Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 292

Search results for: Samuel Opeyemi Williams

292 A Review of Literature on Theories of Construction Accident Causation Models

Authors: Samuel Opeyemi Williams, Razali Bin Adul Hamid, M. S. Misnan, Taki Eddine Seghier, D. I. Ajayi

Abstract:

Construction sites are characterized with occupational risks. Review of literature on construction accidents reveals that a lot of theories have been propounded over the years by different theorists, coupled with multifarious models developed by different proponents at different times. Accidents are unplanned events that are prominent in construction sites, involving materials, objects and people with attendant damages, loses and injuries. Models were developed to investigate the causations of accident with the aim of preventing its occurrence. Though, some of these theories were criticized, most especially, the Heinrich Domino theory, being mostly faulted for placing much blame on operatives rather than the management. The purpose of this paper is to unravel the significant construction accident causation theories and models for the benefit of understanding of the theories, and consequently enabling construction stakeholders identify the possible potential hazards on construction sites, as all stakeholders have significant roles to play in preventing accident. Accidents are preventable; hence, understanding the risk factors of accident and the causation theories paves way for its prevention. However, findings reveal that still some gaps missing in the existing models, while it is recommended that further research can be made in order to develop more models in order to maintain zero accident on construction sites.

Keywords: domino theory, construction site, site safety, accident causation model

Procedia PDF Downloads 228
291 BIM-Based Tool for Sustainability Assessment and Certification Documents Provision

Authors: Taki Eddine Seghier, Mohd Hamdan Ahmad, Yaik-Wah Lim, Samuel Opeyemi Williams

Abstract:

The assessment of building sustainability to achieve a specific green benchmark and the preparation of the required documents in order to receive a green building certification, both are considered as major challenging tasks for green building design team. However, this labor and time-consuming process can take advantage of the available Building Information Modeling (BIM) features such as material take-off and scheduling. Furthermore, the workflow can be automated in order to track potentially achievable credit points and provide rating feedback for several design options by using integrated Visual Programing (VP) to handle the stored parameters within the BIM model. Hence, this study proposes a BIM-based tool that uses Green Building Index (GBI) rating system requirements as a unique input case to evaluate the building sustainability in the design stage of the building project life cycle. The tool covers two key models for data extraction, firstly, a model for data extraction, calculation and the classification of achievable credit points in a green template, secondly, a model for the generation of the required documents for green building certification. The tool was validated on a BIM model of residential building and it serves as proof of concept that building sustainability assessment of GBI certification can be automatically evaluated and documented through BIM.

Keywords: green building rating system, GBRS, building information modeling, BIM, visual programming, VP, sustainability assessment

Procedia PDF Downloads 246
290 Utilization of Safety Measures in Prevention of Site Accidents in Nigerian Construction Industry

Authors: Samuel Opeyemi Williams, Razali Adul Hamid, Mohd Saidin Misman, Dominic Ileyemi Ajayi, Taki Eddine Seghier

Abstract:

Construction industry is famous with hazardous and high-risk environment with operatives facing a greater risk of work-related fatality or injury than operatives in other industries. It is characterised with different types of accident, ranging from electrocution, trip and slip, fall from height, struck-by, explosion, trench collapse, to scaffolding accidents, with each type being caused by different factors. However, accidents are unplanned, unforeseeable and unexpected events, but regardless of the high-risk nature of the industry, accidents are preventable. The aim of the paper is to determine the extent of the utilization of the safety measures, as well as identifying the factors underlining the non-usage. A research methodology consisting of a literature review was used to identify the types and causes of site accidents, while a well-structured questionnaire was used to determine the level of the usage of safety measures on site. The data were analysed with the results revealing the use of protective clothing, safety helmet, first aid, protective shoe, safety belt, and face shield to aid safety of workers, as well as ascribing non-usage of safety measures to cost, ignorance, lack of experts and non-inclusion in contract document. Recommendations are included in the paper suggesting the enforcement of the utilization of safety measures in reducing the spate of accident occurrence on construction sites.

Keywords: construction industry, safety measures, accident, prevention

Procedia PDF Downloads 236
289 Links and Blocks: the Role of Language in Samuel Beckett’s Selected Plays

Authors: Su-Lien Liao

Abstract:

This article explores the language in the four plays of Samuel Beckett–Waiting for Godot, Endgame, Krapp’s Last Tape, and Footfalls. It considers the way in which Beckett uses language, especially through fragmentation utterances, repetitions, monologues, contradictions, and silence. It discusses the function of language in modern society, in the theater of the absurd, and in the plays. Paradoxically enough, his plays attempts to communicate the incommunicability of language.

Keywords: language, Samuel Beckett, theater of the absurd, foreign language teaching

Procedia PDF Downloads 331
288 Target and Equalizer Design for Perpendicular Heat-Assisted Magnetic Recording

Authors: P. Tueku, P. Supnithi, R. Wongsathan

Abstract:

Heat-Assisted Magnetic Recording (HAMR) is one of the leading technologies identified to enable areal density beyond 1 Tb/in2 of magnetic recording systems. A key challenge to HAMR designing is accuracy of positioning, timing of the firing laser, power of the laser, thermo-magnetic head, head-disk interface and cooling system. We study the effect of HAMR parameters on transition center and transition width. The HAMR is model using Thermal Williams-Comstock (TWC) and microtrack model. The target and equalizer are designed by the minimum mean square error (MMSE). The result shows that the unit energy constraint outperforms other constraints.

Keywords: heat-assisted magnetic recording, thermal Williams-Comstock equation, microtrack model, equalizer

Procedia PDF Downloads 259
287 Simulations of a Jet Impinging on a Flat Plate

Authors: Reda Mankbadi

Abstract:

In this paper we explore the use of a second-order unstructured-grid, finite-volume code for direct noise prediction. We consider a Mach 1.5 jet impinging on a perpendicular flat plate. Hybrid LES-RANS simulations are used to calculate directly both the flow field and the radiated sound. The ANSYS Fluent commercial code is utilized for the calculations. The acoustic field is obtained directly from the simulations and is compared with the integral approach of Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings (FWH). Results indicate the existence of a preferred radiation angle. The spectrum obtained is in good agreement with observations. This points out to the possibility of handling the effects of complicated geometries on noise radiation by using unstructured second-orders codes.

Keywords: CFD, Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings (FWH), imping jet, ANSYS fluent commercial code, hybrid LES-RANS simulations

Procedia PDF Downloads 352
286 Development of an Integrated Route Information Management Software

Authors: Oluibukun G. Ajayi, Joseph O. Odumosu, Oladimeji T. Babafemi, Azeez Z. Opeyemi, Asaleye O. Samuel

Abstract:

The need for the complete automation of every procedure of surveying and most especially, its engineering applications cannot be overemphasized due to the many demerits of the conventional manual or analogue approach. This paper presents the summarized details of the development of a Route Information Management (RIM) software. The software, codenamed ‘AutoROUTE’, was encoded using Microsoft visual studio-visual basic package, and it offers complete automation of the computational procedures and plan production involved in route surveying. It was experimented using a route survey data (longitudinal profile and cross sections) of a 2.7 km road which stretches from Dama to Lunko village in Minna, Niger State, acquired with the aid of a Hi-Target DGPS receiver. The developed software (AutoROUTE) is capable of computing the various simple curve parameters, horizontal curve, and vertical curve, and it can also plot road alignment, longitudinal profile, and cross-section with a capability to store this on the SQL incorporated into the Microsoft visual basic software. The plotted plans with AutoROUTE were compared with the plans produced with the conventional AutoCAD Civil 3D software, and AutoROUTE proved to be more user-friendly and accurate because it plots in three decimal places whereas AutoCAD plots in two decimal places. Also, it was discovered that AutoROUTE software is faster in plotting and the stages involved is less cumbersome compared to AutoCAD Civil 3D software.

Keywords: automated systems, cross sections, curves, engineering construction, longitudinal profile, route surveying

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285 Modern Literary Authors and Samuel Beckett's Trace of Lost Self in Modernity

Authors: Mohammad Mehdi Mazaheri, Mohammad Motiee Lahromi

Abstract:

In a depression after world wars, Beckett's plays presented a picture of the world fragmented and disrupted. Among other modern literary works, Beckett's path-breakingly innovative literature presented the parodies of pointlessness of human actions and thoughts in the world. This new dramatic style catapulted Beckett to the centre stage of modern drama, though it should be mentioned that he may not have been influenced in this without the prevailing climate of ideas. The prevailing literary attitude of Modernism indicates that the modern world is irrational and incoherent. The present study explores Samuel Beckett's literary approach to modern drama and shows how the author could create the characters stuck in a lifelong suspicious about the Self.

Keywords: modern drama, absurdity, the theatre of the absurd, existentialism, self searching

Procedia PDF Downloads 366
284 The Use of Prestige Language in Tennessee Williams’s "A Streetcar Named Desire"

Authors: Stuart Noel

Abstract:

In a streetcar Named Desire, Tennessee Williams presents Blanche DuBois, a most complex and intriguing character who often uses prestige language to project the image of an upper-class speaker and to disguise her darker and complicated self. She embodies various fascinating and contrasting characteristics. Like New Orleans (the locale of the play), Blanche represents two opposing images. One image projects that of genteel, Southern charm and beauty, speaking formally and using prestige language and what some linguists refer to as “hypercorrection,” and the other image reveals that of a soiled, deteriorating façade, full of decadence and illusion. Williams said on more than one occasion that Blanche’s use of such language was a direct reflection of her personality and character (as a high school English teacher). Prestige language is an exaggeratedly elevated, pretentious, and oftentimes melodramatic form of one’s language incorporating superstandard or more standard speech than usual in order to project a highly authoritative individual identity. Speech styles carry personal identification meaning not only because they are closely associated with certain social classes but because they tend to be associated with certain conversational contexts. Features which may be considered to be “elaborated” in form (for example, full forms vs. contractions) tend to cluster together in speech registers/styles which are typically considered to be more formal and/or of higher social prestige, such as academic lectures and news broadcasts. Members of higher social classes have access to the elaborated registers which characterize formal writings and pre-planned speech events, such as lectures, while members of lower classes are relegated to using the more economical registers associated with casual, face-to-face conversational interaction, since they do not participate in as many planned speech events as upper-class speakers. Tennessee Williams’s work is characteristically concerned with the conflict between the illusions of an individual and the reality of his/her situation equated with a conflict between truth and beauty. An examination of Blanche DuBois reveals a recurring theme of art and decay and the use of prestige language to reveal artistry in language and to hide a deteriorating self. His graceful and poetic writing personifies her downfall and deterioration. Her loneliness and disappointment are the things so often strongly feared by the sensitive artists and heroes in the world. Hers is also a special and delicate human spirit that is often misunderstood and repressed by society. Blanche is afflicted with a psychic illness growing out of her inability to face the harshness of human existence. She is a sensitive, artistic, and beauty-haunted creature who is avoiding her own humanity while hiding behind her use of prestige language. And she embodies a partial projection of Williams himself.

Keywords: American drama, prestige language, Southern American literature, Tennessee Williams

Procedia PDF Downloads 284
283 Far-Field Noise Prediction of Tandem Cylinders Using Incompressible Large Eddy Simulation

Authors: Jesus Ruano, Francesc Xavier Trias, Asensi Oliva

Abstract:

A three-dimensional incompressible Large Eddy Simulation (LES) is performed to compute the hydrodynamic field around a pair of tandem cylinders. Symmetry-preserving schemes will be used during this simulation in conjunction with Finite Volume Method (FVM) to obtain the hydrodynamic field around the selected geometry. A set of results consisting of pressure and velocity and the combination of them will be stored at different surfaces near the cylinders as the initial input for the second part of the study. A post-processing of the obtained results based on Ffowcs-Williams and Hawkings (FWH) equation with a Fourier Transform of the acoustic sources will be used to compute noise at several probes located far away from the region where the hydrodynamics are computed. Directivities as well as spectral profile of the obtained acoustic field will be analyzed.

Keywords: far-field noise, Ffowcs-Williams and Hawkings, finite volume method, large eddy simulation, long-span bodies

Procedia PDF Downloads 259
282 Far-Field Acoustic Prediction of a Supersonic Expanding Jet Using Large Eddy Simulation

Authors: Jesus Ruano, Asensi Oliva

Abstract:

The hydrodynamic field generated by a jet expansion is computed via three dimensional compressible Large Eddy Simulation (LES). Finite Volume Method (FVM) will be the discretization used during this simulation as well as hybrid schemes based on Kinetic Energy Preserving (KEP) schemes and up-winding Godunov based schemes with instabilities detectors. Velocity and pressure fields will be stored at different surfaces near the jet, but far enough to enclose all the fluctuations, in order to use them as input for the acoustic solver. The acoustic field is obtained in the far-field region at several locations by means of a hybrid method based on Ffowcs-Williams and Hawkings (FWH) equation. This equation will be formulated in the spectral domain, via Fourier Transform of the acoustic sources, which are modeled from the results of the initial simulation. The obtained results will allow the study of the broadband noise generated as well as sound directivities.

Keywords: far-field noise, Ffowcs-Williams and Hawkings, finite volume method, large eddy simulation, jet noise

Procedia PDF Downloads 216
281 Numerical Simulation of Supersonic Gas Jet Flows and Acoustics Fields

Authors: Lei Zhang, Wen-jun Ruan, Hao Wang, Peng-Xin Wang

Abstract:

The source of the jet noise is generated by rocket exhaust plume during rocket engine testing. A domain decomposition approach is applied to the jet noise prediction in this paper. The aerodynamic noise coupling is based on the splitting into acoustic sources generation and sound propagation in separate physical domains. Large Eddy Simulation (LES) is used to simulate the supersonic jet flow. Based on the simulation results of the flow-fields, the jet noise distribution of the sound pressure level is obtained by applying the Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings (FW-H) acoustics equation and Fourier transform. The calculation results show that the complex structures of expansion waves, compression waves and the turbulent boundary layer could occur due to the strong interaction between the gas jet and the ambient air. In addition, the jet core region, the shock cell and the sound pressure level of the gas jet increase with the nozzle size increasing. Importantly, the numerical simulation results of the far-field sound are in good agreement with the experimental measurements in directivity.

Keywords: supersonic gas jet, Large Eddy Simulation(LES), acoustic noise, Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings(FW-H) equations, nozzle size

Procedia PDF Downloads 316
280 Clash of Civilizations without Civilizational Groups: Revisiting Samuel P. Huntington's Clash of Civilizations Theory

Authors: Jamal Abdi

Abstract:

This paper offers a critique of Samuel P. Huntington's Clash of Civilizations thesis. The overriding argument is that Huntington's thesis is characterized by failure to distinguish between 'groups' and 'categories'. Multinational civilizations overcoming their internal collective action problems, which would enable them to pursue a unified strategy vis-à-vis the West, is a rather foundational assumption in his theory. Without assigning sufficient intellectual attention to the processes through which multinational civilizations may gain the capacity for concerted action, i.e., become a group, he contended that the post-cold-war world would be shaped in large measure by interactions among seven or eight major civilizations. Thus, failure in providing a convincing analysis of multi-national civilizations' transition from categories to groups is a significant weakness in Huntington's clash theory. It is also suggested that so-called Islamic terrorism and the war on terror is not to be taken as an expression of the presence of clash between a Western and an Islamic civilization, as terrorist organizations would be superfluous in a world characterized by clash of civilizations. Consequences of multinational civilizations becoming a group are discussed in relation to contemporary Western superiority.

Keywords: clash of civilizations, groups, categories, groupism

Procedia PDF Downloads 115
279 Linear Frequency Modulation Signal Perception Based on Wavelet Transform and Time-Frequency Technology

Authors: Xingcai Wang

Abstract:

Linear frequency modulation signals are a common modulation method for low intercept probability radar signals, a spread-spectrum modulation technique that does not require pseudo-random coding sequences and has been widely used in radar and sonar technology due to its large time-frequency product. In order to improve the perception of LFM signals in a low SNR environment, this study proposes a time-frequency analysis method for LFM signals based on segmentation denoising, wavelet transform denoising, and Choi-Williams Distribution. The results show that the method has good performance and feasibility under low SNR conditions and can exhibit clear time-frequency characteristics of the LFM signal at a SNR of -21dB. Finally, combined with deep learning, GoogLeNet is used as the training network and the time-frequency image as the training sample, which achieves a good signal detection probability. The detection probability is greater than 90% when the SNR is greater than -18dB, and the overall detection probability is better than other detection network models.

Keywords: linear frequency modulation signal, Choi-Williams distribution, segmentation denoising, wavelet transform denoising, time-frequency analysis, deep learning

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278 Time/Temperature-Dependent Finite Element Model of Laminated Glass Beams

Authors: Alena Zemanová, Jan Zeman, Michal Šejnoha

Abstract:

The polymer foil used for manufacturing of laminated glass members behaves in a viscoelastic manner with temperature dependence. This contribution aims at incorporating the time/temperature-dependent behavior of interlayer to our earlier elastic finite element model for laminated glass beams. The model is based on a refined beam theory: each layer behaves according to the finite-strain shear deformable formulation by Reissner and the adjacent layers are connected via the Lagrange multipliers ensuring the inter-layer compatibility of a laminated unit. The time/temperature-dependent behavior of the interlayer is accounted for by the generalized Maxwell model and by the time-temperature superposition principle due to the Williams, Landel, and Ferry. The resulting system is solved by the Newton method with consistent linearization and the viscoelastic response is determined incrementally by the exponential algorithm. By comparing the model predictions against available experimental data, we demonstrate that the proposed formulation is reliable and accurately reproduces the behavior of the laminated glass units.

Keywords: finite element method, finite-strain Reissner model, Lagrange multipliers, generalized Maxwell model, laminated glass, Newton method, Williams-Landel-Ferry equation

Procedia PDF Downloads 353
277 Clash of Civilizations without Civilizational Groups: Revisiting Samuel P. Huntington´s Clash of Civilizations Theory

Authors: Jamal Abdi

Abstract:

This paper is largely a response/critique of Samuel P. Huntington´s Clash of Civilizations thesis. The overriding argument is that Huntington´s thesis is characterized by failure to distinguish between ´groups´ and ´categories´. Multinational civilizations overcoming their internal collective action problems, which would enable them to pursue a unified strategy vis-à-vis the West, is a rather foundational assumption in his theory. Without assigning sufficient intellectual attention to the processes through which multinational civilizations may gain capacity for concerted action i.e. become a group, he contended that the post-cold-war world would be shaped in large measure by interactions among seven or eight major civilizations. Thus, failure in providing a convincing analysis of multi-national civilizations´ transition from categories to groups is a significant weakness in Huntington´s clash theory. It is also suggested that so-called Islamic terrorism and the war on terror is not to be taken as an expression of presence of clash between a Western and an Islamic civilization, as terrorist organizations would be superfluous in a world characterized by clash of civilizations. Consequences of multinational civilizations becoming a group are discussed in relation to contemporary Western superiority.

Keywords: categories, civilizations, clash, groups, groupness

Procedia PDF Downloads 93
276 Effective Teaching of Thermofluid Pratical Courses during COVID-19

Authors: Opeyemi Fadipe, Masud Salimian

Abstract:

The COVID-19 pandemic has introduced a new normal into the world; online teaching is now the most used method of teaching over the face to face meeting. With the emergency of these teaching, online-teaching has been improved over time and with more technological advancement tools introduced. Practical courses are more demanding to teach because it requires the physical presence of the student as well as a demonstration of the equipment. In this study, a case of Lagos State University thermofluid practical was the understudy. A survey was done and give to a sample of students to fill. The result showed that the blend-approach is better for practical course teaching. Software simulation of the equipment used to conduct practical should be encouraged in the future.

Keywords: COVID-19, online teaching, t-distribution, thermofluid

Procedia PDF Downloads 71
275 Aeroacoustics Investigations of Unsteady 3D Airfoil for Different Angle Using Computational Fluid Dynamics Software

Authors: Haydar Kepekçi, Baha Zafer, Hasan Rıza Güven

Abstract:

Noise disturbance is one of the major factors considered in the fast development of aircraft technology. This paper reviews the flow field, which is examined on the 2D NACA0015 and 3D NACA0012 blade profile using SST k-ω turbulence model to compute the unsteady flow field. We inserted the time-dependent flow area variables in Ffowcs-Williams and Hawkings (FW-H) equations as an input and Sound Pressure Level (SPL) values will be computed for different angles of attack (AoA) from the microphone which is positioned in the computational domain to investigate effect of augmentation of unsteady 2D and 3D airfoil region noise level. The computed results will be compared with experimental data which are available in the open literature. As results; one of the calculated Cp is slightly lower than the experimental value. This difference could be due to the higher Reynolds number of the experimental data. The ANSYS Fluent software was used in this study. Fluent includes well-validated physical modeling capabilities to deliver fast, accurate results across the widest range of CFD and multiphysics applications. This paper includes a study which is on external flow over an airfoil. The case of 2D NACA0015 has approximately 7 million elements and solves compressible fluid flow with heat transfer using the SST turbulence model. The other case of 3D NACA0012 has approximately 3 million elements.

Keywords: 3D blade profile, noise disturbance, aeroacoustics, Ffowcs-Williams and Hawkings (FW-H) equations, k-ω-SST turbulence model

Procedia PDF Downloads 125
274 Synthesis and Characterization of Molecularly Imprinted Polymer as a New Adsorbent for the Removal of Pyridine from Organic Medium

Authors: Opeyemi Elujulo, Aderonke Okoya, Kehinde Awokoya

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Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIP) for the adsorption of pyridine (PYD) was obtained from PYD (the template), styrene (the functional monomer), divinyl benzene (the crosslinker), benzoyl peroxide (the initiator), and water (the porogen). When the template was removed by solvent extraction, imprinted binding sites were left in the polymer material that are capable of selectively rebinding the target molecule. The material was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. Batch adsorption experiments were performed to study the adsorption of the material in terms of adsorption kinetics, isotherms, and thermodynamic parameters. The results showed that the imprinted polymer exhibited higher affinity for PYD compared to non-imprinted polymer (NIP).

Keywords: molecularly imprinted polymer, bulk polymerization, environmental pollutant, adsorption

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273 Detection of Epinephrine in Chicken Serum at Iron Oxide Screen Print Modified Electrode

Authors: Oluwole Opeyemi Dina, Saheed E. Elugoke, Peter Olutope Fayemi, Omolola E. Fayemi

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This study presents the detection of epinephrine (EP) at Fe₃O₄ modified screen printed silver electrode (SPSE). The iron oxide (Fe₃O₄) nanoparticles were characterized with UV-visible spectroscopy, Fourier-Transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) prior to the modification of the SPSE. The EP oxidation peak current (Iap) increased with an increase in the concentration of EP as well as the scan rate (from 25 - 400 mVs⁻¹). Using cyclic voltammetry (CV), the relationship between Iap and EP concentration was linear over a range of 3.8 -118.9 µM and 118.9-175 µM with a detection limit of 41.99 µM and 83.16 µM, respectively. Selective detection of EP in the presence of ascorbic acid was also achieved at this electrode.

Keywords: screenprint electrode, iron oxide nanoparticle, epinephrine, serum, cyclic voltametry

Procedia PDF Downloads 70
272 Co-Integration Model for Predicting Inflation Movement in Nigeria

Authors: Salako Rotimi, Oshungade Stephen, Ojewoye Opeyemi

Abstract:

The maintenance of price stability is one of the macroeconomic challenges facing Nigeria as a nation. This paper attempts to build a co-integration multivariate time series model for inflation movement in Nigeria using data extracted from the abstract of statistics of the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) from 2008 to 2017. The Johansen cointegration test suggests at least one co-integration vector describing the long run relationship between Consumer Price Index (CPI), Food Price Index (FPI) and Non-Food Price Index (NFPI). All three series show increasing pattern, which indicates a sign of non-stationary in each of the series. Furthermore, model predictability was established with root-mean-square-error, mean absolute error, mean average percentage error, and Theil’s unbiased statistics for n-step forecasting. The result depicts that the long run coefficient of a consumer price index (CPI) has a positive long-run relationship with the food price index (FPI) and non-food price index (NFPI).

Keywords: economic, inflation, model, series

Procedia PDF Downloads 139
271 Changes to Populations Might Aid the Spread Antibiotic Resistance in the Environment

Authors: Yasir Bashawri, Vincent N. Chigor James McDonald, Merfyn Williams, Davey Jones, A. Prysor Williams

Abstract:

Resistance to antibiotics has become a threat to public health. As a result of their misuse and overuse, bacteria have become resistant to many common antibiotics. Βeta lactam (β-lactam) antibiotics are one of the most significant classes of antimicrobials in providing therapeutic benefits for the treatment of bacterial infections in both human and veterinary medicine, for approximately 60% of all antibiotics are used. In particular, some Enterobacteriaceae produce Extend Spectrum Beta Lactamases (ESBLs) that enable them to some break down multi-groups of antibiotics. CTX-M enzymes have rapidly become the most important ESBLs, with increases in mainly CTX-M 15 in many countries during the last decade. Global travel by intercontinental medical ‘tourists’, migrant employees and overseas students could theoretically be a risk factor for spreading antibiotic resistance genes in different parts of the world. Bangor city, North Wales, is subject to sudden demographic changes due to a large proportion (>25%) of the population being students, most of which arrive over a space of days. This makes it a suitable location to study the impacts of large demographic change on the presence of ESBLs. The aim of this study is to monitor the presence of ESBLs in Escherichia coli and faecal coliform bacteria isolated from Bangor wastewater treatment plant, before, during and after the arrival week of students to Bangor University. Over a five-week period, water samples were collected twice a week, from the influent, primary sedimentation tank, aeration tank and the final effluent. Isolation and counts for Escherichia coli and other faecal coliforms were done on selective agar (primary UTI agar). ESBL presence will be confirmed by phenotypic and genotypic methods. Sampling at all points of the tertiary treatment stages will indicate the effectiveness of wastewater treatment in reducing the spread of ESBLs genes. The study will yield valuable information to help tackle a problem which many regard to be the one of the biggest threats to modern-day society.

Keywords: extended spectrum β-lactamase, enterobacteriaceae, international travel, wastewater treatment plant

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270 Improving the Liquid Insulation Performance with Antioxidants

Authors: Helan Gethse J., Dhanya K., Muthuselvi G., Diana Hyden N., Samuel Pakianathan P.

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Transformer oil is mostly used to keep the transformer cool. It functions as a cooling agent. Mineral oil has long been used in transformers. Mineral oil has a high dielectric strength, which allows it to withstand high temperatures. Mineral oil's main disadvantage is that it is not environmentally friendly and can be dangerous to the environment. The features of breakdown voltage (BDV), viscosity, flash point, and fire point are measured and reported in this study, and the characteristics of olive oil are compared to the characteristics of mineral oil.

Keywords: antioxidants, transformer oil, mineral oil, olive oil

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269 Instructional Material Development in ODL: Achievements, Prospects, and Challenges

Authors: Felix Gbenoba, Opeyemi Dahunsi

Abstract:

Customised, self-instructional materials are at the heart of instructional delivery in Open and Distance Learning (ODL). The success of any ODL institution depends on the availability of learning materials in quality and quantity. An ODL study material is expected to imitate what the teacher does in the face-to-face learning environment. This paper evaluates these expectation based on existing data and evidence. It concludes that the reality has not matched the expectation so far in terms of pedagogic aspect of instructional delivery especially in West Africa. This does not mean that instructional materials development has not produced any significant positive results in improving the overall learning (and teaching) experience in these institutions; it implies what will help further to identify the new challenges. Obstacles and problems of instructional materials development that could have affected the open educational resource initiatives are well established. The first section of this paper recalls some of the proposed values of instructional materials. The second section compares achievements so far and suggests that instructional materials development should be consider first at an early stage to realise the aspirations of instructional delivery. The third section highlights the challenges of instructional materials development in the future.

Keywords: face-to-face learning, instructional delivery, open and distance education, self-instructional materials

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268 Droplet Entrainment and Deposition in Horizontal Stratified Two-Phase Flow

Authors: Joshua Kim Schimpf, Kyun Doo Kim, Jaseok Heo

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In this study, the droplet behavior of under horizontal stratified flow regime for air and water flow in horizontal pipe experiments from a 0.24 m, 0.095 m, and 0.0486 m size diameter pipe are examined. The effects of gravity, pipe diameter, and turbulent diffusion on droplet deposition are considered. Models for droplet entrainment and deposition are proposed that considers developing length. Validation for experimental data dedicated from the REGARD, CEA and Williams, University of Illinois, experiment were performed using SPACE (Safety and Performance Analysis Code for Nuclear Power Plants).

Keywords: droplet, entrainment, deposition, horizontal

Procedia PDF Downloads 290
267 Community, Identity, and Resistance in Minority Literature: Arab American Poets - Samuel Hazo, Nathalie Handal, and Naomi Shihab Nye

Authors: Reem Saad Alqahtani

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Drawing on minority literature, this research highlights the role of three contemporary Arab American writers, considering the significance of the historical and cultural contexts of the brutal attacks of 9/11. The focus of the research is to draw attention to the poetry of Samuel Hazo, Nathalie Handal, and Naomi Shihab Nye as representatives of the identity crisis, whose experiences left them feeling marginalized and alienated in both societies, and reflected as one of the ethnic American minority groups, as demonstrated in their poetry, with a special focus on hybridity, resistance, identity, and empowerment. The study explores the writers’ post-9/11 experience, affected by the United States’ long history of marginalization and discrimination against people of colour, placing Arab American literature with that of other ethnic American groups who share the same experience and contribute to composing literature characterized by the aesthetics of cultural hybridity, cultural complexity, and the politics of minorities to promote solidarity and coalition building. Indeed, the three selected Arab American writers have found a link between their narration and the identity of the exiled by establishing an identity that is a kind of synthesis of diverse identities of Western reality and Eastern nostalgia. The approaches applied in this study will include historical/biographical, postcolonial, and discourse analysis. The first will be used to emphasize the influence of the biographical aspects related to the community, identity, and resistance of the three poets on their poetry. The second is used to investigate the effects of postcolonialism on the poets and their responses to it, while the third understand the sociocultural, political, and historical dimensions of the texts, establishing these poets as representative of the Arab American experience. This study is significant because it will help shed light on the importance of the Arabic hybrid identity in creating resistance to minority communities within American society.

Keywords: Arab American, identity, hybridity, post-9/11

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266 Most Important Educational Planning Issues in the Developing Countries

Authors: Naeem Khan

Abstract:

In 1971 Williams in his essay titled "What Educational Planning is About in Higher Education" defined educational planning as "planning in education, as in anything else consist essentially of deciding, in advance, what you want, to do and how you are going to do in". In the “World Year book of Education”. While Anderson and Bowman in 1976 in their joint article titled "Theoretical Considerations in Educational Planning" defined it as "the process of preparing a set of decisions for future action pertaining in education". There are so many other definitions which are related to educational planning in which every one stress on the importance of educational planning. But developing countries face a lot of problems related to the educational planning and this paper is to discuss few of them.

Keywords: educational planning, problems, developing countries, education system,

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265 The Biomechanical Consequences of Pes Planus

Authors: Mariette Swanepoel, Terry Ellapen, Henriette Hammil, Juandre Williams, Timothy Qumbu

Abstract:

The biomechanical consequence of pes planus is a topic seldom reviewed in regards to energy expenditure and predisposition to injury. However its comprehension in the field of foot rehabilitation, pre-and post-surgery is fundamental to successful patient management. This short communication unites the present literature to provide the reader with better insight on the consequence of pes planus, foot mechanics and its predisposition to injury at the foot and tibiofemoral joint. Further, the consideration of synergistic dominance of the foot invertors to compensate for the ineffective torque production of the fibularis longus due pes planus is presented.

Keywords: pes planus, fibularis longus, synergistic dominance, injury

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264 Rapid Algorithm for GPS Signal Acquisition

Authors: Fabricio Costa Silva, Samuel Xavier de Souza

Abstract:

A Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver is responsible to determine position, velocity and timing information by using satellite information. To get this information are necessary to combine an incoming and a locally generated signal. The procedure called acquisition need to found two information, the frequency and phase of the incoming signal. This is very time consuming, so there are several techniques to reduces the computational complexity, but each of then put projects issues in conflict. I this papers we present a method that can reduce the computational complexity by reducing the search space and paralleling the search.

Keywords: GPS, acquisition, complexity, parallelism

Procedia PDF Downloads 435
263 Rapid Parallel Algorithm for GPS Signal Acquisition

Authors: Fabricio Costa Silva, Samuel Xavier de Souza

Abstract:

A Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver is responsible to determine position, velocity and timing information by using satellite information. To get this information's are necessary to combine an incoming and a locally generated signal. The procedure called acquisition need to found two information, the frequency and phase of the incoming signal. This is very time consuming, so there are several techniques to reduces the computational complexity, but each of then put projects issues in conflict. I this papers we present a method that can reduce the computational complexity by reducing the search space and paralleling the search.

Keywords: GPS, acquisition, low complexity, parallelism

Procedia PDF Downloads 381