technology

Authors: Hameed Rukayat Opeyemi, Pericles Pilidis, Pagone Emanuele

Abstract:

Climate change represents one of the single most challenging problems facing the world today. According to the National Oceanic and Administrative Association, Atmospheric temperature rose almost 25% since 1958, Artic sea ice has shrunk 40% since 1959 and global sea levels have risen more than 5.5 cm since 1990. Power plants are the major culprits of GHG emission to the atmosphere. Several technologies have been proposed to reduce the amount of GHG emitted to the atmosphere from power plant, one of which is the less researched Advanced zero emission power plant. The advanced zero emission power plants make use of mixed conductive membrane (MCM) reactor also known as oxygen transfer membrane (OTM) for oxygen transfer. The MCM employs membrane separation process. The membrane separation process was first introduced in 1899 when Walter Hermann Nernst investigated electric current between metals and solutions. He found that when a dense ceramic is heated, current of oxygen molecules move through it. In the bid to curb the amount of GHG emitted to the atmosphere, the membrane separation process was applied to the field of power engineering in the low carbon cycle known as the Advanced zero emission power plant (AZEP cycle). The AZEP cycle was originally invented by Norsk Hydro, Norway and ABB Alstom power (now known as Demag Delaval Industrial turbo machinery AB), Sweden. The AZEP drew a lot of attention because its ability to capture ~100% CO2 and also boasts of about 30-50 % cost reduction compared to other carbon abatement technologies, the penalty in efficiency is also not as much as its counterparts and crowns it with almost zero NOx emissions due to very low nitrogen concentrations in the working fluid. The advanced zero emission power plants differ from a conventional gas turbine in the sense that its combustor is substituted with the mixed conductive membrane (MCM-reactor). The MCM-reactor is made up of the combustor, low temperature heat exchanger LTHX (referred to by some authors as air pre-heater the mixed conductive membrane responsible for oxygen transfer and the high temperature heat exchanger and in some layouts, the bleed gas heat exchanger. Air is taken in by the compressor and compressed to a temperature of about 723 Kelvin and pressure of 2 Mega-Pascals. The membrane area needed for oxygen transfer is reduced by increasing the temperature of 90% of the air using the LTHX; the temperature is also increased to facilitate oxygen transfer through the membrane. The air stream enters the LTHX through the transition duct leading to inlet of the LTHX. The temperature of the air stream is then increased to about 1150 K depending on the design point specification of the plant and the efficiency of the heat exchanging system. The amount of oxygen transported through the membrane is directly proportional to the temperature of air going through the membrane. The AZEP cycle was developed using the Fortran software and economic analysis was conducted using excel and Matlab followed by optimization case study. This paper discusses techno-economic analysis of four possible layouts of the AZEP cycle. The Simple bleed gas heat exchange layout (100 % CO2 capture), Bleed gas heat exchanger layout with flue gas turbine (100 % CO2 capture), Pre-expansion reheating layout (Sequential burning layout) – AZEP 85 % (85 % CO2 capture) and Pre-expansion reheating layout (Sequential burning layout) with flue gas turbine– AZEP 85 % (85 % CO2 capture). This paper discusses Montecarlo risk analysis of four possible layouts of the AZEP cycle.

Keywords: gas turbine, global warming, green house gases, power plants

Procedia PDF Downloads 369
61 Experimental Investigation and Constitutive Modeling of Volume Strain under Uniaxial Strain Rate Jump Test in HDPE

Authors: Rida B. Arieby, Hameed N. Hameed

Abstract:

In this work, tensile tests on high density polyethylene have been carried out under various constant strain rate and strain rate jump tests. The dependency of the true stress and specially the variation of volume strain have been investigated, the volume strain due to the phenomena of damage was determined in real time during the tests by an optical extensometer called Videotraction. A modified constitutive equations, including strain rate and damage effects, are proposed, such a model is based on a non-equilibrium thermodynamic approach called (DNLR). The ability of the model to predict the complex nonlinear response of this polymer is examined by comparing the model simulation with the available experimental data, which demonstrate that this model can represent the deformation behavior of the polymer reasonably well.

Keywords: strain rate jump tests, volume strain, high density polyethylene, large strain, thermodynamics approach

Procedia PDF Downloads 143
60 Effective Teaching of Thermofluid Pratical Courses during COVID-19

Authors: Opeyemi Fadipe, Masud Salimian

Abstract:

The COVID-19 pandemic has introduced a new normal into the world; online teaching is now the most used method of teaching over the face to face meeting. With the emergency of these teaching, online-teaching has been improved over time and with more technological advancement tools introduced. Practical courses are more demanding to teach because it requires the physical presence of the student as well as a demonstration of the equipment. In this study, a case of Lagos State University thermofluid practical was the understudy. A survey was done and give to a sample of students to fill. The result showed that the blend-approach is better for practical course teaching. Software simulation of the equipment used to conduct practical should be encouraged in the future.

Keywords: COVID-19, online teaching, t-distribution, thermofluid

Procedia PDF Downloads 49
59 Synthesis and Characterization of Molecularly Imprinted Polymer as a New Adsorbent for the Removal of Pyridine from Organic Medium

Authors: Opeyemi Elujulo, Aderonke Okoya, Kehinde Awokoya

Abstract:

Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIP) for the adsorption of pyridine (PYD) was obtained from PYD (the template), styrene (the functional monomer), divinyl benzene (the crosslinker), benzoyl peroxide (the initiator), and water (the porogen). When the template was removed by solvent extraction, imprinted binding sites were left in the polymer material that are capable of selectively rebinding the target molecule. The material was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. Batch adsorption experiments were performed to study the adsorption of the material in terms of adsorption kinetics, isotherms, and thermodynamic parameters. The results showed that the imprinted polymer exhibited higher affinity for PYD compared to non-imprinted polymer (NIP).

Keywords: molecularly imprinted polymer, bulk polymerization, environmental pollutant, adsorption

Procedia PDF Downloads 41
58 Detection of Epinephrine in Chicken Serum at Iron Oxide Screen Print Modified Electrode

Authors: Oluwole Opeyemi Dina, Saheed E. Elugoke, Peter Olutope Fayemi, Omolola E. Fayemi

Abstract:

This study presents the detection of epinephrine (EP) at Fe₃O₄ modified screen printed silver electrode (SPSE). The iron oxide (Fe₃O₄) nanoparticles were characterized with UV-visible spectroscopy, Fourier-Transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) prior to the modification of the SPSE. The EP oxidation peak current (Iap) increased with an increase in the concentration of EP as well as the scan rate (from 25 - 400 mVs⁻¹). Using cyclic voltammetry (CV), the relationship between Iap and EP concentration was linear over a range of 3.8 -118.9 µM and 118.9-175 µM with a detection limit of 41.99 µM and 83.16 µM, respectively. Selective detection of EP in the presence of ascorbic acid was also achieved at this electrode.

Keywords: screenprint electrode, iron oxide nanoparticle, epinephrine, serum, cyclic voltametry

Procedia PDF Downloads 26
57 Simulation and Characterization of Organic Light Emitting Diodes and Organic Photovoltaics Using Physics Based Tool

Authors: T. A. Shahul Hameed, P. Predeep, Anju Iqbal, M. R. Baiju

Abstract:

Research and development in organic photovoltaic cells and Organic Light Emitting Diodes have gained wider acceptance due to the advent of many advanced techniques to enhance the efficiency and operational hours. Here we report our work on design, simulation and characterizationracterize the bulk heterojunction organic photo cell and polymer light emitting diodes in different layer configurations using ATLAS, a licensed device simulation tool. Bulk heterojuction and multilayer devices were simulated for comparing their performance parameters.

Keywords: HOMO, LUMO, PLED, OPV

Procedia PDF Downloads 455
56 Co-Integration Model for Predicting Inflation Movement in Nigeria

Authors: Salako Rotimi, Oshungade Stephen, Ojewoye Opeyemi

Abstract:

The maintenance of price stability is one of the macroeconomic challenges facing Nigeria as a nation. This paper attempts to build a co-integration multivariate time series model for inflation movement in Nigeria using data extracted from the abstract of statistics of the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) from 2008 to 2017. The Johansen cointegration test suggests at least one co-integration vector describing the long run relationship between Consumer Price Index (CPI), Food Price Index (FPI) and Non-Food Price Index (NFPI). All three series show increasing pattern, which indicates a sign of non-stationary in each of the series. Furthermore, model predictability was established with root-mean-square-error, mean absolute error, mean average percentage error, and Theil’s unbiased statistics for n-step forecasting. The result depicts that the long run coefficient of a consumer price index (CPI) has a positive long-run relationship with the food price index (FPI) and non-food price index (NFPI).

Keywords: economic, inflation, model, series

Procedia PDF Downloads 105
55 FreGsd: A Framework for Golbal Software Requirement Engineering

Authors: Alsahli Abdulaziz Abdullah, Hameed Ullah Khan

Abstract:

Software development nowadays is more and more using global ways of development instead of normal development enviroment where development occur in one location. This paper is a aimed to propose a Requirement Engineering framework to support Global Software Development environment with regards to all requirment engineering activities from elicitation to fially magning requirment change. Global software enviroment is more and more gaining better reputation in software developmet with better quality is resulting from developing in this eviroment yet with lower cost.However, failure rate developing in this enviroment is high due to inapproprate requirment development and managment.This paper will add to the software engineering development envrioments discipline and many developers in GSD will benefit from it.

Keywords: global software development environment, GSD, requirement engineering, FreGsd, computer engineering

Procedia PDF Downloads 408
54 Instructional Material Development in ODL: Achievements, Prospects, and Challenges

Authors: Felix Gbenoba, Opeyemi Dahunsi

Abstract:

Customised, self-instructional materials are at the heart of instructional delivery in Open and Distance Learning (ODL). The success of any ODL institution depends on the availability of learning materials in quality and quantity. An ODL study material is expected to imitate what the teacher does in the face-to-face learning environment. This paper evaluates these expectation based on existing data and evidence. It concludes that the reality has not matched the expectation so far in terms of pedagogic aspect of instructional delivery especially in West Africa. This does not mean that instructional materials development has not produced any significant positive results in improving the overall learning (and teaching) experience in these institutions; it implies what will help further to identify the new challenges. Obstacles and problems of instructional materials development that could have affected the open educational resource initiatives are well established. The first section of this paper recalls some of the proposed values of instructional materials. The second section compares achievements so far and suggests that instructional materials development should be consider first at an early stage to realise the aspirations of instructional delivery. The third section highlights the challenges of instructional materials development in the future.

Keywords: face-to-face learning, instructional delivery, open and distance education, self-instructional materials

Procedia PDF Downloads 267
53 Autonomic Recovery Plan with Server Virtualization

Authors: S. Hameed, S. Anwer, M. Saad, M. Saady

Abstract:

For autonomic recovery with server virtualization, a cogent plan that includes recovery techniques and backups with virtualized servers can be developed instead of assigning an idle server to backup operations. In addition to hardware cost reduction and data center trail, the disaster recovery plan can ensure system uptime and to meet objectives of high availability, recovery time, recovery point, server provisioning, and quality of services. This autonomic solution would also support disaster management, testing, and development of the recovery site. In this research, a workflow plan is proposed for supporting disaster recovery with virtualization providing virtual monitoring, requirements engineering, solution decision making, quality testing, and disaster management. This recovery model would make disaster recovery a lot easier, faster, and less error prone.

Keywords: autonomous intelligence, disaster recovery, cloud computing, server virtualization

Procedia PDF Downloads 36
52 Vaporization of a Single N-Pentane Liquid Drop in a Flowing Immiscible Liquid Media

Authors: Hameed B. Mahood, Ali Sh. Baqir

Abstract:

Vaporization of a single n-pentane drop in a direct contact with another flowing immiscible liquid (warm water) has been experimentally investigated. The experiments were carried out utilising a cylindrical Perspex tube of diameter 10 cm and height and 150 cm. Saturated liquid n-pentane and warm water at 45oC were used as the dispersed and continuous phases, respectively. Photron FASTCAM SA 1.1high speed camera (75,000f/s) with software V. 321 was implemented during the experiments. Five different continuous phase flow rates (warm water) (10, 20, 30, 40, and 46 L⁄h) were used in the study. The results indicated that the increase of the continuous phase (warm water) flow rate results in increasing of the drop/bubble diameter.

Keywords: drop evaporation, direct contact heat transfer, drop/bubble growth, experimental technique

Procedia PDF Downloads 185
51 Land Suitability Analysis for Maize Production in Egbeda Local Government Area of Oyo State Using GIS Techniques

Authors: Abegunde Linda, Adedeji Oluwatayo, Tope-Ajayi Opeyemi

Abstract:

Maize constitutes a major agrarian production for use by the vast population but despite its economic importance, it has not been produced to meet the economic needs of the country. Achieving optimum yield in maize can meaningfully be supported by land suitability analysis in order to guarantee self-sufficiency for future production optimization. This study examines land suitability for maize production through the analysis of the physic-chemical variations in soil properties over space using a Geographic Information System (GIS) framework. Physic-chemical parameters of importance selected include slope, landuse, and physical and chemical properties of the soil. Landsat imagery was used to categorize the landuse, Shuttle Radar Topographic Mapping (SRTM) generated the slope and soil samples were analyzed for its physical and chemical components. Suitability was categorized into highly, moderately and marginally suitable based on Food and Agricultural Organisation (FAO) classification using the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) technique of GIS. This result can be used by small scale farmers for efficient decision making in the allocation of land for maize production.

Keywords: AHP, GIS, MCE, suitability, Zea mays

Procedia PDF Downloads 268
50 A Review of Literature on Theories of Construction Accident Causation Models

Authors: Samuel Opeyemi Williams, Razali Bin Adul Hamid, M. S. Misnan, Taki Eddine Seghier, D. I. Ajayi

Abstract:

Construction sites are characterized with occupational risks. Review of literature on construction accidents reveals that a lot of theories have been propounded over the years by different theorists, coupled with multifarious models developed by different proponents at different times. Accidents are unplanned events that are prominent in construction sites, involving materials, objects and people with attendant damages, loses and injuries. Models were developed to investigate the causations of accident with the aim of preventing its occurrence. Though, some of these theories were criticized, most especially, the Heinrich Domino theory, being mostly faulted for placing much blame on operatives rather than the management. The purpose of this paper is to unravel the significant construction accident causation theories and models for the benefit of understanding of the theories, and consequently enabling construction stakeholders identify the possible potential hazards on construction sites, as all stakeholders have significant roles to play in preventing accident. Accidents are preventable; hence, understanding the risk factors of accident and the causation theories paves way for its prevention. However, findings reveal that still some gaps missing in the existing models, while it is recommended that further research can be made in order to develop more models in order to maintain zero accident on construction sites.

Keywords: domino theory, construction site, site safety, accident causation model

Procedia PDF Downloads 214
49 Experimental Study on Flooding Phenomena in a Three-Phase Direct Contact Heat Exchanger for the Utilisation in Solar Pond Applications

Authors: Hameed B. Mahood, Ali Sh. Baqir, Alasdair N. Campbell

Abstract:

Experiments to study the limitation of flooding inception of three-phase direct contact condenser have been carried out in a counter-current small diameter vertical condenser. The total column height was 70 cm and 4 cm diameter. Only 48 cm has been used as an active three-phase direct contact condenser height. Vapour pentane with three different initial temperatures (40, 43.5 and 47.5 °C) and water with a constant temperature (19 °C) have been used as a dispersed phase and a continuous phase respectively. Five different continuous phase mass flow rate and four different dispersed phase mass flow rate have been tested throughout the experiments. Dimensionless correlation based on the previous common flooding correlation is proposed to calculate the up flow flooding inception of the three-phase direct contact condenser.

Keywords: Three-phase heat exchanger, condenser, solar energy, flooding phenomena

Procedia PDF Downloads 240
48 Antibacterial Activity of Green Synthesis Silver Nanoparticles from Moringa Oleifera

Authors: Ali Fadhel Ahmed, Tuqa Abdulkareem Hameed

Abstract:

Moringa oleifera (leaves and seeds) ethanolic and aqueous extracts were tested for antibacterial activity. The effect of plant extracts on three types of bacterial species: Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Klebsiella pneumoniae, was investigated. Using the agar well diffusion method, ethanolic extracts of Moringa oleifera demonstrated a significant antibacterial effect on the forty tested bacterial strains. Seed-induced inhibition zones (ethanolic extracts)were ranged from16 to 24 mm in diameter against S. aureus, respectively, whileE. coli and K. pneumonia had no effect. Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria were not affected by alcoholic and aqueous plant leaf extracts. The purpose of this present study was to look at the cytotoxic effects of M.Oleifera plant (alcoholic extracts).

Keywords: moringa oleifera, escherichia coli, klebsiella pneumoniae, staphylococcus aureus

Procedia PDF Downloads 18
47 The Effect of Street Dust on Urban Environment

Authors: Turki M. Habeebullah, Abdel Hameed A. A. Awad, Said Munir, Atif M. F. Mohammed, Essam A. Morsy, Abdulaziz R. Seroji

Abstract:

Street dust has been knoweldged as an important source of air pollution. It does not remain deposited in a place for long, as it is easily resuspended back into the atmosphere. Street dust is a complex mixture derived from different sources: Deposited dust, traffic, tire, and brake wear, construction and demolition processes. The present study aims to evaluate the elementals ”iron, calcium, lead, cadmium, nickel, silicon, and selenium” and microbial “bacteria and fungi” contents associated street dust at the holy mosque areas. The street dust was collected by sweeping an arera~1m2 along the both sides of the road. The particles with diameter ≤ 1.7 µm constitued the highest percentages of the total particulate ≤45 µm. Moreover, The crustal species: iron and calcium were found in the highest concentrations, and proof that demolition and constricution were the main source of street dust. Also, the low biodiversity of microorganisms is attributed to severe weather conditions and characteristics of the arid environment.

Keywords: dust, microbial, environment, street

Procedia PDF Downloads 404
46 Polymorphic Positions, Haplotypes, and Mutations Detected In The Mitochonderial DNA Coding Region By Sanger Sequence Technique

Authors: Imad H. Hameed, Mohammad A. Jebor, Ammera J. Omer

Abstract:

The aim of this research is to study the mitochonderial coding region by using the Sanger sequencing technique and establish the degree of variation characteristic of a fragment. FTA® Technology (FTA™ paper DNA extraction) utilized to extract DNA. Portion of coding region encompassing positions 11719 –12384 amplified in accordance with the Anderson reference sequence. PCR products purified by EZ-10 spin column then sequenced and Detected by using the ABI 3730xL DNA Analyzer. Five new polymorphic positions 11741, 11756, 11878, 11887 and 12133 are described may be suitable sources for identification purpose in future. The calculated value D= 0.95 and RMP=0.048 of the genetic diversity should be understood as high in the context of coding function of the analysed DNA fragment. The relatively high gene diversity and a relatively low random match probability were observed in Iraq population. The obtained data can be used to identify the variable nucleotide positions characterized by frequent occurrence which is most promising for various identifications.

Keywords: coding region, Iraq, mitochondrial DNA, polymorphic positions, sanger technique

Procedia PDF Downloads 345
45 Seed Germination and Recovery Responses of Suaeda Heterophylla to Abiotic Stresses

Authors: Abdul Hameed, Muhammad Zaheer Ahmed, Salman Gulzar, Bilquees Gul, Jan Alam, Ahmad K. Hegazy, Abdel Rehman A. Alatar, M. Ajmal Khan

Abstract:

Seed germination and recovery from salt stress of an annual halophyte Suaeda heterophylla (Kar. and Kir.) Bunge to different iso-osmotic concentrations (0, -0.46, -0.92, -1.38, -1.84, and -2.30 MPa) of NaCl and PEG-6000 at 15/25, 20/30 and 25/35°C in both 12-h temperature and light regimes and in complete darkness were studied. Maximum number of seeds germinated in distilled water and increase in concentrations of both NaCl and PEG-6000 decreased germination at all temperature regimes, light and dark conditions, with higher inhibition in NaCl than PEG-6000. Recovery of germination and viability of seeds were lower in NaCl than PEG-6000 both in the light and dark. Moderate alternate temperatures (20/30°C) and 12-h photoperiod were found to be the optimal for seed germination and recovery. Better seed germination of S. heterophylla when osmotic potential caused both by NaCl and PEG 6000 is lower, temperature regime of 20/30°C and light regime is for 12 h.

Keywords: seed germination, abiotic stresses, Suaeda heterophylla, molecular biology

Procedia PDF Downloads 258
44 BIM-Based Tool for Sustainability Assessment and Certification Documents Provision

Authors: Taki Eddine Seghier, Mohd Hamdan Ahmad, Yaik-Wah Lim, Samuel Opeyemi Williams

Abstract:

The assessment of building sustainability to achieve a specific green benchmark and the preparation of the required documents in order to receive a green building certification, both are considered as major challenging tasks for green building design team. However, this labor and time-consuming process can take advantage of the available Building Information Modeling (BIM) features such as material take-off and scheduling. Furthermore, the workflow can be automated in order to track potentially achievable credit points and provide rating feedback for several design options by using integrated Visual Programing (VP) to handle the stored parameters within the BIM model. Hence, this study proposes a BIM-based tool that uses Green Building Index (GBI) rating system requirements as a unique input case to evaluate the building sustainability in the design stage of the building project life cycle. The tool covers two key models for data extraction, firstly, a model for data extraction, calculation and the classification of achievable credit points in a green template, secondly, a model for the generation of the required documents for green building certification. The tool was validated on a BIM model of residential building and it serves as proof of concept that building sustainability assessment of GBI certification can be automatically evaluated and documented through BIM.

Keywords: green building rating system, GBRS, building information modeling, BIM, visual programming, VP, sustainability assessment

Procedia PDF Downloads 238
43 Adsorptive Performance of Surface Modified Montmorillonite in Vanadium Removal from Real Mine Water

Authors: Opeyemi Atiba-Oyewo, Taile Y. Leswfi, Maurice S. Onyango, Christian Wolkersdorfer

Abstract:

This paper describes the preparation of surface modified montmorillonite using hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (HDTMA-Br) for the removal of vanadium from mine water. The adsorbent before and after adsorption was characterised by Fourier transform infra-red (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), while the amount of vanadium adsorbed was determined by ICP-OES. The batch adsorption method was employed using vanadium concentrations in solution ranging from 50 to 320 mg/L and vanadium tailings seepage water from a South African mine. Also, solution pH, temperature and sorbent mass were varied. Results show that the adsorption capacity was affected by solution pH, temperature, sorbent mass and the initial concentration. Electrical conductivity of the mine water before and after adsorption was measured to estimate the total dissolved solids in the mine water. Equilibrium isotherm results revealed that vanadium sorption follows the Freundlich isotherm, indicating that the surface of the sorbent was heterogeneous. The pseudo-second order kinetic model gave the best fit to the kinetic experimental data compared to the first order and Elovich models. The results of this study may be used to predict the uptake efficiency of South Africa montmorillonite in view of its application for the removal of vanadium from mine water. However, the choice of this adsorbent for the uptake of vanadium or other contaminants will depend on the composition of the effluent to be treated.

Keywords: adsorption, vanadium, modified montmorillonite, equilibrium, kinetics, mine water

Procedia PDF Downloads 190
42 Indigenous Patch Clamp Technique: Design of Highly Sensitive Amplifier Circuit for Measuring and Monitoring of Real Time Ultra Low Ionic Current through Cellular Gates

Authors: Moez ul Hassan, Bushra Noman, Sarmad Hameed, Shahab Mehmood, Asma Bashir

Abstract:

The importance of Noble prize winning “Patch Clamp Technique” is well documented. However, Patch Clamp Technique is very expensive and hence hinders research in developing countries. In this paper, detection, processing and recording of ultra low current from induced cells by using transimpedence amplifier is described. The sensitivity of the proposed amplifier is in the range of femto amperes (fA). Capacitive-feedback is used with active load to obtain a 20MΩ transimpedance gain. The challenging task in designing includes achieving adequate performance in gain, noise immunity and stability. The circuit designed by the authors was able to measure current in the rangeof 300fA to 100pA. Adequate performance shown by the amplifier with different input current and outcome result was found to be within the acceptable error range. Results were recorded using LabVIEW 8.5®for further research.

Keywords: drug discovery, ionic current, operational amplifier, patch clamp

Procedia PDF Downloads 342
41 Utilization of Safety Measures in Prevention of Site Accidents in Nigerian Construction Industry

Authors: Samuel Opeyemi Williams, Razali Adul Hamid, Mohd Saidin Misman, Dominic Ileyemi Ajayi, Taki Eddine Seghier

Abstract:

Construction industry is famous with hazardous and high-risk environment with operatives facing a greater risk of work-related fatality or injury than operatives in other industries. It is characterised with different types of accident, ranging from electrocution, trip and slip, fall from height, struck-by, explosion, trench collapse, to scaffolding accidents, with each type being caused by different factors. However, accidents are unplanned, unforeseeable and unexpected events, but regardless of the high-risk nature of the industry, accidents are preventable. The aim of the paper is to determine the extent of the utilization of the safety measures, as well as identifying the factors underlining the non-usage. A research methodology consisting of a literature review was used to identify the types and causes of site accidents, while a well-structured questionnaire was used to determine the level of the usage of safety measures on site. The data were analysed with the results revealing the use of protective clothing, safety helmet, first aid, protective shoe, safety belt, and face shield to aid safety of workers, as well as ascribing non-usage of safety measures to cost, ignorance, lack of experts and non-inclusion in contract document. Recommendations are included in the paper suggesting the enforcement of the utilization of safety measures in reducing the spate of accident occurrence on construction sites.

Keywords: construction industry, safety measures, accident, prevention

Procedia PDF Downloads 221
40 Characterization and Nanostructure Formation of Banana Peels Nanosorbent with Its Application

Authors: Opeyemi Atiba-Oyewo, Maurice S. Onyango, Christian Wolkersdorfer

Abstract:

Characterization and nanostructure formation of banana peels as sorbent material are described in this paper. The transformation of this agricultural waste via mechanical milling to enhance its properties such as changed in microstructure and surface area for water pollution control and other applications were studied. Mechanical milling was employed using planetary continuous milling machine with ethanol as a milling solvent and the samples were taken at time intervals between 10 h to 30 h to examine the structural changes. The samples were characterised by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Brunauer Emmett and teller (BET). Results revealed three typical structures with different deformation mechanisms and the grain-sizes within the range of (71-12 nm), nanostructure of the particles and fibres. The particle size decreased from 65µm to 15 nm as the milling progressed for a period of 30 h. The morphological properties of the materials indicated that the particle shapes becomes regular and uniform as the milling progresses. Furthermore, particles fracturing resulted in surface area increment from 1.0694-4.5547 m2/g. The functional groups responsible for the banana peels capacity to coordinate and remove metal ions, such as the carboxylic and amine groups were identified at absorption bands of 1730 and 889 cm-1, respectively. However, the choice of this sorbent material for the sorption or any application will depend on the composition of the pollutant to be eradicated.

Keywords: characterization, nanostructure, nanosorbent, eco-friendly, banana peels, mechanical milling, water quality

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39 The Effects of Watching Text-Relevant Video Segments with/without Subtitles on Vocabulary Development of Arabic as a Foreign Language Learners

Authors: Amirreza Karami, Hawraa Nafea Hameed Alzouwain, Freddie A. Bowles

Abstract:

This study investigates the effects of watching text-relevant video segments with/without subtitles on vocabulary development of Arabic as a Foreign Language (AFL) learners. The participants of the study were assigned to two groups: one control group and one experimental group. The control group received no video-based instruction while the experimental group watched a text-relevant video segment in three stages: pre, while, and post-instruction. The preliminary results of the pre-test and post-test show that watching text-relevant video segments through following a pre-while-post procedure can help the vocabulary development of AFL learners more than non-video-based instruction.

Keywords: text-relevant video segments, vocabulary development, Arabic as a Foreign Language, AFL, pre-while-post instruction

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38 Chemical Profiling of Farsetia Aegyptia Turra and Farsetia Longisiliqua Decne. and Their Chemosystematic Significance

Authors: Mona M. Marzouk, Ahmed Elkhateeb, Mona Elshabrawy, Mai M. Farid, Salwa A. Kawashty, EL-Sayed S. Abdel-Hameed, Sameh R. Hussein

Abstract:

The genus Farsetia Turra belongs to the family Brassicaceae and has approximately 30 accepted species distributed worldwide. Amongst them, Farsetia aegyptia Turra and Farsetia longisiliqua Decne. are two common species characteristic to the Egyptian flora. The present study considers the first characterization of the chemical constituents of F. longisiliqua, aiming to compare with those identified from the medicinal species (F. aegyptia). Additionally, the chemosystematic relationships between the two studied species were evaluated and highlight the medicinal importance for F. longisiliqua. The chemical profiling of their aqueous methanol extracts were carried out using the LC-ESI-MS technique and afforded 54 compounds belonging to different chemical groups. Flavonoids are the major constituents and are represented by 32 compounds (two C-glycosyl flavone, four flavones, and 26 flavonols). Their structural variations and common constituents confirmed the chemosystematic significance of the two species. Moreover, the flavonoid profiles showed major common constituents between the two investigated species, which predicted the medicinal importance of F. longisiliqua.

Keywords: brassicaceae, chemosystematics, farsetia, flavonoids, glucosinolates, LC-ESI-MS

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37 Development of an Integrated Route Information Management Software

Authors: Oluibukun G. Ajayi, Joseph O. Odumosu, Oladimeji T. Babafemi, Azeez Z. Opeyemi, Asaleye O. Samuel

Abstract:

The need for the complete automation of every procedure of surveying and most especially, its engineering applications cannot be overemphasized due to the many demerits of the conventional manual or analogue approach. This paper presents the summarized details of the development of a Route Information Management (RIM) software. The software, codenamed ‘AutoROUTE’, was encoded using Microsoft visual studio-visual basic package, and it offers complete automation of the computational procedures and plan production involved in route surveying. It was experimented using a route survey data (longitudinal profile and cross sections) of a 2.7 km road which stretches from Dama to Lunko village in Minna, Niger State, acquired with the aid of a Hi-Target DGPS receiver. The developed software (AutoROUTE) is capable of computing the various simple curve parameters, horizontal curve, and vertical curve, and it can also plot road alignment, longitudinal profile, and cross-section with a capability to store this on the SQL incorporated into the Microsoft visual basic software. The plotted plans with AutoROUTE were compared with the plans produced with the conventional AutoCAD Civil 3D software, and AutoROUTE proved to be more user-friendly and accurate because it plots in three decimal places whereas AutoCAD plots in two decimal places. Also, it was discovered that AutoROUTE software is faster in plotting and the stages involved is less cumbersome compared to AutoCAD Civil 3D software.

Keywords: automated systems, cross sections, curves, engineering construction, longitudinal profile, route surveying

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36 Influence of Social Media on Perceived Learning Outcome of Agricultural Students in Tertiary Institutions in Oyo State, Nigeria

Authors: Adedoyin Opeyemi Osokoya

Abstract:

The study assesses the influence of social media on perceived learning outcome of agricultural science students in tertiary institutions in Oyo state, Nigeria. The four-stage sampling procedure was used to select participants. All students in the seven tertiary institutions that offer agriculture science as a course of study in Oyo State was the population. A university, a college of agriculture and a college of education were sampled, and a department from each was randomly selected. Twenty percent of the students’ population in the respective selected department gave a sample size of 165. Questionnaire was used to collect information on respondents’ personal characteristics and information related to access to social media. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, chi-square, correlation, and multiple regression at the 0.05 confidence level. Age and household size were 21.13 ± 2.64 years and 6 ± 2.1 persons respectively. All respondents had access to social media, majority (86.1%) owned Android phone, 57.6% and 52.7% use social media for course work and entertainment respectively, while the commonly visited sites were WhatsApp, Facebook, Google, Opera mini. Over half (53.9%) had an unfavourable attitude towards the use of social media for learning; benefits of the use of social media for learning was high (56.4%). Removal of information barrier created by distance (x̄=1.58) was the most derived benefit, while inadequate power supply (x̄=2.36), was the most severe constraints. Age (β=0.23), sex (β=0.37), ownership of Android phone (β=-1.29), attitude (β=0.37), constraints (β =-0.26) and use of social media (β=0.23) were significant predictors of influence on perceived learning outcomes.

Keywords: use of social media, agricultural science students, undergraduates of tertiary institutions, Oyo State of Nigeria

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35 Ubiquitous Collaborative Mobile Learning (UCML): A Flexible Instructional Design Model for Social Learning

Authors: Hameed Olalekan Bolaji

Abstract:

The digital natives are driving the trends of literacy in the use of electronic devices for learning purposes. This has reconfigured the context of learning in the exploration of knowledge in a social learning environment. This study explores the impact of Ubiquitous Collaborative Mobile Learning (UCML) instructional design model in a quantitative designed-based research approach. The UCML model was a synergetic blend of four models that are relevant to the design of instructional content for a social learning environment. The UCML model serves as the treatment and instructions were transmitted via mobile device based on the principle of ‘bring your own device’ (BYOD) to promote social learning. Three research questions and two hypotheses were raised to guide the conduct of this study. A researcher-designed questionnaire was used to collate data and the it was subjected to reliability of Cronbach Alpha which yielded 0.91. Descriptive statistics of mean and standard deviation were used to answer research questions while inferential statistics of independent sample t-test was used to analyze the hypotheses. The findings reveal that the UCML model was adequately evolved and it promotes social learning its design principles through the use of mobile devices.

Keywords: collaboration, mobile device, social learning, ubiquitous

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